• RESEARCH PROPOSAL DEVELOPMENT

• Muzammil
• Selection of Topic
• Length
• Materials
• Comparing or contrasting
Specific question to be answered, hypothesis to be
tests and objectives to be met
• Methodology
• Design
• Tool & technique
• Types of data
• Size
• Implication
• CREATING GOOD RESEARCH PROPOSAL
 Explain
 what research is intended
 why it is being researched
 how the researcher proposes to carry out
• Straightforward
• Uses clear and precise language
• Clearly organized
simple, logical, clear headings and
subheadings to mark out major sections

• Common Mistakes to be Avoided
• Without a clear sense of purpose.
• Failure to delimit the contextual boundaries of
your research [e.g., time, place, people, etc.].
• Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive
• Failure to stay focused on the research question;
going off on unrelated tangents.
• Poor grammar.
• Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough
detail on major issues.
 Different Forms of Research Reports
 BY
 M.FAROOQ
 H.ATHAR RASHEED
 Purpose of Reports
 To communicate the outcomes of research.
 To give progress in present knowledge.
 To enhance study in subject field under research.
 To achieve higher degree in any field.
 To give information about research purpose and
may vary
according to situation.

 NEED OF REPORTS.
 To build the existing knowledge.
 In the project needed to be developed.
 To know new methods and techniques in the
relevant field.
 To report the outcomes in the subject field.

 Types of Research Reports
 Student research reports.
 Research reports in journals.
 Research abstracts.
 Research indexes and database.
 Student research report

Students prepare these reports for completion
of their degree so that they can enter into career level .
These show professional competency of students.

 Student Research report
Research report as a dissertation or thesis in partial or
total
fulfillment of the requirements of
 M.A
 M.Phil
 Ph. D
 Research reports in journals
In journals high standard work done in any
subject field is added. These are published to show
advance work done in that field. Different and specific
style is adopted to publish them.

 Research reports in journals
Professional journal have an adopted ‘house style’
which cover specifications for presentation in terms of
 layout
 length
 form of illustration
 use of footnotes
 bibliographical referencing and so on.

 Abstracts
An overview of research report is called
abstract. Comprehensive summary of report is basic
foundation of it. It can show the whole material of the
report.

 Abstracts
 Topic
 Key word
 Method
 Sequence
 Important part
 Brief overview
 Thousand words in to few hundreds
 Indexes and Data base
These are categorized listings and summaries
of researches in specific field. Indexes are prepared in the
form of books while data base is on c.d or floppy now
these are also available on net these are prepared
internationally.



Information's about researches used in indexes and Data
base are as follows.
 NAME OF RESEARCHER
 TITLE
 YEAR
 QUALIFICATION OF RESEARCH
 DURATION OF PROJECT
 INSTITUETION
 PUBLICATIONS DETAILS
 ABSTRACT IN SHORT
 KEY WORDS

THANKS


Systematic Presentation of Thesis Proposal and
Characteristics of Thesis
• Faryal

A long essay or dissertation involving personal research,
written by a candidate for a university degree. (James,
2011)
• Prepared to send it to the concerned department
(DNFE)
• Should consist of 1000 words
• Have several steps
• Various terminologies are used
 Research outline
 Synopsis of research
 Plan of research
 Research/project proposal
 Thesis plan
The development of research proposal takes into
account the systematic process to develop and present a
research proposal
Unity
• Thesis deals with single topic
• Ideas are integrated
• Based on the outline of research proposal
coherence
• Literal meaning is “hanging together”
• Integration of ideas
• Only relevant ideas
• Irrelevant idea to make your work look
“impressively academic” should be avoided

Emphasis
• Identification of which idea needs more space
• Certain points are highlighted
• Repetition is also used when you want to put
stress on some idea
consistency
• Set the tone and style of your writing by writing
the first draft in one sitting
• If cannot, write in segments
• Reread what you have written previously before
beginning to write again
clarity
• Make the ideas written clearly to prevent
confusion and misunderstanding
• Your clear writing will make the reader
knowledgeable and familiar to your topic
• Ambiguous and vague ideas should be avoided
concreteness
• You choose the most relevant and specific words
to express your ideas
• The ideas are based on concrete grounds not on
the abstract ones
• The selection of most specific words will support
your ideas, expressed
conciseness
• Your thesis is tightly constructed and wastes on
words
• To write a concise thesis, write what you need to
and then stop
• TYPING AND BINDING OF THESIS
• SAJIDA PERVEEN
• REPORT WRITING
• Report writing is the presentation of one's findings
in an informative and clear manner.

• MAIN DIVISION OF RESERCH REPORT
• PLIMINARY SECTION
• title page
• acknowledgement
• Preface
• Table of contents
• List of tables and figures
• 2. Introduction
• 3. Main body of the report
• 4. Summary and conclusions
• 5. Supplementary section
• 6.Tables
• 7. Figures
• GENRAL RULESFOR TYPING
• All copies of the Report MUST BE LEGIBLE distinct
and clear
• Strike-overs should not be made
• All errors should be corrected
• Material should be typed on one side of paper
• Margins should be one and a half inches from top
and left hand side and one inch at the bottom and
right hand side
• All textual material should be doubled spaced
• Ditto marks should not be used
• The pages of the main body of the report are
marked in arabic numerals on the right hand
corner
• The pages of the preliminary section are marked in
small roman letters
• Rules for title page
• One half inch should be allowed for binding.
• The title should be typed in capital letters,
beginning six double spaces from the top of the
page.
• Rules for acknowledgement page
• The heading ACKNOLEDGEMENTS should be
centered.
• Rules of table of contents
• It should start with the heading ‘table of contents’
chapter headings are typed in capital letters. The
headings of the main sections within chapters are
typed in small letters.
• Rules for foot notes
• The author’s name (first name first), followed by a
comma.
• The title of the book(understand), followed by a
full stop.
• Place of publication followed by a colon.
• Keep in mind
• The research report should be written clearly so
that the reader may not have any difficulty in
understanding its contents.
• The report should be written be in the past tense
and not in the present tense.
• Expressions such as ‘investigator’ ‘researcher’ etc.
in place of personal pronouns like ‘I’ ‘we’ and ‘my’
should be used and writing the research report.
• The size of the types of contents’ heading sub-
headings’ etc should be selected appropriately.
• There should be no any typographical mistakes.
• It is necessary to get the research report properly
bound since it is a valuable document.
• BINDING (CHECK??)
• ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
• PREFACE
• TABLE OF CONTENTS
• LIST OF TABLES
• LIST OF FIGURES
• LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS,
NOMENCLATURE, or GLOSSARY
• ABSTRACT
• PUBLICATION(S)
• REFERENCES:
• APPENDICES
• Referencing

