# Entropy analyses for hyperbolic heat conduction based on the thermomass model

Y. Dong, Z.Y. Guo

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received in revised form 9 January 2011
Accepted 10 January 2011
Available online 19 February 2011
Keywords:
Entropy
Extended irreversible thermodynamics
Hyperbolic heat conduction
Thermomass model
a b s t r a c t
This paper is divided into three major sections with the ﬁrst one introducing the concept of generalized
entropy in extended irreversible thermodynamics brieﬂy, that is, the entropy of a non-equilibrium sys-
tem depend not only on the classical variables but also on the dissipative ﬂuxes, which makes the hyper-
bolic equation of heat conduction based on the Cattaneo–Vernotte model compatible with the second law
of thermodynamics. The second section deals with the hyperbolic heat conduction based on the thermo-
mass model. According to the Einstein’s mass-energy relation, the phonon gas in dielectrics can be
viewed as a kind of weighty compressible ﬂuid, and the momentum equation of the phonon (thermo-
mass) gas in the dielectrics, which consists of the driving force, inertia and resistance of phonon (thermo-
mass) gas, is just the damped thermal wave equation. In the third section our analyses show that the
contribution of the kinetic energy of the phonon gas in the expression of extended entropy based on
the thermomass model is identical with that of the heat ﬂux in the expression of generalized entropy
in extended irreversible thermodynamics. It implies that the hyperbolic heat conduction based on the
thermomass model is compatible with the second law of thermodynamics.
1. Introduction
Heat conduction is generally described by the empirical law
proposed by Fourier [1] in 1822, which relates linearly the heat
ﬂux to the temperature gradient as
q ¼ ÀkrT; ð1Þ
where T is the temperature, q is the heat ﬂux and k is the thermal
conductivity. The Fourier’s law shows well agreement with experi-
ments for most practical problems. For fast-transient heat conduc-
tion, however, the resulting differential equation for temperature
predicts an inﬁnite speed of thermal signal propagation since the
diffusion equation is parabolic by nature. On the other hand, with
the rapid development of material processing by pulsed sources,
Fourier’s law breaks down in modeling laser processing of materials
[2,3] or high frequency response in IC chips [4] and heat propagates
as wave.
The problems caused by the inﬁnite speed of heat propagation
have attracted many researchers to remove such a paradox
induced by Fourier’s law. Cattaneo [5], Vernotte [6], and Morse
and Feshbach [7] proposed a new heat ﬂux model, often termed
as C-V model, to replace the Fourier’s law:
q þs
CV
@q
@t
¼ ÀkrT; ð2Þ
where s
CV
is the relaxation time and t is time. Taking the divergence
of Eq. (2) and combining the result with the energy equation yield
s
CV
@
2
T
@t
2
þ
@T
@t
¼ ar
2
T; ð3Þ
where a is the thermal diffusivity and all thermophysical properties
are assumed constant.
Eq. (3) is hyperbolic due to the additional term of the second or-
der derivative of temperature with respect to time. The nonzero
value of s
CV
makes the heat propagation speed ﬁnite [8]. Heat
propagation thus evolves from a diffusion phenomenon to a wave
one, with a ﬁnite speed of heat propagation (a/s
CV
)
1/2
. Further
extensions of the C-V model have also been proposed, such as
the single-phase-lagging (SPL) model [9,10] and the dual-phase-
lagging (DPL) model [9–11]. In addition, there are many other
modern approaches dealing with the problem of heat conduction
with ﬁnite speed, which have been reviewed in Ref. [12].
However, a new deep problem arises when the thermodynamic
interpretation of the consequence of the C-V model, Eq. (2), is con-
sidered, that is, the analyses of Eq. (2) in terms of classical irrevers-
ible thermodynamics (CIT) leads to a non-deﬁnite positive value of
entropy production. Hence, a new framework of irreversible ther-
modynamics, called extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT),
is built [13–21,11], where the generalized entropy also depends
on the heat ﬂux, and the deﬁnite positive value of entropy produc-
tion can then be guaranteed during the temperature evolution of
an isolated system approaching to equilibrium.
doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.01.011

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 62782660; fax: +86 10 62783771.
