cases it is undesirable. Highlights and shadows produce a much more
interesting and dramatic effect.
As a general rule, no light sources should be visible to an observer.
Usually three choices of location are available: 1. Luminaires may be
shielded from view by trees, shrubs, rocks, building structures, pits, etc;
shrubbery may be planted expressly for this purpose. 2. Conventional
equipment may be placed in a suitable housing with an appearance in
keeping with that of the area. Some types of ornamental grilles around
the lighting sources are satisfactory, particularly if they present a pleasing
silhouette effect. In this case, the housings may be painted as an aid in
camouflaging them during the daytime. 3. Equipment may be designed
in keeping with the surround: mushroom shaped, for example, to fit into
the general scheme of the garden.
Floodlights placed in trees or hedges may spill light on surrrounding
branches and foliage which may create an undesirable effect. Therefore,
small, more easily adjusted luminaires are to be preferred. In any event,
shields, louvers, visors, or hoods to control spill light are recommended.
Such control will make the equipment less conspicuous and there will be
less chance of areas in the vicinity of the floodlight being illuminated
unintentionally and disturbing the over-all effect.
Illumination level. As a rule, gardens are located where there is little
competing illumination. High levels will create harsh and unpleasant
effects. Levels which may be expected to give good results are recom-
mended in Table 11-12.
Color. Considerable thought should be given to the application of
colored light to gardens. Light from clear-bulb incandescent lamps is
frequently undesirable as the high percentage of red and yellow light tends
slightly to distort the delicate natural colors of flowers, shrubs, and trees
found in gardens. Daylight lamps provide a color of light that is satis-
factory in most cases. Blue light on some buildings, pergolas, etc., will
simulate moonlight; yellow or amber light may be used effectively to light
the surrounding area.
Table 11-12. Recommended Illumination Levels for Gardens
Statuary (white or colored)
Flower beds, rock gardens, etc.
Background (fences, trellises, walls, shrubbery)
Pond and pools (clear water)
Fountains (single jet)
0.5 to 1.0
0.2 to 0.4
0.2 to 0.4
0.1 to 0.2
15-watt incandescent lamp every 20 to 25 feet.
15-watt incandescent lamp.
2 watts per square foot of water surface (incandescent lamps).
15 watts per foot of height (incandescent lamps).