RICS Public Sector

Asset Management Guidelines
A guide to best practice
Supported by
RICS Public Sector
Asset Management Guidelines
A guide to best practice
Edited by
Keith Jones
and
Alan D. White
Acknowledgements
The authors and publishers wish to thank the following for permission to
reproduce copyright material:
BRE
COPROP
DETR
HM Treasury
IPD Global
DCLG
OGC
University of Leeds
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should contact RICS at the address below.
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iii
Contents
Preface v
Foreword vii
Acknowledgements and Contributors viii
Glossary ix
Introduction 1
1 WHAT IS PUBLIC SECTOR ASSET MANAGEMENT?
1.1 Description of asset management 5
1.2 Concept diagram and arrangement of the guidelines 7
2 STRATEGY AND VISION DEVELOPMENT
2.1 The purpose and role of asset strategies 9
2.2 The coverage of the asset management plan (including the asset strategy) 10
2.3 Key elements of preparing asset strategies 11
2.4 The pivotal role of the asset strategy and the asset management plan 15
3 ASSET PROGRAMMES
3.1 The stages in the preparing of asset programmes 17
3.2 Review of the asset base 17
3.3 Project evaluation (business cases) 19
3.4 Asset programme development and evaluation 21
3.5 Financial planning for assets 22
4 DELIVERY
4.1 Introduction 25
4.2 Overview of delivery 25
4.3 Direction 26
4.4 Resources and capabilities 26
4.5 Means of delivery 26
4.6 Project structure and governance 28
4.7 Project planning 29
4.8 Communications 29
4.9 Monitoring, incentives and benefits realisation 30
4.10 Risks 30
4.11 Conclusion 31
5 REVIEW AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
5.1 Performance management 33
5.2 Reviewing the asset management system 33
5.3 Developing performance management for the asset base 35
5.4 Conclusion 39
6 CHANGE MANAGEMENT
6.1 Coverage of this chapter 41
6.2 Understanding the nature of change in asset management 41
6.3 Attributes of good change managers in asset management 44
7 LEADERSHIP AND CUSTOMERS
7.1 Leadership skills 47
7.2 Engaging stakeholders 49
8 ORGANISATION
8.1 Key steps 51
8.2 Organisational culture 51
8.3 Process 51
8.4 Roles and responsibilities 53
8.5 Structure 54
9 RESOURCES AND CAPACITY
9.1 The role of resources and capacity in asset management 55
9.2 Defining resources and capacity for asset management 56
9.3 What needs to be done? 57
10 SUSTAINABILITY
10.1 The context 59
10.2 Definitions 59
10.3 Building impacts 60
10.4 A sustainability criteria approach for asset management 62
10.5 Summary of sustainability principles for asset managers 63
11 DATA AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
11.1 Introduction 65
11.2 Specifying requirements 65
11.3 Options for systems 67
11.4 Business case 67
11.5 Implementing the systems 68
11.6 Managing and maintaining the data 68
12 ASSET MANAGEMENT – AN INTERNATIONAL DISCIPLINE
12.1 Overview 71
12.2 Asset management in Australia 71
12.3 Asset management in New Zealand 76
12.4 Asset management in the USA 76
12.5 Summary 78
12.6 Appendices 78
Bibliography – What’s Been Published Already 83
Index 87
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
iv
In 2006, we were approached by RICS to produce
public sector guidelines on property asset manage-
ment. It had identified a need for the guidelines for the
following reasons:
G The subject has been at the forefront of public
sector property thinking for some time and whilst
its application was previously primarily in local
government, interest and expectations were spread-
ing to many other parts of the public sector.
G The subject is a challenging area for chartered
surveyors and other property practitioners, as it
requires skill sets that are as much to do with
management and business processes as they are to
do with mainstream property expertise.
G It was felt important to set out the key features of
good property asset management practice for
members and other property practitioners.
G An initiative was needed to identify and explain
the wide range of skill requirements applicable
across the whole of public sector property asset
management, which would become the main
reference point for asset managers. If, subsequently,
specific guidance in a particular sub-sector is
needed, then more focus on that area will be able to
be developed using the overarching framework pro-
vided by these guidelines.
So, we embarked on what has proved to be a longer
journey than we all expected! We have had great sup-
port from RICS officers, who had the foresight to take
the initiative in the first place, and we have been very
fortunate to have a good team of authors, and a good
publishing team, to work with. Many representative
bodies have also been keen to support us. We thank all
these people and organisations sincerely for their time
and effort in assisting with the preparation of this
publication.
We took the decision to ask a number of specialists
to write some of the individual chapters and so we
became editors rather than authors of the whole pub-
lication. The text was actually written quite quickly.
The time has really been consumed by logistics –
identifying the right authors (and then getting them to
agree to do it!), bringing consistency to the text,
honing the text down to a manageable length, getting
consents and approvals, typesetting and printing and
so on.
However, we feel that the effort has been very
worthwhile. We hope you do too.
Keith Jones
Alan D White
January 2008
v
Preface
vii
Public sector asset management first came into the
spotlight in the early 1980s. The Ceri Davies report
1
on
the NHS estate, the Cabinet Office report
2
on Central
Government office accommodation and the Audit
Commission report
3
on Local Authority property all
highlighted issues of under-use and a reactive approach
to property asset management. These reviews provided
a platform for a major process of improvement – a
search for new and better ways to manage the valuable
public sector resource and asset base: property.
At the same time, the last 25 years have seen rapid
changes in all aspects of working practices and the
public sector has not been immune to these. The
pervasive impact of technology, the rise of the service
culture and search for greater efficiency in the use of
all resources have challenged professionals to deliver
new and more responsive property solutions to meet
the needs of the occupiers, customers and a wide range
of other stakeholders.
Responding to these challenges, academics, con-
sultants and advisory bodies have developed tools and
techniques to help asset managers proactively deal with
their portfolios. New financial management tools, a
better understanding of information and performance
monitoring, and new approaches to the use and man-
agement of the workplace are but a few of the areas
which have seen considerable progress. Additionally, a
wide range of public sector groups
4
have formed strong
communities of practice who have captured and
shared best practice, providing real evidence of the
impact of these ideas. Consequently, there has been a
considerable increase in knowledge about how public
sector organisations can gain more from their
property and this has resulted in a more strategic and
systematic approach to asset management.
These guidelines therefore come at an opportune
time. They pull together an extensive body of work and
take a holistic approach to property asset management
from strategy development to implementation. By
drawing together a wide range of guidance, techniques
and practice, it becomes a single authoritative source
of much of the best material currently available.
I commend these guidelines to all those who have
a real interest in improving the performance and
contribution of property to the overall goals of their
organisation. I have no doubt that it will become an
essential resource for practioners in the public sector
and beyond.
Professor Ginny Gibson
Land Securities Trillium Fellow
Dept of Real Estate & Planning
University of Reading
Foreword
1
Underused and Surplus Property in the National Health Service, Department of Health and Social Security, HMSO, London, 1982
(Chaired by Ceri Davies).
2
Office Accommodation: A Review of Government Accommodation Management A Report to the Prime Minister, Cabinet Office, HMSO,
London, 1985 (Report prepared by Lord Gowrie).
3
Local Authority Property – A Management Overview, Audit Commission, HMSO, London, 1988.
4
ACES (Association of Chief Estates Surveyors), COPROP (Association of Chief Corporate Property Officers in Local Government),
AUDE (Association of University Directors of Estates) and OGC (Office of Government Commerce) are a few of the groups.
EDITORS, DRAFTERS AND REVIEWERS
We are indebted to the following editors, drafters and
reviewers, all of whom contributed enormously to the
production of these Guidelines.
Editors
Keith Jones, Director, Performent Consulting, Chair of
the RICS Asset Management Group and member of
the RICS Management Consultancy Faculty Board.
Alan D White, Director, Lenborough Consultants,
Chair of RICS Facilities Management Faculty Board
and the RICS Business Development Board.
Drafters and reviewers
David Bentley, Head of Asset Management, IPF/CIPFA
Frank Bowyer, RICS Oceania and FB Consultants Pty
Ltd, Australia
Elisabeth Carter, Elisabeth Carter Consulting
Tony Comer, County Property Officer, Hertfordshire
County Council
John Cornish, Head of Estates Branch, Department for
Communities and Local Government
Iain Gillies, Network Property and Facility Manager,
New Zealand Telecom
Ian Jeffries, IPD (Investment Property Databank)
Keith Jones, Director, Performent Consulting,
Mark Jones, Partner, Remit Consulting
Robert Lee, Interim Management Consultant, Solace
Enterprises
Steven Male, Professor of Construction Management,
University of Leeds
Sarah Sayce, Professor and Head of Surveying,
Kingston University
Stephen Walton, State government of New South Wales,
Australia
Clive Warren, University of Queensland, Australia
Neil Webster, Partner, GVA Grimley,
Alan D White, Director, Lenborough Consultants.
We thank Ginny Gibson, Professor of Corporate Real
Estate, University of Reading, for writing the Foreword.
Consultative group
We are also indebted to the Consultative Group for the
project, who gave valuable advice on the drafts in
preparation. The members of the Group were:
Bob Baber, Audit Commission
Stuart Bates/Rob Shelton, Consortium of Local
Authorities in Wales
Roger Bond, Association of University Directors of
Estates
Joanne Cavey/Sal Ratnayake, Department for
Communities and Local Government
Pam Chapman, Department of Health
Richard Hanson/Dinesh Kotecha, Association of
Corporate Property officers in Local Government
Yvonne Hardy/Bridget Hardy, Office of Government
Commerce
Ian Hay, Association of Chief Estate Surveyors in Local
Government
Alan Jones, Department of Education and Skills
Nigel Mason, York Consulting
Bill Ness, Edinburgh City Council
Alan Stokes, Society of Construction and Quantity
Surveying
Alan Tyler, Federation of Property Services
viii
Acknowledgements
and Contributors
Asset
The term ‘asset’ can be used to describe many different
types of assets, for example, financial assets, infra-
structure assets, plant and machinery, equipment and
property. For the purpose of these guidelines the term
‘asset’ is used to refer to land and buildings.
Asset base
The entirety of the land and building assets owned or
occupied by an organisation.
Asset base performance measures
The measures grounded in an organisation’s strategic
objectives. They fit into four key categories or per-
spectives, based on the ‘balanced scorecard’:
G Financial – ‘traditional’ balance sheet and other fi-
nancial measures.
G Customer – satisfaction issues from the customers’
perspective.
G Internal – the extent to which internal working
practices contribute towards the successful delivery
of corporate objectives.
G Innovation and Learning – intended to help drive
improvement in financial, customer and internal
process performance.
A fifth category may also be added to address wider so-
cial, economic and environmental/physical perspec-
tives, to reflect the wider public policy role of the
public sector.
The public sector approach would, therefore, cover:
G social, economic and environmental/physical im-
pacts;
G financial imperatives;
G stakeholder views;
G internal excellence;
G innovation and learning and for the future.
Asset champion
The senior individual in an organisation who is
charged with promoting and sustaining good practice
in asset management within the organisation. Nor-
mally this will not be the senior manager responsible
for asset management (SMAM).
Asset management
This is the activity that ensures that the land and build-
ings asset base of an organisation is optimally struc-
tured in the best corporate interest of the organisation
concerned. It seeks to align the asset base with the or-
ganisation’s corporate goals and objectives. It requires
business skills as well as property skills although only
an overall knowledge of property matters is required.
However, property input within the overall process is
imperative. It does not seek to respond solely to the re-
quirements of any particular operating part of the or-
ganisation, but rather, it seeks to take all requirements
into account and to deliver the optimal solution in terms
of the organisation’s overall operational and financial
goals and objectives. It has a consultancy and executive
orientation. It is a corporate, that is whole organisa-
tion, activity and may be led and/or coordinated by a
property, construction or facilities professional, al-
though this is not always the case.
Asset management plan
A plan covering the organisation’s asset strategy to-
gether with other related matters, for example, the or-
ganisational structure and governance, roles and
responsibilities, data and performance management
arrangements and performance measurement infor-
mation.
Asset programme
A programme of action designed to implement an
asset strategy or part of it.
Asset review
The analysis of all or part of the asset base to assess its
current condition, suitability, utilisation and suffi-
ciency and the comparison of this with the expectation
for the asset base as described in the asset strategy. It
ix
Glossary
normally results in a clear understanding of the gap be-
tween the current asset base and the desired asset base
and the potential action required to close that gap.
Asset services/asset management services
The services that support asset management in an or-
ganisation. They may be provided in-house or exter-
nally.
Asset strategy
The organisation’s strategy for its asset base. It will
have both generic elements (e.g. a desire to achieve
co-location) and also specific elements (e.g. the
approach to be adopted in offices).
Aunt Sally
A colloquial term used to describe a proposition, put
forward to test people’s reaction to it. Also known as a
‘straw man’.
Capital expenditure
One-off expenditure on major items which have a life
of longer than one year (e.g. land and property), often,
but not always, funded by borrowing with current ex-
penditure implications.
Capital strategy for assets
The overall capital requirements of the asset strategy
and of funding sources to meet those requirements.
Corporate
The organisation acting as a whole rather than as parts.
Customers
Those who are in any way customers for assets or assets
services. Typically they will be the users of land or
buildings but in some cases it might be wider than just
users, for example, parents of children in schools. This
term should not be confused with ‘stakeholders’.
Discounted cash flow calculations
Methods to determine the present value of future cash
flows by discounting them using the appropriate cost
of capital.
Green Book
See ‘Treasury Green Book’.
Modernisation
The policy of government designed to rethink the way
public services are delivered and consequently to im-
prove them.
Net present value
The sum of a series of future values discounted to re-
flect the dates at which they occur.
Operating units
The various parts of an organisation which deliver el-
ements of its goods or services or which enable those
goods or services to be delivered.
Operational objectives
The objectives of operating units which whilst within
the overall ambit of the organisation’s objectives will
be more specific and narrow.
Organisational objectives
The objectives of the organisation as a whole.
Organisational performance
The performance of the organisation measured in
terms of its organisational objectives.
Property management
This is the activity that ensures that land and buildings
matters are dealt with so that they operate efficiently
and effectively. In effect it delivers the strategic asset
management objectives for land and buildings. It is
sometimes referred to as ‘operational’ and it is the ac-
tivity of undertaking the professional/technical work
necessary to ensure that property is in the condition
desired, in the form and layout and location desired
and supplied with the services required, together with
related activities such as the disposal of surplus prop-
erty, the construction or acquisition of new property,
the valuation of property, dealing with landlord and
tenant and rating matters, all at an optimum and af-
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
x
fordable cost. It also involves offering advice to deci-
sion makers on the best ways of doing this. It has a cus-
tomer orientation. It is normally undertaken by
property, construction or facilities professionals and
technicians.
Property performance measures
More technically based measures than asset base per-
formance measures, property measures are often bro-
ken down into a range of more focused component
parts normally related to efficiency, effectiveness and
economy. Examples are:
G costs and cost control;
G space utilisation;
G service levels and customer satisfaction;
G environmental sustainability;
G risk management (including health and safety);
G in-house services management practice;
G outsourced supplier management.
Recurring expenditure
Annual expenditure which is variously referred to in
the public sector as, for example, current expenditure,
recurring expenditure, resource expenditure or rev-
enue expenditure.
Senior managers and decision makers
These are the ‘top’ managers or decision makers. Typ-
ically they would be, for example, Board members,
Cabinet members, top management team members,
Ministers, trustees, etc.
Senior manager responsible for asset management
(SMAM)
The senior manager in the organisation that has direct
responsibility for the operation and performance of
asset management within the organisation.
Spend to Save
A saving which requires initial and lesser expenditure
in order to realise a subsequent saving.
Stakeholders
All those that have a direct or indirect legitimate inter-
est in the use of the organisation’s land or buildings.
Strategic asset management
This refers to ‘strategic asset management for land and
buildings’. For simplicity, this is referred to as ‘asset
management’ in the guidelines (see ‘asset management’
above).
Strategic asset management for land and buildings
For simplicity, this is referred to as ‘asset management’
in the guidelines (see ‘asset management’ above).
Strategy proposition
This is the first stage in preparing an asset strategy. It is
not the firm strategy but a proposition (or hypothesis)
showing the desired direction which is to be taken but
which will need to be tested and amended in the light
of, for example, technical, practical, financial or other
constraints.
Treasury Green Book
The Treasury has, for many years, provided guidance
to other public sector bodies on how proposals should
be appraised, before significant funds are committed –
and how past and present activities should be evalu-
ated. The current edition of the Green Book, Appraisal
and Evaluation in Central Government (HMT), incor-
porates revised guidance, to encourage a more thor-
ough, long-term and analytically robust approach to
appraisal and evaluation.
Top management
See ‘Senior managers and decision makers’.
xi
Glossary
1
Chapter overview
This chapter describes the purpose and format of
the book, explains how the term ‘asset management’
is used and describes the overall benefits of good
asset management.
PURPOSE OF THE BOOK
In the light of the increasing focus on the way
assets are managed in the public sector, RICS
felt it was necessary to produce these guidelines on
strategic asset management for land and buildings for
its members and for others who are involved with the
practice of strategic asset management. The book seeks
to cover the whole subject of public sector strategic
asset management, by setting out a structured ap-
proach to the subject, withreferences on where to find
more information. Rather than being just a textbook,
it seeks to help managers to practice good strategic
asset management by explaining the key steps and the
techniques to be used.
The book is designed to be used by the whole of the
public sector. It is also hoped that it will provide an
‘umbrella’ under which more specific guidelines in
particular parts of the public sector can sit. Therefore
it is hoped that this book will provide the ‘how to do it’
and that this will be a backdrop against which more
specific performance standards in each sub sector can
be developed.
FORMAT OF THE BOOK
This book is part of a suite of guidelines on public
sector strategic asset management for land and build-
ings and it also has an accompanying short guide for
practitioners – Getting Started Quickly Guide for
Surveyors.
As Figure I.1 indicates there is also a short guide for
senior and operational managers and decision makers
and a practice information and case studies guide
which completes this suite as follows:
G Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
G Senior Decision Makers’ Guide
G Getting Started Quickly Guide for Surveyors
G Practice Information and Case Studies
Figure I.1: The Guidelines
APPLICABILITY OF THESE GUIDELINES TO
PROPERTY ASSETS ONLY
The term ‘asset’ can be used to describe many different
types of assets, for example, financial assets, infra-
structure assets, plant and machinery, equipment and
property. For the purpose of these guidelines the term
‘asset’ is used to refer to land and buildings (i.e. in the
strict legal sense, real property).
USE OF THE TERM ‘ASSET MANAGEMENT’
As will be explained more fully in Chapter 1 this book
focuses on ‘strategic asset management for land and
buildings’. For simplicity, this is referred to as ‘asset
management’ in the following chapters.
APPLICABILITY TO SMALLER PUBLIC
SECTOR BODIES
These guidelines have been written with relatively large
occupational asset bases in mind. In national terms, it
is there that the major benefits of good asset manage-
ment can be achieved. However, good asset manage-
ment has universal benefits. In smaller organisations
these guidelines will need to be interpreted to make
Introduction
Public Sector Asset
Management Guidelines
Practice Information and
Case Studies
Getting Started Quickly
Guide for Surveyors
Senior Decision
Makers’ Guide
them suitable for purpose there. Whilst all the princi-
ples will remain the same, the extent and complexity
of the processes will not be so great and, therefore,
more streamlined arrangements based on these guide-
lines may be more appropriate.
BENEFITS OF GOOD ASSET MANAGEMENT
Practical benefits
Land and buildings are probably the slowest of all the
strategic resources (finance, people, ICT and land and
buildings) to respond to change. The reasons for this
vary but they are mainly attributable to legal, financial,
construction/development, regulatory and property
market issues. As a consequence there are:
G long lead-in times for asset creation;
G existing assets are illiquid (i.e. long lead-in times, too),
and so there is a need to plan change in a very system-
atic way.
Annual incremental change will not suffice, as it cannot
respond to the challenges of 21st-century public
services and has often led to many parts of the
public sector property asset base underperforming in
non-financial and financial terms. Examples of this are:
G extensive maintenance backlogs;
G poor fit between service requirements and the
property from which it is delivered;
G poor accommodation for the workforce impacting
on productivity, recruitment and retention;
G limited co-location of public services;
G inefficient sourcing and procurement of property
and construction and property support services;
G inefficient use of capital;
G insufficient control over running costs.
Thus, there is a need for a structured and programmed
approach to long-term change in the asset bases of
public sector organisations, in short: 21st-century, fit
for purpose, land and buildings.
Business benefits
These have been variously described in a number of
texts and we select four representative examples below.
Asset Management – Getting the Outcomes,
COPROP, 2005
‘By now we should all know what needs be done, and
how it should be done and, therefore, it is the right
time to focus on the outcomes that we are seeking to
achieve:
G Supporting service improvement by delivering
current and future portfolio requirements.
G Supporting and facilitating wider objectives
(e.g. regeneration, inclusion, sustainability).
G Improving stakeholder satisfaction with property
and with property services.
G Having a lean, well maintained portfolio which
allows the authority to live within its means (capi-
tal and revenue) by managing property running
costs effectively and efficiently and releasing capital
and then recycling it into corporate priorities.
G Delivering new capital projects effectively and
efficiently.
G Maximising returns on any “investment”
property.
G Delivering continuous improvement through
performance management.’
Improving Property Asset Management in the
Central Civil Government Estate, Leeds University
(for the Office of Government Commerce), 2006
– based on the International Infrastructure
Management Manual 2002, Institute of Asset
Management, London, 2002
‘The benefits of Property Asset Management relate to
accountability, service management, risk manage-
ment and financial efficiency through:
G Improved stewardship and accountability of prop-
erty assets involving:
– The demonstration to owners, customers and
stakeholders that services are being delivered
effectively and efficiently.
