Climate Change 101

:
Science and Impacts

Commissioner  Naderev  “Yeb”  Saño  
Climate  Change  Commission
1

Creating  
t
he  
C
limate  
f
or  
C
hange
Creating  the  Climate  for  Change

Naderev  “Yeb”  Madla    Saño
Commissioner
Climate  Change  Commission
2

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The  task  before  us

Understand  Climate  Change  and    
 

 

 

 

be  instruments  of  hope  

 

for  the  future
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!

Climate  Change  is  our    

                                                         opportunity    
                           to  change  the  way  

we  pursue    
       our  common  future.

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The  way  

we  pursue    
       our  common  future  is  
our  opportunity    

                           to  fight  Climate  Change

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.

Surprise  Quiz
!

20  items
Right  minus  wrong
Passing  score:  10
!

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1.

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2.

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3.

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4.

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5.

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6.

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7.

Dayap

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8.

Kamansi

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9.

Bignay

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10.

Noni

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11.

Rimas

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12.

Balimbing

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13.

Kaong

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14.

Marang

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15.

.
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16.

.
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17.

.
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18.

Calayan Rail !
(Tikling)

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19.

Palawan pangolin
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20.

Luzon Giant Cloudrat

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wikimedia.org

Bonus

Item

This is NOT the
Philippine Eagle
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This is the
Philippine Eagle!

Philippine Eagle!
Photo by Yeb Saño!
Mt. Apo Natural Park!
May 2, 2014
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We  cannot  be  stewards  
of  something  we  cannot  
protect.  

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We  cannot  protect  what  
we  do  not  love.  

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We  cannot  love  what    
we  do  not  know.  

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stew·ard·ship
noun

ˈstü-ərd-ˌship, ˈstyü-;ˈst(y)u̇rd
!

: the activity or job of
protecting and being
responsible for something
!

Merriam-Webster
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We  are  expected  to  be    
stewards  of  Creation


Photo by Yeb Saño
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Stewardship  of  the  Earth

Developing  skills  for    
critical  thinking  
questioning,  investigating
Photo by Yeb35Saño
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Stewardship  of  the  Earth

Putting  into  practice  
personal  and  civic  responsibility  for  
decisions  that  affect  the  
environment.

Photo by Yeb36Saño

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Environmental  
consciousness    
is  not  just  about  
knowledge.

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Environmental  
consciousness  
 is  also  about  
understanding.

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FACT:


EVERY  natural  
living  system  in  the  
world  today  is  in  
decline.


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Luzon land area:
10.4 M hectares

Every year

globally


11 million hectares
of forest lost

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What  are  
the  
underlying  
reasons  for  
the  world’s  
problems?

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How  do  we  
communicate  the  
issue  of  climate  
change?

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A
A
A

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Avarice
Arrogance
Apathy

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The  kind  of  development  we’ve  seen–  

puts  tremendous  pressure  on  the  
environment  and  widens  the  gap  
between  the  rich  and  the  poor

Photo by Yeb Saño
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One  of  the  greatest  threats  to  the  
planet  is  the  belief  that  someone  else  
will  save  it.  
!

Robert  Swan

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47


What  kind  of  
transformation  
do  I  want  to  see  in  
my  country,  in  the  
face  of  this  
planetary  crisis
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What  actions  do  I  
want  to  see  in  my  
country  to  effect  
this  transformation  

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Our  actions  today

will  shape  our  future

Photo by Yeb Sano
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Our  actions  today

will  shape  our  future

Photo by Yeb Sano
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Photo by Yeb Saño!
Verde Island Passage
March 20112
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The  Philippines  is  the  most  
beautiful  country.

Photo by Yeb Saño
Tubbataha Reefs
April 2014
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Ang  Pilipinas  ang  
pinakamagandang  bayan    
sa  buong  mundo

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The  Filipino  spirit  is    
incredibly  inspiring.

