ECG304

Title : DESIGN OF TRAFFIC JUNCTION FOR AN UNSIGNALISED
INTERSECTION
Names:
1. MUHAMMAD FAQRULLAH BIN ROSLI (2012608918)
2. MUZHAFAR AKMAL MAHMUD BIN NOR AZLAN (2012619496)
3. MUHAMMAD SAHROL HELMI BIN TERMIZI (2012624568)
4. MOHAMMAD RASDHAN BIN HASNOR (2012819032)
5. MUHAMMAD NUR IZZUDIN BIN HALIM (2012449002)
6. PUTERI MARINA BINTI KHAIRUDDIN (2012274954)
7. SARA NOOR BINTI MOHAMMAD SALIM (2012688056)

Lecturer’s Name : MISS ROSLIZAYATI BINTI RAZALI
INTRODUCTION

Traffic flows is to be assessed and the level of operating performance for a calculated capacity can be
identified.

Traffic flows can be reasonably well when the rate of flow is less than at capacity, but excessive delay
and congestion can occur when the rate of flow is at or near capacity. Capacity analysis involves the
quantitative evaluation of a road section to carry traffic flow.

For a given capacity, the level of operating performance that is, the quality of flow change with the traffic
density on the highway. The level of operating performance is indicated by the concept of level of service
(LOS), which uses qualitative measures that characterize both operational conditions with a traffic stream
and motorist and passengers perception of them.

It was done manually by recording each observed vehicle by ticking a mark at the prepared field form or
use a multiple gang tally to ease the job. Stopwatch is used to cue the observer (enumerator) to the
desired count interval and reset the counter at the start of each interval. The raw counts are tallied and
summarized.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of this study is to design the traffic junction for an unsignalised intersection and to observe
the traffic flow trend and movement pattern.









THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

An intersection or junction is the area where two or more highways join or cross, including the roadway
and roadside facilities for traffic movement in that area. The purposes of an intersection design are:
i. To ensure efficiency of operation
ii. To ensure safety of road users
iii. To maintain design speed
iv. To minimise cost of operation
v. To maximise the capacity of the intersection

There are many types of intersections. Generally, intersections can be grouped into three main
categories: at-grade intersections, grade separated intersections (interchanges without ramp) and
interchanges with ramp. An at-grade intersection is an intersection where intersecting roads meet at a
common level. One traffic stream needs to give the right of way to another traffic stream from a different
direction at an at-grade intersection. A grade separated intersection is an intersection where intersecting
roads are at different elevations. The traffic streams from two different directions have their own right of
way to traverse. This category is also referred to as interchanges without ramp. There is no way to
connect traffic streams of different directions. An interchanges with ramps allows one traffic stream to
reach another from grade-separated roadways by introducing ramps.

APPARATUS
1. A stopwatch
2. A Mechanical Hand Tally Counter

PROCEDURE
1. The location of road junction with moderate traffic flow has been selected.
2. A position where the number of vehicles to be counted and recorded were determined at a point
in a unit time.
3. The data of the traffic volume is obtained through a study conducted from 8.45 a.m. until 9.45
a.m. at intervals of 15 minutes.
4. Then, the total traffic volume is recorded and tabulated.





RESULT
























V
6
V
5
V
4
V
3
V
1
V
2

Time
No. of vehicle
Car /taxi Motorcycle Van Small lorry Large lorry Bus
8.45am- 9.00am 34 15 2 2 - 2
9.01am- 9.15am 33 11 2 5 2 -
9.16am -9.30am 36 5 3 6 - -
9.31am- 9.45am 37 7 2 4 - -
Total 140 38 9 17 2 2






Time
No. of vehicle
Car /taxi Motorcycle Van Small lorry Large lorry Bus
8.45am- 9.00am 43 7 3 1 - -
9.01am- 9.15am 36 11 4 5 5 -
9.16am -9.30am 29 1 2 2 4 -
9.31am- 9.45am 26 2 1 1 - -
Total 134 21 10 9 9 -






V
1
V
2

Time
No. of vehicle
Car /taxi Motorcycle Van Small lorry Large lorry Bus
8.45am- 9.00am 24 2 1 - - -
9.01am- 9.15am 15 3 - 1 - -
9.16am -9.30am 11 2 1 1 - 1
9.31am- 9.45am 13 5 1 - - -
Total 63 12 3 2 - 1






Time
No. of vehicle
Car /taxi Motorcycle Van Small lorry Large lorry Bus
8.45am- 9.00am 70 20 3 2 - -
9.01am- 9.15am 64 13 5 5 1 -
9.16am -9.30am 62 9 - 7 - -
9.31am- 9.45am 71 10 2 5 - -
Total 267 52 10 19 1 -






V
4
V
3

Time
No. of vehicle
Car /taxi Motorcycle Van Small lorry Large lorry Bus
8.45am- 9.00am 7 2 1 2 - -
9.01am- 9.15am 11 4 - - - -
9.16am -9.30am 9 2 - - - -
9.31am- 9.45am 6 - - 1 - -
Total 33 8 1 3 - -






Time
No. of vehicle
Car /taxi Motorcycle Van Small lorry Large lorry Bus
8.45am- 9.00am 48 5 5 - 2 1
9.01am- 9.15am 38 1 - 1 3 -
9.16am -9.30am 30 3 1 2 9 -
9.31am- 9.45am 31 1 4 - 3 -
Total 147 10 10 3 17 1






V
5
V
6







208
183
81
349
188
45
DISCUSSION

Peak hour factor (PHF)
Time Volume Rate of flow ,(veh/hr)
8.45am- 9.00am 304 1216
9.01am- 9.15am 279 1116
9.16am -9.30am 238 952
9.31am- 9.45am 233 932
Total 1054





Passenger Car Unit (PCU)
Vehicle No. of vehicle PCU value PCU/hr
Car /taxi 784 1.00 784.00
Motorcycle 141 0.75 105.75
Van 43 2.00 86.00
Small lorry 54 2.50 135.00
Large lorry 29 3.00 87.00
Bus 4 3.00 12.00


CONCLUSION
From the observation that have been conduct, the volume over the full hour is the sum of the four 15-
minute volumes comprising the hour. This value, 1054 veh/hr is an hourly volume (total volume of all
intervals). So, the relationship between the hourly volume and the maximum rate of flow within the
hour is defined by the peak hour factor (PHF) is 0.867.