– Providing the start point for evaluating and
balancing service/price/quality tradeoffs.
– Improving accountability in the use of
resources through published performance and
financial measures.
– Having the ability to benchmark results
against similar organisations.
G Improved communication and relationships with
service users through:
– Improved understanding of service require-
ments and options.
– Formal consultation/agreement with users on
the service levels.
– Having a more holistic approach to physical
asset management through the use of multi-
disciplinary management teams.
– Improved customer satisfaction and organisa-
tional image.
G Improved risk management through:
– Assessing probability and consequence of asset
failure and the resultant impact on business
continuity and assisting in addressing conti-
nuity of service.
– Addressing the inter-relationships between
different networks and risk management
strategies.
Influencing decisions on non-asset solutions through
demand management.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
2
G Improved financial efficiency through:
– Improved decision-making based on cost and
benefits of alternative options, either strategic,
policy or technical in focus.
– Being able to justify forward works pro-
grammes and funding requirements.
– Recognising all the costs associated with
owning/operating assets over the life cycle of
the assets.’
Local Authority Asset Management Guidelines,
ODPM, 2005
‘Through good asset management, local authorities
will wish to target the following outcomes:
G Customer and Stakeholder Satisfaction –
enhanced customer satisfaction from improved
performance and control of service delivery to the
required standards along with improved corporate
image. This is relevant in both how the public view
local authorities and value and rank their services
and purposes, as well as in staff morale and
performance.
G Affordability – clear processes for assessing pru-
dence, affordability and sustainability including
the effective use of capital for new projects, capital
release and redeployment and efficient and effec-
tive running costs.
G Compliance with Statutory/Regulatory Codes –
health and safety, asbestos, legionella, accommo-
dation minimum standards.
G Improved Corporate Management – for CPA and
other purposes, the ability to demonstrate clear
linking between corporate and service goals
and objectives on the one hand and the manage-
ment of assets crucial to their delivery on the other;
and
G Environment – sustainability, CO
2
emissions,
green energy, etc.’
High Performing Property, OGC, 2006
‘The effective planning of government property is a
key part of this story:
G selling surplus assets to free resources for new
investment
G transferring ownership of assets to the private sec-
tor where this secures better value for money
through access to new funding and skills, or by
placing risk where it can be better managed
G identifying and capitalising hidden assets
G increasing value for money from retained assets
and property.’
Whilst each of the descriptions above was originally
addressed to particular parts of the public sector, their
applicability (with suitable amendment as necessary)
is apparent to all parts of the public sector.
In summary the business benefits are as follows:
G release of capital for re-investment or debt reduction;
G efficient running costs;
G better public service provision by improved prop-
erty and co-location of services;
G property in good condition;
G improved property utilisation and bringing to-
gether similar uses into the same property, rather
than providing them separately;
G improved productivity, changes in corporate cul-
ture and facilitation of corporate change;
G improved delivery of community objectives
through the more effective use of property;
G innovative strategic procurement.
Policy benefits
Asset management is increasingly being recognised by
central government as part of the modernisation
agenda. Since Sir Michael Lyons’ Report (Towards
Better Management of Public Sector Assets) in December
2004, the Treasury has taken a keen interest and asset
management has gained a higher profile in the
Comprehensive Spending Review 2007 with explicit
targets for many public organisations. The Office of
Government Commerce (OGC) is encouraging good
practice in asset management throughout central
government and its agencies, which will also be
relevant to other parts of the public sector. The
Department of Communities and Local Government,
the Department for Children, Families and Schools
and the Audit Commission continue to encourage
good performance in local government and similar
encouragement is being promoted in the education
and health sectors.
Therefore, not only is good practice in asset man-
agement desirable, it is also an expectation of central
government for all parts of the public sector.
3
Introduction
5
Chapter overview
This chapter describes the nature of asset manage-
ment and the distinction between it and property
management, and the business process associated
with it. It also explains the reasoning behind the sub-
ject matter chosen for each chapter of the book.
1.1 DESCRIPTION OF ASSET MANAGEMENT
The term asset management is variously described in
many documents, for example:
Local Government Asset Management Guidelines,
RICS/ODPM, 2005
‘Asset management is a structured process that seeks to
ensure best value for money from property assets in
serving the strategic needs of local authorities. Prop-
erty assets have three features that place primacy on
their proper management:
G they are expensive – in terms of both their capital
value and annual costs of upkeep;
G they need to be carefully managed over their lives
to ensure best value – e.g. use, maintenance and
generation of income; and
G it takes time to determine carefully new property
needs and to procure and provide them.’
Improving Property Asset Management in the
Central Civil Government Estate, Leeds University
(for the Office of Government Commerce),
April 2006
‘Strategic Asset Management (SAM) is a subset of
Strategic Resource Management (SRM) and is the ef-
fective and efficient direction and utilisation of assets,
both tangible and intangible, to sustain the business.
This definition covers all asset classes including pro-
duction, facilities, fleet assets and IT infrastructure,
for example.
Property Asset Management (PAM) is a subset of
Strategic Asset Management (SAM). It is a struc-
tured, holistic and integrating approach for aligning
and managing over time service delivery requirements
and the performance of property assets to meet busi-
ness objectives and drivers. Property asset manage-
ment encompasses two interacting components:
A strategic component, the focus of which is the
medium to longer term and involves decisions on
appropriate investment in property assets to meet
customers/end-user needs and service delivery
requirements. Typically the time frame would be three
to five years (medium term) and up to ten years and
beyond (long term), and,
An operational component, the focus of which
encompasses the ongoing management of property
assets over the short to medium term time horizon
within an allocated budgetary framework set at the
strategic level once investment decisions in property
assets have been made. Typically the time frame
would be up to three years. The locus of the opera-
tional element of property asset management would
be, for example, at or below estates level within a
department.’
Towards Better Management of Public Sector
Assets, A Report to the Chancellor of the Exchequer
(Sir Michael Lyons), HM Treasury, 2004
‘Asset management is a key part of business planning
which connects at a strategic level decisions about an
Chapter 1
What is Public
Sector Asset
Management?
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
organisation’s business needs, the deployment of its
assets, and its future investment needs.’
Report on Improving the Capability and Capacity
of Managing Property Assets in Central Civil
Government, OGC, 2006 (Andrew Howarth,
National School of Government for OGC)
‘Asset management, in its wider sense, needs to be seen
as a contributor to core business resource planning so
as to ensure that the physical asset base is aligned with
organisational objectives.
Asset management’s strong links with investment
planning means that it sits comfortably within the
Finance structure, where financial tools can be
applied to test business options and, through the
Corporate Finance Director, has direct exposure to the
Board.’
‘Whilst specialist knowledge or technical competency
is very important to the everyday running of property
and estates, asset management, as proposed by Sir
Michael (Lyons), implies a wider understanding of
the part property can play in the delivery of the or-
ganisation’s primary objectives. There are, therefore,
differences between the property management view of
assets and the asset management view of property.’
‘Asset Management properly lies at the level of corpo-
rate resource management. It is a feature of thinking
at a strategic level, which means matching future ca-
pabilities to a future environment in order to achieve
defined outcomes. Asset management, therefore,
aligns itself with strategic resource and ICT manage-
ment at the business thinking level. Decisions to utilise
property assets as an enabler to business planning
stem from this level and manifests itself as strategic
property management.’
Measuring Performance in the Management
of Local Authority Property, Department of
Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR),
1999
‘Asset management in the context of this project is the
strategic management of land and buildings assets in
terms of the portfolio as a whole. We have identified
asset management as “optimising the utilisation of as-
sets in terms of service benefit and financial return.”
There is a difference between this type of asset man-
agement and day-to-day property and project man-
agement, and property services. Asset management is
concerned with the long term view of all the local au-
thority’s assets, including those held and used by in-
dividual service departments, as well as those held by
a local authority but used by an external organisa-
tion, such as the community organisation or a tenant
of an industrial unit.’
Asset Management of Local Authority Land and
Buildings – Good Practice Guidelines, DETR, 2000
‘Local authority land and property assets are held as
a support to the main business of an authority, which
is to provide services. First and foremost, the property
resource must be used to maximise benefits to services
in the most efficient and effective manner. The excep-
tion is where property assets are primarily held for
financial rather than service requirements. In this
case, the focus will be on maximising financial return.
The Research Project (Measuring Performance in the
Management of Local Authority Property, DETR
1999) and these Guidelines apply the term asset
management to the authority-wide management of
local authority assets. Furthermore, asset manage-
ment is applied in terms of the long term strategic
view of all the local authority’s assets. It covers the
strategic issues related to all aspects of estate manage-
ment and development. This differs from the day-to-
day provision of estate and project management
services such as building maintenance, rent reviews
and so on.’
There appears to be considerable consensus over the
basic characteristics of strategic asset management for
land and buildings and a distinction between this and
operational property management. Therefore, for the
purposes of this book, we have sought to differentiate
between the two activities as follows:
Strategic asset management for land and buildings
is the activity that ensures that the land and build-
ings asset base of an organisation is optimally struc-
tured in the best corporate interest of the
organisation concerned. It seeks to align the asset
base with the organisation’s corporate goals and ob-
jectives. It requires business skills as well as prop-
erty skills although only an overall knowledge of
property matters is required. However property
input within the overall process is imperative. It
does not seek to respond solely to the requirements of
any particularly operating part of the organisation,
but rather, it seeks to take all requirements into ac-
count and to deliver the optimal solution in terms of
the organisation’s overall operational and financial
goals and objectives. It has a consultancy and execu-
tive orientation. It is a corporate, that is, whole or-
ganisation, activity and may be led and/or
coordinated by a property, construction or facilities
professional, although this is not always the case.
Property management is the activity that ensures
that land and buildings matters are dealt with so
that they operate efficiently and effectively. In effect
it delivers the strategic asset management objectives
for land and buildings. It is sometimes referred to as
‘operational’ and it is the activity of undertaking the
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
6
professional/technical work necessary to ensure
that property is in the condition desired, in the
form and layout and location desired and supplied
with the services required, together with related
activities such as the disposal of surplus property,
the construction or acquisition of new property, the
valuation of property, dealing with landlord and
tenant and rating matters, all at an optimum and
affordable cost. It also involves offering advice to
decision makers on the best ways of doing this.
It has a customer orientation and it is normally un-
dertaken by property, construction or facilities
professionals and technicians.
Therefore strategic asset management for land and
buildings is:
G involved with business, corporate and organisa-
tional objectives;
G concerned with both non-financial and financial
matters;
G connected with property management;
G systematic and coordinated;
G concerned with whole life costs and benefits;
G involved with planning on a medium/long term
basis;
G a corporate activity and not solely the province of
property, construction and facilities professionals;
G an activity that sees property as a key strategic re-
source in an organisation.
This book focuses on ‘strategic asset management
for land and buildings’ and describes the techniques
that are needed to practice it well. The techniques and
practices of property management are not covered
by these guidelines other than in those areas where it
overlaps with strategic asset management for land and
buildings.
For simplicity, ‘strategic asset management for land
and buildings’ is referred to as ‘asset management’ in
the remainder of this book.
1.2 CONCEPT DIAGRAM AND ARRANGEMENT
OF THE GUIDELINES
In deciding on the structure of the content of this book
we have first considered the basic business process for
effective asset management. This is based on a simple
process which has been described in varying ways in
many business management texts. Our version of it is
shown in Figure 1.1.
From this we can begin to define the various activities
involved in asset management in each part of the
7
Chapter 1: What is Public Sector Asset Management?
Figure 1.1: A simple business process for effective asset management
STRATEGY
REVIEW DELIVERY
IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES
process. These are described in Figure 1.2 by the text
in the ellipses.
However this does not describe the full range of activ-
ities involved in asset management. There are a num-
ber of essential enabling activities and subjects which
support the basic business process activities. These are
shown in box at the centre of Figure 1.2.
As a result, this book is arranged in the following
chapters:
G Strategy and vision development
G Asset programmes
G Delivery – Strategic implementation issues
G Review and performance management
G Change management
G Leadership and customers – Leadership for assets
G Organisational issues
G Resources and capacity
G Sustainability and corporate social responsibility
G Data and information management
G Asset management – An international discipline
This will enable the reader to work through the whole
asset management process and understand the plan-
ning, process, delivery, resourcing, data management
and practical implications of preparing an asset plan. It
will also enable the reader to ‘dip-in’ to any individual
chapters which are particularly relevant at any given
time.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
8
Figure 1.2: Business process for assets and supporting activities
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
9
2.1 THE PURPOSE AND ROLE OF ASSET
STRATEGIES
Overview
In these guidelines, ‘asset strategy’ is used to describe the
general direction that the asset base will take over the
next 5–10 years, the approach to be adopted in getting
there and the policies that will be applied to decision
making. In consequence, it would consider the business
goals and objectives of the organisation, its business
drivers, its financial context and the implications for the
organisation’s assets. It would describe the organisation’s
asset objectives and its longer term vision for the asset
base, the way in which each category of the asset base
would be treated in the future and the overall financial
framework in which this would happen.
The asset strategy is almost always a central part
of a wider document: the asset management plan.
In addition to the strategy this wider asset manage-
ment plan will also describe the organisational
arrangements that are to be adopted to implement the
strategy and will make clear the critical success factors
and associated performance measures that will need to
be met in implementing the strategy, together with an
assessment of current performance.
This chapter of the guidelines focuses on strategy
preparation while other chapters of the guidelines
cover organisational and performance management is-
sues. This chapter also covers the overall content of an
asset management plan (including its asset strategy
element).
Chapter 2
Strategy and
Vision
Development
Keith Jones, Director, Performent Consulting
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Chapter overview
This chapter describes the nature and content of
asset strategies. It also describes the key steps in
preparing asset strategies.
Benefits of good asset management plans
(including asset strategies)
G Aligns asset objectives with organisational
objectives
G Ensures overall efficient and effective use of
assets in the medium/long term
G Provides:
– a platform for structured and rigorous for-
ward thinking;
– a basis for corporate and consultative strategy
development;
– an explicit description of the direction of the
organisation (or a particular aspect of that
organisation, in this case, assets) – i.e. the
elements of the strategy;
– a clear statement for communicating the
strategy to the organisation;
– a basis for future decision making
G Asset strategy is placed in the context of wider
organisational issues
G Brings clarity to the way assets are managed in
the organisation:
– the organisational arrangements for asset
management;
– corporate processes for assets;
– performance measures and measurement;
– data management;
– capacity management
Strategy development – an iterative process
It will be almost impossible to get the first asset strat-
egy ‘right’. The process of refining the strategy may take
several years especially if the asset base concerned is
complex and extensive. The process will be iterative,
gradually refining and reviewing all aspects of the
strategy over time. This is shown in Figure 2.1.
Even after the strategy has been refined, over time it will
still be necessary to review it annually and whilst it may
not change radically year on year, it will need to change
as the organisation itself changes and as the outside en-
vironment and customer requirements change.
In simple terms the purpose of a strategy is to provide:
G a platform for structured and rigorous forward
thinking;
G a basis for corporate and consultative strategy de-
velopment;
G an explicit description of the direction that the or-
ganisation wishes to take with its assets;
G a clear statement for communicating the strategy to
the organisation; and
G a basis for future decision making.
Asset strategy should be distinguished from asset pro-
grammes. Asset programmes are the mechanisms by
which the asset strategy will be put into place, increas-
ingly on a two-, three- or four-year rolling basis. They
are the practical and implementable actions to put the
strategy in place and will be technically and financially
robust (these are discussed further in Chapter 3).
Fitting the asset strategy into the organisation’s
business process
The asset strategy needs to be part of the organisation’s
overall business process and Figure 2.2 gives the broad
conceptual position of the asset strategy in the overall
organisational planning framework.
2.2 THE COVERAGE OF THE ASSET
MANAGEMENT PLAN (INCLUDING THE ASSET
STRATEGY)
Whilst less has been written about the content of asset
strategies themselves, much has been written about the
content of asset management plans (which include the
asset strategy) and a very useful summary of some of
these is given in Leeds University’s Research Docu-
ment, Improving Property Asset Management in the
Central Civil Government Estate (Leeds University for
the Office of Government Commerce, 2006) which re-
views the suggested asset management plan content of
the following:
G New South Wales Treasury, Australia
G Department of Education and Employment, UK
G Federal Real Property Council, USA
G Cambridge County Council, UK
G Consortium of Local Authorities in Wales (CLAW),
UK
G The Lyons Report, UK
G Institute of Asset Management, UK
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
10
Business
Drivers
Testing
Buy-in
Visioning
Property
Review 1
Property
Review 2
Property
Review 3
Review Review Review
Property
Programmes
Property
Programmes
Property
Programmes
Asset
Strategy
Yr 1
Asset
Strategy
Yr 2
Asset
Strategy
Yr 3
Asset
Strategy
Yr 4
Years
Figure 2.1: Refining the strategy – an iterative process
11
Chapter 2: Strategy and Vision Development
ICT
Strategy
Corporate
Strategy
Annual (or 2/3 year Rolling)
Capital and Recurring Expenditure
Programmes
Asset
Strategy
HR
Strategy
Procurement
Strategy
Partners
External
Environment
Operating Units’
Strategies
Corporate Operating
and Governance
Policies
Financial
Context
Capital and Recurring Revenue
Expenditure Strategy
Figure 2.3
Figure 2.2: Position of the asset strategy in the overall planning process
Further examples of asset management plan content
can be found in PAS 55 (Publicly Available Specification
55) – Asset Management (BSI, 2004); NAMS Property
Manual (National Asset Management Steering
(NAMS) Group, Thames, New Zealand, 2006);
RICS/ODPM Guidance on Asset Management 2005
(RICS/ODPM, 2005).
Drawing from these references, an example of the content
of an asset management plan is illustrated in Table 2.1.
Whilst it is unrealistic to set a maximum length for
such documents they should be kept as short as possi-
ble by distilling down the ‘essence’ of what needs to be
communicated. The reason for this is that a key role of
the asset management plan is to get the message across
to those who may be busy or who may not be moti-
vated to read a long document on a subject that they
may consider is only of indirect importance to them.
It is helpful to summarise the strategy in a single
page or in two or three diagrams. This might then be
used as the ‘executive summary’.
2.3 KEY ELEMENTS OF PREPARING ASSET
STRATEGIES
The stages
The process of preparing an asset strategy is covered in
the five key stages shown in Figure 2.3. These are cov-
ered, in turn, in the rest of this chapter. The process
will depend on the particular needs of your organisa-
tion.
Business drivers
The first stage must be to identify the key business
drivers that determine the overall direction of the or-
ganisation and in particular to understand the likely
implications of these drivers for assets. There are many
issues to consider and they will be particular to the or-
ganisation concerned. A ‘mind map’ of just some of
them is provided in Figure 2.4.
Business
Drivers
Visioning Buy-in Testing Strategy
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
12
Purpose and expectation of the strategy G Why does the organisation have an asset strategy?
G How does it fit with other planning documents and the overall
business process?
The organisation’s goals and objectives G What is the organisation seeking to do, making sure that those
and the organisation’s major business business drivers that have asset implications are highlighted?
drivers (service/policy delivery/ The key directions and aspirations of the organisation
production and financial) G Organisational mission, vision and values
G Key organisational objectives (internal and external)
The organisation’s financial context G Overall financial position of the organisation
G Financial outlook
G Financial context for asset decision making
The gap between where the asset base G What the business drivers mean for the asset base
is now and where the organisation wants G Gap analysis
it to be, i.e. the implications for assets G Approach to closing/eradicating the gap
Asset goals and objectives and G Explicit statement of asset goals and objectives
the organisation’s vision for its asset G The overall approach to the use of assets
base over the next, say 10 years G Key themes
G How the asset base will help delivery of the business objectives
Critical success factors G Drawn from the asset goals, objectives and vision
G This will form the basis for future performance measurement
The approach to each category of the G The way in which the organisation will approach and decide upon
asset base (i.e. the gap analysis and the the future of each part of the asset base by category
way the gap will be closed or narrowed –
in effect, this charts out the strategy itself)
Broad resource implications of the G Capital implications
strategy, particularly financial (in some G Recurring (resource/revenue/current) expenditure implications
parts of the public sector this is referred G ICT implications
to as the ‘capital strategy’ for assets) but G HR implications
also ICT, HR and procurement G Broad investment and divestment strategy for assets
G The overall approach to sourcing and procurement
Performance management for assets G The performance measures to be used, drawn for the critical
success factors
G The performance management system
G Current performance and key historic trends
Organisational arrangements for asset G Structural issues
management G Roles and responsibilities
G Governance and decision making
G Relationships with stakeholders
G Corporate processes for asset management
G Data management
G Capacity management
Strategic action and milestones G The main actions that will be taken over the next year to deliver
the strategy
G Some will be actions to develop the strategy
G Some will be actions to implement asset change
G Some will be actions to implement organisational change
Table 2.1: Content of an asset management plan (including the asset strategy)
A start can often be made by consulting documents
and plans produced by the organisation – business
strategies, business plans, operating unit plans, finan-
cial statements and documents. However, this will not
be enough. The documents will often be out of date
and are unlikely to look far enough ahead (5–10 years).
In addition some matters may be confidential or may
not be written down. It is essential to meet with the key
players in the organisation to discuss their views on fu-
ture direction and plans. These key players might in-
clude senior managers (including politicians if
applicable), heads of operating units, senior finance
staff, senior policy making and organisational devel-
opment staff, heads of ICT and HR and so on. From
this, a picture of the future direction of the organisa-
tion will emerge and it is often surprising how much
agreement on this there is.
