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A
Research Report
On


“EFFECTIVENESS OF HRD IN MEETING THE ASPIRATIONS OF
EMPLOYEES”



SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
MASTER OF BUSI NESS ADMI NI STRATI ON
PROGRAMME: 2011-2013
MAHAMAYA TECHNI CAL UNI VERSI TY, NOI DA





SUBMITTED BY : SUBMITTED TO:

SWATI SHARMA MRS.GARIMA BHARDWAJ
MBA IV SEM
ROLL NO. 1179570040









DIT SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
KNOWLEDGE PARK- III
GREATER NOIDA (U.P)

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DECLARATION

I, Namrata Srivastava do hereby declare that the Research Report submitted
fulfillment of the requirement for the PGDM of its ACCURATE INSTITUTE OF
MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY
, GREATER NOIDA. This has not been submitted to any other University or Institution for
reward of Degree / Diploma / Certificate.

Namrata Srivastava











ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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My effort in this work are just a small part, it is the part of all the guidance and
support that received from my Research Coordinator.
I would like to thank Mrs. Garima Bhardwaj. Her valuable guidance and constant
encouragement have helped me tremendously in the completion of this Research.
Last but not the least I would like to thank my friends without whom feedback and
encouragement, this Research would not have been possible. There help has gone a long way in
successful completion of my Research.


SWATI SHARMA










EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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It also provides a comparative study an organization with some national and
international companies with similar profiles to discuss their hiring system and suggest to
organization.
On the basis of feedback through questionnaire, interview and observation
method, we find out that HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT is quite effective IN
THE ASPIRATION OF EMPLOYEES.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT USE VARIOUS TECHNIQUES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT
OF EMPLOYEES SO THAT THEY CAN BE ASPIRED FOR THE FRUIT FULL RESULT.





























TABLE OF CONTENTS



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 INTRODUCTION
 LITERATURE REVIEW
 OBJECTIVES
 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
 ASPIRATIONS
 DEVELOPMENT
 IMPORTANCE
 LIMITATIONS
 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
 FINDINGS
 CONCLUSION
 SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
 BIBLIOGRAPHY
 ANNEXTURE




INTRODUCTION

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William James of Harvard University estimated that employees could retain their jobs by
working a mere 20-30 percent of their potential. His research led him to believe that if these
same employees were properly inspired they could work at 80-90 percent of their capabilities.
Behavioral sciences concepts like motivation and aspiration could well be used for such
improvements in employee output. Development could be one of the means to achieve such
improvements through the effective and efficient use of learning resources.
Development is a long-term investment in human resource using the equation given below:
Performance = ability x motivation
Development can have an impact on both these factors. It can heighten the skills and abilities
of the employees and their aspiration by increasing their sense of commitment and
encouraging them to develop and use new skills. It is a powerful tool that can have a major
impact on both employee productivity and morale, if properly used.
















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SELECTI VE HI RI NG

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This practice can ensure that the right people, with the desirable characteristics and knowledge,
are in the right place, so that they fit in the culture and the climate of the organization. Moreover,
pinpointing the rights employees would decrease the cost of employees‟ education and
development.
Schuster (1986) argued that selective hiring is a key practice that creates profits.
Cohen and Pfeffer (1986) argued that hiring standards reflect not only organizations' skill
requirements but also the preferences of various groups for such standards and their ability to
enforce these preferences.
Huselid (1995) examined HR practices of high performance companies and found that attracting
and selecting the right employees increase the employee productivity, boost organizational
performance, and contribute in reducing turnover.
Michie and Quinn (2001) proposed that a possible indirect link between selective hiring and
organisational performance can be the forging of internal bonds between managers and
employees that creates the write culture for productivity growth.
Collins and Clark (2003) argued that the practice of selective hiring results at sales growth.
Paul and Anantharaman (2003) pointed out that an effective hiring process ensures the presence
of employees with the right qualifications, leading to production of quality products and
consequently in increase of economic performance.
Cardon and Stevens (2004) pointed out that for small companies recruiting is often problematic.
This can be due to several reasons such as limited financial and material resources and jobs with
unclear boundaries responsibilities, which decreases their potential to hire qualified candidates.
Therefore, we propose this hypothesis:
Cho et al. (2005) examined pre-employment tests as a key component of selective hiring and
found that when employed, these tests can select employees that stay with a company longer.
Passing pre-employment tests may give an applicant a stronger sense of belonging to the
company, resulting in higher degrees of commitment if employed.
Hypothesis : Selective hiring is positively related to firm growth.


TRAI NI NG AND DEVELOPMENT

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Training and development may be related to firm performance in many ways. Firstly,Training
programmes increase the firm specificity of employee skills, which, it turn, increases employee
productivity and reduces job dissatisfaction that results in employee turnover (Huselid, 1995).
Secondly, training and developing internal personnel reduces the cost and risk of selecting,
hiring, and internalising people from external labour markets, which again increases employee
productivity and reduces turnover. Training and development like job security requires a certain
degree of reciprocity: A company that train and develop systematically its employees advocates
them that their market value develops more favourably than in other firms. This increases
employees‟ productivity, commitment, and lowers turnover. Companies may also assist their
employees in career planning. In doing so, companies encourage employees to take more
responsibility for their own development, including the development of skills viewed as
significant in the company (Doyle, 1997).

Husiled (1995) found that the education and development of employees have a significant effect
both upon the personnel productivity and the sort-term and long-term indicators of organizational
performance.

Ngo et al. (1998) investigated the effects of country origins on HR practices of firms from the
United States, Great Britain, Japan and Hong Kong operating in Hong Kong. Study results
showed that structural training and development and retention-oriented compensation were
related to various measures of firm performance. Paul and Anantharaman (2003), in searching
the links between human resource practices and organizational performance, proposed that career
development programmes demonstrate a true interest of the organization for the growth of its
personnel, which, in turn, stimulates commitment and devotion, which, subsequently, raises
personnel productivity and consequently economical output.

Cerio (2003) examined the manufacturing industry in Spain and found that quality management
practices related to product design and development, together with human resource practices, are
the most significant predictors of operational performance. Michie and Quinn (2001)
investigated the relationships between UK firms‟ use of flexible work practices and corporate

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performance and suggested that low levels of training are negatively correlated with corporate
performance.

Zhu (2004) reviewed the changes in the area of human resource development in Japan and
observed that some companies and industries have shifted towards a more strategic approach that
emphasizes the impact of effective learning at both individual and organizational levels on long-
term organizational competitiveness.

Barringer et al. (2005) compared rapid-growth and slow-growth firms and found that rapid
growth firms depend heavily on the abilities and efforts of their employees to maintain their
growth-oriented strategies. The fast-growth firms used training programs to achieve their
objectives and emphasized employee development to a significantly greater extent than their
slow-growth counterparts. Therefore, training and employee development practices are more
common in rapid-growth firms than slowgrowth ones.

Miller (2006) examined the growth strategies in the retail sector and suggested that modern
retailers should place more emphasis on the policies and practices that could contribute to staff
retention, rather than on the immediacy of recruitment and selection.

Therefore, we propose this hypothesis:

Hypothesis : The extent of training and development will be positively related
to firm growth.







