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Bibliography
USDA Agricultural Research Service “Honey Bees and Colony Collapse” 2013 htp://
www.ars.usda.gov/news/docs.htm?docid=15572
Organic Gardening Magazine “Common Plant Diseases and Disorders” htp://
www.organicgardening.com/learn-and-grow/common-plant-diseases-and-disorders
Colorado State Beekeepers Associaton “Plant List for Pollinators” Pamplet. 2014.

Basic Gardening Zine Series #3
2
CONTENTS
Introduction………………………………………………………..3

Best Techniques…………………………………………………...4

Good Bugs………………………………………………………..7

How to bring bugs to the garden…………………………….10

Bees and Colony Collapse………………………………………11

Common Pest Bugs……………………………..……………….13

Diseases…………………………………………………………….15

Breaking out the big guns: sprays and traps…………..16

Animals……………………………………………………………..18

The basic garden zine series is an effort to condense the boggling amount of infor-
mation relating to gardening into a simple and easily replicable booklet. Karen Seed
wrote it and drew the illustrations, unless otherwise noted. May your garden grow abun-
dant!

This is the Colorado (USDA zone 5) version

Other titles:
Soil & Compost
Bugs
Food Crops
Starting Seeds
Irrigation
Harvesting & Food Preservation
Seed Saving
19
or currants. Confuse them or block
them with these techniques:
1) hang up sparkly foil to refect
bright light. They get confused and
scared and don’t come by,
2) Put up a scarecrow, or a big owl
statute. They will think there are
predators and stay away.
3) Bird netng over the berry patch
keeps them out. It can be a pain to
work with because it gets tangled, but
it’s worth it.

SQUIRRELS: These guys aren’t really a
huge deal. They tend to not go afer
living veggies, but will get into your harvest if you leave it laying around.

MICE: Mice are the worst problem in the spring tme, when they love to
dig up freshly planted seeds to nibble on. So much for your newly sown
pea bed! Control them by placing foatng row cover over newly planted
beds, by allowing snakes to hang out in the garden, or having a cat on-
residence.

DOGS: In urban areas, ofen the most damaging criters are people’s
dogs. They dig and kill with impunity (depending on the dog.) Best way
to avoid them is to have a fence, and keep ‘em on a leash!

HUMANS: Watch out for these crazy creatures! Especially if the garden
is in a public area, it is at risk for people throwing trash, trampling on
plants, or stealing veggies. Having a sign explaining what the garden is
can help all of this… communication is key!
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ANIMALS IN THE GARDEN
Well, everyone needs to eat. Sometmes animals get into a garden and
eat the crops, which can be quite disappointng. Here are some com-
mon pest animals and how to thwart them.

RACCOONS: these guys are notorious
for getng people’s entre crop of
sweet corn. They always seem to
know when it is most ripe! They usu-
ally strike at night, and eat all the corn
at once.
Fences aren’t efectve against them,
because they climb very easily.
Lay down chicken wire below the
crops you want to protect. They will
not be able to walk over it. Plantng
garlic around the area will also con-
fuse their sense of smell.
In extreme cases, you can use electric
fencing, play a radio at night, or install
red LED lights so it looks like someone
is watching them.

