eFresh – Empowering Indian Agriculture

Flow Chart for Mango Crop Cultivation


Note: Package may differ depending upon the type of orchard crop and agro climatic conditions
Selection of Site
Soil and Water Testing.
Preparation of Land.
Layout-Alignment, Digging of pits etc
Selection of planting material from the nursery
Planting
Care after planting-Watering, Manuring , weed
control and plant protection
Raising of inter crop
Inter cultivation/inter culture
Training and pruning of plants
Cropping-Flowering and Fruiting – 4
th
/5
th
year
Plant Protection during flowering and fruiting
Harvesting –harvest indices, harvesting and care
after harvesting
Sorting of Fruits Grading , Transport to Pack
Houses/Markets
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1) Selection of Site
2) Soil and Water Testing.
3) Preparation of Land.
4) Layout-Alignment, Digging of pits etc.
5) Selection of planting material from the nursery.
6) Planting.
7) Care after planting-Watering, Manuring, weed control and plant protection.
8) Rising of inter crop.
9) Inter cultivation/inter culture.
10) Training and pruning of plants.
11) Cropping-Flowering and Fruiting – 4
th
/5
th
year.
12) Plant Protection during flowering and fruiting.
13) Harvesting –harvest indices, harvesting and care after harvesting.
14) Sorting of Fruits Grading, Transport to Pack Houses/Markets.




















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Brief insight in to each of the above operation
1. Selection of Site
Select site-climate should be suitable, free from gales, strong winds, hail storms and
frost.
Adequate water of good quality (water table in green or brown zone).
Available at less cost.
2. Soil and Water Testing
To know suitability of soil, and its fertility, whether nature of soil and soil depth meet
crop requirement.
Water testing is essential to know quality of water or use amendment to suit mango
crop.
3. Preparation of Land.
Land preparation essential to remove roots of felled trees, expose dormant pests and
disease organisms to unfavorable conditions like high temperature, light and
predators.
On the hills, sloping lands, land may be divided in to terraces depending on
topography. Contour lines when slope is 3-10% & terracing when slope is more than
10%.

4. Layout-Alignment, Digging of pits etc
a) Layout-Alignment
Lay out and alignment should be such that,
Each variety of mango is allotted to one block.
Varieties coming to harvest at same time may be grouped together.
Pollirizers may be provided.
Roads occupy minimum space.
Wind breaks and shelter belts planned at right angle to direction of wind.
Trees attracting birds and animals -planted near the watchmen shed.
Short growing trees allotted in front and tall at back for proper supervision and
aesthetic look.





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b) Digging of pits etc
• Pits of 3x3x3’ dimensions are dug at recommended spacing.
• Pits are allowed to weather for few weeks before planting.
• The pits are filled with top soil mixed with FYM and 2 kg single superphosphate and
200g of follidol dust against termites.
• Watering should be given for settling of soil in the pits.
• In the event of depression, add soil and level to keep it ready for planting.

5. Selection of Planting Material from the Nursery

• Obtain best plants from nursery.
• Buy from the reputed nurseries that guarantee plants true to the variety.
• Select 1 to 1 ½ year old plants.
• Union between root stock and scion should be smooth and firm.
• Joint should be 20 cm above ground.
• There should not be growth on root stock.

6. Planting

• Make hole in the middle of the pit more than that the size of the ball of earth of the
plant.
• Without disturbing the roots of grant, plant in such a way that the grant union
remains 15-20cm above soil surface.
• Cover the soil around the ball of earth and roots and compact it without leaving any
air spaces. This makes the root to establish contact with soil and secure water and
nutrients.
• To prevent damage from blowing winds, stake the plant with support.
• Make basins of 45cm around each plant.
• Irrigate gently, preferably with rose can after planting.
• Irrigate at 7-10 days interval depending on soil and climate from establishment time
till 2 years.