COMPENSATI ON POLI CY

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Performance-based compensation is the dominant HR practice that firms use to evaluate and
reward employees‟ efforts (Collins and Clark, 2003).
Evidently, performance-based compensation has a positive effect upon employee and
organizational performance (see for reviews:Brown et al. 2003; Cardon and Stevens, 2004).
However, there is scarce evidence on the effects of compensation policy of firm growth.
Empirical studies on the relationship between performance-related pay and company
performance have generally found a positive relationship, but a growing body of empirical
evidence suggests that it is not just pay level that matters, but pay structure as well (Wimbush,
2005; Singh 2005).
Barringer et al. (2005) conducted a quantitative content analysis of the narrative descriptions of
50 rapid-growth firms and a comparison group of 50 slow-growth companies. Results
demonstrated that employee incentives differentiated the rapid-growth from the slow-growth
firms. Firms that were eager to achieve rapid-growth provided their employees financial
incentives and stock options as part of their compensation packages. In doing so, firms managed
to elicit high levels of performance from employees, provide employees the feeling that they
have an ownership interest in the firm, attract and retain high-quality employees, and shift a
portion of a firm‟s business risk to the employees.
Delery and Doty (1996) identified performance-based compensation as the single strongest
predictor of firm performance. Both performance-based compensation and merit-based
promotion can be viewed as ingredients in organizational incentive systems that encourage
individual performance and retention (Uen and Chien, 2004). Collins and Clark (2003) studied
73 high-technology firms and showed that the relationships between the HR practices and firm
performance (sales growth and stock growth) were mediated through their top managers‟ social
networks.
Cho et al. (2005) suggested that incentive plans is effective in decreasing turnover rates. Banker
et al. (2001) conducted a longitudinal study of the effectiveness of incentive plans in the hotel
industry and found that incentive plans were related to higher revenues, increased profits, and
decreased cost. Paul and Anantharaman (2003) found that compensation and incentives directly
affect operational performance.
To be effective, compensation practices and policies must be aligned with organisational
objectives. While performance-based compensation can motivate employees, sometimes

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employees perceive it as a management mechanism to control their behaviour (Lawler and
Rhode, 1976).In such a case, employees are less loyal and committed, thus compensation plans
have the opposite than desired outcome (Ahmad and Schroeder, 2003; Rodrıguez and Ventura,
2003).
Employee turnover can significantly slow revenue growth, particularly in knowledge-
intensiveindustries (Baron and Hannan, 2002). Given that much of the tacit knowledge resides
within employees, significant turnover poses a threat to firm performance and its future growth
potential.With high turnover rates, firm growth flees away along with leaving managers who
often become employers of rival firms or establish themselves rival firms.
Therefore, we propose this hypothesis:
Hypothesis : Compensation Policy is positively related to firm growth


















I NFORMATI ON SHARI NG


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Sharing of information may have a dual effect: Firstly, it conveys employees the right meaning
that the company trusts them. Secondly, in order to make informed decision, employees should
have access to critical information. Communicating performance data on a routine basis
throughout the year help employees to improve and develop. Employees presumably want to be
good at their jobs, but if they never receive any performance feedback, they may perceive to
have a satisfactory performance when in fact they do not (Chow et al., 1999).

Furthermore, information sharing fosters organizational transparency which reduces turnover
(Ahmad and Schroeder, 2003) and forges synergistic working relationship among employees
(Nonaka, 1994).

Information sharing is not a widespread HR practice as someone might have expected it to be.
Many companies are vulnerable to share critical information with their employees because in this
way employees become more powerful and companies may loose control of them (Pfeffer,
1998).
Furthermore, information sharing always involves the danger of leaking important information to
competitors (Ronde, 2001).

In a study of Japanese consultation committees, Morishima (1991) found a positive association
of information sharing with productivity and profitability, and a negative one with labour cost.

Constant et al. (1994) pointed out that attitudes about information sharing depend on the form of
the information.

Burgess (2005) studied employee motivations for knowledge transfer outside their work unit and
found that employees who perceived greater organizational rewards for sharing spent more hours
sharing knowledge beyond their immediate work group. However, a significant percentage of
employees perceived knowledge as a means of achieving upward organizational mobility.
Therefore, employees sought information more often than shared it.

Roberts (1995) studied how HR strategy affects profits in 3,000 businesses throughout the world

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and found that sharing information was related with higher profitability.

However, Ichniowski and Shaw (1999) compared US and Japanese steel-making plants and
found that employee participation based solely on problem-solving teams or information sharing
did not produce large improvements in productivity. In a study of Fortune 1,000 largest
manufacturing and service companies on highperformance practices,

Lawler et al. (1995) found information sharing to correlate to firm performance but results are
inconclusive.
Therefore, we propose this hypothesis:

Hypothesis : Sharing of information is positively related to firm growth.

















DECENTRALI ZATI ON & SELF-MANAGED TEAMS

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More and more, employees are required to work in teams, make joint decisions, and undertake
common initiatives in order to meet the objectives of their team and organization. Self-managed
teams can affect firm growth in two ways: Firstly, a surplus of junior managers in a firm may
create and support dynamics of firm growth. The growth stage is perhaps the most dynamic stage
of a firm‟s life cycle. As the business expands, new levels of management are added. Decision-
making becomes more decentralized, middle managers gain authority and self-managed teams
proliferate as the firm adds more and more projects and customers (Flamholtz and Randle, 2000;
Miller and Friesen, 1984). Secondly, teamwork and decentralization of decision making
promotes employee commitment participation and create a sense of attachment, thus indirectly
affecting firm performance (Tata and Prasad, 2004).
Several studies identified self-managed teams and decentralization as important high-
performance HRM practices (Pfeffer, 1998; Wagner, 1994; Yeatts and Hyten, 1998; Singer and
Duvall, 2000). Jayaram et al. (1999) found that decentralised teams have a positive effect on two
dimensions of the performance, time and flexibility. Collins and Clark (2003) examined the role
of human resource practices in creating organizational competitive advantage and found that top
management team social networks (practices such as mentoring, incentives, etc.) mediated the
relationship between HR practices and firm performance. Haleblian and Finkelstein (1993)
examined the effects of top management team size and chief executive officer (CEO) dominance
on firm performance in different environments. Results showed that firms with large teams
performed better and firms with dominant CEOs performed worse in a turbulent environment
than in a stable one.
Tata and Prasad (2004) found that a company with micro level of centralisation is a receptive
environment for self-managed teams. In a study of differential outcomes of team structures for
workers, supervisors, and middle managers in a large unionized telecommunications company,
Batt (2004) found that participation in self-managed teams is associated with significantly higher
levels of employment security, and satisfaction for workers and the opposite for supervisors.
Black et al. (2004) examined the impact of organizational change on workers and found evidence
that self-managed teams are associated with greater employment reductions.
Therefore, we propose this hypothesis:
Hypothesis : Decentralisation is positively related to firm growth
J OB SECURI TY