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1924–1929
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j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i j hmt
Recently, the general relationship between the temperature
gradient and heat ﬂux has been derived based on the thermomass
model [22–25], where the phonon gas in the dielectrics can be re-
garded as a weighty and compressible ﬂuid according to the Ein-
stein’s mass-energy relation. Hence, Newton’s mechanics has
been applied to establish the equation of state and the equation
of motion for the phonon gas as in ﬂuid mechanics, which is the
transport equation of heat with a description of nonlinear and non-
local effects. Cimmelli and his colleagues [26] made comparisons
between the thermomass model with other phonon gas hydrody-
namic models, such as the nonlinear Guyer–Krumhansl equation,
which show an interesting and heuristic coincidence. The lineari-
zation of momentum equations for the phonon gas leads to a
damped thermal wave equation, which is similar to the wave equa-
tion based on the C-V model but with a different characteristic
time in both physical meaning and magnitude. This paper focuses
on the compatibility of the hyperbolic heat conduction based on
the thermomass model with the second law of thermodynamics
through the comparison with the expression of the generalized en-
tropy in EIT.
2. Generalized entropy in EIT [18]
The basic concept of EIT is that the entropy of a non-equilibrium
system depends not only on the classical variables, but also on the
dissipative ﬂuxes, for example, the heat ﬂux in heat conduction
problems. Namely the heat ﬂux is considered as an independent
variable for describing the thermodynamic state of a system, across
which heat is transferred. Then, the differential form of the gener-
alized entropy is written as follows:
ds
EIT
¼
@s
EIT
@u

du þ
@s
EIT
@q

Á dq; ð4Þ
where s
EIT
is the generalized entropy in EIT, u is the speciﬁc internal
energy, q is the heat ﬂux. In analogy with the classical theory, the
non-equilibrium temperature is deﬁned and expanded around the
inverse of the local-equilibrium temperature T:
h
À1
ðu; qÞ ¼ @s
EIT
=@u ¼ T
À1
ðuÞ þa
10
ðuÞq
2
: ð4aÞ
The remaining term in Eq. (4) is denoted as
@s
EIT
=@q ¼ ÀT
À1
va
10
ðu; qÞ; ð4bÞ
where in the minus and the factor T
À1
v are introduced for conve-
nience. The coefﬁcient a
10
is determined through the comparison
with the C-V model.
In terms of some derivations with the assumption of the negli-
gible second term on the right hand side of Eq. (4a), they obtain
ds
EIT
¼ T
À1
du À
s
qkT
2
q Á dq; ð5Þ
where s is the relaxation time and k the thermal conductivity. After
the integration of Eq. (5) with s/qkT
2
assumed to be a constant, they
ﬁnd an explicit expression for the generalized entropy outside equi-
librium up to second-order terms in q:
qs
EIT
ðu; qÞ ¼ qs
eq
ðuÞ À
1
2
s
kT
2
q Á q: ð6Þ
The corresponding entropy production is
r
s
EIT
¼
1
kT
2
q Á q: ð7Þ
The time evolution of entropy in an isolated rigid body with an
initial sinusoidal temperature proﬁle predicted by Eq. (6) is plotted
in Fig. 1. It can be seen in Fig. 1 that the generalized entropy during
the equilibrium has a monotonic increase and concluded that the
hyperbolic heat conduction based on the C-V model is compatible
with the second law of thermodynamics. For comparison the en-
tropy production obtained from the classical thermodynamics,
when C-V model is used instead of Fourier’s law, is
r
s
CIT
¼
1
kT
2
ðq Á q Àsq Á
_
qÞ: ð8Þ
It can be found clearly in Fig. 1 that the time evolution of the en-
tropy exhibits a non-monotonic behavior, namely, the positiveness
Nomenclature
a thermal diffusivity (m
2
s
À1
)
b dimensionless parameter in the thermomass model
c speed of light (m s
À1
)
C speciﬁc heat (J K
À1
kg
À1
)
f resistant force (N)
k thermal conductivity (W m
À1
K
À1
)
l length parameter (m) in the thermomass model
p pressure (Pa)
P
v
stress tensor or viscous pressure tensor (Pa)
q heat ﬂux (W m
À2
)
Q heat (J)
s speciﬁc entropy (J K
À1
kg
À1
)
S entropy (J K
À1
)
T temperature (K)
t time variable (s)
u speciﬁc internal energy (J kg
À1
)
u
h
drift velocity of phonon gas (m s
À1
)
u
hs
thermal wave speed in the phonon gas (m s
À1
)
U internal energy (J)
v velocity (m s
À1
)
w mechanical power per unit volume (J m
À3
)
x space variable (m)
Greek symbols
b friction coefﬁcient for motion of phonon gas (kg s
À1
)
c Grüneisen constant
h non-equilibrium temperature (K)
m speciﬁc volume (m
3
kg
À1
)
q density (kg m
À3
)
r
s
rate of entropy production per unit volume
(J K
À1
s
À1
m
À3
)
s characteristic time (s)
Subscripts
CIT classical irreversible thermodynamics
CV Cattaneo–Vernotte model
TIN extended irreversible thermodynamics
eq Equilibrium
h thermomass (phonon gas)
NV thermomass model
Superscripts
. time derivative
À average
Y. Dong, Z.Y. Guo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1924–1929 1925
of the entropy production is no longer guaranteed due to the pres-
ence of the second term on the right hand side of Eq. (8).
