With electrical illumination from a few high candlepower sources con-
centrated on an outdoor playing field and filling the space above to a limited
altitude only, most of the background area is relatively dark and great care
must be taken to be sure that in addition to providing relatively uniform
illumination the sources are so placed that the number of times a ball must
be viewed against them during games is small.
Indoors, as, for example, in a squash court with white walls, ceiling, and
floor, and with indirect illumination, the background brightness is much
more uniform.
Observer location. In designing lighting for sports, careful consideration
should be given to the requirements and comfort of each of three observer
groups: players, officials, and spectators, whose orientation with respect
to the object differs. The normal fields of view of each group differ also
and in the case of player and official there may be no fixed location. The
probable variation in location and field of view will be different for each
In providing adequate illumination of proper quality for one group, if
possible no glare should be introduced into the field of view of the other two.
Quality and Quantity of Illumination
Diffuse illumination, such as that provided by an overcast sky on an
outdoor playing field during the day or that provided by an indirect elec-
tric lighting system in an interior with high reflectance ceilings, walls, and
floors, is considered to be of excellent quality for sports. Indoors the
design problems are quite similar to these encountered in other interior
occupancy areas. Outdoors the problem is more difficult, and it has been
necessary to develop practical minimum diffusion standards which will
provide satisfactory results. See Fig. 12-lc.
Number and location
sources. The shape and surface characteristics
of the object to be seen and its probable orientation with respect to the
observer are important factors in establishing minimum diffusion stand-
ards. Fortunately, balls with diffuse surface reflectance are the most
common objects to be viewed. A point light source located in such a
position that its central axis forms an angle of not more than 30 degrees
with the observer's line of sight (apex at the ball) will for practical purposes
illuminate the entire ball surface facing the observer. (See Fig. 12-la.)
If the angle is in-
creased to 90 degrees,
the ball will remain
lighted over half its
visible surface, as
shown in Fig. 12-16.
Figure 12 lc shows the
same tennis ball lighted
piQ. 12-1. Appearance of tennis ball lighted in differ-
from above by two
ent ways: a. by single source 30 degrees to right of line of
nmntsnnrw that form
sight ; b. by single source 90 degrees to left of line of sight
porni sources inanorm
c by light from two sources above and at 85 degrees
angles of 85 degrees
from line of sight, and by light reflected by the ground.