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Y. Dong, Z.Y. Guo

⇑

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 7 December 2010

Received in revised form 9 January 2011

Accepted 10 January 2011

Available online 19 February 2011

Keywords:

Entropy

Extended irreversible thermodynamics

Hyperbolic heat conduction

Thermomass model

a b s t r a c t

This paper is divided into three major sections with the ﬁrst one introducing the concept of generalized

entropy in extended irreversible thermodynamics brieﬂy, that is, the entropy of a non-equilibrium sys-

tem depend not only on the classical variables but also on the dissipative ﬂuxes, which makes the hyper-

bolic equation of heat conduction based on the Cattaneo–Vernotte model compatible with the second law

of thermodynamics. The second section deals with the hyperbolic heat conduction based on the thermo-

mass model. According to the Einstein’s mass-energy relation, the phonon gas in dielectrics can be

viewed as a kind of weighty compressible ﬂuid, and the momentum equation of the phonon (thermo-

mass) gas in the dielectrics, which consists of the driving force, inertia and resistance of phonon (thermo-

mass) gas, is just the damped thermal wave equation. In the third section our analyses show that the

contribution of the kinetic energy of the phonon gas in the expression of extended entropy based on

the thermomass model is identical with that of the heat ﬂux in the expression of generalized entropy

in extended irreversible thermodynamics. It implies that the hyperbolic heat conduction based on the

thermomass model is compatible with the second law of thermodynamics.

Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Heat conduction is generally described by the empirical law

proposed by Fourier [1] in 1822, which relates linearly the heat

ﬂux to the temperature gradient as

q ¼ ÀkrT; ð1Þ

where T is the temperature, q is the heat ﬂux and k is the thermal

conductivity. The Fourier’s law shows well agreement with experi-

ments for most practical problems. For fast-transient heat conduc-

tion, however, the resulting differential equation for temperature

predicts an inﬁnite speed of thermal signal propagation since the

diffusion equation is parabolic by nature. On the other hand, with

the rapid development of material processing by pulsed sources,

Fourier’s law breaks down in modeling laser processing of materials

[2,3] or high frequency response in IC chips [4] and heat propagates

as wave.

The problems caused by the inﬁnite speed of heat propagation

have attracted many researchers to remove such a paradox

induced by Fourier’s law. Cattaneo [5], Vernotte [6], and Morse

and Feshbach [7] proposed a new heat ﬂux model, often termed

as C-V model, to replace the Fourier’s law:

q þs

CV

@q

@t

¼ ÀkrT; ð2Þ

where s

CV

is the relaxation time and t is time. Taking the divergence

of Eq. (2) and combining the result with the energy equation yield

s

CV

@

2

T

@t

2

þ

@T

@t

¼ ar

2

T; ð3Þ

where a is the thermal diffusivity and all thermophysical properties

are assumed constant.

Eq. (3) is hyperbolic due to the additional term of the second or-

der derivative of temperature with respect to time. The nonzero

value of s

CV

makes the heat propagation speed ﬁnite [8]. Heat

propagation thus evolves from a diffusion phenomenon to a wave

one, with a ﬁnite speed of heat propagation (a/s

CV

)

1/2

. Further

extensions of the C-V model have also been proposed, such as

the single-phase-lagging (SPL) model [9,10] and the dual-phase-

lagging (DPL) model [9–11]. In addition, there are many other

modern approaches dealing with the problem of heat conduction

with ﬁnite speed, which have been reviewed in Ref. [12].

However, a new deep problem arises when the thermodynamic

interpretation of the consequence of the C-V model, Eq. (2), is con-

sidered, that is, the analyses of Eq. (2) in terms of classical irrevers-

ible thermodynamics (CIT) leads to a non-deﬁnite positive value of

entropy production. Hence, a new framework of irreversible ther-

modynamics, called extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT),

is built [13–21,11], where the generalized entropy also depends

on the heat ﬂux, and the deﬁnite positive value of entropy produc-

tion can then be guaranteed during the temperature evolution of

an isolated system approaching to equilibrium.

0017-9310/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.01.011

⇑

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 62782660; fax: +86 10 62783771.

E-mail address: demgzy@tsinghua.edu.cn (Z.Y. Guo).