An illustrative example was also presented in Ref. [17] to show
the different behaviors of the classical entropy and the extended
entropy. Let’s consider the heat conduction between two rigid
bodies at different temperatures, T
1
and T
2
(T
1
> T
2
) respectively,
which are isolated from the environment and separated by an adi-
abatic wall. Heat conduction occurs without work being per-
formed, as the adiabatic constraint is removed. According to CIT,
the time rate variation of the total entropy gives
dS
dt
¼
dS
1
dt
þ
dS
2
dt
¼ T
À1
1
dU
1
dt
þ T
À1
2
dU
2
dt
¼ T
À1
1
À T
À1
2

_
Q; ð9Þ
where dU
1
= qVC
1
dT
1
, dU
2
= qVC
2
dT
2
, with C
1
, C
2
being the speciﬁc
heat capacities of the respective subsystems. The combination of
Fourier’s law with the conservation equation of thermal energy
leads to the time variation of the temperature difference,
DT = T
1
À T
2
, as
dDT
dt
¼ ÀK
0
C
eff
DT; ð10Þ
with K
0
= KT
À2
assumed to be a constant and T an intermediate tem-
perature of T
1
and T
2
.
In view of Eqs. (9) and (10) and if DT << T
2
, the rate of evolution
of entropy may be written in terms of DT as
dS
dt
¼ ÀT
À2
C
eff
dðDTÞ
2
2dt
: ð11Þ
It is seen that the entropy is a monotonically increasing func-
tion of time. If the C-V model is used, the evolution of the temper-
ature difference is
s
d
2
DT
dt
2
þ
dDT
dt
þ K
0
C
eff
DT ¼ 0: ð12Þ
The equation is similar to the equation of motion of a damped
pendulum. The decay of DT may exhibit an oscillatory behavior
when 4sK
0
C
eff
> 1. In the case of oscillatory decay of DT, the classi-
cal entropy behaves a non-monotonic function of time according to
Eq. (8), as shown in Fig. 1 (dashed curve). However, since the pro-
posed form of the generalized entropy in EIT depends also on the
heat ﬂux, the rate of variation of the generalized entropy becomes
dS
EIT
dt
¼ T
À1
1
À T
À1
2

_
Q À
s
K
_
Q
d
_
Q
dt
; ð13Þ
or, in an integrated form,
S
EIT
¼ S
1
ðU
1
Þ þ S
2
ðU
2
Þ À
s
2K
_
Q
2
: ð14Þ
Eq. (13) can then be rewritten as
dS
EIT
dt
¼ K
À1
_
Q
2
¼
s
K
C
2
eff
dDT
dt

2
: ð15Þ
This expression is never negative, whose evolution increases mono-
tonically as shown in Fig. 1 (solid curve), and the generalized entro-
py in EIT is thus suitable as an expression for the second law in
hyperbolic heat conduction. Moreover, the expression for extended
entropy has been reviewed and commented by F. X. Alvarez, et al
[19], who indicated that through several other macroscopic and
microscopic approaches, the expression (5) and (6) could also be
obtained when the CV model (2) is valid.
3. Thermomass (TM) Model
The concept of thermomass comes from Einstein’s theory of
special relativity, indicating that thermal energy (heat) can be re-
ferred to as its equivalent mass [22–25]. A few words should be gi-
ven to make this concept clearer: It is widely accepted that the rest
mass (or invariant mass) of a system composed of a number of
freely moving particles is greater than the sum of the rest masses
of the individual particles[27–31]. The thermal energy includes
both kinetic and potential energy of the particles, however, as long
as the system could be taken as a whole, its rest mass is greater
than the sum of the masses of the atoms contained in this system,
by the amount of thermal energy divided by the square of speed of
light in vacuum. The term ‘equivalent’ is worth discussion. More
precisely, it can be referred as the additional rest mass—or just
‘mass’ according to Okun’s point of view [28]—to the system con-
tributed by thermal energy, and is invariant in every inertial
frame.