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November 8, 2013

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Tacloban  City  
November  2013

Photo by Yeb57Saño
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United Nations Conference!
Warsaw, Poland!
November 11, 2013

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Climate  Change  
is  now  recognized  as  the  most  
pervasive  and  serious
threat  to  humanity

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5  REALITIES
1. Climate  Change  is  real.      
2. 9  out  of  10  disasters  globally  are  climate-­‐
related.  
3. The  poor  are  the  most  vulnerable.  
4. This  will  be  a  long-­‐term  challenge.  
5. There  is  hope.

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How  do  we  confront  climate  
change?


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Draw  Four  Straight  Lines

through  all  nine  dots

without  lifting  your  pen


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CLIMATE  

CHANGE
Eye of Super Typhoon Pablo

SYMPTOM  OF  A  PLANETARY  
SYSTEM  IN  CRISIS
Photo by NASA
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What  are  
the  major  
challenges    
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Teka,  ano  
nga  ba  ang  
climate  
change  
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Humans  are  fundamentally  
dependent  on  the  availability  of  
biological  resources  and  ecosystem  
services  for  food,  shelter,  fiber,  
climate  stability,  etc.

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Natural  Greenhouse  Effect

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Enhanced  Greenhouse  Effect  

Global  warming

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the  Earth  has  been  

unequivocally    
warming  up

0.85°C  


since  the  1860’s  up  to  2012
(IPCC,  2013)
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World  
Temperature

Each of the last three decades
has been successively warmer
at the Earth’s surface than any
preceding decade since 1850

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the  Earth  will  be  

warming  up  even  
more


2-­‐6°C  


in  next  100  years
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Concentrations  of


greenhouse  gases

 

 

in  the  


atmosphere

on  the  rise

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1st humans

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The  Mauna  Loa  measurements

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We have !
breached!

400 !
ppm

1st humans

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Mercury
Mercury's surface experiences the
greatest temperature variation of all
the planets, ranging from 100 K
(−173 °C) at night to 700 K (427 °C)
during the day at some equatorial
regions. The poles are constantly
below 180 K (−93 °C)

Average
temperature:!
167 °C

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Human  activities


are  causing

 

 

accelerated  

  climate  change


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big

How  
 
is  yours?

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y
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)
x
3
E
1
0
2
,
C
C
(IP

Human  influence

as  dominant  cause  of    
global  warming
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Photo: davipt/Flickr

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Despite  the  

overwhelming    
scientific  evidence

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There  are  a  lot  of  people    
(1  out  of  4  Americans)  who  

deny  the  reality    
of  climate  change

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Source: The Guardian UK
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When  we  change  
the  climate,  

we  change  

everything.

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CLIMATE  

CHANGE
Eye of Super Typhoon Pablo

SYMPTOM  OF  A  PLANETARY  
SYSTEM  IN  CRISIS
Photo by NASA
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climate

change  
impacts

are  accelerating
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The Snows of Kilimanjaro

1993

2007

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Arctic  Massive  Ice  Melting

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2012

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Arctic

melting

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108
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Unstoppable  Polar  Ice  Melt?

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Larsen Ice Shelf

MASBATE

Antarctica

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Upsala  Glacier,  Patagonia,  Argentina
1928

2004

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Paano  na  tayo  
dito  sa  Pilipinas

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How  will  climate  
change  affect  us  
here  in  the  
Philippines
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Warmer

Temperatures
More

Warm  days
More

Warm  nights

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The  sea  level  is  rising
3 mm / year
global average

10 mm / year
Philippines
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The  Global  Mean  Sea  Level  is    
projected  to  rise  by    

1m    

at  the  end  of  the  century
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Typhoons  

 

Stronger


 
 
 

More  frequent

 
 

More  rain


 

Unpredictable


 

Storm  surges


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Super  Typhoons  

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2.0°C  warming  by  2050  
3.1°C  warming  by  2100

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Drier
No change
Wetter

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Peace

Economy

Food

Biodiversity
Energy

Fisheries

Education

Climate  Change
Health

Water

Business
Forests

Environment
Human Settlements
Agriculture
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How  is  the
international  community

responding
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WE  WERE  WARNED…
1865: John Tyndall postulated that
gases such as CO2 in the “atmospheric
envelope” retain the heat

!