Having understood the organisation’s business
drivers, some visioning for assets can now begin.
Visioning
It is a truism that there are always two conflicting
pressures on an organisation. One is the desire to take
new initiatives and the second is financial constraint.
Any asset visioning needs to strike a balance between
the two but at this early stage it may not be easy to
quantify either. As a result visioning is an iterative
process.
The visioning should take the information gleaned
from the assessment of business drivers and seek to
map this information onto the asset base. What will be
the implications for the asset base? These implications
are likely to be in the following three categories:
G Asset objectives (What do the business drivers in-
dicate our asset objectives should be?) These objec-
tives will form the basis of the indicators that would
be used to measure the contribution the asset base
makes to corporate performance
G General themes and the approach to these themes
(e.g. working environment, co-location, mainte-
nance, regeneration, standards, branding, approach
to public realm/landscaping, sustainability issues,
etc.)
G Broad approaches to be adopted for each asset cat-
egory of asset/accommodation in the asset base
(e.g. schools, adult care, teaching blocks, student
accommodation, offices, hospital wards, customer
access points, etc.)
The vision will clarify the dynamic between financial
matters and new initiatives. For example, it will seek to
broadly quantify capital release, recurring expenditure
efficiencies, whilst at the same time explaining the broad
thrust of the organisation’s new initiatives. It will also
identify where any other non-asset responses are needed,
for example, if a workstyle policy is to be followed to im-
prove productivity, recruitment and retention, which
will change office accommodation requirements, then
it will also be necessary to pursue parallel HR and ICT
strategies which will enable the change.
A good way of bringing this vision to life will be for
the asset manager to chart out an ‘Aunt Sally’ and then
for this to be debated and honed at a workshop with
the senior representatives of operating units, the cor-
porate centre and support services.
The visioning stage should end with an agreed pre-
liminary vision for the future of assets in the organisa-
tion.
Buy-in
Before doing any further work it will be important to
get the buy-in of top managers and, as appropriate,
13
Chapter 2: Strategy and Vision Development
Corporate goals, objectives and strategy
Corporate values and policy
Financial outlook of the organisation
The organisation’s vision for its future
Operating Unit’s aspirations and plans
Brand
Customer interface
Possible changes in government policy
Changes in internal organisation and structure
Changes in the external operating environment
Strategy and actions of partners
The organisation’s vision for property
Suitability and alignment of existing property portfolio
Procurement
Efficiency savings
Relationship with other key resources
Sustainability and environment
Possibilities for co-location
Impact of outsourcing/partnering/shared
service provision
Changes in headcount
Impact of alternative workstyle
Access
Regulation and standards
Asset
Strategy
Figure 2.4: A mind map of some of the issues to consider in understanding business drivers for the asset strategy
senior politicians/board members/trustees. This may
best be achieved by presenting the draft vision, and the
logic behind it, to a meeting of these senior personnel.
The process of ‘brokering’ (acting as a go-between
and facilitator with all the internal parties who have an
interest in the asset strategy) an asset vision with sen-
ior management may have some other very important
additional benefits, for example:
G getting asset issues on the corporate agenda;
G clarifying business drivers and corporate policy;
G clarifying organisation issues that need to be ad-
dressed in relation to assets;
G facilitating and promoting change in the organisa-
tion as a whole.
Testing
Once there is an agreed asset vision, the specifics of this
vision can be developed into the organisation’s draft
asset strategy (this should be a short step). This may be
termed a ‘strategy proposition’ so that the organisation
is clear that at this stage it is merely work in progress
which remains to be tested.
Testing can then begin. The testing process will
comprise high level financial, assets, ICT and HR
issues. This testing is very broad and generic and
should not be confused with detailed feasibility and ap-
praisal work which would follow later. What you are
seeking to do is to find out if the strategy is realistic or
whether it may need amendment.
Examples of how it might be carried out are as follows:
G Financial – Look at the overall estimated capital
costs of the approach outlined in the strategy
proposition and the estimated capital receipts from
the approach. Estimate whether, very broadly, the
approach in the strategy proposition will be fund-
able and over what broad timescale. At this stage
you will probably be using present day costs and
present day values only. You are only seeking to see
whether a strategy proposition of this type is sensi-
ble and warrants further investigation, or whether it
needs amending. Consider any significant changes
in recurring costs. Would this prevent the strategy
proposition being pursued?
G Assets – Assess the broad feasibility of the approach
from an asset perspective. Will the land/buildings
be available to purchase? Are there abnormal con-
struction or procurement challenges? What are the
prospects in the property market? Will the result-
ant asset base be manageable? What delivery
vehicles might you use? Are these delivery vehicles
available? What are the overall risks to the organi-
sation? What are the overall asset risks? Are these
risks manageable? Does the organisation have the
appetite for the risks?
G Information and communications technology
(ICT) and human resources (HR) – The implica-
tions of the strategy proposition for ICT and HR
may be very significant. These implications will
need to be assessed at this early stage not only to
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
14
Figure 2.5: Testing the asset vision
ICT
Feasibility
Asset Vision
Asset Strategy
Property
Feasibility
HR
Feasibility
Financial
Feasibility
High level
testing
make sure that they are taken into account and that
the strategy proposition is realistic in these respects,
but also to flag up these parallel implications to the
organisation and to the ICT and the HR managers.
This will complete the resource picture – finance,
people, assets and ICT.
Asset strategy document
Having completed the testing stage the strategy docu-
ment can now be prepared. It may well have changed
from the original strategy proposition or proposition
that was tested, as the testing process may have flagged
up necessary changes. There may also be a need to ‘bro-
ker’ the final strategy again with top managers, if it has
significantly changed.
2.4 THE PIVOTAL ROLE OF THE ASSET STRATEGY
AND THE ASSET MANAGEMENT PLAN
Asset strategy drives the entire asset management
process. Without asset strategy it is difficult, if not im-
possible, to properly answer the following questions:
G Against what do we assess potential projects?
G What implementation mechanisms are best suited
to our needs?
G How will we measure our success in implementing
our strategy?
G What organisational changes do we need to man-
age to achieve the strategy?
G How should we organise ourselves to implement
our strategy?
G How will we provide the capacity to do it?
G Precisely what data do we need?
15
Chapter 2: Strategy and Vision Development
17
3.1 THE STAGES IN THE PREPARING OF ASSET
PROGRAMMES
The first stage is to review the asset base in detail to ex-
amine the practical implications of the asset strategy.
For a large or diverse asset base this may have to be
done in stages over a number of years.
The second stage is to develop specific projects or
project options designed to implement the strategy.
These projects or project options will need to be eval-
uated to assess both the degree to which they meet
organisational objectives, and their affordability.
The third stage is to bring the most beneficial and
affordable projects together into a programme of proj-
ects for implementation.
Finally, the programme must be financially robust
and be integrated into the organisation’s overall
financial planning, budgeting and monitoring
processes.
The four stages are shown diagrammatically in
Figure 3.1. They are then described in detail in the
paragraphs that follow.
3.2 REVIEW OF THE ASSET BASE
Approach to reviews
Reviews can take place annually or less frequently as
necessary. Some reviews may be statutory, but if not,
Chapter 3
Asset
Programmes
Neil Webster, Partner, GVA Grimley
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Chapter overview
This chapter of the guidelines considers the next part
of the business process, after asset strategies/asset
management plans have been prepared. Once the
asset strategy has provided a clear statement of direc-
tion on the vision for the asset base and the approach
to be adopted to each category of the asset base, more
detailed work needs to be undertaken to translate this
into programmes of action.
Benefits of effective programming
G Formulating programmes is simply management
practice enabling the efficient and economic use
of resources.
G They ensure that strategic initiatives are trans-
lated into actions.
G Their existence gives everyone involved a tem-
plate to work from and a reference document to
ensure the right activities are taking place.
G They assist in making sure that investments
made are effective and efficient.
G They assist in making sure that risks are miti-
gated and managed and ensure that effort is
based on communication and coordination.
Direction set
by the Asset
Strategy
Asset
Review
Project
Evaluation
Programme
Development
Financial
Planning
Figure 3.1
the frequency of review must reflect the nature of the
assets being reviewed. Those that change more rapidly
and have significant impact on organisational per-
formance should be reviewed on a more regular basis.
Reviews can take place for the whole asset base or,
more commonly, for an asset type or within a defined
geographical area. Part of the reason for so doing is
that a review of a large and complex asset base needs
to be broken down into more manageable portions.
The types of review are exemplified in Figure 3.2.
Asset category reviews
Asset category reviews are where the asset base is re-
viewed by considering similar asset types within the
asset base. For example:
G where an asset category of primary schools may be
reviewed within a local authority area or even
nationally, to determine what investment is
required; or
G in response to the LIFT programme, where Primary
Care Trusts review their asset base and produce
business cases to demonstrate an investment need
in primary care; or
G in an office accommodation review.
The case for investment is based on criteria including
condition of premises, inappropriate locations and
health needs.
Geographic area asset reviews
The asset review could also take place within a defined
geographic area. A review of all the assets serving that
area may be undertaken to include, for example, of-
fices, schools, health facilities, community buildings,
police stations, libraries, etc. Or the review may be of
government offices in a UK region or of a campus of a
university or of a specific hospital complex within a
large Health Trust.
This type of review is best suited to a mixed asset
base (or a large single category asset base), within a
specific area.
Reviews and timing
Often it will be necessary to undertake asset category
reviews and geographical area reviews at different
times. The former will clarify specific operational re-
quirements in asset terms and the latter will be impor-
tant in bringing together different asset categories or
in making the analysis of a large asset base manageable.
The timing of asset reviews is unlikely to be concur-
rent and the review of an organisation’s entire asset
base may be spread over a number of years, working
systematically through each category or geographic
area.
Outcome of an asset review
The outcome of an asset review must be the identifi-
cation of potential projects which will move the asset
base from its current state to a state better aligned with
overall organisational objectives. There may be many
possible projects that will achieve this as well as alter-
native options for projects on specific sites. In addition,
the total cost of all the projects/options may exceed the
funding available. For that reason all projects and op-
tions will need to be evaluated to test:
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
18
SERVICE A
SERVICE B
SERVICE C
SERVICE D
CORPORATE RESOURCE
AREA BASED
N
O
R
T
H
O
P
E
R
A
T
I
N
G
U
N
I
T
B
A
S
E
D
W
E
S
T
C
E
N
T
R
A
L
E
A
S
T
S
O
U
T
H
Figure 3.2: Types of asset review
G the degree to which they will meet organisational
objectives from a non-financial and financial per-
spective; and
G the feasibility of project implementation.
3.3 PROJECT EVALUATION (BUSINESS CASES)
The business case
The evaluation of projects can be carried out in many
ways but it is increasingly recognised that this is best
done through undertaking comprehensive outline
business cases. For those projects that successfully pass
through the outline business case stage, a subsequent
detailed business case will usually be prepared.
Reasons for business cases
Business cases are produced:
G so that the taxpayer gets the best value for money;
G so that capital and recurring expenditure implica-
tions are taken into account;
G to integrate other areas that are affected by the proj-
ect concerned;
G to ensure that all the benefits (financial and
non-financial) are captured and assessed.
Part of the business case is, therefore, a cost benefit
analysis.
Key elements of business cases
A variety of business case formats exist. Set out below
are the headings that are likely to be included.
Strategic justification
Strategic justification sets out the strategic context and
overall reasons for the project. What are the opera-
tional objectives which require the project to be un-
dertaken and what are the outcomes desired? How do
these outcomes link to the key business goals of the
organisation?
Options identification
In order to deliver the outcomes what options have
been considered? Whilst at the project outset a long list
of options and sub-options will be discussed, three
broad options are invariably amongst the most impor-
tant considered:
G Do a minimum or do nothing – in effect it asks,
what are the implications if we carry on as we are
now?
G Big bang – a major change initiative, with, for ex-
ample, wholesale new build and significant asset
disposals.
G The middle ground – a middle course with, for ex-
ample, some refurbishment of buildings and pos-
sibly a limited amount of new build.
In choosing your options it is important not to have
too many or too few – three is a very good number to
allow a good range and still remain manageable.
Non-financial assessment
In assessment terms, this is the non-financial evalua-
tion of the project and it is just as important as the
financial evaluation. Issues addressed in this part of
the business case include all of the benefits and
non-financial costs that flow from the project and that
cannot be determined in monetary units. This is where
cost benefit techniques are often used.
These come under a number of headings and cover
political, economic, social, technical, legal and
environmental considerations (sometimes known as
PESTLE). The actual evaluation criteria used will be
derived from organisational and operating objectives
which will have been explained in the asset strategy.
There are various ways in which they can be scored
for each option. For example, each evaluation criterion
can be weighted according to its importance and then
scored (1–5 or 1–10) in terms of its impact. The two fig-
ures are then multiplied out to give a weighted score.
Figure 3.3 below shows an example of a typical matrix
(in this case evaluating alternative options for a project).
Financial assessment
Financial assessments of each project or option should
be undertaken on a Discounted Cash Flow basis fol-
lowing the Treasury Green Book (Appraisal and Eval-
uation in Central Government) principles.
In summary the key principles are as follows:
G equal importance attached to capital and revenue;
G full revenue costs adopted;
G discount rate adopted to reflect when money is ex-
pended in order to produce Net Present Costs and
Values;
G a reasonable period of time, say 20 years, used for
the cash flow;
G sensible conservative assumptions, no optimism
bias (i.e. too rosy a view of the future);
G sensitivity analysis to illustrate the effect if key vari-
ables were to change.
The financial assessment should be robust and be able
to stand up to scrutiny and the content should resem-
ble the example in Figure 3.4.
Asset professionals should note that whilst this as-
sessment shows asset related costs, the asset being cre-
19
Chapter 3: Asset Programmes
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
20
Option 1 Option 2 Option 3a
Do Nothing Reduce 2 Centre
Portfolio to Strategy
30 Buildings
Total Employees in Final Portfolio 3,695 3,695 3,695
Total Site Value and Disposal Income 33,126,033 17,104,013 –5,412,861
Total Refurbishment Costs 0 66,091,404 29,821,604
Total Demolition Costs 0 0 126,351
Total New Build Construction Cost 0 0 41,889,072
Total Refurbishment and Construction Cost 0 66,091,404 71,837,027
Total LC Costs 47,807,023 34,836,725 30,668,188
Total Annual FM Cost 75,381,638 51,570,894 51,641,747
Total Other Costs 4,434,000 9,376,074 5,178,404
TOTAL 20 YEAR COST 160,748,694 178,979,111 153,912,505
cost per head 43,504 48,438 41.654
annual cost per head 2,175 2,422 2,083
Net Present Cost 91,641,613 124,230,462 100,086,483
Equivalent Annual Cost 4,582,081 6,211,523 5,004,324
NPV per head 1,240 1,681 1,354
SUMMARY
(Excluding opportunity costs)
Figure 3.4: Summary sheet of a discounted cash flow appraisal
Weighting Option 1 Option 2 Option 3
Political
Member Satisfaction
Public Satisfaction
Economic
Job Creation/retention
Regeneration
Social
Building Aesthetics
Noise pollution
Service Disruption
Customer Satisfaction
Technical
Storage capacity
Efficiency of buildings (fit for purpose)
Strategic location
Public transport access
Functionality
Condition of IT and other infrastructure
Environment
Pollution levels
Environmental impact
Supply of Land
Energy Efficiency
Sustainability
(Work) Environment
Internal Layout
Car Parking
Training Facilities
Staff Facilities
Legal
DDA
Ease of Obtaining planning
Total Scores
Figure 3.3: Example of a non-financial scoring matrix
ated, refurbished or managed is a key part in the deliv-
ery of a service to customers, i.e. the value of the proj-
ect. So the financial assessment should also include the
effect of options and operational issues on quality of
service and the cost of the service delivery, often drawn
for the non-financial assessment. In the example above,
this is expressed as ‘cost per head’ and ‘NPV per head’.
In other cases it might be expressed as ‘NPV per bene-
fit point’ (benefit point refers to the total weighed
points for that option or project derived from the non-
financial appraisal).
It should also be noted that there is a difference be-
tween value for money and affordability – both must
be assessed. A project may provide good value for
money if it provides extensive overall benefits at high
financial costs – however, these financial costs may not
be affordable.
Commercial assessment
Commercial assessment will answer the following
questions:
G how is it being procured – traditional in-sourcing
or outsourced to the private sector;
G if the former, then freehold or leasehold tenure;
G if leasehold, what is the length of the lease;
G if outsourced, will Facilities Management (FM) and
lifecycle be included in the contract;
G what is the marketplace like for this (these) trans-
action(s);
G is it based on an input specification (defined prod-
ucts) or output based (building performance pa-
rameters);
G what is the payment mechanism – a simple quar-
terly in-advance rent or performance based;
G how have the risks been quantified and have they
been allocated to the party best equipped to manage
them;
G has the risk transfer been correctly priced;
G are there any personnel issues such as TUPE (Trans-
fer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment)
Regulations) transfers;
G what are the implementation timescales and are
there any penalties for under performance?
Project management assessment
The main question here is how is the project going to
be delivered? How will it be governed and who will be
involved? Often there will be a split of these activities,
with a Strategic Project Board dealing with major de-
cisions, to whom a Project Management Team report,
who subsequently deal with day-to-day matters and
decisions.
Does the organisation have the resource and capa-
bility to run the project or is there a need for out-
sourcing/partnering? Often, for example, framework
agreements are used to supplement existing resources
to manage peaks of work and very specialist assign-
ments.
The business case will also need to define standards
and determine how quality is to be controlled/moni-
tored. The financial modelling in the business case will
have quantified both cost and value. Good project and
cost management will ensure that neither the costs go
up nor the quality decreases.
From the production of the outline business case to
the completion of the project there will undoubtedly
be change. How is that change going to be identified;
what mechanisms will be in place to manage and facil-
itate the change; and who will make the decision?
These matters need to be decided and evaluated up-
front, not at a later time when the issue is identified.
An understanding of the Gateway Review Process
(Office of Government Commerce (OGC)) and
PRINCE2 guidance (see the OGC website at:
www.ogc.gov.uk/methods_prince_2.asp) will help with
the project management assessment.
Risk assessment
In the early stages of business cases, risks need to be
identified and quantified in terms of impact and like-
lihood. The risks will be described in each section of
the business case but they will need to be brought to-
gether and assessed and compared. A typical frame-
work for assessing the relative risks of options is given
in Figure 3.5 (in this case the example compares two
different scenarios for change).
Recommendation
The project is assessed by drawing together all the as-
sessments and making a decision on overall value for
money, affordability benefits and non-financial costs
and risks.
3.4 ASSET PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT AND
EVALUATION
Asset Programmes
Having assessed, using business cases, each of the po-
tential projects or project options that have been de-
veloped from the asset review, a realistic programme
of some of the projects (or possibly, all, although this
is unlikely on overall affordability, value and bene-
fit/non-financial costs grounds) will now need to be
assembled that provides the desired value for money,
affordability and benefits.
Development of programmes
The proposed projects to be included in the pro-
gramme should be relatively easily assembled, as each
21
Chapter 3: Asset Programmes
of their business cases will have indicated which are the
more desirable ones. Nonetheless it must be acknowl-
edged that senior decision makers may chose to evalu-
ate some of the non-financial issues in a different way,
or with a different weighting, to those chosen in the
business cases, especially when projects are compared
to each other, or where benefits vary between, for ex-
ample, different communities. Thus, the final selection
of projects in the draft programme may be the subject
of change at the time that the programme is finally
confirmed. However, the business cases will undoubt-
edly inform this decision-making process.
The programme will usually contain a schedule of
actions required to change the asset base. For example:
G acquisitions and new builds;
G refurbishment and maintenance of the stock re-
tained;
G disposals of surplus or unfit-for-purpose assets;
G innovative procurement.
Some of these will be stand-alone tasks, others will in-
terconnect, hence the importance of programme and
project management support.
Some items in the programme will be short term, less
than a year; others may be timetabled over several
years, e.g. large scale projects with long lead-in times.
A timetable for reviews of individual projects and the
overall schedule will be contained in the programme.
Frequent reviews, at least annually, will give rise to pro-
gramme modifications.
Whatever the programme is, it will need to be well
defined (budget, timetables and outputs/outcomes)
and have a series of accompanying performance meas-
ures to judge its success.
3.5 FINANCIAL PLANNING FOR ASSETS
Principles
In effect, the above process (asset review, business case,
programme development) should have resulted in a
programme that is financially robust, but this should
always be checked. Therefore:
G plan ahead;
G ensure that the projects or groups of projects are fi-
nancially sustainable not just affordable in the short
term;
G check that a capital investment today will not create
a massive recurring/revenue expenditure headache
in a few year’s time;
G where possible use capital receipts to reinvest in as-
sets that can help to reduce the future revenue
budget;
G rather than just delivering capital receipts when
needed, develop a pool of monies which can be in-
vested in ‘spend to save’ schemes;
G don’t be afraid to change the financial profile of a
project or programme as a result of an annual review.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
22
Example of ‘First-cut’ Risk Matrix
RISK SCENARIO 1 SCENARIO 2
MAGNITUDE LIKELIHOOD MAGNITUDE LIKELIHOOD
Declining Service Quality
No increase in staff productivity
Risks of assumptions made proving to be erroneous
Service disruption during transition
Gaining planning permission
Property market risks
Construction costs
Construction risks
Public/Community/Political impact
Outsourcing risk
Resistance of staff to accept change
Strategy/Implementation risks
Unforeseen changes in the future
Capital funding risks
Revenue funding risks
Capacity to implement the strategy
Aggregate
– = not applicable
= very low
= low
= moderate
= high
= very high
Figure 3.5: Risk assessment
Figure 3.6: The asset planning process within the overall business planning process
HR
Strategy
Corporate
Strategy
Capital
Expenditure
Programme
Current
Expenditure
Programme
Asset
Strategy
Asset Category
Reviews
Asset Area
Reviews
Business Cases
and Programmes
Investment Plan
for Property
Implementation
Capital
Strategy
for Assets
ICT
Strategy
Partners
External
Environment
Operating Units’
Strategies
Corporate Operating
and Governance
Policies
Financial
Context
Asset management and the annual budget process
Asset strategy, asset reviews, historic performance, as
well as timely production of business cases and robust
programmes, all inform the annual budget process and
the accuracy of the budget. As Figure 3.6 shows, if the
process is running smoothly the forecasting of the cap-
ital and current (resource/revenue/recurring) budgets
associated with assets will be accurate.