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Job security creates a climate of confidence among employees which cultivates their
commitment on the company‟s workforce. Job security requires a certain degree of reciprocity:
firstly, a company must signal a clear message that jobs are secure; then, employees believing
that this is true, feel confident and commit themselves to expend extra effort for the company‟s
benefit; finally, a company that have learnt that job security contributes to its performance,
invests again in job security (Pfeffer, 1998).
Probst (2002) has developed a conceptual model of the antecedents and consequences of job
security. Antecedents include worker characteristics, job characteristics, organizational change
and job technology change. Consequences include psychological health, physical health,
organizational withdrawal, unionisation activity, organizational commitment and job stress. Jon
involvement, cultural values, and procedural justices moderate job security perceptions and
attitudes.
Buitendach and Witte (2005) assessed the relationship between job insecurity, job satisfaction
and affective organisational commitment of maintenance workers in a parastatal in Gauteng.
Study results revealed small but significant relationships between job insecurity and extrinsic job
satisfaction and job insecurity and affective organisational commitment. Job satisfaction was also
found to mediate the relationship between job insecurity and affective organisational
commitment.
However, today‟s business environments are far from providing job security to their employees.
For example, in an analysis of involuntary job loss in France between 1982 and 2002, Givord
and Maurin (2004) found evidence that technological changes contribute to keeping the
employees for shorter periods of time, thus increasing job insecurity.
When companies do provide job security, then empirical evidence suggests that it has a positive
effect on to firm performance. Following Pfeffer (1998), Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) found
that among others, job security impacts operational performance indirectly through
organizational commitment.
Delery and Doty (1996) studied the US banking sector and found some support for a positive
relationship between employment security and firm performance. In their study of 101 foreign
firms operating in Russia, Fey et al. (2000) found evidence that human resource practices
indirectly improve organisational performance. The results showed that not only, there was a
direct positive relationship between job security and performance for non-managers, but job

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security was the most important predictor of HR outcomes for non-managerial employees.
Results also suggested a direct positive relationship between managerial promotions based on
merit and firm performance.
Michie and Quinn (2001) examined labour market flexibility in over 200 manufacturing UK
firms and found that job security is negatively correlated with corporate performance. In
contrast, results showed that „high commitment‟ organizations are positively correlated with
good corporate performance. Kraimera et al. (2005) used psychological contract and social
cognition theories to explore the role of full-time employees' perceived job security in explaining
their reactions to the use of temporary workers by using a sample of 149 full-time employees
who worked with temporaries. Results demonstrated that employees' perceived job security
negatively related to their perceptions that temporaries pose a threat to their jobs. On the one
hand, for those with high job security, there was a positive relationship between benefit
perceptions and performance. On the other hand, for those with low job security, there was a
negative relationship between threat perceptions and performance.
Therefore, we propose this hypothesis:

Hypothesis : The presence of job security is positively related to firm growth.















OBJECTIVES OF THIS RESEARCH REPORT

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Before starting any project, we should keep in mind the clear objectives of the project because in
the absence of the objectives one cannot reach the conclusion or end result of the project.
So, I had following objectives in my mind for the better performance of the employees.
(i)To know the aspiration level of employees .
(ii) To know which variable shares the high percentage in aspiration of employees.
(iii) To know which variable shares the lowest percentage in aspiration of employees.
( iv) What are the techniques of development used by human resource department.

















HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD)

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HRD plays a vital role in determining training and development needs of the employees . In an
organization, the human resource specialist must involve other managers also in training and
development efforts.
The supervisors play a major role as they approve the goals of the development programme and
help to persuade potential participants. They also determine those employees who are to attend
the development programme.
The HRD department also serves as an information source. It provides information about training
programmes offered by other institution.
Formulation the Employee Development Plan
First, strategy is formulated which involves the setting of overall objectives. Then employee
development needs are assigned priorities and the resources allocated in order of priority.
After the priorities are determined, they must be codified in the form of an employee
development plan that identifies.
1. Who will be trained; (should all employees be trained)
2. The type of programmes;
3. The time frame;
4. The persons responsible; and
5. The resources and facilities to be used.




ASPIRATIONS

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Definition of 'Aspiration' that is of what people will work to achieve.
To motivate an employee to work towards organizational goals it is necessary to find his or her
locus of energy & leverage it. Instead of pushing solutions on people with the force of argument,
the manager should pull solutions out of them.
'Aspiration‟ towards better performance depends on the satisfaction of needs for responsibility,
achievement, recognition and growth.
Needs are felt, and their intensity varies from one person to another and from time to time, and
so does the extent to which they are aspired.'
Aspiration is the set of processes that moves a person toward a goal. Thus, motivated behaviors
are voluntary choices controlled by the individual employee. The supervisor (motivator) wants to
influence the factors that motivate employees to higher levels of productivity.
Factors that affect work aspiration include individual differences, job characteristics, and
organizational practices. Individual differences are the personal needs, values, and attitudes,
interests and abilities that people bring to their jobs. Job characteristics are the aspects of the
position that determine its limitations and challenges. Organizational practices are the rules,
human resources policies, managerial practices, and rewards systems of an organization.
Supervisors must consider how these factors interact to affect employee job performance.
Simple Model of Aspiration
The purpose of behavior is to satisfy needs. A need is anything that is required, desired, or
useful. A want is a conscious recognition of a need. A need arises when there is a difference in
self-concept (the way I see myself) and perception (the way I see the world around me). The
presence of an active need is expressed as an inner state of tension from which the individual
seeks relief.

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Worker Aspiration must also be viewed from two perspectives
1. Inner drives
2. Outer (external) motivators.
A person's inner drives push and propel him/her towards an employer, a particular job, career,
line of study, or other activity (such as travel or recreation).
The outer (external) motivators are the mirror image the employer or outside world offers in
response to the inner drives. In order to attract the "cream of the crop" of available workers, same
as in his/her dealings
with customers, the employer not only tries to satisfy these basic needs, but to exceed them -
taking into consideration additional extraordinary needs individual workers have.

Most workers need to:
1. Earn wages that will enable them to pay for basic necessities and additional luxuries such
as the purchase of a home, or travel
2. Save for and enjoy old age security benefits
3. Have medical and other insurance coverage
4. Acquire friends at work
5. Win recognition
6. Be acknowledged and rewarded for special efforts and contributions
7. Be able to advance in life and career-wise
8. Have opportunities for self-development
9. Improve their skills, knowledge, and know-how
10. Demonstrate and use special gifts and abilities
11. Realize their ideal.

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How To Aspire The Employees
1. Encouragement
2. Adequate pay
3. Assistance to workers for their special needs (such as child care arrangements,
transportation, flexible work schedules)
4. Job security (to the degree possible)
5. Clear company policies
6. Clear and organized work procedures
7. A stable, just and fair work environment
8. A safe working environment
9. Medical coverage and other benefits
10. An atmosphere of teamwork and cooperation
11. Social activities
12. Reward and recognition programs
13. Incentive programs
14. Open lines of communication (formal and informal)
15. Systematic feedback
16. Training and development programs
17. Opportunities for promotion
18. Company/ business information
19. Information on customer feedback
20. Sharing of company goals and objectives
21. Information on the market situation and industry
22. Future expectations
23. Plans for the future
24. Guidance and mentoring.




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IS DEVELOPMENT THE BEST MEDICINE?
Imagine this: A man is having chest pains. He rush as to his doctor, tells him he is having a heart
attack, and demands that he perform open-heart surgery. He obligingly agrees. It is not until after
a great deal of pain and expense that he discovers it was only indigestion.
When it comes to training, a similar situation happens all the time. If scrap rates are too high,
productivity is too low, and employees neglect to follow standard quality procedures, they must
need more training. Before rushing into the pain and expense of interrupting production to send
them off to a seminar it is necessary to make sure that training is the proper solution.
Just as a doctor must understand the cause of a patient‟s symptoms before he can attempt a cure,
one needs to know why employees are not meeting the company‟s expectations before taking
action. That‟s where a training-needs analysis will help. It tells how well employees are doing
their jobs, where they could use some improvement and how that improvement can best he
achieved. Done correctly, it can save the company from wasting a lot of time and money on
inappropriate training programs.
Gathering The Information
To do a valid training-needs analysis, one needs to gather as much objective data about employee
performance as possible. There are many ways to collect this information, including:
 Casual conversations
 Formal interviews
 Direct observation
 Work samples
 Written records
 Surveys
 Tests
 Focus groups

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 Grapevine
A professional trainer can be hired to perform an analysis but it‟s
not just a technique for trainers. Everybody should be trained in
this simple process. It‟s a supervisor‟s or a manager‟s job to make
sure people can do their jobs. to do training needs analysis the
following steps should be followed:

Study current performance: Before tying to change anything, it‟s essential to know
what is already happening. What skills and knowledge do employees already have? What tasks
are they performing on their daily jobs?