1896: Svante Arrhenius predicted that increases of
atmospheric CO2 from burning fossil fuels would lead to

global warming. He won the Nobel Prize in 1903.
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BUT  THE  WORLD  DID  NOT  
LISTEN  …

1950s: First continuous monitoring reveals
rapidly rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere
!
!

1970s: Beginning of period of atmospheric
warming known as “global

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warming”

I  DID  MY  BEST…
!

1992: UNCED Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The world adopts the Rio

Declaration and gives birth to the

UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC)
!

1997: The Kyoto Protocol is agreed under the UNFCCC. Includes
the first emissions reduction targets for rich countries to be achieved
between 2008-2012.

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But  I  guess  my  best  wasn’t  good  
enough…
Past decade: Warmest decade.
!

2003: European heat wave, kills more
than 30,000 people. Scientists report that
one-third of the world afflicted by drought.

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But  I  guess  my  best  wasn’t  good  
enough…
!
!

2013: Super Typhoon Yolanda
!

strongest typhoon to make landfall in
human history

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So  here  we  are  right  where  we  were  
before…  (maybe  even  worse)
!

Greenhouse Gas Emissions
have risen by 50% since 1992.
!

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1992
The  United  Nations  Framework  
Convention  on  Climate  Change

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The  Mission:



Avoid  the  unmanageable  

(miXgaXon)  


Manage  the  unavoidable  

(adaptaXon)  
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Addressing  the  

impacts  of  

 climate  change  involves  the  greatest    

economic  and  societal    

transformation  

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Like many other social problems,
climate change is a crisis created
by the actions of a small minority
of the world’s peoples

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Like many other social problems,
climate change is a crisis created
by the actions of a small minority
of the world’s peoples

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!
!

Rich  nations  just  screwed  up  the  chances  for  
development  for  the  majority  of  the  
world’s  poor  
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“You  want  a  magic  key,  so  you  can  go  back  to  
watching  television  tomorrow?  It  does  NOT  exist.”  


-­‐Noam  Chomsky

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Climate  change?

There  is  NO  


silver  bullet.

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Quick-­‐fixes  will  never  address  these  

critical  issues  because  the  struggle  

against  climate  change  has  to  

be  part  of  the  larger  fight  for  a  more  

just,  caring  and  equitable  world

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No  discussion  on  climate  change  
can  be  in  isolation  from  any  
a  discussion  on  social  justice.  


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Based  on  these  most  recent  
developments  in  the  global  
efforts  to  solve  climate  
change,  





we  are  in  for  a  very  
challenging  future
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We have to deal
with the impacts

4°C

of a
warmer world
(2100)

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Projected  Impacts  of  Climate  Change
Global temperature change (relative to pre-industrial)
0°C

2°C

1°C

Food

3°C

4°C

5°C

Falling crop yields in many areas,
particularly developing regions
Falling yields in many
developed regions

Water

Water supplies
threatened

Significant decreases in water availability
in many areas

Sea level rise
threatens major cities

Ecosystems
Extensive Damage to
Coral Reefs
Extreme
Weather
Events

Rising number of species

face extinction

Rising intensity of storms, forest fires, droughts, flooding and heat waves

Risk of Abrupt and
Major Irreversible
Changes

Increasing risk of dangerous feedbacks and abrupt,
large-scale shifts in the climate system

Source: Inter-Governmental Panel On Climate Change

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What  is  in  store  
for  us  here  in  the  
Philippines
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What  awaits  us  


in  the  future

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?

Will  we  have  enough  

food  and  
water?

Photo by Yeb Saño
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peace
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safe  and  secure

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happiness
& well-being

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Development

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4,130
Disasters from 2002 to 2011

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1
million
Human deaths in past ten
years due to disasters

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1.195
trillion

Economic  losses  (in  US$)  in  past  10  
years  due  to  disasters

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Imagine  the  
repercussions  for  
the  Philippines

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Climate  change  impacts  will  

overtake  us

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Environmental  action  must  
address  root  causes

Photo by Yeb Saño
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We  must  be  able  to  adapt  and  
become  resilient  to  storms.