Hence, the density of a phonon gas in the dielectrics is
q
h
¼
qCT
c
2
: ð16Þ
where q
h
is the mass density of the phonon gas, q is the density of
solid, C the heat capacity, c the speed of light, and T the tempera-
ture. The state equation of a phonon gas can be deduced from the
Debye’s state equation as
p
h
¼ cq
h
CT ¼
cqðCTÞ
2
c
2
; ð17Þ
where c is Grüneisen constant, and p
h
the thermal pressure of the
equivalent mass of phonon gas. Thus, the phonon gas in the dielec-
trics could be treated as a kind of weighty ﬂuid with ultra-small
mass (at room temperature) proportional to its thermal energy. In
view of the fact that the rest mass of lattice acts as a porous frame-
work, heat conduction (phonon gas ﬂow) in dielectrics resembles
the gas ﬂow in a porous medium. Since the drift velocity of phonon
gas is very small relative to the lattice frame, the mass from thermal
energy satisﬁes the Newton’s law of motion as long as the lattice
frame travels slowly in the inertial reference frame. Therefore, the
continuity and momentum equations for a phonon gas can be writ-
ten as in ﬂuid mechanics,
@q
h
@t
þ r Á ðq
h
u
h
Þ ¼ 0; ð18Þ
@ðq
h
u
h
Þ
@t
þq
h
ðu
h
rÞ Á u
h
þ rp
h
þf
h
¼ 0; ð19Þ
where q
h
, u
h
, p
h
are density, drift velocity and pressure of phonon
gas respectively. The velocity of heat motion or the drift velocity
of phonon gas can be extracted from the quantity of heat ﬂux
S
t
Classical Entropy
Extended Entropy
Fig. 1. The evolution of the classical equilibrium entropy S
CIT
and the extended
entropy S
EIT
.
1926 Y. Dong, Z.Y. Guo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1924–1929
u
h
¼
q
qCT
; ð20Þ
where q is the density of dielectrics and qCT holds for the energy of
the phonon gas per unit volume. The resistant force is linearly re-
lated to the phonon gas velocity, if u
h
is not very large,
f
h
¼ bu
h
; ð21Þ
with b = 2cC(qCT)
2
/(kc
2
).
The insertion of Eqs. (18), (20), (21) into Eq. (19) gives the con-
stitutive equation for the phonon gas in dielectrics
s
TM
@q
@t
À lqC
@T
@t
þ l
@q
@x
À bk
@T
@x
þ k
@T
@x
þ q ¼ 0; ð22Þ
where
s
TM
¼
k
2cqC
2
T
; l ¼
qk
2cCðqCTÞ
2
¼ u
h
s
TM
; b ¼
q
2
2cq
2
C
3
T
3
¼ Ma
2
h
:
ð23Þ
with s
TM
being the lagging time, l a length parameter, Ma
h
the Mach
number of the drift velocity, u
h
relative to the thermal wave speed
in the phonon gas, u
hs
. The ﬁrst three terms on the left-hand side of
Eq. (22) result from the inertia effect, the fourth term represents the
effect from the pressure gradient (driving force), and the last term
denotes the resistance as the phonon gas ﬂows through the lattices.
