12-8 I E S LIGHTING HANDBOOK

Design Recommendations
Factors 1 and 2 page 12-5 make it particularly desirable to provide large-
area, low-brightness luminaires such as these utilizing fluorescent lamps.
High wall, ceiling, and floor reflectances will be appropriate also, since they
are likely to result in reduced brightness ratios in all possible fields of view.
Considerable object-background contrast is necessary for good visibility.
Factor 3 calls for high-reflectance surfaces also, since interreflections
contribute materially to light diffusion and therefore to illumination uni-
formity on and above the reference plane. Uniformity is necessary if
object velocity and trajectory are to be estimated accurately.
If fluorescent lamp luminaires are recommended, it is essential that they
be operated on lead-lag ballasts or on three-phase circuits so that the visi-
bility of moving objects will not be reduced by stroboscopic effect.
Aerial sports. Archery, badminton , basketball, handball, squash, tennis,
and volley ball are included in this classification. Such sports may require
that observers look toward the ceiling during a large portion of the playing
time. In planning general lighting installations for these sports every
effort should be made to select, locate, and shield the light sources to avoid
introducing glare into the observer's view,
i- 2
- 3 - 4
(See Figs. 12-2, -3,
and -4.)
Low-level sports. Billiards, bowling, fencing, curling, shuffleboard, skat-
ing, swimming, boxing and wrestling, and other sports in which observers
in the normal course of play do not look upward are called low level sports.
General lighting may be planned more easily for these sports than for the
aerial type, since luminaire brightness is less critical.
5
- 6 - 7
(See Figs.
12-5, 12-6, 12-7, and 12-8.)
Arenas and gymnasiums. In these areas uniform^ distributed general
illumination usually is provided over the entire playing floor so that basket-
ball, volley ball, track and field events, gymnastics, fencing, calisthenics,
hockey, or dancing may be accommodated.
8,
9
-
10
(See Fig. 12-9.)
When high-caliber play in tennis, badmintcn, and other small court
games is contemplated, supplemental
y
illumination should be provided
on the ccurt.
Since arenas are likely to be public exhibition places, the principles of
stage lighting presented in Section 10 may be applied to the boxing ring or
playing fleer.
Maintenance. If it is likely that lamp operating time will be of the
order of 200 hcurs per year or less, a ccst analysis should be made to deter-
mine the relative advantage of operating incandescent lamps at a voltage
10 per cent above their rating.
To prevent breakage it may be necessary to cover otherwise unprotected
luminaires with wire mesh. This will reduce their efficiency and should be
compensated for in the design by multiplying the luminaire efficiency by the
average transmittance of the mesh.
Good practice. Table 12-2 lists recommended illumination levels for a
number of sports and refers to line and photc graphic illustrations showing
sports lighting installations.