Photo by Yeb Saño
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poverty,  vulnerability


Address  

Photo  by  Yeb  Sano
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Promote  


environmental  sustainability


Photo  by  Yeb  Sano
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Our  social,  
poliDcal,  and  
economic  
frameworks  
should  avoid  
increasing  
climate  risk.

Photo by Yeb Saño
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We  have  to  protect  our  communities.

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Best  Practices  for  
Resilient  Communities  
!

The  Ten  “I’s”  I  learned  from    
Camotes  Island

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Institutions

1

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2

Investments

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3 Information

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4 Infrastructure

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5

Interface

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6
Implementation

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Instruction

7

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8 Integration

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9Intelligence

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Inclusion

10

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Is  climate  change  
the  only  problem


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90%
Philippine fish
stocks depleted
(1996)

(Dalzell, 1987)

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2002  
22%  
(ESSC)

Forest = Resilience

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Only

4.3%

of coral reefs in the Philippines
in excellent condition,
1990-1999
(Licuanan, Gomez, 2000)

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Photo by Yeb Saño
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Possibly as few as

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Philippine Eagle!
Photo by Yeb Saño!
Mt. Apo Natural Park!
May 2, 2014
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Why  are  all  of  these  
happening

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We  must  be  able  to    
answer  the  quesDon  

WHY?

Photo by Yeb Saño
April 2014
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Photo by Yeb Saño
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The  prevailing  global  
development  framework  ignored  
nature’s  limits.

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We  are  always  between  two  disasters.
(but  we  need  not  be)  

Ginsaugon, Leyte
Photo courtesy of Manila Observatory
188

DISASTERS
!

occur  when  social,  environmental,  
economic,  and  even  political  factors  
profoundly  intersect  with  hazards


Risk  =  Exposure  (Hazard)  x  Vulnerability
                  Capacity
Photo by Yeb Sano

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Is  our  country  prepared  for  
disasters?

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Is  our  country  prepared  
to  avoid  disasters?

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CLIMATE  CHANGE  WILL  WORSEN  
THE  IMPACTS  OF  EXISTING  
SOCIETAL,  ECONOMIC,  
POLITICAL,  AND  ECOLOGICAL  
PROBLEMS  


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Galvanizing  
action
Photo by Yeb Saño

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SHARED  VISION


Communities,  
organizations,  national  
agencies,  local  
governments,  the  private  
sector,  the  youth,  church  
and  religious,  must  work  

together  


194

!
!

Can we do

195

it

Our  response  to  the  challenge  is  
limited  –  not  by  our  capacity,  not  by  
our  brains…  we  are  limited  by  what  
we  expect  of  ourselves.

196

Cmaitle  
cahgne  is  an  
ipmorantt  
isuse  for  aol  
of  us.  


Photo by Yeb Sano
197

Cmaitle  cahnge  is  the  msot  
soiures  trehat  to  hmaun  
dlenevompet.  
Photo by Yeb Sano
198

Acniots  slhuod  be  tkean  to  esunre  
taht  our  lcoal  cmmuotinies,  wichh  are  
at  the  ferofonrt  of  the  baltte  angiast  
cmaitle  cahgne,  are  abel  to  bluid  
rsielniece  and  apadt  to  the  srioeus  
cahgnes  tkanig  palce.

199

It  is  aobut    

pterotcnig  our

evonmernint.

200

It  is  aobut    dlenevompet.  

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It  is  a  mettar  of  svuraivl.  

202

It  is  also  about  
transforming  
threats  into    
opportunities.  

Photo by Ruel Pine

203

Greener  communities
Photo by Yeb Saño
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Clean  up  our  mess
205

Fight  for  breathable  and  liveable  
communiDes

Photo by Yeb Saño
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Protect  our  resources

Photo by Yeb Saño
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Protect  our  defense  systems

Photo by Yeb Sano
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Promoting  love  for    nature.