23
Chapter 3: Asset Programmes
25
Chapter overview
Delivery of asset strategies and programmes is an
extensive subject in its own right which could jus-
tify a separate book on its own. In addition much
has been written on the subject elsewhere. This
chapter therefore merely seeks to give an overview
of the key issues and to signpost the reader to guide-
lines available elsewhere.
Benefits of good delivery
Put simply, good delivery of asset strategies and pro-
grammes ensures that the intended project benefits
are realised, that good value for money is secured
and that projects are delivered on time.
4.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides a high-level view of the asset
manager’s role and responsibilities in the successful de-
livery of asset management plans and strategies. It
looks at the components underlying successful deliv-
ery and considers the key issues facing the asset man-
ager in delivering asset management plans and
projects.
4.2 OVERVIEW OF DELIVERY
Successful delivery
No matter how well prepared, well written or compre-
hensive an asset strategy or asset management plan is,
it will be wasted and all efforts at asset management
will have failed in the absence of real results and
positive outcomes. Successful delivery depends upon
having:
G the right rationale for delivery;
G the right support, ownership and leadership;
G the right resources;
G the right delivery plan;
G the right delivery processes; and
G the right results.
Developing the rationale is covered in Chapter 2,
Strategy, and Chapter 3, Asset Programmes. Securing
corporate ownership and leadership is examined in
Chapter 8. This chapter focuses upon the remaining
aspects of successful delivery: the resources for delivery,
delivery planning, delivery management, benefits real-
isation and risk.
Key issues
All public sector organisations are challenged with
finding the most efficient way to deliver their services
successfully. Most organisations rely on third parties
for at least some part of their delivery. This is likely to
become an increasing trend across the public sector
and is already well-established practice for property
and construction projects. Studies and evidence gath-
ered by the OGC and the National Audit Office suggest
that there are ‘key things you must get right’ and these
are listed below (drawn from the OGC’s Successful
Delivery Pocketbook, 2006):
G better informed investment decisions;
G more effective engagement with stakeholders;
G capacity and capability: adequate skills;
G better understanding of the supplier marketplace;
G good understanding of the delivery chain;
G effective management of risk;
Chapter 4
Delivery
Elisabeth Carter, Director, Elisabeth Carter
Consulting and Tony Comer, County
Property Officer, Hertfordshire County
Council
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
G taking a ‘whole life’ view;
G active management of intended outcomes.
The cycle of planning and managing delivery
Figure 4.1 represents the overall cycle for planning
and managing delivery. The diagram is an adaptation
of a similar model contained in the Successful Delivery
Pocketbook but contains some additions to reflect the
specific issues and steps that occur in the delivery of
property related projects. The key delivery steps are
presented in their logical sequence. In practice, there
will be a considerable amount of cross-referral between
the various stages. For example, orchestrating the re-
sources for delivery will be greatly influenced by the
chosen means of future delivery whilst the chosen de-
livery model may well be a reflection of the organisa-
tion’s existing resource capability, its approach to risk
and the benefits being sought.
The following delivery steps are considered in turn
in the paragraphs that follow:
G Direction
G Resources and capabilities
G Means of delivery
G Project planning
G Action plan
G Communications
G Monitoring, incentives and benefits realisation
G Risks
4.3 DIRECTION
The direction of major asset related projects should be
guided by the asset strategies and programmes, under-
pinned by a rigorous business case approach, that have
been explained in the previous Chapters of these
guidelines. The further development of the business
case continues to be relevant during delivery. The busi-
ness case is an evolving working document and a vital
management tool in planning and delivering asset
plans and projects.
The OGC’s Successful Delivery Toolkit provides the
detailed explanation, guidance and templates that are
needed to make full and effective use of business cases
in successful project delivery. Business cases are also
closely linked to two other important delivery tools:
the OGC Gateway Review process and PRINCE2 proj-
ect management.
4.4 RESOURCES AND CAPABILITIES
A high-level assessment of resources and costs (in-
cluding whole-life project costs in accordance with HM
Treasury guidance) should have been made and proven
in the business case stages leading up to project deliv-
ery. At the delivery stage, identifying, assessing and se-
curing the resources (human, physical, financial, in-
frastructure and any other resources) necessary to
deliver the plan or project will determine the ability to
deliver successfully.
An examination of capability and capacity should
include the wider delivery chain – both existing and
potential. Innovative ways of delivery are becoming in-
creasingly evident and possible. Case studies and guid-
ance from the sources listed at the end of this chapter
illustrate how collaboration with suppliers and part-
ners from both the public and private sectors can be
widely used for the benefit of delivering property or
accommodation-related projects. Indeed, delivery
through partnership is invariably a key feature of prop-
erty construction and/or property services procure-
ment projects and is considered in more detail later in
this chapter.
4.5 MEANS OF DELIVERY
Third party involvement and partnership
Public sector organisations are increasingly looking to
third parties to help deliver services and projects. This
is particularly evident in the case of support services,
such as property services, and in the delivery of com-
plex or specialist projects that lie outside the scope of
the organisation’s normal experience or capacity, such
as large construction projects. Indeed, the expectation
is that public sector organisations will use third party
suppliers unless there are justifiable and value for
money reasons for doing otherwise.
The prevailing theme, and certainly the approach
promoted by the Achieving Excellence in Construction
initiative, is on partnership. This requires both part-
ners to the contract to be working collaboratively in
delivering the objectives of the contracted service
and/or project, with a shared commitment (and in-
variably an incentive) to continuous improvement and
value for money.
The Public Accounts Committee Report Improving
Construction Performance (December, 2001) advises as
follows:
‘There is scope for benefits in terms of quality, faster
construction times and financial savings through con-
tractors and their clients working more closely to-
gether in longer-term relationships (partnering).
Safeguards include the appointment of partners
through competition; periodically re-tendering; agree-
ing clear, measurable targets for continuous improve-
ments in quality, delivery time and cost reductions;
establishing payment arrangements to give contrac-
tors incentives to be innovative and cost effective; and
securing reasonable access to contractors’ financial
records and cost information to check that agreed
improvements in efficiency and performance are
being achieved.’
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
26
27
Chapter 4: Delivery
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Whole life
Decisions about the delivery and procurement of prop-
erty related projects should always be on the basis of
value for money over the whole life of the facility or
service and not on the initial capital cost alone. OGC’s
Best Practice briefing Value for Money Evaluations in
Complex Procurements explains how to take account of
all the factors when making an investment decision.
Procurement strategies and procurement routes
There are two key outputs to help determine the means
of delivery: the procurement strategy and the procure-
ment route. The procurement strategy identifies the
best way of achieving the objectives of the project and
value for money, taking account of the risks and con-
straints. The procurement route delivers the procure-
ment strategy. It includes the contract strategy that will
best meet the client’s needs, where this is relevant to
the procurement route chosen.
OGC’s Achieving Excellence in Construction Pro-
curement Guide recommends that the following factors
should be considered when developing the procure-
ment strategy:
G the project objectives;
G constraint;
G cultural factor;
G risk;
G capabilities to manage a project over the whole life-
cycle;
G the length of operational service required from the
facility.
Procurement route options are clearly influenced and,
to a large degree, determined by the procurement strat-
egy. Choices are additionally influenced by government
policy. There are specific requirements relating to con-
struction projects. Since April 2000, construction proj-
ects should be procured by one of the three
recommended procurement routes:
G PFI – where the public sector contracts to purchase
services and/or products (such as new serviced ac-
commodation) on a long-term basis in exchange
for a yearly unitary payment and where private sec-
tor skills are incentivised by having private finance
at risk. This is only recommended for projects
exceeding £20m capital cost.
G Prime contracting – using a single contractor to act
as the sole point of responsibility to a public sector
client for the management and delivery of a con-
struction project.
G Design and build (and also operate, as appropriate) –
using a single contractor to act as the sole point of
responsibility to a public sector client for the de-
sign, management, delivery (and operation, where
included) of a construction project.
4.6 PROJECT STRUCTURE AND GOVERNANCE
The need for good governance
This aspect of project delivery concerns the project
management and governance arrangements that
clearly establish reporting lines, roles and responsibil-
ities for delivery both within the department/organi-
sation and with others in the delivery chain, such as
partners and suppliers.
Lack of clarity and acceptance about decision mak-
ing, reporting and accountability arrangements are fre-
quent reasons for project delay, increased costs and, in
extreme circumstances, project breakdown. This is par-
ticularly the case where third parties involved in deliv-
ering the project (such as delivering the procured
property or serviced accommodation) have not been
effectively included in the project management and de-
cision-making structure.
PRINCE2
PRINCE2 project management principles and practice
are now widely adopted and applied throughout the
public sector to ensure that programmes and projects
are well and effectively managed. Using a PRINCE2
project management approach will help construct a
decision-making framework that can also accommo-
date governance requirements and is recommended as
an aid to planning and managing the delivery of asset
management projects and programmes. The approach
can be adapted to suit the individual project and or-
ganisation requirements.
Inclusion
Care needs to be taken to ensure that the project man-
agement arrangements take account of the various
governance requirements of all participating partners.
For example, particular requirements may apply to dif-
ferent public, charity, voluntary or not-for-profit or-
ganisations and these will need to be accommodated
in the project management structure, as determined by
the mix of partners involved.
Roles and responsibilities
The OGC’s Achieving Excellence Guide 2 – Project Or-
ganisation provides some very useful guidance about
the key roles and responsibilities involved in construc-
tion procurement projects. The advice is equally rele-
vant for delivering any property related project. It
highlights the important points to note about report-
ing and decision making and recommends an inte-
grated project team whilst also incorporating the
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
28
elements and roles of a PRINCE2 project management
approach.
Figure 4.2 shows the roles within an integrated
project team involved in a typical construction project.
The roles of the various players are described in detail
in Achieving Excellence Guide 2. Details about the sup-
ply team and independent client adviser roles are con-
tained in the companion guide, Achieving Excellence
Guide 5 – The Integrated Project Team.
4.7 PROJECT PLANNING
Project plan
The development of the project plan is clearly a prod-
uct of all the other stages of the delivery planning cycle.
Adopting PRINCE2 project management principles
provides a framework for developing, managing, pro-
cessing and delivering the overall project plan and
makes use of concepts and tools to help make project
delivery more manageable.
The project plan provides an overview of the total
project and identifies its key outputs. It sets out the
project costs and is used as a basis against which to
monitor actual costs and project progress, stage by
stage.
Stage plans
A stage plan is required for each identified stage of the
overall project. This is similar in content to the project
plan but each element is broken down to the level of
detail required to be an adequate basis for day-to-day
control by the project manager. Stage plans are re-
quired to go through defined reporting and approval
processes from commencement through to completion
and ‘sign-off ’. Variations to approved stage plans are
managed through a process of exception plans.
4.8 COMMUNICATIONS
It is particularly critical to think about the end-user’s/oc-
cupier’s perspective and to ensure a customer-focused
view. It is recommended that the project sponsor should
ensure that stakeholders, including user representatives,
provide important input in developing the outputs re-
quired from the proposed delivery.
Anticipate and determine how to resolve conflict-
ing demands. Think about how to achieve stakeholder
buy-in and how to overcome resistance to changes or
proposals. PRINCE2 advocates the development and
use of a live communication plan throughout project
delivery. It will be necessary to determine how to com-
municate and consult with stakeholders from the out-
set through to completion of delivery.
29
Chapter 4: Delivery
Stakeholders,
including end-users
Independent
client adviser/s
Integrated project team
Client team:
SRO project sponsor
and support as
required
Managed by:
project sponsor
and project
manager
Supply team:
Integrated supply
chains of consultants,
constructors,
specialist
suppliers and
facilities
managers
Figure 4.2: The Integrated Project Team
4.9 MONITORING, INCENTIVES AND BENEFITS
REALISATION
Performance measurement is the activity of checking
actual performance against targets throughout the life
of a project, during construction and through the op-
erational life of the completed facility. The delivery of
a project is subject to three main stages of evaluation,
or monitoring:
G project evaluation;
G post-project review; and
G post-implementation review.
The business case, which continues to be refined
throughout the delivery of the project, will establish
the project objectives, key benefits and critical meas-
ures and indicators of success. Depending upon the
nature of the project there will be output specifications
and other related documents, particularly those relat-
ing to procurement arrangements. All these documents
provide the basis for developing the measures and
processes against which future benefits can be assessed
and evaluated. All require effective performance man-
agement if they are to be delivered.
The project plan and associated project manage-
ment processes and reviews provide the means for
monitoring project progress and delivery. This stage is
about monitoring the effectiveness, performance and
benefits of the subsequent results or outcomes of the
project and lies at the heart of being able to demon-
strate the success or otherwise of delivering an asset
management strategy, plan or project.
A post-project review is carried out after construc-
tion is completed and focuses on how well the project
was managed. It includes the views of suppliers and
specialists at the point of actual delivery and considers
performance against key performance indicators.
A post-implementation review, also known as post-
occupancy evaluation, should be carried out when the
facility has been in use long enough to determine
whether the business benefits have been achieved from
the investment in the facility, as justified in the busi-
ness case.
Post-project review and post-implementation re-
view need to be thought about and prepared for in the
early stages of planning delivery. They should not be
left as a post-script or an after-thought as the project
nears completion or has been completed.
The elements of managing performance are broadly
similar and are summarised in Figure 4.3.
4.10 RISKS
The OGC website provides some excellent risk man-
agement guidance, tools and techniques with access,
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
30
Origins
What are we trying to
achieve?
What constitutes
success?
Building a
performance
framework
What processes and
outputs do we need
to know about?
Choosing
performance measures
What will be measured?
Setting targets
What levels of
performance are
acceptable?
Should
performance
improve over
time?
Defining
processes
Who will collect
the data and how?
What will that cost?
Performance
monitoring and
measurement
activity
What’s happening
now?
Using performance
information
Have we met our
targets?
How can we improve?
Review
Did we find out
what we
needed to know?
Should we redefine
success?
What can we learn
from this?
Did we realise the benefits
we wanted?
Figure 4.3: Performance Management Cycle
also, to the Achieving Excellence Guides which include
guidance specifically designed for the procurement of
property construction. Practitioners are strongly urged
to access these information sources and make full use
of the material available.
The Modernising Construction report (NAO, 1999)
highlighted inadequate use and understanding of risk
management and value management as barriers to im-
provement in construction performance. Weak risk
management features regularly in Gateway review rec-
ommendations and is one of the most common areas
of concern. A requirement for risk management
arrangements should be incorporated in relevant ten-
der documentation.
The aim of risk management is to ensure that risks
are identified at project inception, their potential impacts
allowed for and, where possible, the risks or their impacts
minimised. Risk management in construction and prop-
erty related projects involves the following key stages:
G identifying and assessing risks in terms of impact
and probability;
G establishing and maintaining a risk register, and a
risk owner identified for each risk. The risk register
should be regularly updated throughout the proj-
ect lifecycle;
G responding to risks to contain them within accept-
able limits. This information forms the risk man-
agement plan;
G monitoring, updating and controlling risks;
G feedback on how well risks were managed and les-
sons learned.
A suggested approach for assessing the status of each
identified risk is against a matrix of its probability
(high/medium/low probability) and impact (high/
medium/low impact) (this approach has been de-
scribed in the previous chapter).
Deciding upon the appropriate response to a risk,
which will then be recorded in the risk management
plan, can only occur after a risk’s possible causes and
effects have been considered and fully understood. It
will take the form of one or more of the following
management actions:
G avoidance;
G reduction;
G transfer;
G retention/acceptance.
4.11 CONCLUSION
This chapter has sought to outline the broad steps to
delivery of an asset strategy/asset management plan. It
is not intended to be a detailed guide to implementa-
tion and asset managers are strongly urged to consult
the extensive information provided elsewhere.
Some excellent on-line sources providing detailed
guidance, tools and templates to support the practical
delivery of asset management projects and pro-
grammes are readily available. The primary sources are
listed below:
G OGC’s Successful Delivery Toolkit on the Office of
Government Commerce (OGC) website at:
www.ogc.gov.uk/resource_toolkit.asp
G OGC’s Achieving Excellence Guides on the OGC
website at: www.ogc.gov.uk/ppm_documents_con
struction.asp
G Improvement and Development Agency (I&DeA)
Project, programme and change management toolkit
on the I&DeA website at: www.idea.gov.uk
G ‘The Estate We’re In’ and other publications and in-
formation – Public Private Partnership Programme
(4ps) on the 4ps website at: www.4ps.gov.uk
Other useful sources of information, case studies,
methodologies and guidance on various aspects of
asset management project and programme delivery
can be found on the following organisations’ websites:
G Audit Commission at: www.audit-commission.gov.uk
G National Audit Office at: www.nao.gov.uk
G HM Treasury at: www.hm-treasury.gov.uk
G CIPFA at: www.cipfa.org.uk
G Partnerships UK (PUK) at www.partnershipsuk.org.uk
G Department of Communities and Local Government
at: www.communities.gov.uk
31
Chapter 4: Delivery
33
first considers how an asset management system is
reviewed, to ensure that the key elements of good
asset management are in place. It then goes on to
consider how the performance of assets is measured and
monitored, in terms of meeting business objectives.
5.2 REVIEWING THE ASSET MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
Using a framework
Some might say that this is where an asset manager
should start and in many ways that is true. All asset
managers should review, at the beginning of their
tenure, or when circumstances dictate, whether all the
key elements of asset management are present in their
organisation. The paragraphs that follow explain how
those key elements can be assessed and they assume
knowledge of the entire content of these guidelines in
doing so. We therefore urge the reader to read all the
chapters in this book before undertaking a review of
the organisation’s asset management system.
The review should seek to establish whether all
the elements of the key diagram (see Figure 1.1 in
Chapter 1 – What is public sector asset management?)
are in place in the organisation and the extent to which
improvements will need to be made.
To do this, there is a need for an evaluation frame-
work to do so. We suggest that this framework should
be based on some description of good practice, be it
Chapter 5
Review and
Performance
Management
Christopher Hedley and Ian Jeffries,
IPD (Investment Property Databank)
and Keith Jones, Director, Performent
Consulting
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Chapter overview
G Assessing the performance of the entire asset
management system in an organisation is often a
prerequisite to more technical performance im-
provement.
G Metrics are a key feature in effective performance
management of the asset base. Measurement
through the balanced scorecard, key perform-
ance indicators (KPIs), business ratios and
benchmarking enable positive action to be taken
to improve delivery, financial efficiency and the
quality of service to customers.
Benefits of performance management
G An ability to track operations and assess when
optimal performance is achieved.
G Performance reviews using corporate ratios,
scorecard results, KPIs and benchmarking exer-
cises all add value by showing how performance
gaps can be closed and ‘beacon’ performance
replicated across many organisations.
5.1 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Coverage of this chapter
Before going on to describe techniques used to manage
the performance of the asset base itself, this chapter
these guidelines or, for example, The Maturity Matrix
fromImproving Property Asset Management in the Cen-
tral Civil Government Estate (Leeds University for the
Office of Government Commerce, 2006), PAS 55 –
Asset Management 2004 (IAM/BSI, 2004) or the NAMS
Property Manual 2006 (NAMS Group, Thames, New
Zealand, 2006). We describe below an example using
the key elements of these guidelines.
The stages are as follows and are shown in
Figure 5.1:
G define your evaluation framework;
G identify your assessment criteria;
G define your assessment method;
G assess performance;
G set targets, identify improvement action, and
implement that action.
Evaluation framework
Decide where performance needs to be measured.
Using the content of these guidelines, that would mean
the following:
G strategy development;
G programme development;
G programme delivery;
G performance management;
G change management;
G leadership;
G customer focus;
G organisation and roles and responsibilities;
G resources and capacity;
G sustainability;
G data management;
G value for money.
Different organisations may decide to use different
headings but the coverage will broadly be the same.
Next decide on the key issues to be examined in each.
Taking strategy development as an example, the fol-
lowing might be chosen.
G How well is the relationship between organisational
business drivers and property implications under-
stood?
G How well is visioning undertaken?
G How well is buy-in achieved?
G How well is the strategy proposition tested and it-
erated?
G How well is the asset strategy articulated and com-
municated?
G How well is the asset strategy placed in the context
of a wider asset management plan?
G How well is the strategy used as the basis for per-
formance measurement?
G How well is the link between strategy, programmes
and delivery made?
Assessment method
This is normally achieved by scoring each of the key is-
sues on a scale of, say, 0-5 (or possibly 0-10) – where 0
would represent very poor performance and 5 would
represent excellent performance. A decision will need
to be made on whether or how the scores should be
weighted, which may vary for different organisations,
depending on the particular requirements and priori-
ties of the organisation concerned.