DEER: Deer love the tender vegetables we grow, especially letuce, cab-
bage, and fruits like tomatoes. Deer browsing can cause signifcant
damage to crops.
The best way to keep deer out is to put up a fence. Barring that, you can
also use cayenne pepper and garlic to repel them. Just be aware that
you have to re-apply that stuf periodically, or afer it rains.
BIRDS: Birds can cause damage to berry crops, like grapes, strawberries,
Using chicken wire to deter raccoons.
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Buggy Love!
A perspective for approaching bugs in an ecological
garden.
In a natural ecosystem, there are thousands of different species of insects.
Each one eats something different and lives in a different place on the
earth—in the soil, on the plants, or in nests of their own. Many live in
colonies together, like ants and bees, and others live solitary lives. They
all have something to contribute. Together, they make a diverse ecology.
A food garden is also an ecology. Unlike the natural world, it’s highly
altered and controlled by humans. In order to grow food, we need bugs to
pollinate the plants and to make the soil, and in doing so, they need to
form complex webs of relationships. Because we have the power to add
to and monitor the soil, and then plant different plant species, we also
have great effect over all the insect families who live there. That control
is a huge responsibility, and understanding it will result is a more healthy
and productive garden.
Out of thousands of species of bugs, there are 10-20 common ones that
pose risk to the food crops that humans grow. In the past, many people
sprayed poisonous pesticides to control those bugs. They did not under-
stand that in a balanced ecology, it’s not necessary to do so, because each
bug is controlled by natural predators. Growing a healthy garden takes
time. It starts with healthy soil, which will help the plants fight infesta-
tion natural. But it can take many seasons to build healthy soil. It will
take years for perennial plants to be established and grow. And so, it can
take years for populations of beneficial predators and pollinators to stabi-
lize. Growing an ecology happens over more than one season. Be patient
and diligent!
However, our garden ecologies are rarely perfect. There are non-toxic,
homemade, and biodegradable options in the toolbox to control veggie-
eating bugs. But for organic gardeners, it’s important to keep it in per-
4
spective. Remember that everyone, not just humans, deserves to eat. Is it
incredibly important that the tomatoes be completely perfect? Does a
small hole render a kale leaf inedible? Is slight damage on the crops a
signal to start a chemical war? Unless a food crop is being seriously
threatened by bugs, consider that doing nothing, and waiting to see what
happens is a valid choice. Maybe the offending bug will get eaten by
someone else. Maybe not. Wait and see, and we will find that we are just
one part of the garden food web…

BASIC TECHNIQUES
For encouraging a good bug ecology
1) Take care of the soil.
Healthy soil, with lots of organic matter, will make healthy plants. It will
stimulate the food web and provide a home for earthworms, insects, fun-
gi, and microorganisms. There will be plenty for everyone to eat. If the
soil is healthy, the plants will be stronger and more able to fight off in-
festations of disease and bugs.
2) Keep your garden clean.
If there is a plant that got infested with problem bugs, or with a disease
of some kind, take that dead plant away from the garden. Put it in the
compost pile, or burn it or something. Don’t just leave it on the bed or in
the aisle, because the pest organism probably laid eggs that will survive
over the winter until it can come back next spring. Basically, hygiene. If
you have a gross cut on your foot, you clean it in the same way. Clean up
pest problems, or they WILL come back.
3) Rotate crops.
Don’t plant the same crops on the same bed over and over again. Many
pests only attack a certain type of plant. For example, corn root worm
lays its eggs in the soil in the fall, and they hatch the next spring. They
17
slugs and snails are atracted to the yeast, fall in,
and drown.

III. SPRAYS AND DUSTS

SOAP: Works on sof-bodied insects like
aphids and mealybugs. You can buy
special insectcidal soap from a garden
store, or you can just uge regular biode-
gradable soil (a good castle soap like Dr.
Bronner’s does the trick.) The soap
works by penetratng their cells and dry-
ing them up, and by sufocatng them in
a thick layer that air cannot get through.

GARLIC: Garlic is super ant-bacterial, ant-fungal, and very aromatc. Bugs hate it! It
doesn’t kill them, but will repel them for a long tme.

DIATOMACIEOUS EARTH: This is a dust that is mined from the earth. It is fossilized
single-celled marine organisms called diatoms—no joke.
When the powder touches the body of a bug, the bug
will dry up and die. This dust can be put onto crops ex-
periencing bad fea beetle or aphid infestatons. People
even eat it as part of cleansing diets. It can hurt dogs to
inhale it, not because of a chemical but because of the
sharp microscopic edges of the powder.
NEEM: Neem oil comes from the neem tree, natve to
India. This oil can be purchased in a garden store. It is a
strong pestcide, and not only kills but disrupts insects
reproductve cycles. This is organic, and it biodegrades
in 3-44 days. It’s non-toxic to humans and animals, but
because it is so harsh for insects, only use as a last re-
sort.


Easy Soap Spray!
For aphids especially, or severe caterpillar infesta-
tion.
1-3 teaspoons of castile soap
1 gallon of water

Mix thoroughly and put into a spray can.
Spray it directly on the bugs.
Easy Garlic Spray!
For fungal infestations or to
repel insects
2 heads of Garlic (the more
you add, the stronger it will
be)
1 Gallon of water.

