Chapter II

Review of related Literature
This chapter is a review of available literature and
studies from foreign to local which may directly or indirectly
bearing to study at hand. Relevance to present studies will

Related Literature
According to Howard and Ill stressed out that whenever
students are in their high school experience, they are the
center of learning. In a traditional high school the center of
the system is the content or subject-centered high school to
student centered high school learning interests and aptitudes
around career paths. It provides a structure for students to
reference their learning and comment each year of their high
school experience. It allows students to plan and practice their
skills while creating a smooth successful transition. According
to John Holland, individuals are attracted to a given career by
their particular personalities and numerous variables that
constitute their backgrounds. First of all, career choice is an
expression of, or an extension of personality into the world of
work followed by subsequent identification with specific
occupational stereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to
satisfy preferred modal personal orientation. Modal orientation
is a developmental process established through heredity and the
individual’s life history of reacting to environmental demands.
If the individual has developed a strong dominant orientation,
satisfaction is probable in a corresponding occupational
environment. If, however the orientation is one of indecision
the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes.
According to Elmer (1989) career planning is life goal
setting. Without such a plan, it is like making a journey to an
unfamiliar destination without map. He proposed A Career
Planning Guide that will help the students choosing their
appropriate course from planning a career, steps in planning
career, goal setting and self-understanding. It reveals that
guidance and counseling is intervention of underemployment
individuals and career preparedness must be initiated.
The course preference or career choice of Filipino students
over a period of four years from 1994 to 1998, as reported by
CHED. The ranking of the mean of enrollment per courses were;
Commerce and related courses; Engineering and Technology; and
Teacher Education, and the three least preferred were:
Criminology; Law; and Religion. In terms of changes in the
enrollment trends, Teacher Education jumped from rank 4 in
1994-1995 to rank 2 in 1995-1996 and replaced Medicine and
health related courses which moved down to rank 4 in 1995-1996
from rank 2. The ranking of the other courses remained the same
for the four-school year period but noteworthy is the biggest
increase in enrollment in Information Technology for school year
1995-1996 although it did not improve its overall ranking.
Enrollment increased in 1995-1996; and in both 1996-1997 and
1997-1998 as projected by CHED.
Many writers tried to explain why Filipino students prefer
white collar or degree courses. One reason why are young people
today simply drift into jobs without even having made explicit
choices between alternative occupations is that they do not have
sufficient information about the range of alternative
opportunities to make deliberate rational choices in their
careers according to Toribio (1984).
Anker (1983) believes that the reason for the preference of
Filipinos white-collar jobs and dislike for blue-collar jobs can
be traced to the irrelevance of the type of education given.
Salinas (1989) revealed that career guidance is defiecient
and placement assistance is inadequate some tertiary courses
offered do not match job openings and linkage between the school
and employment sector are faulty or ineffectual when they exist.
Furthermore, graduates on the job discover defeciences in their
skills/professional training.
In terms of curriculum that matches job opportunities,
Glauchevitch (1993) indicated that the model curriculum that