Assess performance
The measurement may be difficult for the asset man-
ager, who may find it difficult to be objective or may be
too familiar with the detail to stand back sufficiently. If
this is the case then perhaps another manager from
elsewhere in the organisation might do it, or a ‘peer’ in
another, similar organisation, or a consultant special-
ising in such assessments. Independence and objectiv-
ity will be important.
Once the assessment has been made it will need to
be made explicit and understood. It can be sum-
marised as shown in Figure 5.2.
This assessment now leads to a clear understanding
of where action needs to be taken to improve per-
formance.
Identify improvement action and implement that
action
The improvement action needs to be clear and agreed
across the organisation. Chapter 6 of these guidelines
explains how change should be handled when imple-
menting the action.
In subsequent years, the assessment process can be
undertaken again to see how performance in this area
has improved.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
34
Evaluation
Framework
Assessment
Criteria
Assessment
Method
Assess
Performance
Improvement
Action
Figure 5.1
5.3 DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT FOR THE ASSET BASE
The paragraphs that follow introduce the concepts of
performance management and performance review
and explain how managers can use these techniques to
measure how well their assets are functioning and then
take appropriate action to increase productivity, im-
prove service quality or deliver savings specifically from
property.
Performance management is simply about adopt-
ing a systematic approach to help improve organisa-
tional ‘performance’. That is to say, the extent to which
organisations are able to achieve desired outcomes –
its corporate objectives.
A successful performance management system may
include the following key elements, each of which will
be examined in turn:
G measuring organisational performance;
G a balanced scorecard;
G key performance indicators;
G measuring property performance;
G data validation;
G review and quality management;
G benchmarking;
G reporting;
G improvement action.
These key steps are shown in Figure 5.3
Understanding organisational performance
When starting out on the performance measurement
process it is important to:
G gain a complete understanding of the organisation’s
direction and specific objectives;
G identify the key challenges and opportunities relat-
ing to each of these objectives;
G clarify the most compelling strategies for achieving
them – addressing the challenges and exploiting the
opportunities.
These high-level goals help to define ‘organisational
performance’ and undertaking this process will help to
identify the most important factors of performance
measurement of assets, not just those measures which
are merely convenient or easy to obtain.
35
Chapter 5: Review and Performance Management
Programmes
Delivery
Strategy
Data
Sustainability
Performance
Management
Change
Leadership Customers
Organisation
Resources
Understanding
Organisational
Performance
Measurement
Review and
Quality
Management
Benchmarking
Reporting and
Improvement
Action
The
Balanced
Scorecard
Key
Performance
Indicators
Figure 5.3
Figure 5.2: Summarising the results
Introducing the balanced scorecard
The balanced scorecard was developed at Harvard
Business School by Kaplan and Norton in the early
1990s and provides a relatively straightforward frame-
work for translating an organisation’s strategic objec-
tives into a coherent and comprehensive set of
performance measures.
The measures it uses are grounded in an organisa-
tion’s strategic objectives and fit into four key cate-
gories or perspectives:
G Financial – ‘traditional’ balance sheet and other fi-
nancial measures
G Customer – satisfaction issues from the customers’
perspective
G Internal – the extent to which internal working
practices contribute towards the successful delivery
of corporate objectives
G Innovation and learning – intended to help drive
improvement in financial, customer and internal
process performance
A fifth category may also be added to address wider so-
cial, economic and environmental/physical perspec-
tives, to reflect the wider public policy role of the
public sector.
The public sector approach would, therefore, cover:
G social, economic and environmental/physical im-
pacts;
G financial imperatives;
G stakeholder views;
G internal excellence;
G innovation and learning and for the future.
By selecting a limited number of critical performance
indicators (PIs) for asset performance that drive cor-
porate success within each of these four/five categories
– usually no more than 15-20 measures in total – the
scorecard helps focus this strategic vision and can serve
as the focal point for an organisation’s efforts to im-
prove performance of its asset base.
The way in which this approach applies to asset per-
formance management is shown in Figure 5.4.
Key performance indicators
Principles
A key performance indicator (KPI) is a key part of a
measurable objective which is made up of a direction,
a measure, a target, a benchmark and timeframe. For
example: ‘Reduce total property costs per person by
10% by financial year end 2008.’ Total property costs
per person is therefore the KPI.
KPIs will necessarily vary from one organisation to
the next, but like setting SMART (Specific, Measura-
ble, Agreed, Realistic, Timed) objectives, some key
‘rules’ to consider when developing your critical meas-
ures are to ensure they are:
G Significant – focused on the key outcomes and driv-
ers of performance
G Manageable – ‘The best is the enemy of the good’.
Be realistic, do not try to measure too much, stick to
what matters and what makes a difference
G Accurate and available – must be robust and defen-
sible, reliable, consistent and available over time (all
essential for benchmarking)
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
36
Figure 5.4: Applying the balanced scorecard to assets
Asset
Pls
Asset
Pls
Asset
Pls
Asset
Pls
Asset
Pls
Asset Critical
Success
Factors
Business
Goals and
Objectives
Social Economic
Environmental/
Physical Impacts
Internal
Excellence
Innovation and
Leaning for the
Future
Financial
Imperatives
Stakeholder
Views
G Relevant – measures should be clear and relevant to
all stakeholders and should take account of a di-
verse range of perspectives within the organisation
G Communicated – set out clear roles and responsi-
bilities, publish the results, have a clear presentation
style and ensure feedback and follow up.
Use of ratios
Financial managers often use ratios to analyse finan-
cial performance. Likewise, asset managers can use
asset performance ratios. It is important to consider
ratios carefully and to consider which ones are relevant
and of use.
Some key points to consider include:
G Don’t use too many! If there are too many meas-
ures/ratios, probably none will get used.
G Do not be solely asset specific. Ratios are used at an
organisational, or strategic business unit (SBU)
level.
G Ensure they drive performance. The big number ra-
tios are a useful tool enabling you to get there.
Measurement
The use of the balance scorecard approach will allow
the development of a (limited) number of perform-
ance measures that will measure the contribution that
the asset base makes to overall organisational per-
formance (asset base performance measures). Al-
though they are not always easy to formulate these
might cover measures designed to monitor the contri-
bution of the asset base to, for example:
G getting public services closer to the community and
customers;
G co-location of public services to improve customer
satisfaction and patient care;
G culture change in the workforce;
G productivity of the workforce;
G cleaner, greener sustainability issues;
G capital release;
G social and economic regeneration and sustainable
communities.
Armed with a thorough understanding of the organi-
sation’s vision and with a ‘balanced’ set of asset base
performance measures in place, the next step is to
develop other more technically based measures
(property performance measures) to supplement these.
The property measures that are used will need to be
broken down into a range of more focused component
parts normally related to efficiency, effectiveness and
economy. The following are key elements of any prop-
erty/facilities management (FM) measurement system,
but need to be balanced and weighted according to
each organisation’s needs. These key elements would
often be used at an asset category or individual estab-
lishment level:
G costs, and cost control;
G space utilisation;
G user satisfaction;
G environmental sustainability;
G risk management (including health and safety);
G in-house asset, property and facilities management
services;
G outsourced supplier of asset, property and facilities
management services.
Review and quality management
Once measures are in place, using them to measure
performance can also be a key part of any organisation’s
quality management system, where the key question is:
‘to what extent have we done what we set out to do?’
G It is important to use the performance management
system as part of day-to-day working. It is not a
‘bolt-on’, but an essential process.
G Consider a form of audit process (look at ISO 9000
series as a base model).
G A clear system of targets can be a vital tool to help
drive up performance. While appropriate targets
will vary from one organisation to the next, in set-
ting them it is important that they are sufficiently
challenging and accord with SMART objective-set-
ting principles.
G To give the performance management system ‘teeth’
it may be wise to consider ways to motivate im-
provements (e.g. linking incentive payments or fu-
ture contract awards to performance and budget
expenditures).
Benchmarking
There should now be a clear picture of how the organ-
isation is performing against objectives. How does this
compare with other similar organisations? Crucially, is
the performance level providing value for taxpayers’
money given how well others are performing? This is
where benchmarking comes in.
Benchmarking is generically defined by Watson in
his book Strategic Benchmarking as ‘a continuous
search for the application of significantly better prac-
tices that leads to superior competitive performance’
(Watson, G.H., Strategic Benchmarking, 1993).
Its essence is to assess an organisation’s relative per-
formance and to learn from the experiences of others in
an effort to improve performance. Indeed, if organisa-
tions are to close the gaps that exist between them and
the ‘best in class’, it is vital to discover where the gaps exist,
their size, and then aim to make ‘step’ improvements. In
this respect, benchmarking can be a vital tool in the drive
for success and the promotion of best practice.
Five key essentials are as follows:
G For the process to work the participants must build
up a relationship of mutual trust and honesty –
37
Chapter 5: Review and Performance Management
they must be willing to share information equally
and openly.
G Effective leadership is vital and should clarify at the
outset the nature of the benchmarking exercise
being undertaken. For example, whether it is a vol-
untary or mandatory exercise (perhaps as part of a
value for money assessment or audit process).
G What to compare? Getting this right is fundamen-
tal to the success of any benchmarking project. Only
critical areas which drive headline costs and/or con-
tribute directly to the effectiveness of core functions
should be targeted. In this context it is important
to understand the benchmarking information cor-
rectly – for example, low costs may mean efficiency
or, more likely, may well mean neglect.
G Before committing valuable time and resource, it is
important that organisations realise that bench-
marking is not a one-off exercise but part of an on-
going cycle of continuous improvement.
G Take care to understand the data. For example, low
maintenance costs per square metre may be because
of underinvestment rather than efficiency.
Key benefits of benchmarking include:
G Innovation can inspire new ways of doing business
which could generate quantum leap improvements
in performance.
G Motivation – seeing is believing, especially when
there is a clearly measurable basis for change.
G Focus helps to concentrate attention on the key
drivers of organisational performance (incorporat-
ing a business-like approach to public sector asset
management).
G Learning quantifies best practice, highlighting areas
of weaknesses and the work needed to be done to
close the gap.
Having undertaken the benchmarking process, if all is
well and nothing needs improving – which is rarely the
case – then at least this has been confirmed. However,
organisations will almost always wish to adopt some
of what has been learned from partners in the
exercise, and perhaps to set targets accordingly.
Ultimately, if anyone is doing things better than you,
you will know how, why and at what cost.
Reporting and improvement planning
It is clearly important to report performance, both ‘up
the line’ to demonstrate current success and direction
and also ‘down the line’ to service delivery levels.
Typical reports might all come from the same dataset,
but be cut in the following ways:
G board report;
G business unit report;
G asset senior management team report;
G service team(s) reports;
G outsourced supplier reports;
G stakeholders (such as health and safety, group secu-
rity, etc.);
G building manager reports;
G user group reports.
These reports are very much bespoke to each organi-
sation, but the following points are universal truths:
G only report what is required, to the people that need
it;
G stick to the headlines, do not report too much in-
formation; and
G try to avoid jargon, use ‘plain language’.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
38
Current Position
Objectives
Targets
Performance
Measures
Action
Figure 5.5: Achieving performance
39
Chapter 5: Review and Performance Management
Taking improvement action
The final crucial step in the cycle of performance man-
agement is to take action to improve performance. In-
deed, John Oakland’s work on Total Quality
Management (TQM) states that having recorded your
performance data, used and analysed that information,
the next key task is to act on the results. Failure to take
action is likely to lead to frustration.
Figure 5.5 indicates a process that can be used to
help clients build up a performance culture.
5.4 CONCLUSION
This chapter has made two main points:
G the wisdom of reviewing the entire asset manage-
ment system in an organisation before embarking
on more detailed performance measurement; and
G more detailed performance measurement com-
prises both:
– asset base measures, designed to assess the con-
tribution of the asset to the achievement of or-
ganisational goals; and
– property measures designed to measure the per-
formance of asset categories or individual es-
tablishments.
41
agers can resort to these texts to apprise or remind
themselves of those matters. Neither is it the purpose of
this chapter to consider the implementation of techni-
cal changes that may be needed to the asset base, which
is covered elsewhere in this book and in a multitude of
other sources elsewhere.
6.2 UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF
CHANGE IN ASSET MANAGEMENT
Context
The stages needed to move an organisation from ‘un-
awareness’ to ‘excellence’ in asset management can be
found in the Leeds University/OGC ‘Maturity Matrix’
which is reproduced on the following page (Improving
Property Asset Management in the Central Civil Gov-
ernment Estate, Leeds University for the Office of Gov-
ernment Commerce, 2006 and updated at
www.ogc.gov.uk/high_performing_property_the_ma-
turity_matrix.asp). Identifying the potential changes
needed to move from one stage to another gives a clear
insight into the challenges for the asset manager.
The asset management business process diagram
used in this guidance (see Chapter 1, Figure 1.2) also
gives an insight into the changes that may need to be
made. They are also described in Chapter 5 – Review).
The changes may be concerned with:
G improving strategy;
G improving programming;
G improving delivery;
G improving review,
as well as changing the contextual activities, such as:
G leadership;
G culture;
G customer service;
Chapter 6
Change
Management
Keith Jones, Director, Performent Consulting
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Chapter overview
G This chapter describes the attributes that are
needed to change the way in which an organisa-
tion deals with its asset base. It covers corporate
change and asset services change and the desir-
able change management attributes of an asset
manager.
Benefits of change management and improvement
G Essential to moving an organisation from un-
awareness to excellence in asset management
G Puts asset management on the corporate stage
G Makes asset management a key business tool
G Facilitates improved business performance
6.1 COVERAGE OF THIS CHAPTER
In the previous chapter of these guidelines, the need
for both asset management system review and ongo-
ing asset performance review was discussed. Both types
of review will often require a response across the whole
organisation rather than solely within the services that
directly manage the assets. Providing that response can
be challenging and sometimes the asset manager may
not be familiar with the change management tech-
niques needed. This chapter of the guidelines discusses
the issues involved in change management. Its purpose
is to highlight the importance, in asset management,
of being able to manage change. It identifies the areas
of change that are often encountered and records some
of the specific features of change in relation to asset
management.
It is not the purpose of this chapter to reproduce
extracts from management texts or to repeat manage-
ment principles on change management. Asset man-
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
42
Property Asset Management Maturity Matrix, adapted and modified from the IAM Manual and the DETR
Document ‘Building a Better Quality of Life’.
(
F
r
o
m
I
m
p
r
o
v
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n
g

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o
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s
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t

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n
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g
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t

i
n

t
h
e

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e
n
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r
a
l

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i
v
i
l

G
o
v
e
r
n
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t

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s
t
a
t
e
,

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e
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s

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n
i
v
e
r
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t
y

f
o
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f
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o
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,

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a
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7
)
G organisational structure, roles and responsibilities,
governance;
G resource management and capacity building;
G data management.
This is illustrated in Figure 6.1.
Two distinct types of change can be identified that an
asset manager may be called upon to implement:
G corporate change (i.e. change outwith asset services
and the individual buildings within the asset base)
– those needed to get the organisation, as a whole,
to respond; and
G asset management services change – those needed
to make sure that asset management services facil-
itate the delivery of the changes and the improve-
ment in performance of the asset base and
individual assets.
Corporate change
The asset manager can typically be at the centre of the
following corporate changes:
G General
– Senior managers championing – getting senior
managers to understand the significance of as-
sets in business management and to champion
the process.
– Getting buy-in to strategic decision making – work-
ing with operating units to understand their re-
quirements and to get their buy-in to corporate
decision making, rather than operating unit de-
cision making, on asset management matters.
– Culture – ensuring that there is a culture of sup-
port and belief in asset management in the or-
ganisation.
G Asset management strategy and policy
– Identifying explicit business drivers for assets –
working with senior and middle managers in the
organisation, to comprehend and record the
long-term business drivers of the organisation
and to identify its implications for assets and the
long-term vision and strategy for the asset base.
G Roles, responsibilities and governance
– Agreeing corporate standards, procedures, roles
and responsibilities – working through the asset
management processes across the organisation
and clearly agreeing standards and procedures;
and clearly agreeing roles and responsibilities for
asset matters and decisions, and the organisa-
tional structure necessary to make those deci-
sions and implement them.
G Communication
– Forging links with stakeholders – creating effec-
tive dialogue on asset matters with all stake-
holders to ensure effective involvement in
decision making and to inform stakeholders of
relevant asset information and particularly per-
formance information.
– Forging links with partners – creating effective di-
alogue with partners to allow joined up use of
the public asset base.
– Communicating complex asset issues simply – de-
veloping skills and capacity to communicate
43
Chapter 6: Change Management
STRATEGY
REVIEW DELIVERY
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
PROGRAMMES
Figure 6.1: Change can affect all aspects of asset management
asset issues (strategy, performance, technical)
simply and relevantly to stakeholders.
– Influencing other bodies funded by the organisa-
tion, on asset matters – making sure that the
principles of asset management being applied in
the organisation are being communicated to,
and acted upon, in other bodies which are
funded by the ‘parent organisation’, e.g. spon-
sored bodies in central government and schools
in local government.
G Asset management planning
– Business planning techniques for asset manage-
ment – development, introduction and use of
modern and sophisticated business evaluation
techniques applied to the asset base.
– Corporate asset data – introducing corporate
asset data systems where necessary linked to
other corporate management information sys-
tems and linked to operational databases.
– Corporate project management – large corporate
projects where asset change is at their centre
often start as asset projects and then gradually
grow. The asset manager will need to have de-
veloped the capability to manage such projects
with all the non-asset activities and relationships
that may be involved.
G Acquisition and disposal
– Corporate and planned acquisitions and
disposals – developing a business-driven,
planned acquisitions and disposal policy, driven
by corporate value and medium- and long-term
corporate planning, rather than driven by
price/cost and short-term operational planning
considerations.
– Strategic procurement – the introduction and use
of corporate procedures for procurement of assets
designed to be innovative, effective and efficient.
G Operation and maintenance
– Operational assets – encouraging, introducing
and monitoring the use of robust asset systems
in the management of operational assets.
– Maintenance – agreeing an effective and funded
programme of planned maintenance together
with reactive maintenance procedures, designed
to minimise whole life costs and maximise
whole life value to the organisation.
– Sustainability – ensuring that all aspects of the
use of assets are properly founded on good en-
vironmental and sustainability principles.
G Performance review and accounting
– Agreeing business critical success factors for assets –
working with senior managers to determine the
critical performance areas for assets in terms of
business goals and objectives and business drivers.
– Business performance indicators for assets – using
agreed critical success factors to develop per-
formance indicators for the asset base and using
these indicators, over time, to improve per-
formance.
– System review – introducing effective review of
asset management systems and appropriate cor-
rective action programmes.
Asset management services change
The Asset Manager will typically be leading the fol-
lowing changes in asset services:
G Skills and capacity development – ensuring that the
capacity and skills required for effective asset man-
agement are present within the organisation.
G Culture change – moving those involved in asset
management from a ‘property management’ mind-
set to an ‘asset management’ mindset.
G Changing from a customer focus to a client/executive
focus – the asset management function will require
client management/executive decision-making tech-
niques that have been described by some experienced
asset managers as ‘consultancy’ techniques (e.g. client
relationship management, information collection,
analytical skills and techniques, recommending and
getting agreement to high-level executive action,
change project implementation, advocacy of recom-
mended action, presentation skills (which may be
slightly different from the customer skills of prop-
erty management)). These techniques allow the asset
manager to relate to their stakeholders in the most
appropriate way to achieve success.
G Organisational change – asset management services
and their relationship with property management
services may necessitate some structural reorgani-
sation, to make them function effectively and to en-
sure that they relate to each other effectively.
G Team building and people change – the asset man-
agement team may need to be brought together to
form an efficient and effective team involving team
development and people development.
A gradual process
Improvement in the performance of the asset base and
of asset management services will not be achieved im-
mediately or even in one year. It will be a constant it-
eration of gradual improvement over a long period of
time, continually visiting and revisiting various aspects
to improve each in turn.
6.3 ATTRIBUTES OF GOOD CHANGE
MANAGERS IN ASSET MANAGEMENT
Some of the attributes that will help to make corporate
change happen are listed in the following paragraphs.
They are also captured in Figure 6.2.
Leadership
The importance of leadership in asset management is
described in Chapter 7 – Leadership and Customers.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
44
Suffice it to say here that the leadership style required
in asset management is more likely to be democratic
and permissive rather than autocratic or charismatic.
Understanding people and engagement
People skills are an important attribute of the asset
manager. Highly effective relationships with those in
the organisation who must be influenced in order to
improve asset management performance will be para-
mount to change.
Effective use of time – delegation and empowerment
Asset management is not a part time job! It must be a full-
time occupation. It will be important for the asset manager
not to be drawn into the detail of property management
and to ensure that other staff who are dedicated to asset
management are empowered to do so. The head of asset
management will need to spend much time on the change
process and delegate day-to-day responsibilities.
The dilemma is illustrated in Figure 6.3.
45
Chapter 6: Change Management
Leadership
Understanding and
Engaging People
Effective Use of Time
Delegation and Empowerment
Motivation
Communication
Organisation and Performance
Position
1
Position
2
Figure 6.2: Attributes of change managers
Figure 6.3: Turning the Vicious Circle into a Virtuous Circle
I’m too
busy
I’m too busy
because I have
too many things
to do
I need to get other
people to do some of
my work
I need to train them
to do it so that I can
rely on them
Improved
Performance
Poorer
Performance
Changing my
behaviour
I need to work out what
I can give them to do
and what I need to
continue to do
Motivation
To sustain change will require motivation: motivation
on the part of the asset manager and motivation in-
stilled into those across the organisation that are re-
sponsible for the various aspects of corporate asset
management. Understanding what does and does not
motivate people will be important to the asset man-
ager.
