FIG. 10-98. Suggested use of light-reflecting
wedges for last storage bins.
Note: It is recommended that walls and
ceilings of all bins be painted with high reflec-
tance paint.
and roof of each bin may be
painted with a high-reflectance
paint such as aluminum.
Light striking these- wedges, at
the front of the bin, is reflected
to the walls and ceiling, thus
increasing the level of illumi-
nation by about 50 per cent
in the bin interior. (See Fig.
10-98.) The polishing effect
of the sliding leather over the
wedges maintains the specular
reflectance of the surface.
Upper department. An up-
per department generally is
divided into the following sections:
trimming, cutting, and
upper cutting;
marking and skiving; and
When an order is received for a certain grade of shoes, the sorting de-
partment grades the leather as to color and quality. For this work a
uniform illumination level of 20 footcandles for light materials and of 100
footcandles for dark materials is recommended. The sorting department
generally is located at the north side of the building so that skylight may
be utilized.
Skilled workers then split each piece of leather into as many sheets as
possible and cut out individual parts for uppers. This work generally is
done on tables 30 to 36 inches above the floor.
The various pieces go to the counting department where they are counted
and marked with job numbers. Skiving, which consists of the mechanical
thinning of edges of the uppers so that they can be turned over to present
a finished appearance, is the next step. The work of assembling consists
of bringing together the various parts which make up the uppers such as
lining, stay, vamp, counter, toe, tip, etc. For these operations a uniform
illumination level of 20 footcandles for light materials and of 100 footcandles
for dark materials is recommended.
Stitching department. In the stitching department the following opera-
tions are typical:
closing and staying;
top stitching;
buttonholing and stamping; and
toe closing.
These operations present difficult seeing tasks. A uniform general il-
lumination level of 10 footcandles should be supplemented by local lighting
on the machines. It is recommended that this lighting be secured by fasten-
ing to the table, at each machine, near the needle point and on the right-
hand side of the operator, an adjustable arm carrying an opaque reflector
and a lamp. For light materials 30 footcandles on the work is recom-
mended. For dark goods a level of not less than 100 footcandles of illumi-
nation is recommended. A ratio of supplementary to general levels of
illumination as great as 10 to 1 usually is permissible.

Related Interests