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1924–1929

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i j hmt

Recently, the general relationship between the temperature

gradient and heat ﬂux has been derived based on the thermomass

model [22–25], where the phonon gas in the dielectrics can be re-

garded as a weighty and compressible ﬂuid according to the Ein-

stein’s mass-energy relation. Hence, Newton’s mechanics has

been applied to establish the equation of state and the equation

of motion for the phonon gas as in ﬂuid mechanics, which is the

transport equation of heat with a description of nonlinear and non-

local effects. Cimmelli and his colleagues [26] made comparisons

between the thermomass model with other phonon gas hydrody-

namic models, such as the nonlinear Guyer–Krumhansl equation,

which show an interesting and heuristic coincidence. The lineari-

zation of momentum equations for the phonon gas leads to a

damped thermal wave equation, which is similar to the wave equa-

tion based on the C-V model but with a different characteristic

time in both physical meaning and magnitude. This paper focuses

on the compatibility of the hyperbolic heat conduction based on

the thermomass model with the second law of thermodynamics

through the comparison with the expression of the generalized en-

tropy in EIT.

2. Generalized entropy in EIT [18]

The basic concept of EIT is that the entropy of a non-equilibrium

system depends not only on the classical variables, but also on the

dissipative ﬂuxes, for example, the heat ﬂux in heat conduction

problems. Namely the heat ﬂux is considered as an independent

variable for describing the thermodynamic state of a system, across

which heat is transferred. Then, the differential form of the gener-

alized entropy is written as follows:

ds

EIT

¼

@s

EIT

@u

du þ

@s

EIT

@q

Á dq; ð4Þ

where s

EIT

is the generalized entropy in EIT, u is the speciﬁc internal

energy, q is the heat ﬂux. In analogy with the classical theory, the

non-equilibrium temperature is deﬁned and expanded around the

inverse of the local-equilibrium temperature T:

h

À1

ðu; qÞ ¼ @s

EIT

=@u ¼ T

À1

ðuÞ þa

10

ðuÞq

2

: ð4aÞ

The remaining term in Eq. (4) is denoted as

@s

EIT

=@q ¼ ÀT

À1

va

10

ðu; qÞ; ð4bÞ

where in the minus and the factor T

À1

v are introduced for conve-

nience. The coefﬁcient a

10

is determined through the comparison

with the C-V model.

In terms of some derivations with the assumption of the negli-

gible second term on the right hand side of Eq. (4a), they obtain

ds

EIT

¼ T

À1

du À

s

qkT

2

q Á dq; ð5Þ

where s is the relaxation time and k the thermal conductivity. After

the integration of Eq. (5) with s/qkT

2

assumed to be a constant, they

ﬁnd an explicit expression for the generalized entropy outside equi-

librium up to second-order terms in q:

qs

EIT

ðu; qÞ ¼ qs

eq

ðuÞ À

1

2

s

kT

2

q Á q: ð6Þ

The corresponding entropy production is

r

s

EIT

¼

1

kT

2

q Á q: ð7Þ

The time evolution of entropy in an isolated rigid body with an

initial sinusoidal temperature proﬁle predicted by Eq. (6) is plotted

in Fig. 1. It can be seen in Fig. 1 that the generalized entropy during

the equilibrium has a monotonic increase and concluded that the

hyperbolic heat conduction based on the C-V model is compatible

with the second law of thermodynamics. For comparison the en-

tropy production obtained from the classical thermodynamics,

when C-V model is used instead of Fourier’s law, is

r

s

CIT

¼

1

kT

2

ðq Á q Àsq Á

_

qÞ: ð8Þ

It can be found clearly in Fig. 1 that the time evolution of the en-

tropy exhibits a non-monotonic behavior, namely, the positiveness

Nomenclature

a thermal diffusivity (m

2

s

À1

)

b dimensionless parameter in the thermomass model

c speed of light (m s

À1

)

C speciﬁc heat (J K

À1

kg

À1

)

f resistant force (N)

k thermal conductivity (W m

À1

K

À1

)

l length parameter (m) in the thermomass model

p pressure (Pa)

P

v

stress tensor or viscous pressure tensor (Pa)

q heat ﬂux (W m

À2

)

Q heat (J)

s speciﬁc entropy (J K

À1

kg

À1

)

S entropy (J K

À1

)

T temperature (K)

t time variable (s)

u speciﬁc internal energy (J kg

À1

)

u

h

drift velocity of phonon gas (m s

À1

)

u

hs

thermal wave speed in the phonon gas (m s

À1

)

U internal energy (J)

v velocity (m s

À1

)

w mechanical power per unit volume (J m

À3

)

x space variable (m)