Crush or chop the garlic,
and put with the pater into
a bot. Bring to a boil, then
let it sit overnight. Strain it,
then put it into a spray
botle.
You can also add soap or
cayenne pepper to make it
more efectve.
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BREAKING OUT THE BIG GUNS
(Sprays and Traps)
If you think that a pest is seriously threatening the food crops, and something must be
done, you can employ some of these organic techniques.

I. CROP BARRIERS
foatng row cover. This is a lightweight, syn-
thetc material that is stretched over plants and
secured on the edges. It acts as a barrier to
keep the plants safe from insects (or animals)
coming in. It also provides more warmth for
plants on cold nights.


Plant collars. If the plant stems are getng chewed at
the base, it’s probably a slug or something that crawls
on the ground. You can make collars out of cardboard
toilet paper tubes or aluminum cans. Place the collars
around the base of the plant, and the bugs should not
be able to chew their stems.


II. TRAPS
Stcky Traps: some insects are atracted to
certain colors. These traps are basically just
diferent colors of cardstock coated with a
stck material. Bugs are atracted to them,
and cannot break free. Yellow will capture
whitefies and fungus gnats, while blue will
capture thrips and shorefies. You can get
them at a garden store.

Beer traps: For slugs and snails. Place a dish flled with beer in the afected area. The
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only eat corn roots, and can kill entire fields of baby corn seedlings. If
there is no corn, they die. If you plant corn there again and again, the root
worms will only get stronger. If you plant broccoli there instead, they
will grow weak. Therefore, planting crops in different places will con-
fuse and break up populations of pest bugs.
4) Strive for Diversity!
Bugs tend to “zero-in” on specific food crops. Don’t put all your eggs in
one basket. Intermingle crops, if you can, within the same bed. Plant non
-food stuff! It may seem counter-intuitive to plant non-vegetable crops.
But planting lots of different flowers and aromatic plants will bring more
beneficial bugs and keep pest populations in check. Plants that provide
pollen and nectar are very important for attracting all kinds of bugs. Dif-
ferent flowers bloom at different times of the year, so having a lot of
flowers will provide habitat year-round. Strongly aromatic herbs like gar-
lic and onions, and flowers like marigold, will repel bugs, so plant them
throughout the garden in strategic places.

5) OBSERVATION!
Proper identification of bugs and diseases is the name of the game. And,
if you catch a crop-damaging infestation early on, you have a better
chance of taking care of it with little ill effects. Pay attention to what’s
happening in the garden—if a plant has bite marks on it, make note of
how big they are and what they look like. Try to find the offending bug
in the act. If a plant’s leaves are curling or looking discolored, look clos-
er. You can’t treat a problem if you don’t know what it is.


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This is the general life cycle of many insects.
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Garden Diseases
Diseases of plants in the garden are caused by either fungi or bacteria.
Sometimes they can be hard to identify. Here are some common ones and
how to deal with them:

Blights: Blights are caused by either bacteria or fungi. Blights generally affect the
leaves, causing branches to suddenly wilt, whither, turn black, and die. Later, the dead
branches can rot. Control it by planting blight-resistant varieties, and by pruning affect-
ed plant matter as soon as you can. Burn the diseased plants so that the disease doesn’t
spread. Types of blight include Fireblight, which affects fruit trees and roses, Early
Blight and Late Blight.

Wilts: Naturally, plants wilt when they don’t have enough water. Wilt diseases attack
and clog the water-conducting system of a plant, causing it to wilt, turn yellow, and die..
Often they can be confused with blight. Includes Stewart’s Wilt (affects corn), Fusari-
um Wilt, and Verticillium Wilt.

Rusts: Rusts are a specific type of fungal disease. It appears as a reddish powdery coat-
ing on the plant. They often need two different plant species to complete their life cycle.
Rust can be controlled by neem oil, which kills the spores. Garlic sprays will also help.
Includes Asparagus Rust and

Mildew: Fungal diseases that generally grow on the plant’s leaves. Downy mildew and
Powdery Mildew are quite common. It can be controlled by allowing enough air circu-
lation, and/or spraying with an anti-fungal like garlic or neem.