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7. Care after planting-Watering, Manuring, weed control and plant protection

• Apply recommended dose of chemical fertilizers as per the schedule in split doses.
• Irrigation scheduling should be done based on soil type and climate, normally at 7-10
days interval.
• In young gardens plough the inter spaces for infiltration water in rainy season, check
the weed growth and destroy the insect pests and diseases .
• Use atrataf (weedicide) @800g per acre to control the dicot weeds.
• Spray of glyphosate @ 10ml + 20g of ammonium sulphate or 10g urea per liter of
water on grassy weeds (with directional spray protecting mango crop,) controls grassy
weeds.
• Neem based products control most of the sucking insect pests. Spraying of a contact
or systemic chemical insecticides keeps other pests in check.
• Spraying of copper oxy chloride, carbandezine, Dithane M-45 and Dithane Z-78
controls most of the diseases in orchard crops.

8. Raising of inter crop.

• Inter cropping: Raising of non-competitive and compatible crops, prevents weed
growth and gives additional income till orchard reach’s bearing stage.
• Crops like vegetables, green gram and cowpea are beneficial inter crops.
• Shade loving plants like ginger and turmeric can also be raised.
• Soil exhaustive crops like sugarcane and maize, mealy bug favoring red gram, zinc and
potash exhaustive hybrid napier are to be avoided.

9. Inter cultivation/inter culture

• Mango crop starts bearing from 2-3 years onwards to 4 to 5 years. Hence plants
should be properly trained during first 3-4 years to build up strong frame work.
• The young grant should be given support with bamboo stakes to avoid the breakage
of bud union and to support main stem.
• Plants make vigorous growth in first year. Allow main branch to grow to
recommended height (100cm) later permit recommended number of secondaries and
laterals to form a good frame work to take burden of good bearing later on.
• Pruning in orchard crops is essential to maintain balance between vegetative and
reproductive growth, to regulate size and quality of fruits by way of proper
distribution of fruiting area.

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• Pruning is essential to regulate succession of crop.
• In pruning that part of wood which is not essential for fruiting is to be removed.
• Pruning is skilled operation and should be done by a professional.

• Inflorescence stalks after bearing, criss cross branches, dried & diseased branches
should be pruned. Pruning helps for better spread of solar radiation.

• If crop is properly maintained with recommended fertilizer application and desired
irrigation schedule and protected from insects and diseases, it reaches flower and
fruiting stage earlier than used.
• High density and ultra-high density planting in mango hastens flowering and fruiting
to 2 years.

10. Cropping-Flowering and Fruiting – 4
th
/ 5
th
year.

• Plant protection during flowering and fruiting: Flowering period in orchard crop lasts
for 2 to 2 ½ months. Special attention should be given to plant protection during this
period, if not checked in time, the diseases and insects can wipeout entire crop.
• Prophylactic measures not only control pests well but leave no chemical residues in
fruits to get good price in the market.

11. Harvesting – Harvest indices, harvesting and care after harvest

• Mangos crops picked either prematurely or too late are more susceptible to post
harvest physiological disorders and diseases than fruits gathered at proper stage of
maturity.
• Hence harvesting should follow proper indices.
• Most of the indices are size and shape of fruit, overall color, and skin and flesh color,
fruit firmness, soluble solid content, starch content, acid content and internal
ethylene concentration.
• Normally mango fruits harvested earlier than ripening stage and are ripened
artificially later on as per market demand.
• Harvesting is done by harvesting with tools devises by improvement if tradition ones.
• The aim is that the harvested fruits should not fall directly on the ground and get
damaged in the process of harvesting.


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• After harvest, post harvest treatments done with chemicals or transferred to cold
chambers to hasten or delay ripening, to reduce weight loss in ripening, for better
color development and to prevent development of moulds and other diseases in post
harvest period .

12. Sorting of Fruits, Transport to Pack Houses/Markets
• Sorting is done to grade them in to different sizes and quality and
add value to them to fetch more price in markets or through
export.

• The transport to packed houses or market should be quick and
efficient. The produce carefully packed, loaded and hauled to
prevent any damage during the transit.