Greek symbols

b friction coefﬁcient for motion of phonon gas (kg s

À1

)

c Grüneisen constant

h non-equilibrium temperature (K)

m speciﬁc volume (m

3

kg

À1

)

q density (kg m

À3

)

r

s

rate of entropy production per unit volume

(J K

À1

s

À1

m

À3

)

s characteristic time (s)

Subscripts

CIT classical irreversible thermodynamics

CV Cattaneo–Vernotte model

TIN extended irreversible thermodynamics

eq Equilibrium

h thermomass (phonon gas)

NV thermomass model

Superscripts

. time derivative

À average

Y. Dong, Z.Y. Guo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1924–1929 1925

of the entropy production is no longer guaranteed due to the pres-

ence of the second term on the right hand side of Eq. (8).

An illustrative example was also presented in Ref. [17] to show

the different behaviors of the classical entropy and the extended

entropy. Let’s consider the heat conduction between two rigid

bodies at different temperatures, T

1

and T

2

(T

1

> T

2

) respectively,

which are isolated from the environment and separated by an adi-

abatic wall. Heat conduction occurs without work being per-

formed, as the adiabatic constraint is removed. According to CIT,

the time rate variation of the total entropy gives

dS

dt

¼

dS

1

dt

þ

dS

2

dt

¼ T

À1

1

dU

1

dt

þ T

À1

2

dU

2

dt

¼ T

À1

1

À T

À1

2

_

Q; ð9Þ

where dU

1

= qVC

1

dT

1

, dU

2

= qVC

2

dT

2

, with C

1

, C

2

being the speciﬁc

heat capacities of the respective subsystems. The combination of

Fourier’s law with the conservation equation of thermal energy

leads to the time variation of the temperature difference,

DT = T

1

À T

2

, as

dDT

dt

¼ ÀK

0

C

eff

DT; ð10Þ

with K

0

= KT

À2

assumed to be a constant and T an intermediate tem-

perature of T

1

and T

2

.

In view of Eqs. (9) and (10) and if DT << T

2

, the rate of evolution

of entropy may be written in terms of DT as

dS

dt

¼ ÀT

À2

C

eff

dðDTÞ

2

2dt

: ð11Þ

It is seen that the entropy is a monotonically increasing func-

tion of time. If the C-V model is used, the evolution of the temper-

ature difference is

s

d

2

DT

dt

2

þ

dDT

dt

þ K

0

C

eff

DT ¼ 0: ð12Þ

The equation is similar to the equation of motion of a damped

pendulum. The decay of DT may exhibit an oscillatory behavior

when 4sK

0

C

eff

> 1. In the case of oscillatory decay of DT, the classi-

cal entropy behaves a non-monotonic function of time according to

Eq. (8), as shown in Fig. 1 (dashed curve). However, since the pro-

posed form of the generalized entropy in EIT depends also on the

heat ﬂux, the rate of variation of the generalized entropy becomes

dS

EIT

dt

¼ T

À1

1

À T

À1

2

_

Q À

s

K

_

Q

d

_

Q

dt

; ð13Þ

or, in an integrated form,

S

EIT

¼ S

1

ðU

1

Þ þ S

2

ðU

2

Þ À

s

2K

_

Q

2

: ð14Þ

Eq. (13) can then be rewritten as

dS

EIT

dt

¼ K

À1

_

Q

2

¼

s

K

C

2

eff

dDT

dt

2

: ð15Þ

This expression is never negative, whose evolution increases mono-

tonically as shown in Fig. 1 (solid curve), and the generalized entro-

py in EIT is thus suitable as an expression for the second law in

hyperbolic heat conduction. Moreover, the expression for extended

entropy has been reviewed and commented by F. X. Alvarez, et al

[19], who indicated that through several other macroscopic and

microscopic approaches, the expression (5) and (6) could also be

obtained when the CV model (2) is valid.

3. Thermomass (TM) Model

The concept of thermomass comes from Einstein’s theory of

special relativity, indicating that thermal energy (heat) can be re-

ferred to as its equivalent mass [22–25]. A few words should be gi-

ven to make this concept clearer: It is widely accepted that the rest

mass (or invariant mass) of a system composed of a number of

freely moving particles is greater than the sum of the rest masses

of the individual particles[27–31]. The thermal energy includes

both kinetic and potential energy of the particles, however, as long

as the system could be taken as a whole, its rest mass is greater

than the sum of the masses of the atoms contained in this system,

by the amount of thermal energy divided by the square of speed of

light in vacuum. The term ‘equivalent’ is worth discussion. More

precisely, it can be referred as the additional rest mass—or just

‘mass’ according to Okun’s point of view [28]—to the system con-

tributed by thermal energy, and is invariant in every inertial

frame.