Define ideal performance: what standard of performance is necessary for the business
and the employees to be a success? What tasks must they do? What level of accuracy or
productivity should they achieve? What skills and knowledge must they have?

Find the gap: What is the difference between the definition of ideal performance and what
the employees are currently doing? Are there any areas that aren‟t functioning as well as they
should? Where are there opportunities for improvement? This is the “performance gap” that the
company is trying to fill. One must look for problems or opportunities that may occur in future as
well as ones that already exist.

Identify the cause: Why are workers not working up to standard? Have they ever
performed the job correctly? Where and when do the problems occur? Has anything changed
recently that might have instigated the problem? Compare best and worst performers to find the
differences in what they do.

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When these steps have been completed one should be ready to make diagnosis, but it must be
remembered that training is not the only medicine for ailing performance. Although it is often
mistakenly applied as a cure- all, the only problem that training can solve is a lack of skills and
knowledge. Do employees know how to do the job? Could they do it if their lives depended on
it? If so, probably there is no training problem. There are many reasons why a worker might not
be doing his job correctly, including unclear expectations, insufficient feedback, lack of
incentive and adverse working conditions. These are all management problems that can only be
improved by management changes.
Too often, people see the gap and they want to just leap right in and fix it. “The key is not to
jump to the solution, which is assumed to be training. Understanding the situation is the first
step. Then, once one understands the situation one can think about why (The problem exists).
Only if it‟s because (employees) lack skills and knowledge should training be considered as a
solution.















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EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPMENT

Employees and organizations need to realize the importance of contribution and learning for
mutual growth and development. An organization with a myopic view cannot realize the
importance of training. Organizations that lack vision undergo stagnation, decline and crisis after
success. Training is the answer to deal with the stagnation stage by constantly updating it in
every field. Other benefits of training include.
 Hiring appeal: companies that provide training attract a better quality workforce.
 Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency.
 Increasing productivity.
 Enhancing workforce flexibility. For example, in the IT industry, employees are sent to
different countries for diverse projects and assignments. Cross-cultural training is essential
for them for better adjustment in the new environment.
 Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster. Employee motivation is also
enhanced when the employee knows that the organization would provide them opportunities
to increase their skills and knowledge. Business is not just about transactions but is about
relationships.
 It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast of the latest changes; it acts
as a catalyst for change.
 Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost result through improved service,
increased productivity and greater sufficiency.
 Training acts as a benchmark for hiring, promoting and career planning.
 It acts as a retention tool by motivating employees to the vast opportunities for growth
available in an organization.
 In certain cases training can also act as a tool for reward and recognition. Candidates
showing high potential can be trained for advanced training in their field. Thus one can trace
the link of training with performance appraisal and potential evaluation.

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We have moved a long way from the Machine Age. Today what is required is strategic acumen
and cross-functional expertise. Today the workflow is milestone led. Command and control have
given way to facilitation. The employer- employee relationship in the networked age is a skill
contract and the work is largely cerebral. The benefits resulting due to training prove that it is
time for organizations to discard their parochial view and work towards developing their human
assets. The people factor is the pivot for organizational growth. Aligning organizational vision to
the development of employee is only possible way to become a success story in an environment
which seems to be reverberating with two words: 'perform or perish'.



Effectiveness of Development:
Development usually is a strategic human resource activity because it plays a major role in the
aspiration of empolyees. A development program will achieve the following benefits:
1. Improve the quality and quantity of work done.
2. Reduce the learning time required for employees to reach acceptable standards of
performance.
3. Create more favourable attitudes, loyalty and cooperation.
4. Satisfy human resource planning requirements.
5. Reduce the number and cost of accidents.
6. Help employees in their personal development and advancement.
Help organizations to respond to dynamic market conditions and changing consumer demands.





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Developmental Programs
1. Mentoring:
Some organizations assign an experienced employee to serve as a mentor for new employees. A
mentor is a trusted counselor, coach or advisor who provides advice and assistance. Effective
mentors teach these new employees a number of things, which include:
1. Provide instruction in specific skills and knowledge critical to successful job
performance.
2. Help in socializing them in the culture of the organization and understanding the
unwritten rules of the organization.
3. Answer questions and provide useful insights.
4. Offer emotional support and encouragement.
5. Serve as a role model.
6. Create an environment in which mistakes can be made without losing self-confidence.
2. Career Counseling:
Most organizations provide some form of career counseling on various occasions: during
employment interviews when employees are first hired, during employees' annual performance
evaluation interviews, and as part of the special career counseling that is provided for high-
potential employees. Career counseling typically occurs as part of the day-to-day relationship
between a supervisor and a subordinate. Moreover, some organizations provide special career
counseling by conducting psychological assessments of employees and helping them interpret
their individual results.
3. Career Patching:
Career pathing refers to identifying a sequence of jobs through which an individual can expect to
progress towards high levels of management. Some organizations provide job progression plans
for all new employees, while others do it only for exceptionally bright and promising candidates.

Page 30

Career path information must be provided to the employees before a possible career path can be
charted out for them.
4. Career Development Programs:
Career development includes any and all activities that prepare a person for progression along a
designated career path. Career development usually involves both formal and informal means.
These programs maybe conducted in-house or by external sources, such as professional
organizations or colleges and universities and are organized by the T&D department of an
organization.


















Page 31

INTERNAL MOBILITY
There is a possibility in organizations that over a period of time an employee will change his role
or position, from one job to another – laterally or vertically in the organization structure. This
kind of employees‟ movement within an organization is known as internal mobility. Internal
mobility includes a cluster comprising, may take place between jobs in section, sections,
departments, division or even between plants in multi - plant operations.
PROMOTION
Promotion is the upward reassignment of an individual in an organization‟s hierarchy,
accompanied by increased responsibilities, enhanced status, and usually with increased income,
though not always so. On being promoted, the promoter‟s duties and responsibilities increase,
and the higher one goes in an organization the greater the implications of the individual‟s
decisions on the viability of the enterprise. After promotion, an individual‟s duties and
responsibilities usually become qualitatively different from those of this earlier job.
The following are the objectives of promotion:
1. It is recognition of a job well done by an employee.
2. It is a device to retain and reward and employee for his years of service to the company.
3. It is to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.
4. It is to promote a sense of job satisfaction in the employee.
5. It is to build loyalty, morale and a sense of belongingness in the employee.
6. It is to impress upon others that opportunities are open to them also in the organization, if
they perform well.
An internal mobility system also needs as supportive information system to make it viable.
It is desirable to have a central, maintain a detailed inventory of the skills of all employees and
coordinates all information – promo -table posts available, posts vacant, number of employees on
transfer, permanent and temporary posts.