Communication
It is said that there are three rules of change manage-
ment:
1. communicate;
2. communicate; and
3. communicate!
The asset manager will need to marshall high-level
communication skills in:
G presentations;
G facilitating group work and workshops;
G chairing meetings;
G one-to-one dialogues;
G the written word generally and particularly report
writing (the importance of this ability should not
be underestimated).
As the asset manager moves more and more into the
corporate limelight it may not be enough just to rely
on innate abilities. Some training and development in
this area may be among the most beneficial of all train-
ing and development for the asset manager.
Organisation and a programmatic approach
The final area where attention is needed is in having
an organised and programmatic approach to change
management. It is not an adhoc activity to be ‘knocked
off ’ as it arises. It is important to see it as a strategic ac-
tivity with a strategy and a series of tactical steps over
a sensible period of time. Change does not happen
quickly. Indeed, some observers in local government,
where asset management has been a key initiative over
the last ten years or so, have remarked that the
sub-sector is only half-way there at this time. Not only
is organisation important but so is measuring
performance. Set targets for change and measure the
organisation against them.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
46
47
Chapter overview
G The creation of an effective asset strategy and
asset management system requires leadership
and communication skills as well as an under-
standing of property management issues. This
chapter considers the skills that are needed to
lead asset management in an organisation; how
these skills might be recognised and developed;
and the importance of leading projects in a cor-
porate environment is investigated.
G The relationship with customers and stakehold-
ers is also considered and the importance of con-
sultation with these stakeholders.
Benefits
Most organisations require strong leadership if they
are to get the best out of their assets. This extends to
leading major corporate projects. This leadership
should also include developing good relationships
with stakeholders, including customers.
Without this leadership and dialogue with stake-
holders it is extremely doubtful that effective asset
management can be achieved.
7.1 LEADERSHIP SKILLS
Leading the asset management agenda
Within an organisation, leading the agenda for asset
management requires an understanding of, and an em-
pathy with, the business and its objectives. Additionally,
there should be an ability to formulate and promote an
overall strategy that supports and develops the business.
The effective leader will work with relevant deci-
sion-making boards and groups, internal stakeholders
and partners and customers/clients to identify needs,
develop, and then achieve, agreed objectives.
This may be a different role than one hitherto
adopted by property managers in the public sector,
where the requirement may have been for highly effec-
tive property management expertise and property
management services, reacting to client requirements.
The asset management agenda changes this and the
asset manager will now need to display the following
characteristics:
G business leadership rather than purely property
management leadership;
G enthusing the organisation about asset issues;
G communicating precisely and simply, presenting
asset issues in a clear manner;
G convincing senior managers of the importance of
asset issues to business performance;
G developing and brokering a clear vision for the fu-
ture of assets in the organisation;
G understanding and explaining the relationship be-
tween business performance and asset perform-
ance;
G helping and persuading operational managers to
achieve corporate asset objectives and ensuring that
they follow corporate objectives for assets.
Identifying leadership skills for asset managers
Leadership skills are wide ranging and an effective leader
requires a combination of many if not all of the neces-
sary attributes. Although extensive, they can be nar-
rowed down into four distinctive spheres of activity:
G technical expertise;
G knowing the business;
Chapter 7
Leadership and
Customers
John Cornish, Head of Estates, Department
for Communities and Local Government
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
G use of human, IT and financial resources;
G personal skills.
The list that follows is applicable to the person charged
with leading the asset management agenda within the
organisation. Others involved in leadership and man-
agement of assets may only require some of the skills
listed.
Technical expertise
Technical knowledge and expertise requires an under-
standing of:
G basic overall asset functions, practice and proce-
dure;
G the difference between asset management and
property management and the principles of asset
management;
G the ethos of modernisation agendas;
G resource accounting and asset related finance, gen-
erally;
G the key elements of capital and revenue funding re-
lating to the organisation;
G business planning and business process;
G sustainability and environmental issues.
Knowing the business
Understanding and integrating with the business re-
quires:
G awareness of the organisation’s corporate strategy
and policies;
G knowledge of the structure and organisation of the
business;
G an interest in and understanding of the organisa-
tion’s aims and objectives;
G knowledge of its financial and other resource con-
straints;
G an ability to relate to, communicate and work with
other resource deliverers;
G developing close and regular contact with those de-
livering the organisation’s policies and services.
Use of human, IT and financial resources
Managing people and resources requires skills in:
G engaging the right key people for the team and
identifying those within stakeholder groups who
will coordinate activity and information to inform
the asset strategy;
G developing individual skills of asset management
staff;
G building a corporate team including dedicated asset
management staff;
G managing strategic performance;
G financial management;
G information management.
Personal skills
As far as personal leadership skills are concerned, a
number of people are born with or acquire them nat-
urally, but many if not most of us will learn and de-
velop them over time building on life experience, on
the job familiarity, and through training and develop-
ment. Some of the key skills for leaders are the ability
to be:
G visionary and innovative;
G motivational and inspirational;
G a problem solver who remains results focused;
G trusted and sound in judgment;
G loyal and to have integrity;
G a communicator, open and accessible to the views
and ideas of others;
G a good organiser;
G confident, determined and a strong, decisive deci-
sion maker willing to stay the course;
G continuously improving;
G a team leader and player able to delegate, support,
coach and direct;
G an initiator and developer of change;
G advocating, engaging and persuading; and
G strategic and promote cultural change.
Developing leadership skills
A person charged with responsibility for asset man-
agement in an organisation should have access to ap-
propriate training in order to fulfil the corporate asset
management leadership role. It should not be seen as
an ‘optional extra’. In many public organisations these
skills need development and should be programmed
and properly funded. This HR investment should be
aimed at and will result in enhanced returns to the or-
ganisation through better service quality and financial
performance improvements.
Leadership development may be provided by:
G training and development programmes;
G longer-term sponsored education (e.g. MBA, MSc,
Diplomas, Certificates, Specialist Programmes,
etc.);
G targeted external conference/workshop/seminar at-
tendance;
G structured self-learning;
G managed personal development plans;
G outside challenge and mentoring;
G consultancy support aimed at knowledge transfer;
G working with other organisations that are dealing
with similar issues.
Corporate project management
It is the asset management leader’s role and challenge
to justify and obtain adequate resource allocation for
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
48
corporate change projects, which have at their heart
asset change (an example of this is an office rationali-
sation/relocation where corporate objectives are as
much about productivity, culture change, recruitment
and retention as they are about asset change and fi-
nance). It should not be left as a task to be undertaken
as a ‘bolt on’ to day-to-day property management.
Leaders of corporate projects, where assets are one of
the main, or the main enabler, need to understand the:
G principles of property management and construc-
tion management;
G key linkages within corporate projects;
G business need for the project and its intended con-
tribution to corporate objectives;
G appraisal of business options;
G difference between feasibility project management,
corporate change project management and con-
struction or property project management;
G principles of project and change management;
G IT support available for project design and man-
agement;
G need to analyse the impact and outcomes on the
organisation;
G need for stakeholder input at relevant stages.
Project leaders also need the ability to:
G accept personal accountability for the project’s suc-
cess;
G project plan, including critical paths;
G assess and manage corporate risk;
G assess investment decisions to be taken;
G identify the integrated project team and their roles
and responsibilities including clients, consultants,
contractors, specialist advisers and suppliers and
run as a single team;
G manage an integrated project team and/or be an ef-
fective team player in a project team;
G monitor projects and ensure their implementation;
G communicate within the team and manage com-
munication outside the team and the organisation;
G select appropriate and effective delivery partners;
G define the authority for project decision making.
7.2 ENGAGING STAKEHOLDERS
Why consult?
Public authorities should develop consultation ap-
proaches that encompass the full range of asset man-
agement functions.
Stakeholders are those people or organisations who
influence, or are impacted by, the business of the or-
ganisation, its programmes or projects. Public sector
organisations do not operate in isolation from society
and their stakeholders have a legitimate interest in the
way business is conducted. Stakeholder satisfaction is
central to effective asset management. By involving
stakeholders in key decisions that shape day-to-day op-
erations, organisations gain an understanding of cur-
rent and emerging issues and can best balance interests
and improve performance.
Effective consultation
Effective consultation should include:
G Initial identification of all relevant stakeholders,
stakeholder groupings and stakeholder representa-
tives in relation to each area of asset management.
These could include internal and external stake-
holders such as board members, strategic officers,
other departments, building or service users, non-
service users, client groups, external interest groups
and opinion formers, staff, trade unions, clients and
partner organisations.
G Categorisation of responses of stakeholders by their
influence or impact and commitment.
G Setting clear objectives for consultation. Establish why
you are doing it; what information you want to find
out; who you are going to consult with and what
you are going to ask; which form of consultation
will work with which stakeholder group (especially
with hard-to-reach groups); and finally, and prob-
ably most importantly, what you are going to do
with the information.
G Ensuring consultations are not too asset management
focused, where the key issue relates to service
delivery and business performance as opposed
to simply the performance of an asset. By consult-
ing on the service itself you should be able to track
back to the contribution that the asset is making
to the service and whether there needs to be
any change.
G Carrying out an overall cost benefit assessment of the
proposed consultation methodology. The approach
and, therefore, the cost of consultation should be
tailored to the expected benefits envisaged. Public
sector organisations need to prioritise when con-
sulting, otherwise the consultation exercise could
grow to become unmanageable or over extravagant
for the original purpose.
Consultation and asset management
Historically public organisations have perhaps over-
looked the importance of consultation in relation to
asset management and it is only recently that the po-
tential for significant benefits has been realised.
Consultation with key stakeholders across all func-
tions is very important to effective asset management.
There are a number of specific areas that are worth
highlighting.
G Capital prioritisation needs an approach that allows
strategic consultation. Questionnaires, often with
49
Chapter 7: Leadership and Customers
simple scoring mechanisms, can be effective in
achieving this.
G Option appraisal is similar to capital prioritisation
but usually requires more in-depth consultation
with potential stakeholders to ensure the best solu-
tion within the resources available.
G Effectiveness of assets particularly requires consulta-
tion with building managers and users including,
where relevant, the public, to ensure the suitability
of the building for the services that are being deliv-
ered from it.
Often there are insufficient resources to consult widely
and so organisations should carefully prioritise to en-
sure the best consultation ‘fit’ is achieved. There is no
one ‘right’ method for all circumstances. Different
stakeholder groups, different circumstances and dif-
ferent service areas will require different approaches to
ensure the best results.
Be clear about how you are going to communicate
the consultation results both to those you have con-
sulted with, and to others, and how the results of the
consultation will change or improve things. This can
be done through intranet bulletins, newsletters and
communication direct with consultees or a combina-
tion of these.
Engaging key internal decision makers
Internal decision makers can be subject to many com-
peting demands on their time and attention. It is im-
portant, therefore, to communicate effectively with
them and indicate succinctly and concisely what the is-
sues are, the consideration given to the issues, their im-
pact on the wider organisation and the recommended
way forward.
Personal and regular contact by the person respon-
sible for asset management, with key decision makers
can be a powerful means of conveying concepts, ideas
and advice on asset management and gaining the all
important corporate understanding and support
needed. Time invested in short, well-planned meetings
can be particularly productive, capturing the attention
and understanding of the significant issues involved.
Identifying and engaging external stakeholders
Managing external stakeholders is essential to achiev-
ing successful change programmes and projects. Rela-
tionships with key external stakeholders should reflect
the influence or impact of the stakeholder. Involvement
can be through:
G one-to-one briefings;
G direct request for comments on a briefing paper on
the issues concerned;
G presentations;
G workshops and seminars;
G newsletters – hard copy/e-mail shots;
G web communication;
G stakeholder forums where there are many diverse
stakeholders; and
G other organised events.
Whatever approach is adopted there should be consis-
tency and stakeholders should receive information that
is relevant to their area of interest and not be over-
loaded with unnecessary information or detail. The
briefings should lead to awareness, then familiarity, and
ultimately, trust and high performance relationships.
The benefits of improved consultation
Better consultation helps to:
G align customer and client service need to service
provision;
G prioritise services enabling better overall use of re-
sources;
G set performance standards and make monitoring
more relevant to stakeholder needs;
G establish a working partnership with stakeholders
so they can understand and help with any future
difficulties;
G become alert to problems quickly so that these can
be rectified before they escalate; and
G symbolise the commitment to openness, trans-
parency and accountability, putting service delivery
first.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
50
51
utor in delivering asset ‘success’ than the organisation
of the asset management function itself. Asset success
can be measured in many ways, but to be completely
effective the asset management function must have in-
fluence beyond its own professional area and embrace
the whole organisation. Aims and objectives at a cor-
porate level, and right down to operational delivery,
need to be translated into asset needs.
Equally, operational and other non-asset managers
need to understand the importance of assets within the
organisation.
A successful organisational culture, therefore, can
be stated as a willingness for all parts of the organisa-
tion, asset and non-asset stakeholders alike, to under-
stand others’ service requirements, standards, priorities
and budget constraints and be prepared to work for the
greater good of the organisation. This of course should
be the policy though all parts of an organisation.
8.3 PROCESS
The elements
There is no one model that can be identified as ‘best
practice’ for asset management. There are, however, a
number of key elements and how these are imple-
mented varies across organisations dependent on size,
resources, ways of working and culture.
The contributing elements of a ‘good’ asset man-
agement structure are as follows:
Chapter 8
Organisation
David Bentley, Head of Asset Management,
CIPFA (Chartered Institute of Public
Finance and Accountancy)
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Chapter overview
This chapter examines the key organisational issues
relating to asset management. It stresses the need for
corporate structures and processes, for clear re-
sponsibilities for asset management and for gover-
nance mechanisms and to have the appropriate
organisational culture for asset management.
Benefits of good organisation for asset
management
Good organisation arrangements are a prerequisite
to successful asset management, whether it is for
alignment with corporate objectives or for improved
performance. In its absence, it is unlikely that any of
the outcomes described elsewhere in these guide-
lines can be achieved.
8.1 KEY STEPS
The key steps involved in considering organisational
issues for asset management are explained in the
paragraphs that follow and they are summarised in
Figure 8.1.
8.2 ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
The culture and attitude of an organisation towards
asset management is often a more significant contrib-
Culture Process
Roles and
Responsibilities
Structure
Figure 8.1
G good linkages to corporate aims and objectives and
to corporate decision makers and budget holders;
G single point of contact for the asset management
team;
G clear demarcation between asset management and
property management and decision making;
G full involvement of all key operational areas;
G clear and regular asset management reporting lines
throughout the organisation;
G integration with financial planning;
G good linkage with other support functions;
G an effective corporate annual business planning
process for assets.
Good linkage to corporate aims and objectives and
to corporate decision makers/budget holders
An organisation needs to be able to translate its high-
level ambitions into asset aims and objectives. Some-
times these can be related to prioritisation of service
objectives or they may concern particular policies or
standards such as reduction of energy use, or the im-
posing of space restrictions. In all cases this high-level
process requires asset managers to engage with the or-
ganisation at ‘corporate’ level and develop a robust on-
going relationship with key policy developers and
decision makers. Meetings will take place often on an
ad hoc basis throughout the year and will, for exam-
ple, review the asset strategy and/or asset management
plan; review asset base performance against corporate
objectives; review overall capital planning and capital
programming; consider major corporate change proj-
ects (e.g. office relocations), etc.
Reporting to decision makers and budget holders
needs to be timely and in a clear, agreed format en-
abling key decisions regarding assets to be made with
confidence. Sometimes asset management reports are
written in technical language with little business com-
munication impact (either positive or negative) or ref-
erence to service delivery and quality standards. This
often results in ill-informed decisions being made. It is
important that asset managers engage with decision
makers and provide regular briefings on current and
impending asset issues thus facilitating more informed
decision making.
Single point of contact for asset management team
In many large organisations there may be a lack of
awareness about who will assist with asset management
issues and enquiries. It is important, therefore, to have
an agreed single point of contact for corporate proce-
dure, advice and standards on asset management. In
smaller organisations this may be one person, but most
commonly this will be a asset management team to
which all relevant asset issues are referred. It is not ex-
pected that such a team would action everything them-
selves, but it is important that the asset management
team has a clear and current overview of the asset sit-
uation across the organisation, can provide clear cur-
rent and consistent guidance and has the ability to
intercept and identify issues and problems at an early
stage.
Clear demarcation between asset management and
property management decision making
Ideally asset management functions should be pro-
vided separately from day-to-day property manage-
ment functions. Chapter 1 of these guidelines
highlights the difference between asset management
and property management.
The asset management function will provide coor-
dination in relation to land and buildings and will
closely interact with corporate policy and decision
makers providing forward strategy and planning. The
size, scope and exact nature of the asset management
team will vary dependent on the characteristics of the
organisation’s asset base. However, it is important that
the asset management team has adequate resources
and is separated from operational tasks. This is dis-
cussed in Chapter 9 – Resources and Capacity. Over-
lapping with operational responsibilities often means
that overall strategy and planning is neglected through
undue pressure from day-to-day emergencies that
should be handled elsewhere.
Full involvement of all key operational areas
Any successful asset management approach has to be
effective in engaging with all key operational areas. For
some public sector bodies this may just be with one
principal operating unit, while other organisations
may have many operating units that will have differing
and sometimes competing accommodation require-
ments which need to be corporately prioritised. Each
operational section, in conjunction with the asset man-
agement team, will need to develop its own accommo-
dation requirements that conform to the overall asset
strategy. Key operating units should also be represented
by personnel at an appropriately high level on any cor-
porate asset management group (see ‘Roles and re-
sponsibilities’ at 8.4 below.), and these personnel will,
in essence, be the focal point for assets within their own
operating units.
This may become an increasingly important key re-
lationship in the future as good asset management
practice spreads out from ‘parent’ organisations into
‘sponsored’ organisations (examples of this are schools,
departmental sponsored bodies in central government
and increasingly in local government where assets may
be gradually transferred to local communities).
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
52
Clear and regular asset management reporting lines
throughout the organisation
Good communication channels within public sector
organisations should stretch from high-level corporate
policy right down to operational delivery. It is not
enough to put systems in place: they need to be regu-
larly reviewed and monitored to ensure any commu-
nication approach remains effective.
Integration with financial planning
Asset strategy needs to be integrated with the capital
and current expenditure financial planning of an or-
ganisation. Often these are carried out in isolation with
a result that neither can be effectively delivered. The
key relationship is with the financial planning process,
but it is also important that ongoing monitoring of
strategic financial information continues, for example
the measurement of capital receipts from surplus as-
sets. Only in this way will there be an awareness of the
benefit of aligned asset management and, for example,
financial efficiencies.
Good linkage with other support functions
Asset management, as a support function, needs to
work closely with other support areas to deliver or-
ganisational objectives. Many asset-led initiatives re-
quire great input from other resource areas to be
realised. For example, the success of space utilisation
or hot-desking initiatives often relies just as much on
new ways of working, skills and competences and the
development of IT as it does on the fabric and design
of office space. The exact method for engaging other
support functions can vary dependent on the organi-
sation and the specific project.
An effective annual business process for assets
The asset planning process needs to be very closely re-
lated to the overall corporate business planning
process. This is described in detail in Chapter 2 – Strat-
egy and Vision Development.
8.4 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Although the organisational structure for asset man-
agement within any organisation may vary greatly, it is
worth highlighting a number of key recommended
roles and responsibilities. We are aware that job titles
vary according to the organisation but the principle re-
mains that the structure must place a senior manager
to be responsible for asset management across the or-
ganisation and a ‘asset champion’ must exist at Board
level to whom the senior manager responsible for asset
management reports. The asset champion is responsi-
ble for ensuring that the organisation responds to the
call for excellence in the management of its assets. A
number of these key roles are described below.
Senior manager for asset management (SMAM)
The SMAM is responsible for putting the necessary
asset management processes into place and for pro-
ducing asset performance and outcomes aligned to an
organisation’s aims and objectives.
The exact roles and responsibilities of a SMAM will
vary but these will include:
G facilitating and providing a focal point for a corpo-
rate approach to asset management;
G strategically managing the asset management
processes and programmes;
G being responsible for the development and subse-
quent review of an asset strategy or asset manage-
ment plan and keeping this up to date;
G ensuring that consultation on asset management is
undertaken with all relevant stakeholders;
G being responsible for the development and man-
agement of a performance framework for asset
management;
G ensuring that appropriate information is available
on assets and their condition.
Corporate asset management group (CAMG)
The CAMG is typically a corporate group made up of
representatives from each operational and central de-
partment within the organisation. The group would
have an overall responsibility for developing a corpo-
rate approach to capital expenditure and the use of as-
sets throughout the organisation, take a strategic view
of the capital programme and asset management and
manage the implementation of the agreed asset strat-
egy, capital strategy and asset management plan. Rec-
ommendations from the group will be reported
directly to the senior decision makers, senior politi-
cians and to Board members as appropriate.
The SMAM would be a key member of this group
and may act as the chair and organise the facilitation of
the group. The representation would be made up of
senior personnel from major operational areas and re-
source sections.
The group will meet on a regular basis but the in-
tervals for such meetings would be very much de-
pendent on the size of the organisation. A large
multi-faceted public body with many assets would have
a group that could meet perhaps on a monthly basis,
whilst a smaller organisation may only have a CAMG
that meets two to three times a year.
53
Chapter 8: Organisation
Asset champion
The asset champion must sit on the top management
team, be a senior politician or Board member and take
the responsibility for getting the ‘asset voice’ heard at the
top of the organisation and getting CAMG recommen-
dations adopted and followed. In this regard the asset
champion would liaise closely with the SMAM and be
aware of the asset management needs of the organisa-
tion to enable these to be set in context against other
strategic needs and priorities. In some organisations the
SMAM and the asset champion may be the same person.