So we may rewrite Eq. (22) as
s
TM
@q
@t
þ2u
h
s
TM
@q
@x
À Ma
2
h
k
@T
@x
þ k
@T
@x
þ q ¼ 0: ð24Þ
Eliminating heat ﬂux from Eqs. (18) and (24) results in an equation
containing temperature, T, alone
s
TM
@
2
T
@t
2
þ2u
h
s
TM
@
2
T
@x@t
þ aMa
2
h
@
2
T
@x
2
À a
@
2
T
@x
2
þ
@T
@t
¼ 0: ð25Þ
where a is the thermal diffusivity. For Ma
h
<< 1, the second and
third terms on the left hand side of Eqs. (24) and (25), which denote
the inertia effect induced by heat ﬂux variation in space, are ne-
glected and the constitutive Eq. (20) then reduces to the C-V like
model, called the simpliﬁed thermomass model [23]:
s
TM
@q
@t
þ k
@T
@x
þ q ¼ 0 or
@q
@t
þ
k
s
TM
@T
@x
þ
q
s
TM
¼ 0: ð26Þ
Correspondingly, Eq. (25) reduces to a damped wave equation
s
TM
@
2
T
@t
2
À a
@
2
T
@x
2
þ
@T
@t
¼ 0 or
@
2
T
@t
2
À
a
s
TM
@
2
T
@x
2
þ
1
s
TM
@T
@t
¼ 0: ð27Þ
Furthermore, for s
TM
<< t, the ﬁrst term on the left hand side of
Eq. (26), which represents the inertia effect induced by the time
variation of heat ﬂux, can be neglected, the constitutive Eq. (26)
and the damped wave Eq. (27) then further reduces to the Fourier’s
law and heat diffusion equation respectively as follows
k
@T
@x
þ q ¼ 0; ð28Þ
and
a
@
2
T
@x
2
À
@T
@t
¼ 0: ð29Þ
On the contrary, for s
TM
>> t, for example, for cases of very high con-
ductivity or very low temperature, the second term in Eq. (26),
which measures the effect of resistance, is negligible, so that the
constitutive Eq. (26) and the damped wave Eq. (27) reduces respec-
tively to
@q
@t
þ
k
s
TM
@T
@x
¼ 0 ð30Þ
and
@
2
T
@t
2
À
a
s
TM
@
2
T
@x
2
¼ 0 or
@
2
T
@t
2
À u
hs
@
2
T
@x
2
¼ 0: ð31Þ
Eq. (30) is the balance equation between the driving force and the
inertial force, and Eq. (31) is the thermal wave equation without
damping effect. It is worth noting that the thermomass model, Eq.
(22), is similar to the C-V model but with a different characteristic
time. The characteristic time s
CV
in the C-V model is the relaxation
time as the energy carriers approaching the thermodynamic equi-
librium, while the characteristic time s
TM
in the thermomass model,
on the other hand, describes a lagging time between the heat ﬂux
larger than the relaxation time of phonons in the CV-wave model as
reported in [23].
4. Extended entropy based on the TM model
4.1. Extended entropy
In view of the fact that a phonon gas is a weighty, compressible
ﬂuid, the ﬂowing phonon gas, like a dense gas in motion, is out of
mechanical non-equilibrium, rather than thermal equilibrium.
Hence, the expressions for the temperature and internal energy
in CIT still hold and we need to identify the contribution of kinetic
energy to the entropy of phonon gas. If the resistance in the
momentumEq. (19) can be neglected, we have Bernoulli’s equation
for the inviscid phonon gas
u
h
du
h
þ
dp
h
q
h
¼ 0: ð32Þ
The substitution of Eq. (17) into Eq. (32) gives
CdT þ
1
2c
u
h
du
h
¼ 0: ð33Þ
Note that the ﬁrst term represents the energy of thermomass rather
than the internal energy, with the parameter 2cCT/c
2
eliminated for
convenience. The integrative form of Eq. (33) is
CT þ
1
4c
u
2
h
¼ CT
0
or CT ¼ CT
0
À
1
4c
u
2
h
; ð34Þ
which provides the relation of reversible conversion between the
potential and kinetic energy of phonon gas. The kinetic energy of
a system and the work done by the external force on the system
are equal in value. Hence, the kinetic energy divided by tempera-
ture represents the negative entropy of phonon gas in motion. We
then have the differential form of the entropy for the phonon gas
in motion
ds
EIT
¼
du
T
À
1
2c
u
h
du
h
T
: ð35Þ
Its integration is
s
EIT
¼ C lnT À
1
4c
u
2
h
: ð36Þ
Substituting Eqs. (20) and (23) into Eqs. (35) and (36) leads to
ds
EIT
¼
du
T
À
s
qkT
2
q Á dq; ð37Þ
and
qs
EIT
¼ qs
eq
À
1
2
s
qkT
2
q Á q: ð38Þ
It can be found clearly that the expressions for the extended entro-
py based on the thermomass model, Eqs. (35) and (36), are identical
Y. Dong, Z.Y. Guo / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 1924–1929 1927
with those for the generalized entropy, Eqs. (5) and (6),
respectively.