Damping off: caused by a variety of soil fungi. Seeds rot before they germinate, or
seedlings rot at the soil line. Avoid it by keeping the soil moist but not waterlogged.

Basic techniques to avoid disease:
 Rotate your crops because diseases often attack specific plants, and
can over-winter in the soil.
 Remove and destroy diseased plant material immediately, either by
burning or hot-composting.
 Make sure the soil has good drainage. Diseases often thrive in water-
logged environments.
 Make sure the plants are spaced for enough air circulation. When
they are overcrowded, the disease spreads more easily.
 If you’ve had issues with a disease, don’t replant there. Take precau-
tions to disinfect tools and other materials.
 Stronger plants will be more able to fight off disease. Poor soil makes
weak plants, so take care of the soil by feeding it lots of organic mat-
ter.
 Plant disease-resistant cultivars. If you are buying plants from a
greenhouse, inspect them for disease first!
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Leaf-eating Catterpillars:
includes cabbage worms,
loopers, inchworms, tomato
hornworms, etc. They eat
holes in the leaves of plants.
Their natural predators are
wasps and tachinid flies,
and they can also be con-
trolled by hand-picking,
because they are fairly large
as pests go.


Flea Beetles: They are small black insects that
make little bite marks on the leaves of green vege-
tables like kale and lettuces. Their natural predators
are wasps and nematodes. They are very mobile, so
you can’t spray them easily and therefore they can be
hard to control. However, they can be repelled by di-
atomaceous earth, and by floating row covers as
well.


Aphids: These small, soft-bodied green
insects suck the sap from leaves. They have
many natural enemies—ladybugs, wasps,
lacewings, and more— but nevertheless
they often colonize host plants in mass
numbers. There are many types of aphids
with different hosts; the most common in
Colorado are brassica aphids who eat Broc-
colli, Kale, Cabbage, and such. They can be con-
trolled by a strong spray of water, or, if that doesn’t
work, by a solution of soap and water.

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GOOD BUGS!!!
These bugs are our friends, because they further our cause of growing food! They
should be loved and cared for wherever they go! Two basic types of good bugs: Pollina-
tors, and Predators.
Pollinators
Many plants need to be pollinated with a flower from another plant of the same species.
This is accomplished either with the wind (Corn is wind-pollinated) or with insects
(Squashes like pumpkins, cucumbers, and zucchini, fruit trees and many other fruiting
plants.)
BEES: Nature’s natural pollinators, bees are well-
adapted to the task. Wild bees are often solitary and do
not live in hives, while honey bees live together in
colonies. Bees are considered the most important polli-
nators of flowering plants. (more info on bees and col-
ony collapse later on)

HOVERFLIES:
Syrphid flies, such
as hoverflies and drone flies, are an extremely varia-
ble family of flies that range from large, bulky, and
hairy to the small, slender, and shiny. Many larvae of
hoverflies species are important controls of aphids
while adult hoverflies feed on nectar and pollen. Hov-
erflies are important pollinators of flowering plants worldwide. Often hoverflies are
considered to be the second most important pollinators after wild bees.

BUTTERFLIES and MOTHS: these insects have more
specialized relationships with specific flowers and plants,
they don’t pollinate every-
thing indiscriminately like
bees and hoverflies. They are
considered very important
for wild flowers especially.



**There are some moths who are actually pest species—not the adults, but the larva (caterpillars).
The Large White Moth, AKA the Cabbage Moth or Cabbage Butterfly, has caterpillars that feed
heavily on plants in the brassica (cabbage) family.
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Honeybee
Hoverfy
Viceroy Buterly
Large White Moth
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BEETLES: Because of their sheer numbers, beetles are the largest group of pollina-
tors. They usually pollinate white, yellow and green flowers with a strong smell. They
either eat the pollen or the flowers, and often attract mates on the flowers.