Photo by Yeb Saño
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...  promote  love  for    nature.

Photo by Yeb Saño
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Empower  
women

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Promote  love  of  
country

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Shift  from  road  to  rail

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Efficient  transport

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Pedal  power!

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Pursue  genuine


sustainable

development

Photo by Yeb Saño
222

We  must  become  true  

stewards  of  nature.

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The  window  of  opportunity  to  
respond  to  the  planetary  crisis  is  
very  small.  

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But  there  is  still  time.  

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But  the  time  is  
NOW.

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Environmental  stewardship  is  about  

convincing  others.
228

Advocacy  is  about  promoting  

positive  change.

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R.S.I.

230

R.S.I.


The  fastest  growing  occupational  
health  injury  globally

231

The  QWERTY  keyboard

232

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The  Dvorak  keyboard

Martha Blackburn, the world’s fastest typist uses this
keyboard.
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My  Dvorak  Keyboard

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Solving  the  environmental  crisis  
means  EMBRACING  POSITIVE  
CHANGE.

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EMBRACING  POSITIVE  CHANGE  
means  solving  the  environmental  
crisis.

237

What  makes  facebook  so  effective?

238

Real  people.  Real  ties.  

239

As  advocates,  the  challenge  is  how  
to  mold  people’s  minds  and  hearts.

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240

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The journey will be
difficult. But if we stand
together, we will overcome
the challenges.

Bundle  of  Sticks  
Action  Plan
242

Confronting

  climate  change  means  

      BUILDING  A  
BETTER  NATION.
Ground  Zero  
Bgy.  Anibong,    Tacloban  City  
December  17,  2013

Photo  by  Desiree  Llanos  Dee

243

What  matters  
most  to  you?

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Saan  ka  
masaya?

245

Climate  change  is  a  problem  our  children  will  inherit.

246

They  deserve  to  learn  about  it.

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The  environmental  crisis  is  a  very  
visual  and  sensorial  issue.

248

Climate  change  is  a  real  world  
problem  that  the  students  can  find  
meaning  in  and  allow  them  to  reach  
their  full  poten;al.

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Learning  through  problem-­‐based  
environmental  educa;on  provides  a  rich  
experience  for  students.

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!
!

“I just made a difference for that one.”
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Can we make a
difference

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!
!

Do you want to make a
difference

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!
!

Then be the difference.

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!
!

YOU ARE NOT HERE
BY ACCIDENT.

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!
!

We are all part of the
same
historic and spiritual
journey.
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we

are  

all    here


on  a  

mission


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!
!

A mission to change
the world…

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!
!

A mission to change
the world… for the
better…

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“Education  is  the  most  powerful  
weapon  which  you  can  use  to  
change  the  world.”
!

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!

GO,    and

change  the  
world!

Photo by Yeb Saño
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!
!

Can  we  rise
to  the  

challenge
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We  must.

inquirer.net

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"I  die  without  seeing  the  
dawn  brighten  over  my  
native  land.  You  who  have  
it  to  see,  welcome  it  -­‐-­‐  and  
forget  not  those  who  have  
fallen  during  the  night!"


-­‐  Dr.  Jose  P.  Rizal

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“Mamamayapa  akong  hindi  na  
masisilayan  ang  maliwanag  na  
pagbubukang  liwayway  sa  
aking  lupang  sinilangan;  
kayong  makakakita,  batiin  
ninyo  ito  at  huwag  niyong  
ibaon  sa  limot  ang  mga  taong  
pumanaw  sa  dilim  ng  gabi.”


-­‐  Elias,  Noli  Me  Tangere  
ni  Dr.  Jose  P.  Rizal
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We  are  at  war.

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...  a  war  we  cannot  
afford  to  lose.

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Can  we  win  this  battle?

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With  empowered  
communities,  

we  will.

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Tindog  Pilipinas!

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Salamat  po!
@YebSano
Naderev  Yeb  Saño

http://www.climate.gov.ph
!
yeb.sano@climate.gov.ph
!
climatechangecommissioner.blogspot.com

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www.climate.gov.ph
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