• Referencing is a process that
identifies the sources of
information used in assignments.
There are several referencing
styles used at ACU. The most
widely used is the American
Psychological Association (APA)
style.

• How to Format Sources: Selected
Examples

• for books and reports
• Author. Date of Publication.
Title. City: Publisher details.


• Wolf, A., Ali, B. and Khan, S.
(2012). Educational Psychology.
Karachi: Majeed Sons.

• Iqbal, M. J., Bux, N., Hafeez, A.,
Ajmal, M., and Naseer, N. (2009).
Educational Researech: Unit (1-9).
(3rd Ed.). Islamabad: AIOU.


• for journals
• Author. Date of publication.
Title. Journal Name, Volume
(Issue). Page numbers.

• Book
• One Author
• Freire, P. (1972). Cultural action
for freedom. Harmondsworth,
England: Penguin.

• Two Authors
• West, L. & Hore, T. (1986). The
impact of higher education on
mature age students. Canberra:
Commonwealth Tertiary Education.

• More Then Six
• Avery, H., Strath, L., Taylor, K.,
James., Caven, K., Taylor, C.,
Tromly, A., et al. (1995).
Thinking it through: A practical
guide to academic essay writing
(rev. 2nd ed.). Peterborough.
Canada: Trent University.

• Edition other than the First
Edition
• Tennant, M. (1997). Psychology and
adult learning (2nd ed.). London:
Routledge.

• Authored Report
• Candy, P., Crebert, R., & Oleary,
J. (1994). Developing lifelong
learners through undergraduate
education. Canberra: AGPS.

• Organisation Report
• National Health and Medical
Research Council. (1990). Learning
difficulties in children and
adolescents. Canberra: AGPS

• Article
• Chapter or Article in an Edited
Book
• Dart, B. (1997). Adult learners’
metacognitive behaviour in higher
education. In P. Sutherland (Ed.),
Adult learning: A reader (pp. 30-
43). London: Kogan Page.

• Journal Article
• Volume and Issue Number
• Bessant, B. (1996). Higher
education in Australia: The
unified national system.
Educational Resource and
Perspectives, 23(1), 110-123.

• Volume but not Issue Number
• Biley, L., & Smith, K. (1998).
Exploring the potential of
problem-based learning in nurse
education. Nurse Education Today,
18, 353-361.

• Magazine Article
• Author Known
• Ashley, S. (2001, October).
Driving the info highway: The
internet has hit the road.
Scientific American, 285(4), 44-
50.

• Author Unknown
• The history of Rome. (1998,
Spring). Europe: Its Past and
Future, 24, 28-41.

• Newsletter Article
• Author Unknown
• The new health-care lexicon.
(1993, August/September). Copy
Editor, 4, 1-2.

• Newspaper Article
• Author Known
• Murray, J. (2001, September 22-
23). Faith built on solid pillars.
The Weekend Australian, p. 24.

• Author Unknown
• South Australian premier resigns
in tears. (2001, October 20). The
Courier, p. 2.

• CD Rom
• Brown, M. (1994). Arthur’s teacher
trouble |CD-Rom|. Novato, CA:
Living Books.




• Electronic Journal Article
• Peters, M. (2000). Does
constructivist epistemology have a
place in nurse education? Journal
of Nursing Education, 39(4), 166-
170. Retrieved May 10, 2001, from
http:/proguest.umi.com

• Electronic Report
• Department of Education, Training
and Youth Affairs. (2000). Higher
education report for the 2000 to
2002 triennium. Reterived October
20, 2000, from DETYA Web site: _
HYPERLINK
"http://www.detya.gov.au/highered/
he_report/2000_2002/html1_1.htm"
__www.detya.gov.au/highered/he_rep
ort/2000_2002/html1_1.htm_



• How to cite a source in your work

• Brooks (2000) stated, “Both
biological and environmental
factors influence an individual’s
personality development” (p. 28).

• “Recent research shows that both
biological and environmental
factors influence an individual’s
personality development” (Brooks,
2000, p. 28).

• Human development is a complex
issue (Brooks, Adams, & Clarke,
1999).
• Green and Brooks (2001) noted that
human development is a complex
issue.

• Research shows that human
development is a complex and
multifaceted issue (Brooks, Adams,
& Clarke, 1999; Green, & Brooks,
2000; Harvey, Smith, Brooks, &
Adams, 1998).

• Human development is a complex
issue (Brooks, Adams, & Clarke,
1999).
• A variety of influences, including
biological and environmental
influences, add to the complexity
of individual development and
behaviour (Brooks et al., 1999).
• _

• _

• _

• _

• Prepared by Naeem Gill