Predators
Predatory bugs are bugs that eat pests. There are lots, but here are a few of the most
important:
GREEN LACEWINGS : Green lacewings is a general
predator. As soon as the green lacewing eggs hatch the
hungry larvae will eat aphids, mealybugs, scale, spider
mites, thrips, whiteflies and other slow moving insects.
There are over 1,300 species of green lacewings!




LADYBUGS: Ladybugs are capable of consuming up to 50 to 60 aphids per day but
will also eat a variety of other insects and larvae including scales, mealy bugs, leaf
hoppers, mites, and various types of soft-bodied insects. Ladybugs, also called lady
beetles or ladybird beetles, are a very beneficial group of insects. They are predatory in
both their larval and adult stage, so double whammy. GO!





TRICHOGRAMMA WASPS: are tiny parasites that attack the eggs of over 200
species of moths and caterpilars. They are extremely small - 4 or 5 will fit on the
head of a pin. Trichogramma lays its eggs inside the eggs of moths preventing the
moth egg from hatching into a caterpillar. This prevents the damage caused by the
feeding caterpillars, and also breaks the life cycle of the pest, effectively preventing the
pest from reproducing. In some species of moth up to 5 parasite eggs may be laid in
each moth egg. As the parasite develops within the egg, it turns black, and after about
10 days, an adult Trichogramma emerges. Adult Trichogramma can live up to 14 days
after emergence. Some of the common pests Trichogramma combat are: Cabbage-
worm, Tomato Hornworm, Corn Earworm, Codling Moth, Cutworm, Armyworm,
Green Lacewing Larva
(lef) and Adult (right)
Yellow-shouldered lady-
bug eatng an aphid
Ladybug Larva
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BAD BUGS!!
Bad bugs are the ones who eat and infest our food crops. There are a lot
of different ones. Proper identification will help immensely in knowing
how to treat them, and unfortunately this small zine is not big enough to
go into all the ID for different bugs. However, Here is a short list of com-
mon culprits and how to combat them.
Slugs and Snails: these guys love wetness and hu-
midity, and they make holes in tender ripe fruits like
tomatoes, cabbage, or other leaves and stems. They
hate salt, and are dried up by any contact with salt,
but you shouldn’t put salt onto your garden, as
plants hate it too. Slugs and snails can be
trapped by placing a pan of beer in the garden
(they love yeast, and will fall in and drown.)
They are a favorite snack of chickens and ducks.
You can also collect them by placing cardboard
onto the ground—they will flock to the moist
cardboard, where you can pick them up and dis-
pose of them.

Grasshoppers: These buggers love
to take bites of leaves, especially
young, tender ones. This can be es-
pecially damaging when the plant in
question is a little seedling. They are
hard to control for because they are
so mobile, and the source of the grass-
hopper population is usually areas of unman-
aged land outside the garden. Their natural
predators are birds, and chickens love them.
You can also protect plants from grasshop-
pers with light fabric such as re-may.


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Season Annuals Perennials Shrubs/Trees
Spring
Alyssum
Baby Blue Eyes
Bird’s Eyes
CA Bluebells
CA Poppies
Candytuf
Catchfy
Chinese Houses
Clarkia
Five Spot
Globe Gilia
Sweet Mignonete
Basket of Gold
Catnip
Cleome
Creeping Phlox
Dandelion
Mahonia
Pasque Flower
Poppy
Shrubs:
American Plum
Choke Cherry
Forsythia
Lilacs
Pussy Willow

Trees:
All fruit trees
Black Locust
Linden
Maple
Summer
Bachelor Buton
Balsam
Basil
Borage
Calendula
Clasping Conefow-
er
Cornfower
Cosmos
Indian Basket
Plains Coreopsis
Snapdragon
Sweet Pea
Sunfowers
Echinacea
Gaillardia
Lavender
Liatris
Lupine
Milkweed
Monarda
Penstemon
Prairie Clover
Rudbeckia
Scabiosa
Shrubs:
False Indigo
Golden Currant
Serviceberry

Trees:
Catalpa
Redbud
Russian Olive
Fall
Aster
Coreopsis
Cosmos
Forget-Me-Not
Lacy Phacelia
Morning Glory
Nasturtum
Sunfower
Sweet Alyssum
Zinnia
All herbs/Mints
Asters
Goldenrod
Joe Pyeweed
Mums
Salvia
Sedum
Spring Bulbs
Stone Crop
Yarrow
Shrubs:
Apache Plume
Blue Mist Spirea
Rabbit Brush
Russian Sage
COMMON GARDEN NECTAR PLANTS
Borage ofcinalis Echinacea purpurea
Catnip (Nepeta cataria)
Calendula spp.
Apple Blossoms
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Source: Colorado
State Beekeeper’s
Association
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Webworm, Cabbage Looper, Corn Borer, Fruitworms, and Cane Borers.