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When making internal mobility decisions, organizations tend to place emphasis on their
objectives, filling job vacancies, eliminating employee surpluses, correcting behavioral
problems, etc. Promotion maintains organizational effectiveness through maintenance of
employee moral and favorable attitudes towards the organization. Demotions frequently used as
from of disciplinary action since it represents loss of status and earning.
Transfers are required in the process of organization job requirements, job rotations and filling in
absenteeism, separations and termination, such as discharge and dismissal, from a part of the
outward mobility of an organization.



















Page 33

DEVELOPMENT INPUTS
There are three basic types of inputs; skills, attitudes, and knowledge.
The primary purposes of development is to establish a sound relationship between the
worker and his job-the optimum man-task relationship. such a relationship is at its best
when the workers attitude to the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job is
adequate, and he has developed the necessary skills.
Development activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desired
modifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge of employee so that they perform their
jobs most efficiently and effectively.
SKILLS
Development activities now a days encompass activities ranging from the acquisition of a
simple motor skill to a complex administrative one. Devel opment an employee for a
particular skill is undertaken to enable him to be more effective on the job. for instance,
new workers can be trained to achieve levels of output attained by experienced older
workers. similarly existing workers whose levels of output are below par can be
retrained.
ATTITUDES
Through orientation (induction) programmes, organization develops attitudes in new
employees which are favourable toward the achievement of organizational goals.
Development programmes in industry are aimed at molding employee attitudes to achieve
support for company activities, and to obtain better cooperation and greater loyalty.
KNOWLEDGE
Development aimed at imparting knowledge to employees in the organization provides
for understanding of all the problems of modern industry. this knowledge for a worker is
specific to his job and related broadly to plant, machinery, material product, and quality
and standard of product. knowledge for managerial personnel may be related to
complexity of problems in organizing, planning, staffing, directing, and controlling.

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In general, training initiated for imparting knowledge to employees should consider three
aspects:
1. Knowledge in general about factory and work environment – job context
2. Specific knowledge related to job-job content knowledge related to quality and
standards of product or quality of work





















Page 35

TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT
1. Orientation/Induction Development:
The orientation or induction development is given to employees as soon as they join an
organization. The purpose of this training is to orient the employee to the company and its tasks,
to help his role in detail and see the link his role has with other roles in the company, to help him
understand the expectations of other employees from him, and to give him a feel of the
organization and feel part of it.
The induction training normally does not focus on skill development. It focuses more on
perspective development and understanding of the organization. Without such understanding of
the organization, its mission etc., the employee may soon feel alienated. Induction training is one
way in which culture and traditions are established and maintained through socialization of the
new employees into the culture of that organization.
2. On-The-Job Coaching:
On-the-job coaching is another way of training employees. This type of training is given to
employees who are new to a given job (not necessarily to the organization). The purpose of this
kind of training is to equip the employee with the capabilities required to perform various tasks
of his job. This may involve skill training by the supervisor of the employee, either on a day-to-
day basis or periodically. On-the-job training techniques also include job instruction training, job
rotations, internships, coaching and counseling. On-the-job training should be particularly
stressed upon during the early stages of their careers.
3. Apprentice Training:
Apprentice training is given to those who have just completed their studies and are about to enter
the organizational world. The apprenticeship involves practical training under the guidance of
one or more instructors designated by the organization to train the trainees.




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IN-HOUSE TRAINING:
In-house training programs are programs offered exclusively for the employees of an
organization by the organization. The Training Department assesses the training needs of various
categories of employees periodically, invite suggestions from the senior executives of that
company on the training needs as perceived by them, keep in touch with the new developments
taking place in the outside world that have relevance to their own organizational activities and
periodically invite outside trainers to train their employees.
In the in-house training programmes, the training department may use its own senior employees
as trainers or may depend exclusively on outsiders or may use both sets of resources.
SPONSORED TRAINING:
As most organizations do not have sizeable units of training, it is easier for them to sponsor a
few employees for training by outside agencies.
DISTANCE TRAINING:
Distance training is the training conducted without the trainer being physically present nears the
trainee. The most well known forms of distance training are correspondence courses, auto-
teaching machines, programmed instruction materials, video and audio cassette programs,
alumni bulletins etc. This form of training is useful mainly to keep the trainee informed about
various developments in his field or to acquaint him with new technology, processes etc.
CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
Career Development programs help people grow and continue after they begin their
employment. Career Development refers to helping individuals plan their future careers within
the organization. The objectives of career development are to help individuals achieve maximum
self-development and also to help the organization achieve its objectives.
INDIVIDUAL BENEFITS:
For the individual, the most immediate benefits of career development include a better job, more
money, increased responsibility, greater mobility, and the acquisition of skills that improve

Page 37

productivity. Career Development also provides less tangible benefits for individuals, such as
increased job satisfaction, the development of a career orientation rather than a job orientation,
increased involvement at work, greater exposure, a better understanding of what is expected and
broader knowledge of additional areas of career interest.
ORGANIZATIONAL BENEFITS:
Through the development of competent employees, organizations are able to identify future
managers and prepare them to achieve organizational goals. By developing competent
replacement managers, an organization is able to practice promotion from within, which
increases the level of motivation for aspiring managers.
Employees who remain in the same position for an extended period typically become obsolete,
either because of a lack of training or a lack of motivation. Career planning helps to prevent the
problems of obsolescence by providing employee training by moving employees into different
jobs, and by motivating employees to make valuable contributions to the organization. An
organization that tries to help employees‟ plan their careers can benefit directly through lower
turnover and personal costs.










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HOW TO ASPIRE THE EMPLOYEES
 Organizing activities for the employees.
 Cordial human relations.
 Prompt and online information to the employees.
 Healthy working conditions.
 “0” production loss due to non availability of man power.
 Elimination of non value added activities.
 Quick redressal of employee‟s grievances.
 Administrative support to the employees.
 Compliance to statutory requirements.













Page 39

GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE













Complain
to union
Complain
Divisional
Head
Complain
Departme
nt head
Complain
section
head
Grievance
Resolved
Grievance
Resolved

Grievance
Resolved

Stage 4
Stage 3
Stage 2
Stage 1
NO
Yes
Yes
Yes
NO
NO

Page 40

Evaluation of Development Programs
Development programs are conducted with a view to help the employees to acquire the
knowledge, skills and attitude necessary to perform the task assigned to them. They
are conducted in order to bring about a planned change which in turn involves
substantial investment of money, time and efforts. Therefore, one has to know whether
such an investment in development yielded the desired results. This desire naturally
leads to evaluation of development.
Evaluation means literally, the assessment of value or worth. Strictly speaking the act
of evaluating development is the act of judging whether or not it was worthwhile in
terms of some criterion of value, in the light of the infor mation available. Evaluation
is the tool whereby information about the result of trainees, interaction with the
learning experiences systematically collected and analyzed. Thus, evaluation can
provide useful data both for improvement of training and enhancement of learning. In
brief it is important in 3 ways.
 It indicates whether appropriate monetary investment is made on the
implementation of training programs.
 It determines the degree of effectiveness and success of the development
programs.
 It provides a basis for introductory the necessary corrective measures.
The benefits of constructive, practical evaluation of training substantially outweigh
the costs six direct benefits of evaluating training programs are: -
Quality Control: Quality control systems are designed to ensure that products
or services are fit for their intended purpose. Evaluation in training will assess the
extent to which work-related results can be demonstrated to arise from the training.
Successful, positive elements of training can be maintained and reinforced, whilst
negative elements removed or revised. If results cannot be justified, then it becomes
hard to justify the commitment of any resources to the training activity and they can
be re-allocated to