Hence, the density of a phonon gas in the dielectrics is

q

h

¼

qCT

c

2

: ð16Þ

where q

h

is the mass density of the phonon gas, q is the density of

solid, C the heat capacity, c the speed of light, and T the tempera-

ture. The state equation of a phonon gas can be deduced from the

Debye’s state equation as

p

h

¼ cq

h

CT ¼

cqðCTÞ

2

c

2

; ð17Þ

where c is Grüneisen constant, and p

h

the thermal pressure of the

equivalent mass of phonon gas. Thus, the phonon gas in the dielec-

trics could be treated as a kind of weighty ﬂuid with ultra-small

mass (at room temperature) proportional to its thermal energy. In

view of the fact that the rest mass of lattice acts as a porous frame-

work, heat conduction (phonon gas ﬂow) in dielectrics resembles

the gas ﬂow in a porous medium. Since the drift velocity of phonon

gas is very small relative to the lattice frame, the mass from thermal

energy satisﬁes the Newton’s law of motion as long as the lattice

frame travels slowly in the inertial reference frame. Therefore, the

continuity and momentum equations for a phonon gas can be writ-

ten as in ﬂuid mechanics,

@q

h

@t

þ r Á ðq

h

u

h

Þ ¼ 0; ð18Þ

@ðq

h

u

h

Þ

@t

þq

h

ðu

h

rÞ Á u

h

þ rp

h

þf

h

¼ 0; ð19Þ

where q

h

, u

h

, p

h

are density, drift velocity and pressure of phonon

gas respectively. The velocity of heat motion or the drift velocity

of phonon gas can be extracted from the quantity of heat ﬂux

S

t

Classical Entropy

Extended Entropy

Fig. 1. The evolution of the classical equilibrium entropy S

CIT

and the extended

entropy S

EIT

.

1926 Y. Dong, Z.Y. Guo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1924–1929

u

h

¼

q

qCT

; ð20Þ

where q is the density of dielectrics and qCT holds for the energy of

the phonon gas per unit volume. The resistant force is linearly re-

lated to the phonon gas velocity, if u

h

is not very large,

f

h

¼ bu

h

; ð21Þ

with b = 2cC(qCT)

2

/(kc

2

).

The insertion of Eqs. (18), (20), (21) into Eq. (19) gives the con-

stitutive equation for the phonon gas in dielectrics

s

TM

@q

@t

À lqC

@T

@t

þ l

@q

@x

À bk

@T

@x

þ k

@T

@x

þ q ¼ 0; ð22Þ

where

s

TM

¼

k

2cqC

2

T

; l ¼

qk

2cCðqCTÞ

2

¼ u

h

s

TM

; b ¼

q

2

2cq

2

C

3

T

3

¼ Ma

2

h

:

ð23Þ

with s

TM

being the lagging time, l a length parameter, Ma

h

the Mach

number of the drift velocity, u

h

relative to the thermal wave speed

in the phonon gas, u

hs

. The ﬁrst three terms on the left-hand side of

Eq. (22) result from the inertia effect, the fourth term represents the

effect from the pressure gradient (driving force), and the last term

denotes the resistance as the phonon gas ﬂows through the lattices.

So we may rewrite Eq. (22) as

s

TM

@q

@t

þ2u

h

s

TM

@q

@x

À Ma

2

h

k

@T

@x

þ k

@T

@x

þ q ¼ 0: ð24Þ

Eliminating heat ﬂux from Eqs. (18) and (24) results in an equation

containing temperature, T, alone

s

TM

@

2

T

@t

2

þ2u

h

s

TM

@

2

T

@x@t

þ aMa

2

h

@

2

T

@x

2

À a

@

2

T

@x

2

þ

@T

@t

¼ 0: ð25Þ

where a is the thermal diffusivity. For Ma

h

<< 1, the second and

third terms on the left hand side of Eqs. (24) and (25), which denote

the inertia effect induced by heat ﬂux variation in space, are ne-

glected and the constitutive Eq. (20) then reduces to the C-V like

model, called the simpliﬁed thermomass model [23]:

s

TM

@q

@t

þ k

@T

@x

þ q ¼ 0 or

@q

@t

þ

k

s

TM

@T

@x

þ

q

s

TM

¼ 0: ð26Þ

Correspondingly, Eq. (25) reduces to a damped wave equation

s

TM

@

2

T

@t

2

À a

@

2

T

@x

2

þ

@T

@t

¼ 0 or

@

2

T

@t

2

À

a

s

TM

@

2

T

@x

2

þ

1

s

TM

@T

@t

¼ 0: ð27Þ

Furthermore, for s

TM

<< t, the ﬁrst term on the left hand side of

Eq. (26), which represents the inertia effect induced by the time

variation of heat ﬂux, can be neglected, the constitutive Eq. (26)

and the damped wave Eq. (27) then further reduces to the Fourier’s

law and heat diffusion equation respectively as follows

k

@T

@x

þ q ¼ 0; ð28Þ

and

a

@

2

T

@x

2

À

@T

@t

¼ 0: ð29Þ

On the contrary, for s

TM

>> t, for example, for cases of very high con-

ductivity or very low temperature, the second term in Eq. (26),

which measures the effect of resistance, is negligible, so that the

constitutive Eq. (26) and the damped wave Eq. (27) reduces respec-

tively to

@q

@t

þ

k

s

TM

@T

@x

¼ 0 ð30Þ

and

@

2

T

@t

2

À

a

s

TM

@

2

T

@x

2

¼ 0 or

@

2

T

@t

2

À u

hs

@

2

T

@x

2

¼ 0: ð31Þ

Eq. (30) is the balance equation between the driving force and the

inertial force, and Eq. (31) is the thermal wave equation without

damping effect. It is worth noting that the thermomass model, Eq.

(22), is similar to the C-V model but with a different characteristic

time. The characteristic time s

CV

in the C-V model is the relaxation

time as the energy carriers approaching the thermodynamic equi-

librium, while the characteristic time s

TM

in the thermomass model,

on the other hand, describes a lagging time between the heat ﬂux

and the temperature gradient and is about two orders of magnitude

larger than the relaxation time of phonons in the CV-wave model as

reported in [23].

4. Extended entropy based on the TM model

4.1. Extended entropy

In view of the fact that a phonon gas is a weighty, compressible

ﬂuid, the ﬂowing phonon gas, like a dense gas in motion, is out of

mechanical non-equilibrium, rather than thermal equilibrium.

Hence, the expressions for the temperature and internal energy

in CIT still hold and we need to identify the contribution of kinetic

energy to the entropy of phonon gas. If the resistance in the

momentumEq. (19) can be neglected, we have Bernoulli’s equation

for the inviscid phonon gas

u

h

du

h

þ

dp

h

q

h

¼ 0: ð32Þ

The substitution of Eq. (17) into Eq. (32) gives

CdT þ

1

2c

u

h

du

h

¼ 0: ð33Þ

Note that the ﬁrst term represents the energy of thermomass rather

than the internal energy, with the parameter 2cCT/c

2

eliminated for

convenience. The integrative form of Eq. (33) is

CT þ

1

4c

u

2

h

¼ CT

0

or CT ¼ CT

0

À

1

4c

u

2

h

; ð34Þ

which provides the relation of reversible conversion between the

potential and kinetic energy of phonon gas. The kinetic energy of

a system and the work done by the external force on the system

are equal in value. Hence, the kinetic energy divided by tempera-

ture represents the negative entropy of phonon gas in motion. We

then have the differential form of the entropy for the phonon gas

in motion

ds

EIT

¼

du

T

À

1

2c

u

h

du

h

T

: ð35Þ

Its integration is

s

EIT

¼ C lnT À

1

4c

u

2

h

: ð36Þ

Substituting Eqs. (20) and (23) into Eqs. (35) and (36) leads to

ds

EIT

¼

du

T

À

s

qkT

2

q Á dq; ð37Þ

and

qs

EIT

¼ qs

eq

À

1

2

s

qkT

2

q Á q: ð38Þ

It can be found clearly that the expressions for the extended entro-

py based on the thermomass model, Eqs. (35) and (36), are identical

Y. Dong, Z.Y. Guo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1924–1929 1927

with those for the generalized entropy, Eqs. (5) and (6),

respectively.