Consider nowonce again the illustrative example [17] discussed
in the preceding section from the viewpoint of the thermomass
model. We have two rigid bodies at different temperatures, T
1
and T
2
(T
1
> T
2
), which are isolated from the environment and sep-
arated by an adiabatic wall. Heat conduction occurs between two
rigid bodies without work interaction with the environment, as
the adiabatic constraint is removed. The conservation equation
for heat (thermomass) is
_
Q ¼ À
dU
1
dt
¼
dU
2
dt
; ð39Þ
dDT
dt
¼
dðT
1
À T
2
Þ
dt
¼ À
2
_
Q
qVC
for C
1
¼ C
2
¼ C ð40Þ
The heat ﬂow can be expressed in terms of the drift velocity of pho-
non gas [19]:
_
Q ¼ S
_
q ¼ SqCTu
h
: ð41Þ
The simpliﬁed thermomass model, Eq. (26), for heat conduction be-
tween two rigid bodies gives
s
TM
d
_
Q
dt
þ
_
Q ¼ gðT
1
À T
2
Þ; ð42Þ
where s
TM
¼ k=2cqC
2
T, T ¼ ðT
10
þ T
20
Þ=2, g ¼ kA=L, A is the surface
area, and L the characteristic length.
The time rate of variation of the extended entropy is
dS
EIT
dt
¼ T
À1
1
À T
À1
2

_
Q À
qV
2c
u
h
du
h
T
; ð43Þ
or, in an integrated form,
S
EIT
¼ S
1
ðU
1
Þ þ S
2
ðU
2
Þ À
qV
2
u
2
h
: ð44Þ
Substituting Eqs. (20) and (23) into Eqs. (43) and (44) leads to
dS
EIT
dt
¼ T
À1
1
À T
À1
2

_
Q À
s
K
_
Q
d
_
Q
dt
; ð45Þ
and
S
EIT
¼ S
1
ðU
1
Þ þ S
2
ðU
2
Þ À
s
2K
_
Q
2
: ð46Þ
Eqs. (45) and (46) are identical with Eqs. (10) and (11). This implies
that the hyperbolic heat conduction on the basis of the thermomass
model obeys the second law of thermodynamics.
4.2. Entropy production
The entropy production per unit volume and time for viscous
gas ﬂows is the production of the generalized thermodynamic
force and ﬂux, which equals to the dissipation rate of mechanical
power per unit volume divided by temperature [32,33]
r
s
¼ _ w=T; ð47Þ
where _ w is the dissipation rate of mechanical power per unit vol-
ume. For instance, in the classical nonequilibrium thermodynamics
the entropy production rate caused by the viscous ﬂow is expressed
as [32]
r
s
¼
1
T
ðÀP
v
: r Á vÞ; ð48Þ
where P
v
is the viscous pressure tensor and v is the velocity.
Since heat conduction resembles the gas ﬂow in a porous med-
ium based on the thermomass model, the entropy production per
unit volume and time in porous dielectrics can be expressed by
the dissipated energy of thermomass per unit volume and time di-
vided by temperature
r
s
¼ f
h
u
h
=T: ð49Þ
The insertion of Eqs. (20), (21) into Eq. (49) yields
r
s
¼ bu
2
h
=T ¼
2cCðqCTÞ
2
kc
2
u
2
h
¼
2cC
kc
2
q
2
T
¼
2cCT
c
2
q
2
kT
2
: ð50Þ
It can be seen that the positiveness of entropy production rate is
deﬁnite, which divided by the parameter, 2cCT/c
2
, eliminated in
Eq. (33) is exactly the same as Eq. (7) in EIT.
5. Concluding remarks
(1) In view of the fact that heat conduction is essentially the
ﬂow of a weighty compressible ﬂuid in a porous medium,
the ﬂowing phonon gas in a dielectric system, like a dense
gas in motion, is still at thermally local equilibrium, but
deviates its mechanical equilibrium.
(2) The drift velocity of phonon gas can be viewed as an inde-
pendent variable in the thermomass model, so that the
extended entropy of a dielectric system depends not only
on the potential energy (internal energy), but also on the
kinetic energy of phonon gas. The ratio of the kinetic energy
to the temperature is equivalent to the negative entropy of
phonon gas in motion.
(3) The expression for the entropy based on the thermomass
model for the system out of mechanical equilibrium is iden-
tical with that for the generalized entropy in extended irre-
versible thermodynamics. This implies that the hyperbolic
heat conduction based on the thermomass model is compat-
ible with the second law of thermodynamics as well.
(4) The entropy production for hyperbolic heat conduction can
be directly expressed by the production of the thermody-
namic force and thermodynamic ﬂux for the ﬂowing phonon
gas based on the thermomass model, which is proportional
to the heat ﬂux, and its positiveness can then be guaranteed.
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