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where they may make a greater impact.
Efficient development design: It throws an emphasis on those elements of
a development system which matter, such as proper definition of objectives and
setting criteria on now these objectives are to be measured.
Enhanced professional esteem: Development professionals can gain
enhanced stature from having systematic evaluation of data rather than intuitive
assessment of their contribution to the business. Being assessed on their contribution
to the „bottom-line‟ of the business puts the HRD function on the same footing as
other functions, instead of claiming that the nature of their work does not allow an
application of the same criteria. This helps to break down the barriers facing the
integration of HRD professionals within the organization.
Enhanced negotiating power: On much the same tack evaluation makes it
possible for the HR function to demonstrate a successful contribution to the business
over a period of time. When resources are to be allocated and new investment
decisions to be made, them being able to show the outcomes of training would be
invaluable.
Appropriate criteria of assessment: Individuals within an organization
will make judgments about how effective the development function is, regardless of
whether an evaluation system is in place or not. Given this, it is very important that
the HR controls the choices of appropriate criteria, which it can most safely do on the
back of a formal evaluation process.
Intervention strategy: Evaluation can be a tool for changing the way that
development is integrated into the organization. It offers a means by which the HR
function can build on its enhanced esteem and negotiating power to play a more
active role in developing policies.
Different jobs require different capabilities. These capabilities can be considered fewer than four
categories:

Page 42


1. Technical
2. Managerial
3. Behavioural
4. Conceptual
TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES:
They deal with the technology of the job or the tasks the employee is expected to perform. They
include information, skills and knowledge.

MANAGERIAL CAPABILITIES:
They include the ability to organize, coordinate, plan, monitor, evaluate and redesign a variety of
activities. As managers have the task of getting things done by others with optimal use of
resources for achieving the best possible results, they need to possess managerial capabilities.
Knowledge of management techniques like PERT, systems analysis, performance budgeting etc.
are evidences of managerial capabilities. Management skills involve the application of these
techniques for better planning, better coordination, better monitoring, and for better achievement
of results.

BEHAVIOURAL CAPABILITIES:
These include leadership skills, ability to motivate others, communication skills, ability to work
as a team member, dynamism, initiative etc. Mere knowledge of behavioral sciences does not
ensure that person has behavioral capabilities. Attitudes and orientations play an important role
in determining the effectiveness of the employees to a great degree.



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CONCEPTUAL CAPABILITIES:
These involve conceptual understanding of one's own tasks in relation to those of others,
imagination, futuristic thinking, model building capabilities and perception of various tasks and
their interrelationships within the organization and outsid


Personal Development
Modern personal development is more than skills training. It offers useful alternative methods
compared to coaching and mentoring too. Effective modern Personal development now involves
various integrated techniques, theories and behavioural concepts, that extend options around
traditional ideas. This article provides examples of modern methods of developing people -
enabling real personal growth and change - for individuals and organizations. Optimising
individual performance through progressive personal development significantly improves
business performance too.This example of an integrated approach to personal development is
based on the work of UK-based psychotherapist Pam Weight. Her contribution of this free article
is gratefully acknowledged. Pam Weight's modern approach to personal and professional
development is born out of the study of these contemporary models, which are explained in more
detail later in this article:
 Human development
 Humanistic theories
 Neuro-Linguistic Programming, and
 Energy Psychology.



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The personal development process enables individuals to achieve critical personal changes,
specifically to:
 update personal identity, attitude, values and beliefs
. increase congruency and satisfaction, and
 release blocks which have been restricting the realisation of personal potential.
(In this context, 'congruency' means behaving and feeling naturally and
comfortably - ie, true to oneself.)

Modern Personal Development Applications
The integrated personal development approach is highly beneficial for most people.
It is however particularly effective for people who have experienced little orno benefit from
conventional training, especially where progress is blocked by issues raised in the training
process.
Integrated personal development is also particularly helpful where one-to-one coaching or
mentoring has had limited benefit, or has prompted surprising reactions.
Equally, those who want to develop themselves in some way, but cannot identify a particular
direction, will also benefit from this sort of modern integrated personal development.





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Modern personal development differs from conventional training
methods,
Personal Development Essentials
 by settling the reducing the effort required to live in the present
 by formulating a compelling future
These fundamentals are rarely found in traditional skills training or coaching. The principles
underpin the process of effective personal development.

Modern Personal Development - an alternative to traditional
training methods
Modern personal development tends to achieve results because:
 it creates balance in the system (the person as a whole)
- it is realistic (and is perceived by the person as being achievable and relevant)
 it reduces stress, and
- it increases personal control
These factors are not commonly present in traditional skills training or one-to-one coaching, and
as such provide a useful alternative if traditional methods have not been effective.


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Personal Development Outcomes
Many situations benefit from the improvements arising from
effective personal development, for example:
 within a corporate environment - producing better organizational performance and
effectiveness
 to improve self-awareness
- to improve personal communication with others
 to improve personal relationships with others
- reducing and resolving conflict and stress
Traditional training can of course produce good results in these areas, however,some people
require more focus on personal issues, which can be difficult for some types of traditional
training to address.

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Modern Personal Development
component theory examples Human Development -
Human development includes the 'nature and nurture' elements that determine who we are and
how we behave. Human development is a lifelong process beginning with 'nature'. Our 'nature'
elements are everything we bring into this world: from our genetic make-up, our conception, up
until our birth. After we are born, the 'nurture' process begins; namely every influence we
encounter that affects us: our environmental influences and behavioural conditioning by others.
We are each also subject to a slow continuous forming process; a sequence of stages through
which we each pass in the same order, over a number of years.
Throughout these stages other developments occur: brain development; motor development;
cognitive development; social development and development of self concept and basic trust. In
addition, and importantly, our emotional development.
Modern Personal Development -
component theory examples Human Development
Human development includes the 'nature and nurture' elements that determine who we are and
how we behave. Human development is a lifelong process beginning with 'nature'. Our 'nature'
elements are everything we bring into this world: from our genetic make-up, our conception, up
until our birth. After we are born, the 'nurture' process begins; namely every influence
we encounter that affects us: our environmental influences and behavioural conditioning by
others. We are each also subject to a slow continuous forming process; a sequence of stages
through which we each pass in the same order, over a number of years.
Throughout these stages other developments occur: brain development; motor development;
cognitive development; social development and development of self concept and basic trust. In
addition, and importantly, our emotional development.


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Humanistic Theories
Humanistic theories focus on our inner capacity for growth and self-fulfillment; with the
emphasis on human potential. The early theorists referred to humans as being 'set up' or 'pre-
programmed' for growth and fulfillment, unless thwarted by an environment that restricts
growth.
From a humanistic perspective, a positive self-concept is the key to personal happiness and
success in life. Moreover,acceptance and empathy help us to nurture positive feelings
about ourselves, and that consequently we develop the capacity to extend and apply positive
feelings to others. Overall, a humanistic perspective purports that people are basically good, and
capable of self improvement.