PRAYING MANTIS: Mantises are some of the
most fierce bugs in the garden. They feast on any-
thing they can, even other predators. When they are
small, they eat smaller insets like mealybugs,
aphids, and scales—but when they get older, they
have been known to eat scorpions, small lizards, or
even rodents. Don’t get on their bad side….
\

GROUND BEETLES: The dark-colored adults often
have a metallic sheen, but it's really the larvae that do the
dirty work of pest control. Ground beetle larvae develop
in the soil, and prey on slugs, root maggots, cutworms,
and other pests on the ground. A few species will venture
up a plant stem and hunt for caterpillars or insect eggs.


SPIDERS: Spiders
are non-
discriminate preda-
tors, meaning they
eat anything they can catch in their webs. They
often will roam the garden in search of prey. Spi-
ders will not only keep pest bugs under control, but
they will eat nuiscance bugs like flies and mosqui-
tos. Although they look scary, they are one of the
best bugs for your garden. In North America, the
only common poisonous spiders are the Brown
Recluse and the Black Widow, which should be
avoided.
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Adult beetle (top) and beetle
larva
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Banded garden spider
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Trichogramma wasp life cycle.
They are so small that they are
almost microscopic.
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Bringing in the bugs!
How can you bring benefcial bugs into the garden? Well, in most cases,
those guys already live in your environment. You just need to fnd a way
to bring them into YOUR garden. In some cases, you can special order
benefcial (like ladybugs or mantses) from a garden center. This can
help short-term with pest issues, but most of the tme, if you don’t have
anywhere for them to live, they will leave.
Benefcial bugs in the garden need two things: FOOD and HABITAT. If
you provide these things, they will come and they will stck around.
FOOD
Pollinator bugs need sources of nectar. Nectar is the sugar substance
that is produced by plants in order to lure insects to pollinate them.
Nectar is an important food for many insects. Some insects feed primari-
ly on nectar, like bees, and others, like wasps, eat both nectar and other
insects. Here is a table of plants species that provide nectar all-year:
As far as other bugs for the predators to eat, In a garden with lots of
plants, and a compost, This shouldn’t be a problem, unless you have
been using pestcides. If so, cease use of pestcides immediately!

HABITAT.
Benefcial bugs ofen live through the winter, so they need a place to
hide and hibernate through harsh weather. This habitat can be provided
by a designated area of perennial shrubs and plants in the garden, which
doesn’t get tlled and cleaned up like the rest of the vegetable beds.
For bees, their wild hives can be in all kinds of interestng places like
logs, caverns, or the crevices of man-made materials. If you have the
means, consider building a hive for them. Bee-keeping is a wonderful,
important, and rewarding actvity in today’s world.
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Colony Collapse Disorder
What it is and how to stop it
According to the USDA, 30% of our food is pollinated by honeybees. Alt-
hough they are not natve to the USA and are not the only pollinators,
they have become extremely important to our food system. In recent
years bees have been dying of in alarming numbers, leaving beehives
empty and crops unpollinated. In 2012 the USA lost 30% of the bee-
hives. The reasons for this crisis are complicated and are stll being fg-
ured out, but we do know that some of these factors make it worse:
1) Widespread use of insectcides that are toxic to the bees
2) Migratory bee-keeping (like putng beehives on trucks and hauling
them around the country) because it causes pathogens and para-
sites to be spread naton-wide.
3) Environmental destructon that both deprives the bees of nectar
plants (food) and exposes them to polluton.

Therefore, there are two main steps we can take to help the bees:
Plant for Pollinators and Eliminate Pestcide Use!