Marie Skłodowska-Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French

physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a
Nobel Prize, the only woman to win in two fields, and the only person to win in multiple sciences. She was also
the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be
entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.
She was born Maria Salomea Skłodowska (pronounced [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdɔfska]) in Warsaw, in what was
then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Floating University
and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława
to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared
the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the
1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined
[2]
), techniques for isolating
radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's
first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie
Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I,
she established the first military field radiological centres.
While a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie (she used both surnames)
[3][4]
never lost her sense of Polish
identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland.
[5]
She named the first
chemical element that she discovered – polonium, which she first isolated in 1898 – after her native country.
[a]

Curie died in 1934 at the sanatorium of Sancellemoz (Haute-Savoie), France, due to aplastic anemia brought on
by exposure to radiation – mainly, it seems, during her World War I service in mobile X-ray units created by her.
[

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (German: [ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈʁœntɡən]; 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was
a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength
range today that was known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in
Physics in 1901.
[1]
In honour of his accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry (IUPAC) named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes,
after him.
Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel
laureate, and the discoverer of radioactivity along with Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie,[1] for which all
three won the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM FRS
[1]
(30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937)
was a New Zealand-born British physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics.
[2]
Encyclopædia
Britannica considers him to be the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday (1791–1867).
[2]

In early work he discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, proved that radioactivity involved the
transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation.
[3]

This work was done at McGill University in Canada. It is the basis for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry he was
awarded in 1908 "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive
substances".
[4]

Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester (today University of Manchester) in the UK,
where he and Thomas Royds proved that alpha radiation is helium ions.
[5][6]
Rutherford performed his most
famous work after he became a Nobel laureate.
[4]
In 1911, although he could not prove that it was positive or
negative,
[7]
he theorized that atoms have their charge concentrated in a very small nucleus,
[8]
and thereby
pioneered the Rutherford model of the atom, through his discovery and interpretation of Rutherford scattering in
his gold foil experiment. He is widely credited with first "splitting the atom" in 1917 in a nuclear reaction between
nitrogen and alpha particles, in which he also discovered (and named) the proton.
[9]

Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University in 1919. Under his leadership
the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932 and in the same year the first experiment to split the
nucleus in a fully controlled manner, performed by students working under his direction, John Cockcroft and
Ernest Walton. After his death in 1937, he was honoured by being interred with the greatest scientists of the
United Kingdom, near Sir Isaac Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. The chemical element rutherfordium
(element 104) was named after him in 1997.