13-34 I E S LIGHTING HANDBOOK

of the values shown in Table 13-5.
recommended for highway lighting.
Table 13-5 gives the illumination
Table 13-4. Recommended Average Horizontal Footcandles (Lumens
per Square Foot) for Urban Streets
PEDESTRIAN
VEHICULAR TRAFFIC CLASSIFICATION
TRAFFIC
Very Light
(Under 150)
Light
(150-500)
Medium
(500-1200)
Heavy to Heaviest
(1,200 up)
Heavy
Medium
Light or none
*
*
0.2
0.8
0.6
0.4
1.0
0.8
0.6
1.2
1.0
0.8
*
This condition is unusual, but if it should occur, the footcandle figure appearing Ln the column to the
right may be used.
The following notes apply to this table:
1. The recommended footcandle values are the minimum average values on the roadway between curbs.
On streets carrying from light to heaviest traffic, the lowest footcandle value at any point should not be less
than one-fourth of the above values. On streets carrying very light vehicular traffic, the ratio between aver-
age and lowest footcandles at any point may be of the order of 10 and produce satisfactory results.
2. In general, satisfactory illumination on the sidewalk will be provided by lighting systems which pro-
vide the above recommended street illumination. However, visibility on the sidewalk should be given ade-
quate consideration when selecting luminai'es.
3. The achievement of satisfactory visibility by silhouette discernment depends on good pavement
brightness which in turn depends on the reflectance of the pavement surface. The values in Table 13-3 are
based on pavement reflectance of the order of 10 per cent. For the streets and traffic conditions in which
silhouette discernment is importance, allow ance must be made for pavement reflectances that vary from the
favorable conditions assumed above. When reflectance is poor (of the order of 3 per cent) the illumination
recommended should be increased 50 per cent. When reflectance is unusually high (20 per cent or more) the
recommended values may be decreased 25 per cent. In general, these corrections will apply more specific-
ally to streets carrying a light traffic volume where the illumination recommended is less than 0.8 footcandle.
On streets carrying a heavy traffic volume and where 1.0 footcandle or more is recommended, visibility is
more apt to depend on discernment by surface detail, and corrections for pavement reflectance become less
important
4. Intersections require illumination in excess of above recommendations.
5. All lighting systems are subject to some depreciation in light delivered to the pavement caused by dirt
accumulation on luminaires and the normal aging of the light source. The rate and amount of depreciation
will vary with local conditions and it is important that an adequate maintenance program be carried out
systematically to minimize such light loss. Such a program should provide for operation of light sources at
rated current or voltage, the regular replacement of burned out or depreciated lamps, and the periodic clean-
ing of luminaires. Where operating conditions are such that a reasonable maintenance program cannot ef-
fectively maintain the desired pavement illumination because of the excessive smoke or dirt, corrosive vapor,
or other conditions, it is recommended that the initial footcandle level for which the system is designed be
increased by an amount sufficient to compensate for the light loss as determined by the local situation.
Table 13-5. Recommended Average Illumination for Highways
LOCATION
Highways
Intersections, circles, and cloverleaves
ILLUMINATION
(footcandles)
0.3
0.4
1. The above values are minimum average values on the paved roadway. The illumination at any point
should not be less than one-fourth of the above value.
2. These recommendations are based on concrete pavements having a reflectance of the order of 20 per
cent. Where the reflectance is less than 20 per cent, tne illumination should be increased approximately as
follows:
Reflectance 10 per cent: Increase illumination by 50 per cent.
Reflectance 5 per cent: Increase illumination by 100 per cent.
3. At traffic circles and cloverleaves, the areas of convergent and divergent traffic require greater illumina-
tion as construction and traffic volume indicate.
4. Regular and systematic maintenance is necessary to maintain the highway lighting system as near to
the recommended footcandle value as possible.