8.5 STRUCTURE
The simple structure shown in Figure 8.2 identifies the
key roles and responsibilities that need to be present to
facilitate a successful corporate approach to asset man-
agement. Clearly there are also many other mecha-
nisms that will need to be in place to enable this
structure to succeed, such as consultation methodolo-
gies and decision-making structures in the wider or-
ganisation. Often the asset management approach will
stand or fall on the wider structure and management of
the organisation.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
54
Management/Executive/Member Group
(Corporate Decision making body)
Corporate Asset Management Group
(Coordinates asset management strategically/
recommends to Management Level)
Asset Champion
(An asset voice at
management/executive/
member level)
Senior Manager for
Asset Management
(Chairs Corporate Asset
Management Group and
Managers Asset
Management Function)
Asset Management
Function
(Managed by SMAM, supports
Corporate Asset Management
Group in coordinating asset
management strategically,
assists service areas in
developing future
accommodation needs)
Operational
Department Asset
Representatives
Actively involved on
Corporate Asset
Management Group
Develop
Operational
Plans with
AM Function
Figure 8.2: Corporate roles for asset management
55
Chapter overview
This chapter examines the strategic aspects of the re-
sources and capacity necessary to support asset
management in the public sector. It outlines:
G the contribution that resources and capacity
make to asset management;
G the risks of not addressing training and develop-
ment needs;
G the role that practitioners can play in support-
ing, not just their own training and development,
but that of others in the organisation;
G the definitions and examples of resources and ca-
pacity in asset management – emphasising the
interplay between strategic business manage-
ment skills and those applicable more directly to
asset management.
Benefits of proper regard to resources and
capacity
G Supporting asset strategies and targeted out-
comes
G Improved corporate commitment and integra-
tion of asset management with strategic business
management
G Improved value for money through asset strate-
gies and programmes better focusing on organ-
isational goals and objectives
G Structured approach to identifying needs and
planning and implementing organisations’ re-
source and capacity training and development
action plans and programmes
9.1 THE ROLE OF RESOURCES AND CAPACITY
IN ASSET MANAGEMENT
This chapter covers the resources and capacity of an
organisation to undertake asset management, this hav-
ing both quantitative and qualitative aspects.
Asset management is intrinsically a cross-organi-
sational activity. There are two principal ways in which
asset management capacity can be provided, either by:
G the formation of a separate specialist asset manage-
ment team; or
G the allocation of the responsibility for asset man-
agement within an existing property management
team.
In either case, resources may be supplemented with
support from within the organisation or externally.
Which of these two approaches is appropriate will de-
pend upon the size of the asset base and the level of
complexity of issues relating to its management.
There are two risks that need to be managed:
G a separate specialist asset management team carries
the risk of isolation. Clear roles for the asset man-
agement team and any property management
team(s) need to be set down along with how those
respective teams are to work with the rest of the or-
ganisation; and
G where the function is integrated with an existing
property management team, then potential con-
flicts of time and effort as between asset manage-
ment and operational day-to-day property
management need to be recognised and managed
(see Chapter 8 – Organisation). Asset management
may risk being sidelined rather than used creatively
to better organise, prioritise and administer corpo-
rate priorities and operational service delivery.
Chapter 9
Resources and
Capacity
Robert Lee, Interim Management
Consultant, Solace Enterprises
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Whichever solution is appropriate, there needs to be a
clear allocation of roles and responsibilities for asset
management and a clear statement of the organisa-
tion’s requirements and expectations. It also needs to
be recognised that asset management, if it is to be
properly practised, will necessitate commitment to
providing the necessary resources to undertake it. That
may mean either an expansion of resources or the bet-
ter deployment of existing resources.
Why resources and capacity matter
In the public sector in recent years, the importance of
addressing resources and capacity building has received
much attention. Examples of this are:
G the Department for Communities and Local Gov-
ernment – Local Government Association ‘Capacity
Building Programme’;
G the introduction of ‘Professional Skills for Govern-
ment’ for the Civil Service, as part of the ‘Govern-
ment’s Delivery Reform Agenda’;
G the Business Excellence Model (European Founda-
tion for Quality Management) approach;
G the Prime Minister’s Delivery Unit initiatives.
In the case of asset management, there is a particular
reason why resources and capacity matter. As Sir
Michael Lyons points out (‘Towards Better Manage-
ment of Public Sector Assets’: A Report to the
Chancellor of the Exchequer: Sir Michael Lyons:
HMSO (Dec 2004)), historically, estates and property
management have had a low profile in the public
sector, playing a largely reactive role as far as business
strategy has been concerned, despite the fact that asset
budgets are often second only in size to payroll. Strate-
gic business management demands as much regard for
the strategic management of assets as it does for
human resources, finance and ICT.
Who needs to be involved?
Given that asset management is an integral part of an
organisation’s strategic business management, all rele-
vant personnel across an organisation need training:
G Elected or board members need to be familiar with
the broad concepts and principles of asset manage-
ment.
G Senior and operational managers, who by virtue of
their position have an influential role in the strate-
gic direction of the organisation or service, need a
higher level of understanding of asset management.
G Property and construction practitioners (profes-
sionally qualified, or otherwise experienced) who
may play a leading part in asset management
processes need support in developing capacity in
terms of asset management but also in their under-
standing of strategic business management.
G Those in roles supporting asset management, such
as information systems support and administrative
roles, will need training and development to enable
them to fulfil their roles.
The scope, level, amount and timing of training and
development necessary in any organisation will depend
upon:
G the quantitative and qualitative features of its exist-
ing resources and capacity; and
G the needs of the organisation’s asset management
strategy and plans – which in large measure will re-
late to the size and complexity of its assets.
This chapter primarily addresses resources and capac-
ity in terms of property, construction and facilities
practitioners. The training and development needs, as
they relate to asset management, of others in the or-
ganisation will be similar but should be mindful that
resources and capacity need to be considered at three
levels within the organisation:
G the organisation as a whole;
G functional and cross-organisational teams;
G individuals.
Apart from their own training and development needs,
property, construction and facilities practitioners will
play a crucial role in supporting others in the organi-
sation with whom they need to work in undertaking
asset management.
9.2 DEFINING RESOURCES AND CAPACITY
FOR ASSET MANAGEMENT
Organisational and team capacity for asset
management
The University of Leeds (Improving Property Asset
Management in the Central Civil Government Estate: A
Report for OGC, University of Leeds, 2006, updated in
2007 at www.ogc.gov.uk/high_performing_property
_the_maturity_matrix.asp) suggests a set of capabili-
ties, relevant at organisational and team levels, and a
matrix of maturity for assessing how well organisations
are currently conducting asset management (the ma-
trix is reproduced in Chapter 6 – Change):
G Asset management policy. This sets out the level an
organisation is at regarding its policy towards asset
management. This is a key enabler and sets the
scene and impetus for how an organisation ap-
proaches asset management as a whole and includes
aspects such as guidelines, key performance indica-
tors (KPIs) and published targets.
G Roles and responsibilities. These set out how an or-
ganisation’s asset management decision-making
structure is set up and managed, including ensuring
roles are formally made explicit at tactical and
strategic levels of the organisation.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
56
G Communication. This sets out how information re-
garding asset management is handled in terms of
data collection, as well as stakeholder, supply chain
and management interactions.
G Asset management planning. This sets out the level
an organisation is at regarding formal asset man-
agement planning, including lifecycle costing, risk
management, benchmarking and meeting corpo-
rate objectives.
G Acquisition and disposal. This sets out how acquisi-
tion and disposal of assets within the organisation
is managed, including factors such as lifecycle
costing, health and safety, environmental issues,
KPIs, risk management, procurement and social
aspects.
G Operation and maintenance. This sets out how
operation and maintenance of assets within an or-
ganisation are managed, including factors such
as planned maintenance strategy, risk assessments,
cost benefit analysis, training aspects, operation
and maintenance plans, responsibilities, ranking
of assets in terms of criticality, proactive imple-
mentation and evaluation against return on assets.
G Performance review and accounting. This sets out
how the review and accounting processes within an
organisation are managed, including aspects such
as KPIs, asset registers, training, financial manage-
ment, roles and responsibilities as well as strategic
reviews.
G Audit and review. This sets out how the asset man-
agement process is audited and reviewed, including
skills and training needs, risk avoidance, use of
technology and benchmarking of effectiveness and
efficiencies.
The University of Leeds’ Maturity Matrix particularly
refers to the Government’s Civil Estate. It is suggested
that practitioners in general will find this model help-
ful in:
G considering capacity at organisational and team
levels;
G identifying priority areas for improvement;
G developing improvement strategies and plans; and
G securing organisational agreement and commit-
ment.
Skills and competencies for asset managers
The University of Leeds report (above, 2006) helpfully
goes on to indicate a set of competencies for the indi-
vidual that are particularly relevant for asset manage-
ment. This draws upon other work by the National
School of Government (Howarth, A., Report on Im-
proving the Capability and Capacity of Managing Prop-
erty Assets in Central Civil Government, National
School of Government for OGC, 2006 and work of the
Institute of Asset Management). This set of competen-
cies seeks to balance strategic business skills with asset
skills, drawing attention especially to business, people,
information and risk management.
G Strategic business planning
– Business drivers and strategy thinking
– Corporate asset strategy
– Asset management plans
– Risk management
– Project and programme management
– Sustainability
G Leadership
– Building up capacity and capability
– Manage strategic change
– Manage strategic performance
– Take responsibility for professional resources
– Leadership/people management skills
G Asset performance management
– Benchmarking of KPIs
– Contract management and monitoring
performance
– Customer/stakeholder management
G Financial management
– Resource accounting
– Capital and revenue budgets
– Whole life costing
– Business cases and option appraisals
G Data management
– The investment in, effective compilation and
management of asset registers and the use of in-
formation and reports therefrom
– Ensuring validity of data
– Scope, storage and retrieval of data
– Analysis of data
9.3 WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?
Training and development for asset management in
the corporate context
Organisations need to take a structured, disciplined ap-
proach to resources and capacity development to sup-
port asset management. A generic approach is
suggested below but there are a number of models for
analysing resource and capacity training and develop-
ment needs which can be used.
Key steps in analysing resource and capacity
By whatever process appropriate for the particular or-
ganisation in undertaking asset management, it is im-
portant that the organisation:
G undertakes a review of its resources and capacity for
asset management at the outset;
G assesses existing capabilities and competencies to
identify ‘gaps’ in respect of the organisation as a
whole, relevant teams within the organisation and
relevant individuals;
57
Chapter 9: Resources and Capacity
G formulates programmes to close the identified gaps
within appropriate timescales. Such plans and pro-
grammes may include such initiatives as:
– training and development;
– mentoring;
– seminars;
– ‘borrowing or seconding’ of those with relevant
skills within the organisation;
– recruitment; or
– strategic partnerships with third parties; and
G keeps under constant review resource and capacity
strengths and weaknesses and plans and pro-
grammes to close gaps.
Potential traps in implementing training and
development plans and programmes
In training and developing resources and capacity, note
that:
G while studying resource and capacity in asset man-
agement of other organisations can be informative,
it is important to recognise the unique histories and
circumstances of the ‘home’ organisation: what
works in one context, may not work in another;
G most organisations will have well-established or-
ganisational capabilities. Insofar as those capabili-
ties need to be changed and developed, there can be
considerable in-built resistance to change. That puts
a premium on leadership and inspirational quali-
ties as well as on a clear understanding of and
shared commitment to the goals and objectives of
asset management.
Finally, it is recommended that a senior manager
(probably the SMAM) should specifically be given re-
sponsibility for this process and, in particular, for en-
suring that training and development plans and
programmes are implemented efficiently and effec-
tively. Without that level of commitment and drive, re-
source and capacity training and development may
falter, with potentially serious consequences for asset
management and its likely contribution to the organi-
sation.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
58
59
to-day asset management. However, this is not the case.
Although there are indeed global challenges the role of
the asset manager is pivotal in ensuring that buildings
are procured, maintained and managed in ways that
minimise their environmental impact and still meet
the occupier’s and owner’s requirements.
Sustainability goes beyond the issue of environ-
mental protection and resource conservation; it em-
braces the concept of social equity and respect for
people and thereby embraces a range of social goals
and mechanisms, from health and well-being to good
governance. Increasingly, it is the drive to ensure deliv-
ery of this agenda which presents asset managers with
some of their biggest challenges as legislative changes
impact on building usability and increasing emphasis
is placed on occupier requirements.
10.2 DEFINITIONS
Sustainable development
There are many definitions of sustainable development
but the one that has been most widely adopted is the
Brundtland Commission’s definition published in 1987
which calls for development which ‘meets the needs of
today without compromising the ability of others to
meet the needs of tomorrow’ (Brundtland Commis-
sion, Our Common Inheritance, World Organisation on
Economic Development, 1987). In essence it intro-
duces the concept of intra-generational equity.
Sustainability and the triple bottom line
The concept of sustainable development, as defined by
Brundtland, has been widely applauded at many levels
of government. The principle was developed subse-
Chapter 10
Sustainability
Sarah Sayce, Professor and Head of
Surveying, Kingston University
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Chapter overview
This chapter describes the concepts of sustainabil-
ity and sustainable development. It explains why
sustainability is important to asset management and
details ways in which sustainability criteria are be-
ginning to impact on asset management and valua-
tion.
Benefits of sustainability in asset management
In simple terms it seeks to ensure that the environ-
mental aspects of buildings are sustainable, particu-
larly in relation to their carbon footprint. But on a
wider front it also seeks to ensure that buildings are
socially, economically and environmentally sustain-
able.
10.1 THE CONTEXT
There surely cannot be an asset manager who is un-
aware of the concerns raised by global environmental
issues, such as climate change and the depletion of fi-
nite resources. Current predictions are that the UK will
suffer significant warming over the next century, but
perhaps of greater importance, unpredictable weather
patterns and rising sea levels may, in some cases,
threaten the very existence of some buildings in low-
lying or exposed areas. In terms of resource depletion,
current estimates would show that the Western world
is using resources at the ‘three planet’ world level, i.e.
we are using resources at three times the rate at which
the world eco-system can support.
The problems can seem to be too pervasive and all
embracing to be capable of incorporating within day-
quently and enshrined into principles set out in the in-
ternational declaration following the Rio Summit in
1992.
This has led to a wider understanding and has de-
veloped the need to make decisions based, not just on
the ‘single bottom line’ of profit and short-term eco-
nomic gain, but on the ‘triple bottom line’ (TBL) of en-
vironmental protection, social justice and economic
viability. Within the triple bottom line further distinc-
tions can be drawn and these are shown diagrammat-
ically in Figure 10.1.
From this definition and its extension into the TBL
philosophy, it is apparent that there are innate conflicts
between the business decision-making processes and
delivery on the TBL. In no area is this a greater chal-
lenge than in asset management where conventional
decision making is based on the concepts of risk re-
duction and maximisation of returns; additionally for
the public sector the requirement for business effi-
ciency and ‘value for money’ may seem to sit uncom-
fortably with the TBL. Therefore, the challenge is to
achieve business efficacy whilst also meeting environ-
mental and social targets.
This challenge has proved difficult for the property
and construction industry and has led to concerns that
the sector has been too slow to act. In 2000, the Sus-
tainable Construction Task Group, chaired by Sir Mar-
tin Laing, put forward the proposition that a ‘circle of
blame’ (Risk, Reputation and Reward, Sustainable Con-
struction Task Group, 2000) was preventing the speci-
fying of green, or sustainable buildings (i.e. occupiers
blame the constructors for not building environmen-
tally efficient buildings; constructors blame the devel-
opers for not requiring such buildings; developers
blame the investors who won’t pay for such buildings;
and the investors blame the occupiers, as there is no
demand for them). This proposition was focused on
the commissioning of new buildings. This was indica-
tive that, at that time, sustainability was seen in terms
of the environmental credentials of new builds. At that
time it was not articulated in terms of relevance to the
work of asset management.
Since the circle of blame was recognised, much has
changed and there is now an increasing acceptance
both that sustainability for assets means more than just
energy efficient design of buildings and that appropri-
ate management and refurbishment of existing stock
is vital to meeting any form of sustainability targets.
10.3 BUILDING IMPACTS
The environmental impact of buildings
Buildings have a high environmental impact. It has
been estimated that within the UK buildings are re-
sponsible for up to 50% of all carbon emissions. Addi-
tionally, buildings are associated with pollution, water
use and the depletion of finite resources. They are
therefore key to delivery of any environmental agenda.
The environmental impact can be viewed in terms of
all stages of their lifecycle from site choice, including
location, to construction, to use and eventual demoli-
tion.
All of these matters should properly be addressed
at the concept and design of a building project.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
60
Figure 10.1: Key concepts in delivering sustainability
Adapted from UK Principles of Sustained Development
www.sustainable-development.gov.uk/what/principles.htm
Living within the
world’s environmental
carrying capacity
Environmental Social Economic
Promoting social
cohesion through
health, well-being
and education
Good governance to
ensure justice and
equity both for today
and the future
Working within the
precautionary principle
– to ensure planetary
survival
A sound economy
enabling progress,
research and
opportunity
The construction phase
At the stage of design and construction, the following
are the main environmental impacts of a building:
G winning and transportation of materials to site with
consequent implications for energy consumption,
carbon emissions and depletion of finite resources;
G waste produced and subsequent transportation of
waste from site;
G energy and water consumed during construction;
and
G ecological impact and hazard to biodiversity.
The energy used within the pre-completion phase is
normally referred to as embodied energy and can typ-
ically vary from 30% to 70% of estimated whole life
energy use.
The building-in-use phase
During building use the key environmental impacts
are:
G energy use in occupation;
G water consumption;
G waste management;
G travel to and from the building including distance
and mode.
It is at this stage of the building lifecycle that opera-
tional management policies can be effective not just in
reducing the impacts but also enabling good cost con-
trol and value enhancement.
The life-end phase
The life of a building is seldom clearly related to its de-
sign life. Put simply, if buildings fail to fulfil their eco-
nomic function, then, in absence of the ability to adapt
to other uses, they will fail regardless of their design
life. At this point the demolition process has implica-
tions for the environment in terms of both energy and
waste. Within the UK construction industry, the level
of waste is high compared to many other European
countries, with limited success in ensuring maximisa-
tion of materials re-use or recycling. Indeed, even
where materials can be re-used or recycled there are
transport implications and, in the case of recycling,
process implications.
Social impact of buildings
It is estimated that people spend up to 80% of their
lives in buildings. In the case of children and the elderly
this percentage may be even higher. Therefore the qual-
ity of the environment in which this time is spent will
have a significant impact on feelings of well-being and
psychological health; in some cases physical health can
be compromised or promoted by the building charac-
teristics. Studies of public buildings such as schools
and hospitals point to patient well-being and student
learning being enhanced by well-designed, well-lit and
well-serviced space.
Social sustainability is not just associated with the
‘soft’ issues of well-being and comfort. For offices,
many studies have now found relationships between
building layout and worker efficiency. Matters such as
good daylight levels, natural ventilation and locally
controllable heating systems all have a positive impact
on worker productivity. Additionally, the accessibility
of a building can affect worker retention.
Social sustainability of buildings can also be con-
sidered in terms of the respect agenda with legislation
such as the Disability Discrimination Act 2005 placing
responsibilities on building owners, occupiers and
managers to make reasonable adjustments to enable
access.
Sustainable assets
Sustainable assets have often been considered as those
which are built to good ‘green’ credentials as exempli-
fied by a range of scoring systems. Most are designed for
use at the design stage and have evaluated design fea-
tures, but the Building Research Establishment Envi-
ronmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), which is the
best known system in the UK, does consider manage-
ment issues as well. BREEAM was initially devised for
offices but has subsequently been developed for use with
retail, residential and, from 2005, school buildings.
For all its assessments, BREEAM scores buildings
(from PASS, GOOD, EXCELLENT) against the follow-
ing criteria (www.breeam.org):
G management;
G energy use;
G health and well-being;
G pollution;
G transport;
G land use;
G ecology;
G materials; and
G water.
The emphasis contained within the BREEAM system
and others has been on assessing the sustainability of
assets in relation to new-build stock only. However, the
asset manager is concerned primarily with the ongo-
ing management of the building stock and this is nor-
mally replaced at a rate of only 1% to 2% per annum.
Therefore, in practical terms for the asset manager, the
major impact is likely to fall on existing stock and its
ability, or otherwise, to meet ongoing occupational re-
quirements and the need to comply with legislation.
Characteristic of most of the scoring systems is that
they concentrate on environmental performance,
61
Chapter 10: Sustainability
whereas sustainability implies a wider approach. If
local authority asset managers are to be effective in
driving forward the government’s ambitions in rela-
tion to both the environmental and social targets, it is
improved management systems and sustainable refur-
bishments that must be the chief engines of delivery.
10.4 A SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA APPROACH
FOR ASSET MANAGEMENT
Action for the asset manager
An intrinsic aim of asset managers should be to en-
hance the sustainability of the asset base they manage
right across the TBL. In so doing they will be:
G reducing risk to future economic performance;
G enabling progress towards government targets in re-
lation to carbon reduction and social well-being;
and
G supporting their authorities to deliver services ef-
fectively and efficiently.
The three major points in the building lifecycle at
which sustainability informed action is essential are:
G the point of procurement;
G the point of decision making in respect of redevel-
opment or refurbishment; and
G during ongoing management including regular
revaluations of the estate.
These are now each taken in turn.
Promoting sustainability during the procurement of
buildings
Frequently the asset manager will not be involved at an
early stage in building procurement. Given the impor-
tance of initial design, as outlined above, it is good
practice for both users and asset managers to be en-
gaged early in the process.