Consider nowonce again the illustrative example [17] discussed

in the preceding section from the viewpoint of the thermomass

model. We have two rigid bodies at different temperatures, T

1

and T

2

(T

1

> T

2

), which are isolated from the environment and sep-

arated by an adiabatic wall. Heat conduction occurs between two

rigid bodies without work interaction with the environment, as

the adiabatic constraint is removed. The conservation equation

for heat (thermomass) is

_

Q ¼ À

dU

1

dt

¼

dU

2

dt

; ð39Þ

dDT

dt

¼

dðT

1

À T

2

Þ

dt

¼ À

2

_

Q

qVC

for C

1

¼ C

2

¼ C ð40Þ

The heat ﬂow can be expressed in terms of the drift velocity of pho-

non gas [19]:

_

Q ¼ S

_

q ¼ SqCTu

h

: ð41Þ

The simpliﬁed thermomass model, Eq. (26), for heat conduction be-

tween two rigid bodies gives

s

TM

d

_

Q

dt

þ

_

Q ¼ gðT

1

À T

2

Þ; ð42Þ

where s

TM

¼ k=2cqC

2

T, T ¼ ðT

10

þ T

20

Þ=2, g ¼ kA=L, A is the surface

area, and L the characteristic length.

The time rate of variation of the extended entropy is

dS

EIT

dt

¼ T

À1

1

À T

À1

2

_

Q À

qV

2c

u

h

du

h

T

; ð43Þ

or, in an integrated form,

S

EIT

¼ S

1

ðU

1

Þ þ S

2

ðU

2

Þ À

qV

2

u

2

h

: ð44Þ

Substituting Eqs. (20) and (23) into Eqs. (43) and (44) leads to

dS

EIT

dt

¼ T

À1

1

À T

À1

2

_

Q À

s

K

_

Q

d

_

Q

dt

; ð45Þ

and

S

EIT

¼ S

1

ðU

1

Þ þ S

2

ðU

2

Þ À

s

2K

_

Q

2

: ð46Þ

Eqs. (45) and (46) are identical with Eqs. (10) and (11). This implies

that the hyperbolic heat conduction on the basis of the thermomass

model obeys the second law of thermodynamics.

4.2. Entropy production

The entropy production per unit volume and time for viscous

gas ﬂows is the production of the generalized thermodynamic

force and ﬂux, which equals to the dissipation rate of mechanical

power per unit volume divided by temperature [32,33]

r

s

¼ _ w=T; ð47Þ

where _ w is the dissipation rate of mechanical power per unit vol-

ume. For instance, in the classical nonequilibrium thermodynamics

the entropy production rate caused by the viscous ﬂow is expressed

as [32]

r

s

¼

1

T

ðÀP

v

: r Á vÞ; ð48Þ

where P

v

is the viscous pressure tensor and v is the velocity.

Since heat conduction resembles the gas ﬂow in a porous med-

ium based on the thermomass model, the entropy production per

unit volume and time in porous dielectrics can be expressed by

the dissipated energy of thermomass per unit volume and time di-

vided by temperature

r

s

¼ f

h

u

h

=T: ð49Þ

The insertion of Eqs. (20), (21) into Eq. (49) yields

r

s

¼ bu

2

h

=T ¼

2cCðqCTÞ

2

kc

2

u

2

h

¼

2cC

kc

2

q

2

T

¼

2cCT

c

2

q

2

kT

2

: ð50Þ

It can be seen that the positiveness of entropy production rate is

deﬁnite, which divided by the parameter, 2cCT/c

2

, eliminated in

Eq. (33) is exactly the same as Eq. (7) in EIT.

5. Concluding remarks

(1) In view of the fact that heat conduction is essentially the

ﬂow of a weighty compressible ﬂuid in a porous medium,

the ﬂowing phonon gas in a dielectric system, like a dense

gas in motion, is still at thermally local equilibrium, but

deviates its mechanical equilibrium.

(2) The drift velocity of phonon gas can be viewed as an inde-

pendent variable in the thermomass model, so that the

extended entropy of a dielectric system depends not only

on the potential energy (internal energy), but also on the

kinetic energy of phonon gas. The ratio of the kinetic energy

to the temperature is equivalent to the negative entropy of

phonon gas in motion.

(3) The expression for the entropy based on the thermomass

model for the system out of mechanical equilibrium is iden-

tical with that for the generalized entropy in extended irre-

versible thermodynamics. This implies that the hyperbolic

heat conduction based on the thermomass model is compat-

ible with the second law of thermodynamics as well.

(4) The entropy production for hyperbolic heat conduction can

be directly expressed by the production of the thermody-

namic force and thermodynamic ﬂux for the ﬂowing phonon

gas based on the thermomass model, which is proportional

to the heat ﬂux, and its positiveness can then be guaranteed.

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