Developing People And Capabilities
Many organizations face the challenge of developing greater confidence, initiative, solutions-
finding, and problem-solving capabilities among their people. Organisations need staff at all
levels to be more self-sufficient, resourceful, creative and autonomous. This behaviour enables
staff can operate at higher strategic level, which makes their organizations more productive and
competitive. People's efforts produce bigger results. It's what all organizations strive to achieve.
However, while conventional skills training gives people new techniques and methods, it won't
develop their maturity, belief, or courage, which is so essential for the development of
managerial and strategic capabilities. Again, focus on developing the person, not the skills.Try to
see things from the person's (your people's) point of view. Provide learning and experiences that
they'd like for their own personal interest, development and fulfilment. Performance and
capability are ultimately dependent on people's attitude and emotional maturity. Help them to
achieve what they want on a personal level, and this provides a platform for trust, 'emotional
contracting' with the organisation, and subsequent skills/process/knowledge development
relevant to managing higher responsibilities, roles and teams. Participative workshop work well
in beginning this type of attitudinal development. Involve people right from the start. Focus on

Page 49

what they want. You could also use a personal development questionnaire to begin to set the
scene and provide examples of 'alternative' learning opportunities. It starts with the person, not
the skills. It's about attitude and emotional maturity. The Emotional Intelligence principles and
methodologies fit very well with modern approaches to developing people's belief, maturity and
attitude. When people develop confidence, integrity, emotionally, they automatically become
more proactive, solutions-focused, responsive, etc., which across a whole team has a cumulative
effect. Johari is a useful model too. So many people at work are simply 'going through the
motions', acting in a 'conforming' state, often because they feel insecure, lack confidence to do
what they think is right, or are nervous about being bold, whereas boldness is absolutely required
for self-sufficiency, initiative, greater responsibility; in fact all of the behaviours that
organizations strive to encourage.
Some of the General Development Tips
These tips apply essentially to traditional work-related training - for the transfer of necessary job-
or work-related skills or knowledge.
These tips do not apply automatically to other forms of enabling personal development and
facilitating learning, which by their nature involve much wider and various development
methods and experiences.
When planning development think about:
your objectives -
keep them in mind all the time how many people you are training
- the methods and format you will use
 when and how long the training lasts
- where it happens
- how you will measure its effectiveness.

Page 50

EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT
Development is the process of assisting a person for enhancing his efficiency and effectiveness at
work by improving and updating his professional knowledge, by developing skills relevant to his
work and cultivating appropriate behaviour and attitude towards work and people. Development
could be designed either for improving present capabilities at work or for preparing a person for
assuming higher. Responsibilities in future which would call for additional knowledge and
superior skills.
Development is different from education particularly formal education. While education is
concerned mainly with enhancement of knowledge, training aims essentially at increasing
knowledge, stimulating aptitude and imparting skills related to a specific job.
In India, considerable importance has been accorded to training in social development and this is
evident form the fact that the community spends roughly six million dollars annually on training
every year. But there are complains about the ineffectiveness of training and possible waste of
resources because of the use of stereotyped and conventional methods in training which are often
not set completely in tune with job requirements.
It is a continuous process
Development is a continuous and life long process. Right form the time a child is born he starts
receiving training form his mother for a variety of needs, so that he becomes a social being. His
development continues in the school and the college situations. However development as an
organized effort is designed with certain objectives, for example to help the trainees to be
informed of the subject matter which they have to use in their work situation. Apart from change
of attitudes, their skills have to be improved and knowledge or information has to be imparted
through effective methods. In other worlds, development provides and synthesizing with the help
of the trainers, the information already available on the subject. development is a time-bound
programme. Thus there is a separate specialized discipline of trainers specializing in the field of
human activity.



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 To develop ‘MY OWN’ concept amongst its employees

Management tends to increase the „we‟ feeling among its employees. So that, they
(management) can create a sense of belonging in the minds of workers and can protect
workers against capitalist exploitation. To generate a feeling of family
employees mind.

Educate Employees To Make Them Feel A Part Of The
Organization To

Education is a light with which a person can judge between right and wrong. An
educated employees can understand its management and organization much better than an
uneducated one. It also strengthen the relation between the management and the workers.\


 To be firm and fair in disciplinary/ IR matters-
Every person who does not obeys the rules and regulations are punished which becomes lesson
for other also management decision partial but fair and firm. Before punishing, the person is
given the reason for his punishment and if the person proves himself innocently he is forgiven.
The management rules are same for all.

 Patient listening to the employees grievances and prompt
disposal there of-

SPR management takes active steps in solving the problems and the grievances of there
employees. The problem of employee becomes the problem of management till solved and they are
physically and emotionally devoted to solve the grievances. It brings the management and
employees closer to each other.

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 Freedom to speak on weakness of each other between management and workers
representatives- The weakness are over come by frank speaking by the representatives
of management and workers.
 The help in development of not only a particular department but also the whole
organization.


 To have only internal union. No outsider to interfere our
internal matters-
 At SPR management and employees live like a family. The solution of every problem
is solved by the management and the internal union and no other outsider is involved.
Outsiders always complicate the problems and for there benefits try to bring gap
between management and employees.

 To care for the employees in there hardships at work and
family level-
Management always tries to solve the employee‟s problem personnel or official and gives every
kind of assistance it can. This increase the feeling of brotherhood.








Page 53

OBJECTIVES OF HRM
The primary objective Of HRM is to ensure the availability of a component and willing
workforce to an organization. Beyond this, there are other objectives too. There are four folds-
societal, organizational, functional and personal.






Personal
Objectives
Functional
Objectives
Organizatio-
nal
Societal
Objectives

Page 54

FUNCTIONS OF HRM
In order to realize objectives, HRM must perform certain functions.

Functions of HRM:
1. Legal compliance,
2. Benefits,
3. Union-management relations,
4. Human recourses planning,
5. Employee relations,
6. Selection
7. Training and development,
8. Appraisal,
9. Placement,
10. Assessment,
11. Compensation





Page 55

ENVIRONMENT OF HRM
Environment is an important variable in HRM. Environment may be understood as all those
forces have their bearing on functioning of HR department







HRM

CULTURAL
UNOINS
STRATEGY, TASK,
& LEADERSHIP
ORGANIS-
ATIONAL
CULTURE &
CONFLICT
PROFESSIONAL
BODIES
POLITICAL LEGAL
TECHNOLOGICAL

ECONOMIC

Page 56

REWARD AND REORGANIZATION:
People join organization expecting rewards and reorganization. Firms distribute money and other
benefits in exchange of employees‟ availability, competencies and behavior.
SPRL provides following to there employees in cash or kind:
-Reward for Worker of the month,
- Reward for Blood donors,
- Reward for Honesty,
- Reward for Best suggestion,
- Reward for Best sportsman,
- Reward for High performing children,
- Reward for Best attendance (Till now total cash award distributed is Rs.3.23 lacs).









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Committe formed by human resource department
For monitoring a health IR at work HRD deptt. Of the works have formed following
committees:
 Works committee
 Export committee
 Entertainment committee
 Credit and thrift society
 Canteen managing committee
'Behavior is learned, earned reward encourages even better performance, thus reinforcing desired
behavior.
The term 'recognition' in the definition includes money rewards. Note that both job satisfaction
and money are motivating. One works to achieve that which one needs and which one does not
have, and this could be either one or the other or both. Attaining goals leads to feelings of self-
respect, strength and confidence. Few people are able to continue a pattern of achievement and
success without the added encouragement provided by others recognizing their achievements.
Continued failure and frustration and defeat can result in feelings of inadequacy and a
withdrawal from competitive situations. Persistent lack of rewards leads to a view of society as
being hostile and unrewarding.
It is what one does not have that one wants, one works to achieve that which one needs. Hence if
we know what people need and want then we know what they will work for, and like working
for, and so work well to achieve.
Needs and Wants People Strive to Achieve
1. First there are certain basic needs which have to be satisfied if people are to exist and survive,
such as:
I. Food and shelter, clothing and warmth.
II. Affection and esteem.

