washing and cutting and also for the compound and mill area except where
hoods are placed over the compounding machines. In such cases local
lighting should be provided by luminaires installed under the hood with a
reflector directed at the point of work.
As materials pass over the cutting and calendering machines, care must
be taken to see that the coating is applied correctly. Calenders, especially
the three- or four-roller type, should be lighted by luminaires on both sides
of the machines. The light should be well diffused to avoid sharp shadows
and glare.
After cutting or gumming, rolls go to the drying room where they are
dried by steam heat. Where this department is confined to the center of
the building and has no direct general ventilation, there is an explosion
hazard. Where such is the case, explosion-proof or vapor-proof lighting
units are recommended. Supplementary lighting equipment provides
light at both front and rear ends of the sole rolling machine. An illumina-
tion level of 30 footcandles is recommended.
In the sole and upper cutting department, operators work rapidly with
sharp knives. A uniform illumination level of at least 30 footcandles
throughout the area is recommended. Luminaires should be mounted as
high as possible. In some plants beam dinkers are used. These should be
lighted in the manner described on page 10-130.
The making department is the most important in this type of plant.
All parts are supplied, cut to shape, to bench workers who use cement to
attach and complete a shoe. In some cases there is a shelf or rack over the
center of the bench, extending its entire length. The lasts are placed on
this shelf and if luminaires are placed over this shelf and hung low, the
shelf causes a sharp shadow on the working areas of the bench. A general
lighting installation producing not less than 50 footcandles on the work
is recommended.
In the varnishing and vulcanizing areas, a uniform illumination level of
about 30 footcandles is recommended.
Recommended minimum footcandle values to be used for guidance in the
solution of lighting problems in the fluid milk industry are included in
Table 10-16.
Loading and Unloading Platforms
Areas used during dark winter mornings and evenings and at night for
loading and unloading should be electrically lighted to a uniform minimum
level of 10 footcandles. This should be supplemented by local lighting
equipment to increase the level to a minimum of 20 footcandles in the areas
used by checkers who make a detailed count of kinds and numbers of milk
bottles being loaded or unloaded. Industrial-type, direct-lighting equip-
ment is suitable.