11-6 I E S LIGHTING HANDBOOK

If incandescent lamps with colored glass bulbs or clear bulbs with colored
accessories are employed, lower letter brightness will result than when equal
wattage lamps with clear bulbs are used alone.
For equal advertising effectiveness colored surfaces require less brightness
than neutral surfaces as shown in Table 11-3.
Table 11-3. Relative Wattage of Colored and White or Inside Frosted
Incandescent Lamps Required to Give Signs of Various Colors
Approximately Equal Advertising Value
COLORED
WHITE OR INSIDE FROSTED LAMP RATING (watts)
LAMP
RATING*
(watts)
Daylight
Bluet
Yellowf
Amber-
Orangef
Green
f
Redf Bluet
10 15 10 10 25 25 50
15 15 10 10 25 25 50
25 25 25 25 50 50 50
40 50 50 50 50 60 60
60 eo 60 60 100 100 150
100 100 100 100 150 150 200
*
Color similar to that of sign surface; 100-watt or larger lamps require color hoods,
t
Color of sign surface and lamp to which white or inside frost rating compares.
Lamp types. For exposed lamp signs located where rain or snow could
fall on relatively hot glass, vacuum-type incandescent lamps are recom-
mended. They are available in 6-, 10-, 25-, and 40-watt ratings in both
clear and colored bulbs, and in 25- and 50-watt ratings in daylight bulbs.
Inside-coated or colored-bulb lamps are recommended in exposed lamp
signs, since their color is more stable than that of outside coated lamps.
Reflector signs. Efficient reflectors can be employed to direct light to
areas in which it is most useful and create letter brightnesses several times
that of a corresponding letter without reflectors.
Typical polished reflector equipment is shown in Fig. ll-4a and a com-
plete letter using such equipment is shown in Fig. ll-4b. The reflecting
device consists of a small polished reflector with a medium-screw base that
will fit into standard sockets. This reflector uses a 3-, 6-, or 7-watt, cande-
labra- or a 6- or 10-watt, intermediate-base lamp. Either clear or colored
glass roundels in prismatic designs are placed over the reflector opening.
Where excellent side-angle brightness is a requirement, cover glasses should
be employed. For equal advertising value over a limited area in certain
directions, polished reflectors, if used, may result in a rebuction in required
wattage as great as 75 per cent.
Enclosed Lamp and Silhouette Signs
Enclosed lamp signs employ light sources enclosed with glass, plastic, or
other light-transmitting materials. The letters or designs usually are
opaque but may be etched in light-transmitting material.