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III. Friendly and trustful co-operation and companionship.
Security from external threats (protection from attack).
2. Then other needs make themselves felt, such as:
I. Independence from domination by others (because of need, for example).
II. Security from internal threats (losing job, criminal activities, political
persecution).
III. Housing, education, good health.
IV. Help when in need.
V. Constructive work.
VI. Constructive leisure activities.
3. To which we can add the ones we have discussed:
I. Challenging work, which means scope to work at increasing levels of skill and
usefulness and thus of pay to the maximum of one's ability.
II. Maintaining and the chance for improving, one's position relative to colleagues.
III. Recognition of success by others (leads to feelings of self-respect, strength and
confidence).
IV. Fair share of the national income and wealth.
V. Fair share of the international income and wealth.
These then are the needs and wants people strive, indeed struggle, to satisfy and overcome.
People will co-operate with each other and work hard and well to satisfy these needs and gain
much satisfaction from doing so.
Since motivation influences productivity, supervisors need to understand what motivates
employees to reach peak performance. It is not an easy task to increase employee motivation
because employees respond in different ways to their jobs and their organization's practices



Page 59










Page 60

IMPORTANCE/S SI IG GN NI IF FI IC CA AN NC CE E
The significance of the study on training and by the new researchers has increased
due to rapidly changing technology and work culture in industrial environment due to
an increasingly skilled workforce and very competitive global marketing.
Development is very much essential to upgrade skills of employees in this scenario,
and for the aspiration of employees.
Thus, study on Effectiveness of Human Resource Development in the aspiration of
employees is extremely important to know that how employees are aspired by
development techniques.and what is the fruitful impact of employees on organization.











Page 61














Page 62

LIMITATION
1.The data & its interpretation were based on averages therefore there may be different
conclusion when calculated through percentage.
2. Time constrains: Due to availability of less time, the sample size taken was small.
3. Employees of Shriram Pistan are not ready to give us time.
4. Sometimes the respondent was unwilling to reveal some data (e.g. frequency of changing
connection in a year).

Problems in Development
Some of the common problems in development which are often repeated are:
1. Inaccurate need analysis
2. Trying to substitute training for selection and
3. Encapsulated development. The problems of encapsulated development are a result of
sending employees to learn new methods and ideas but not changing the old attitudes and
methods existing in the organization. Therefore, the new knowledge learnt by the trainee
remains encapsulated because of his inability to implement them in the uncharged work
situation.




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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is the process of collecting and analyzing informationand ultimately arrived at certain
conclusion. Management in any organization needs information about employees to know the
behaviour of employees. Research includes all the activities that enable an organization to obtain
the information. This research is very important in strategy formulation and feedback of any
organizational plan.
Research Design:
The research design which has been used in the project report is descriptive research.
This is right in nature & focuses attention on the following:
 Formulating the objectives of the study.
 Designing the method of Data collection.
 Reporting the findings.
 Suggestions & modification if any.
 Conclusion.









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(A) Tools of Data Collection
Both primary and secondary data has been collected. Primary data was collected through
questionnaire and secondary data was collected through Shriram Piston companies‟ records.
(B) Sample Size
60% employees of Shriram Piston were taken into account.
(C) Sources of Data
The data can be categorized in primary and secondary data as shown below:
Primary Data
I Collect the primary data directly talk with the employees of Shriram Piston. The techniques
which I used in collecting the data.
 Questionnaires
 Observations
 Personal interviews










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FINDINGS
i) There are various techniques used by human resource department for the development of
employees.
ii) Employees of the organizations are motivated by various reward.
iii) Human resource development plays a vital role for every organization.
iv) Human resource development is very necessary for the overall development of employees.
v) Human resource development increase the aspiration level of employees.
vi) To enhance the team spirit and aspiration level among the employees the company are using
job rotation techniques so that they can be multi skilled and perform various operations
effectively.
vii) In the research I found that most of employees are aspired by development program
vii) During research I found that anspired employees do their work more there work with more
productivity.






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CONCLUSION
On the basis of above results we derive to the conclusion that success of the organization is
depend upon there employees. It is possible only then when the employees of the organization
are developed. For this human resource department use various techniques sothat employees can
enhance their skill, knowledge, and learning and they can be aspired for fruitful results.
In the research I found that most of employees are aspired by development program and some
employees are ispired by self determination.there is higher motivated employees in category of
development program where as there is a lower motivated in the category of self determination.
On the basis of above results we derive to the conclusion that out of total sample there are more
70% of employees are aspired by the activities performed at SPRL”








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RECOMMENDATIONS/SUGGESTIONS
On the basis of conclusion of research it is suggested that the company should introduce
development programs for the employees and success of employees depend upon their skill,
knowledge and degree of aspiration.
To enhance the team spirit among the employees the company should take into consideration of
including periodic job rotation of employees so that they can be multi skilled and perform
various operations efficiently.
Although there is a high Aspiration level in rewards/appreciation but it is suggested to review
such schemes









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B BI IB BL LI IO OG GR RA AP PH HY Y
 hrera.com
 hrreveiw.com
 Mirza S. Saiyadain - Human Resource Management 2
nd
Edition Publishers – Tata
McGraw-Hill.
 V.K. Dubey – Management of Training and Development and Motivation Skills 10
th
edition..

 “Personnel Management” by Arun Monappa and Mirza.S.Saiyadain 8
th
edition.
 “Learning to Learn”, Sylvia Downs (Handbook on Training and development by Steve
Truelove)
 Quality Magazine, January 2005, Training Trends: “Is training the best medicine?”

Source: www.qualitymag.com

 Quality Magazine, May 2005, Training Trends: “Train, don‟t tell”.
Source: www.qualitymag.com

 Quality Magazine, October 2005, Training Trends: “Every Manager is a mentor”.
Source: www.qualitymag.com

 Quality Magazine, April 2006, Training Trends: “Supporting self-directed learning”.
Source: www.qualitymag.com

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 Quality Magazine, November 2006, Training Trends: “On the job training-Do it right!”
Source: www.qualitymag.com

 “Never Stop Listening, Never Stop Learning, Never Stop Training”, Pramod Batra and
Deepak Mahendru.
 “HRD through training”, The Economic Times dated 11-2-94.















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ANNEXURE
EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION SURVEY

1) How satisfied are you with your employer?
Very
Dissatisfied
Somewhat
Dissatisfied
Maybe Somewhat
Satisfied
Very
Satisfied
    

2) Are you satisfied with the leadership and planning of the management?
Very
Dissatisfied
Somewhat
Dissatisfied
Maybe Somewhat
Satisfied
Very
Satisfied
    

3) Are you satisfied with your current job profile?
Very
Dissatisfied
Somewhat
Dissatisfied
Maybe Somewhat
Satisfied
Very
Satisfied
    




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4) How comfortable do you feel with odd hours of this job?
 Quite comfortable 
 Okay 
 Not comfortable at all 

5) Are you able to strike a balance between your personal and
professional life?
 Yes, always 
 Only sometimes 
 Never 

6) Do you find that you are given proper training as required by your job
requirements?
Strongly
Disagree
Somewhat
Disagree
Maybe Somewhat
Agree
Strongly
Agree
    


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7) Will you give a suggestion to your friend to work in your firm?
Definitely
Not
Probably
Not
Maybe Probably
would
Definitely
would
    