As long ago as 1998, Edwards advocated that green
buildings pay (Edwards, B., Green Buildings Pay, Spons,
1998 (it has subsequently been revised)). Since then a
wealth of research points to new-build cost premiums
frequently being zero or in any event no more than 3%
to 5%. When set against savings achievable as meas-
ured through, for example, whole life cost assessment
techniques, the argument for specifying sustainability
driven design features for owner-occupied buildings
becomes irrefutable. The management principle must
be to include the asset manager within discussions at
an initial stage to ensure that design principles are
adopted which:
G promote energy conservation and efficiency and re-
duce carbon;
G allow for water management systems;
G enable good waste management;
G promote sustainable practices (such as provision of
lockers and showers for cyclists).
The argument for sustainability within newly procured
buildings is enhanced if a long-term perspective is
taken. Not only are running costs likely to be reduced
and occupier satisfaction enhanced, the periods be-
tween refurbishments are likely to lengthen.
Some principles that asset managers should seek to
include at the procurement stage are as follows:
G design to support the ambitions of the six ‘Ls’ (see
below) notably longevity and loose fit;
G design to maximise natural lighting where possible;
G install heating systems which maximise the use of
renewables;
G install grey water harvesting systems to ensure water
conservation;
G ensure the use of low maintenance and, where pos-
sible, locally sourced materials;
G consider the use of off-site manufacture to minimise
waste and transportation of excess materials and
improve site health and safety performance;
G seek to reduce embodied energy within the construc-
tion process and through the type of materials spec-
ified; and
G consult potential users to ensure that the buildings
will meet their ongoing needs and that it can adapt
to respond to predicted future changes in needs.
Considerations in respect of the demolition versus
refurbishment decision
Mention has been made above of the six ‘Ls’ of sus-
tainability. These were developed (Sayce, S. Walker, A.
and McIntosh, A., Building Sustainability in the Bal-
ance, London Estates Gazette, 2004) to provide a frame-
work within which to consider the issue of demolition
versus refurbishment. It is easy to espouse the case that
buildings should always be kept for as long as possible
on the grounds that this will minimise the embodied
energy when this is amortised over building life. Con-
versely, the technological changes and the drive for low
carbon buildings could be seen to hasten the process
of redevelopment. The six L framework is an attempt
to take a wider view in assessing the issues involved.
G Longevity: a building that achieves a long life amor-
tises the embodied energy and use of resources over
the maximum time possible.
G Loose-fit: given that patterns of occupational re-
quirements can change rapidly, a building that is
readily adaptable both for other users within the
same category of use or to an alternative use, better
meets the definition of a sustainable building.
Today, the specification of many buildings can be
achieved through the use of non-specialist designs.
G Low carbon: it is self evident given the targets for
CO
2
reductions and the drive for a low carbon so-
ciety that a sustainable building is one with a low
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
62
carbon footprint. This may be initially design
driven, but can be achieved, in part at least, by ap-
propriate refurbishment and by operational man-
agement.
G Locationally appropriate: the location of a building
will impact on its economic value; it will also
affect the environmental impact of the building.
One that can only be reached by car will not only
increase the environmental impact but, if restric-
tions on fuel are introduced or fuel costs rise, such
buildings may depreciate in value disproportion-
ately. However, a building that is inaccessible by car
may, depending on its use, simply not meet occu-
pational needs.
G Liked by occupiers: the point has been made earlier,
under social sustainability, that there is a linkage be-
tween occupier satisfaction and economic and so-
cial performance. However, this ‘L’ goes beyond this
to consider the economic drivers for the building.
Only if there is economic usefulness going forward
can the building be said to sustainable.
G Lovability: buildings have stakeholders who are ‘in-
ternal’, i.e. who have a direct interest (legal, financial
or employee). They also have ‘external’ visitors. Re-
search suggests that buildings which have the abil-
ity to inspire a positive response among external
stakeholders as well as those with a direct interest
will be more likely to achieve longevity.
The above characteristics provide an indication that a
sustainable building is far more than a simple energy
efficient structure. When considering asset manage-
ment decisions regarding redevelopment or refurbish-
ment, these criteria provide a possible framework
within which discussions as to whether to refurbish or
redevelop can take place.
Management and valuation
The effective asset manager will seek to balance the
needs of the operational entity with the requirement
to ensure optimum value in capital terms. In sustain-
ability terms this requires knowledge of factors that af-
fect both the operational aspects of the asset now
(revenue or rental drivers) and those which will affect
the ability of the property to perform as an asset mov-
ing forward or, in other words, the degree to which it
could be said to be ‘future proofed’. Where assets in the
asset base are ‘bulk class’ assets (bulk class asset is the
term normally given to shops, offices, residential and
light industrial/warehouse/distribution properties as
these are the properties normally traded in the mar-
ketplace), sustainability performance will influence
capital value but only if potential investment owners
build sustainability criteria into their decision-making
process and/or tenants build them into their rental
bids. Where they are not specialised buildings, man-
agement consideration will concentrate more thor-
oughly on operational issues.
In terms of strategic management the overall aim
should be to ensure that buildings are regularly as-
sessed against these criteria, and as and where possible,
adjustments of the overall asset base taken in the light
of the reviews. Whilst there are no publicly available
benchmarks against which to monitor performance,
owners should consider developing internal bench-
marks in order to target continuous improvement.
It is possible to identify a number of sustainability
criteria which should be considered by asset managers
when developing both asset strategies. Although the re-
search which identified the criteria related to commer-
cial investment asset, most have application to public
sector estates. These are:
G accessibility;
G adaptability;
G building quality;
G climate control;
G energy efficiency;
G pollutants;
G waste; and
G water.
These criteria were developed as part of the Sustain-
able Property Appraisal Project led by Kingston Uni-
versity School of Surveying, in partnership with
Prudential Property Investment Management, Invest-
ment Property Forum, Boots Plc, Drivers Jonas, Uni-
versities Superannuation Scheme and Forum for the
Future.
These criteria are by no means definitive. They do,
however, represent the factors which are likely to have
an impact on the future operational performance of
buildings and will therefore also impact on capital val-
ues. If a building is evaluated in terms of these criteria
it will provide the asset manager with an agenda for fu-
ture action in terms of refurbishment or replacement
and it should lead to enhanced financial cost control
and in time this will be reflected in enhanced capital
values.
10.5 SUMMARY OF SUSTAINABILITY
PRINCIPLES FOR ASSET MANAGERS
G Sustainability embraces the need to evaluate and
manage assets on the basis of their TBL perform-
ance; that is they should consider their social and
environmental as well as economic performances.
G Asset managers must recognise that sustainability
is more than a matter of applying technical inno-
vation and the pursuit of energy efficiency.
G The growth of corporate social responsibility (CSR)
as a management principle is widely adopted across
a range of private sector organisations and should
be embedded in all public sector organisations. It
follows that building owners and occupiers should
seek to integrate these principles within their selec-
tion, procurement and management of the assets
within their asset base.
63
Chapter 10: Sustainability
G Buildings which show good performance across the
TBL are likely to suffer less obsolescence and value
depreciation.
G Asset managers should seek to include sustainabil-
ity principles at all stages of the building’s lifecycle.
This means that the asset manager should be in-
volved at the stage of building design and planning
and not after commissioning.
G A range of tools are available to assess sustainabil-
ity at the point of design and procurement, such as
BREEAM and their use is advocated. At all times the
aim should be to procure or hold buildings which:
– are well-designed and capable structurally of
long life in terms of build quality;
– are capable of good environmental performance
including being low carbon;
– are flexible, responsive, adaptable due to loose
fit;
– are sited for maximum accessibility by multi-
modes of transport and thus locationally ap-
propriate;
– are efficient in layout so that they work for and
are liked by their occupiers; and
– retain, through their aesthetic and design qual-
ities, the ability to invoke lovability from both
internal and external stakeholders.
G During the life of the building the asset manager
should ensure that buildings are managed and ap-
praised in accordance with sustainability criteria in
order to assess the extent to which the building is
‘future proofed’ in terms of matters such as accessi-
bility, adaptability, climate control, energy, pollu-
tion waste and water. Buildings which do not score
well in relation to these criteria should be consid-
ered for retro-fitting, redevelopment or disposal.
G The use of an environmental management system,
whether or not formal accreditation is sought, will
provide the framework within which an asset man-
ager can assist the organisation to move forward
both strategically and at an operational level.
G Finally, the role of the strategic asset manager is to
ensure that building performance, in both revenue
and capital value terms, is optimised and that the
link between the two is recognised. The further link
between building sustainability and value is cur-
rently tenuous but it is developing. The proactive
vanguard asset manager will recognise this linkage
and seek to ensure that sustainability factors are
considered at all points in the building lifecycle so
that they can better support organisational corpo-
rate responsibility goals without compromising
user needs and good economic performances.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
64
65
That data will come from a wide variety of sources.
The volume of data required will depend on the size of
the asset base, and it may be large. However, the data is
only valuable if it is current, correct, complete and con-
sistent. It must be readily accessible and presented in a
format suitable for its target audience. Poor quality data
is misleading and potentially as bad as no data at all.
The management of such data is not straightfor-
ward. Organisations must plan to equip themselves
with systems and processes to capture, record and
manage the base property data effectively, then ma-
nipulate, consolidate, update and report information
clearly and efficiently.
It is important to note that while good data is central
to good asset management, it will take some time to im-
plement a new data system for asset management. This
does not mean that nothing can be done in the mean-
time. Far from it. It is frequently the case that by using
data that already exists in an innovative and creative
manner, good initial progress can be made, especially if
there are major issues that need to be addressed.
The key steps to improving data management are
shown in Figure 11.1 and are explained, in turn thereafter.
11.2 SPECIFYING REQUIREMENTS
The need for data
The key to justifying improvements in data manage-
ment will be careful consideration of why an asset data
Chapter 11
Data and
Information
Management
Mark Jones, Partner, Remit Consulting
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Chapter overview
This chapter describes the need for data to support
asset management, with a suggested guide to defin-
ing and implementing the systems required. It also
proposes an approach to managing and maintain-
ing data to ensure the long-term accuracy of the in-
formation.
Benefits of good data management
G Enables the provision of the information needed
to support asset management processes, when it
is needed, and to those who need it, in an easily
accessible way
G Ensures the quality of the information so that it
is correct, complete, consistent and current
G Employs organisation and structures that instil
confidence in the users of the information, and a
sense of responsibility and ownership in the
providers of the information
11.1 INTRODUCTION
Asset management relies on data. The data is crucial
for informing the development of strategies, evaluating
and appraising options, decision making and planning,
and performance management activities.
Requirement
Specification
System
Options and
Selection
Business
Case
System
Implementation
Ongoing Data
Management
Figure 11.1
system is needed, and how it will contribute to the asset
management process. The data and systems must sat-
isfy a range of different needs:
G to inform asset review, appraisal, decision-making
and planning processes;
G to monitor and assess the implementation of asset
strategy and asset performance;
G to satisfy statutory and other external reporting and
compliance requirements;
G to support the continuous management and main-
tenance of the asset base;
G to maintain a complete and accurate asset register.
Types of data
The data required to satisfy these needs will be broadly
the same from organisation to organisation although it
will vary in emphasis and detail. The following list of
data types provides an indication of the range of asset
data a public sector organisation will need to manage
and maintain:
G core data about each asset which generally does not
change over time or only very infrequently, for in-
stance, location, physical characteristics;
G additional data which changes and describes the
state of the asset at a point in time, for instance,
condition and backlog maintenance estimate;
G financial data;
G energy consumption and performance;
G data, financial and temporal, which describes the
progress of strategic initiatives and programmes
such as capital projects and disposals programmes;
G where the organisation controls a tenanted com-
mercial asset base, a range of data covering lease
and tenancy details, rental income and so on;
G data which will be used for planning and perform-
ance management purposes.
Organisations will already have operational systems
and processes for maintaining, managing and report-
ing asset data. However, these may be of variable
quality.
The first step is to define the required data and re-
porting requirements and develop a functional speci-
fication for the required systems. The resulting
specification can then be used to analyse the organisa-
tion’s options and determine a strategy for sourcing
suitable systems.
Approach to defining data and reporting
requirements
There are many formal methodologies for analysing
and specifying system and data requirements and some
organisations will have selected and adopted a pre-
ferred option. The basic principles which should be fol-
lowed are:
G review the asset management business processes;
G confirm and analyse the key performance indica-
tors (KPIs); and
G conduct a reports analysis to determine reporting
requirements.
Performing each of these steps enables the following:
G identification of base data that must be maintained;
G mapping of base data requirements to check that
the data is actually collected, recorded and main-
tained in identified business processes;
G identification of system processing requirements
and further reporting requirements;
G confirmation or determination of responsibilities
for maintaining data.
Prioritising requirements
It is also useful at this stage to start to identify the crit-
ical asset management processes. The objective here is
to identify priorities; often it will not be possible to in-
troduce new data and systems in one go. It may be nec-
essary to adopt a phased approach to implementation
and the requirements of the critical processes will cer-
tainly be considered for the first phase.
Reviewing requirements and critical processes
through this exercise enables a reality check to ensure
that the most important and relevant data is identified.
It is also important to consider the flexibility which
comes with the system to add new portfolios, change
the reporting arrangements, alter the KPIs or increase
the amount of key data required for each entry.
Property professionals may sometimes only think
about property and property related outputs so a key
priority is to ensure that the asset management and
data system links back to the organisation’s purposes
and the services which it delivers to customers. The
whole system must be relevant and add value to the
outputs of the organisation, not just to the property
asset managers.
Asset data structure and categorisation
A key aspect of the data definition will be determining
the property asset database structure. Even though dif-
ferent types of properties are different physically, it is
useful to determine a standard way for describing all of
the types of asset being managed. Often the highest level
will be the ‘site’ and then subsequent levels will describe
‘buildings’, then perhaps ‘blocks’, then ‘floors’ and
‘rooms’. The level at which areas of ‘land’ within a site
are defined will also need to be decided. In practice, soft-
ware systems may force a particular structure anyway.
Secondly, it is important to decide at what level each
type of additional data will be recorded, i.e. costs, con-
dition, space utilisation, etc. Of course, some of these
types of data will only apply to certain types of asset
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
66
and the categorisation discussed above should reflect
these circumstances.
Further system requirements
Whilst an initial evaluation of systems might be made
on the basis of the data and the reporting requirements
identified, these are not the only factors that will influ-
ence the selection of appropriate technology. Data and
reporting (and how data is processed in between) rep-
resent the functional requirements but there is a set of
non-functional aspects about which the organisation
needs to make decisions. These are just as important
in shaping the most suitable technology solution, for
example:
G the locations from which the data needs to be ac-
cessed by users;
G the types of users that need access to the data;
G the different methods of reporting envisaged;
G consideration of how users work;
G the way in which security and access controls need
to be applied to the data;
G expectations of system performance and capacity.
11.3 OPTIONS FOR SYSTEMS
The functional and non-functional requirements must
be documented and agreed to provide a baseline spec-
ification against which options for systems can be eval-
uated.
The challenge is to make sure that the asset man-
agement software chosen is properly integrated within
the organisation’s existing environment, taking ac-
count of existing organisation-wide management in-
formation systems. In fact, the organisation may
already have some form of property or asset manage-
ment software that will be suitable to support the re-
quirements – it may never have been implemented
fully before.
The requirements definition will have identified a
wide range of data that will need to be maintained and
reported. Ideally, all of this data would reside in a sin-
gle system and there would be no need for any links or
interfaces. In reality, this is unlikely to be the case.
Whilst the specialist asset management software pack-
ages are becoming more functional and may be able to
hold a wide range of data, it is likely that there are a
range of operational systems that will not be replaced
by an asset management package. These may include:
G central finance;
G graphical information systems (GIS);
G computer aided design (CAD);
G land and property terrier;
G energy management;
G project control;
G human resources.
The overall objective is to ensure that data only needs
to be entered once, that it is maintained consistently
and as far as possible automatically, across the various
systems where it is duplicated.
These systems will need to be linked together logi-
cally by a common asset coding system and structure.
Of prime importance will be the allocation of a unique
reference number for each property.
The options analysis will need to consider where
automatic interfaces are required between the various
systems. This will almost certainly involve bespoke sys-
tem work, the complexity and cost of which is easy to
underestimate.
Potentially, additional software will be required to
provide the consolidated asset management reports
that read data from the various systems, or some form
of consolidation database or ‘data warehouse’ may be
required that is updated regularly from operational
feeder systems.
An overriding constraint may be the organisation’s
central policy for applications.
11.4 BUSINESS CASE
It will be necessary to develop a business case in order
to demonstrate why resources should be invested in the
asset management data project.
Each organisation will have its own standard for
content and presentation, but the business case should
include the basic elements:
G the reasons why asset management systems are
needed for data management and the implications
of not pursuing the initiative;
G what the benefits are expected to be in measurable
terms;
G a description of the scope, likely options and ap-
proaches with estimates of resources required, costs
and benefits;
67
Chapter 11: Data and Information Management
Valuation
Running
Costs
Commercial
Tenant
Additional
Data
Condition
Survey
Asbestos
data
Site
Building
Block
Room
Core Asset Data
Figure 11.2: Example of Core data structure and Additional data
G an outline of the timescale for the project and the
risks involved.
The business case provides the mechanism for se-
curing approval and senior fund-holder sponsorship
and ensuring a common level of understanding to
guide the project in terms of scope, prioritisation and
expectations.
11.5 IMPLEMENTING THE SYSTEMS
Sponsorship and resources
The asset management system will not be successfully
implemented unless the organisation is prepared to
commit appropriate resources to the initiative, both
during the implementation and thereafter.
Crucial to the project will be the buy-in of those
senior stakeholders who will need to allocate resources
from their teams and potentially make changes to their
mode of operation over time in response to the busi-
ness process definition work.
That means that the benefits and imperatives must
be articulated clearly, and the resolve of the senior
sponsor must be strong. If this is a project to revitalise
an existing system, the work required may look daunt-
ing and very similar to starting again from scratch.
However, good information systems will significantly
ease the day-to-day burden of the asset management
team.
The difference between success and failure in a sys-
tems project is the ability to concentrate on these busi-
ness benefits from the start and remain focused on how
the system will help the team improve its work.
Project management
Of course, the other crucial factor for a successful im-
plementation is project management. Whatever ap-
proach and methodology is adopted the key elements
that must be in place include:
G a dedicated project manager;
G a ‘project board’ to whom the project manager re-
ports; and
G a sound project plan.
Other key implementation activities
Other key activities that need to be undertaken during
implementation will include:
G user acceptance testing;
G user training and procedures – ensuring that users
are trained ‘just in time’, probably using role-based
training techniques and in a way that is relevant to
the business processes and procedures;
G ongoing support planning;
G data migration.
11.6 MANAGING AND MAINTAINING THE DATA
Data governance and stewardship
Given such a wide range and potentially large volume
of data, organisations will need to put in place an ap-
propriate management structure to ensure that the
data is properly defined, managed and maintained.
It is suggested that organisations consider imple-
menting a formal data governance structure and
data stewardship role to ensure that the necessary asset
data is properly managed, particularly in those
situations where responsibility for data is not centralised.
In any case, it will be necessary to define rules and stan-
dards for ongoing data management and maintenance.
The data stewardship role is likely to be best placed
within the centralised asset management function and
have the authority to determine the data management
standards and processes. Additionally, some organisa-
tions will find it beneficial to form a data stewardship
corporate group.
Responsibilities for data
It is necessary, first, to define explicitly who will be re-
sponsible for maintaining each type of asset data and,
secondly, which types of asset data must be collated
centrally for strategic asset management purposes, per-
formance measurement and other corporate and or-
ganisation-wide reporting.
The central asset management function should
ideally maintain the asset register, but may delegate re-
sponsibility for maintaining specific core information
about the asset to devolved teams as appropriate.
The data stewardship role will need to coordinate the
collation of the data required centrally. Whilst this will
of course be facilitated where a centralised system is in
place and used by devolved teams, specific programmes
of data collection will still need to programmed, agreed
and managed across the organisation.
Standards for data definition
As well as defining responsibilities for maintaining data
and managing collation of necessary data centrally, the
data itself should be described formally to provide a
consistent basis for all parties to work from and a cen-
tral reference for various data governance, manage-
ment and system activities. This asset ‘data model’
documents the different data types that are identified
through data requirements and business process analy-
sis. It sets out how the data types are related to one an-
other and the various rules and standards, including
those that govern how the data will be recorded, qual-
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
68
ity criteria for the data and responsibilities for data
maintenance.
It is recommended that the data model is docu-
mented in a ‘data dictionary’. This may be a simple
word document or specific dictionary software for
more sophisticated situations.
Sustaining data quality
The data stewardship role should also be concerned
with maintaining the quality of data on an ongoing
basis. There are two distinct strategies that can be em-
ployed here: quality can be built into the process or
data can be monitored once it has been recorded.
The first strategy will involve, for example, ensur-
ing those who are responsible for maintaining data do
so according to the standards defined. The second
strategy involves the development of processes for
auditing the data, on some defined regular basis, and
perhaps at the time of specific data collection pro-
grammes. The likelihood is that both will need to be
used to ensure data quality.
69
Chapter 11: Data and Information Management
71
peared in these countries and have been replaced by
smaller, commercially focused procurement organisations
managing capital, costs and organising the purchase or
leasing of accommodation from private sectors providers.
The introduction of commercial-style performance
measurement for public sector operations drove down
a similar approach to asset management, focusing on:
G performance measurement and improvement;
G reduced public sector involvement and increased
outsourcing of services based largely on cost re-
duction;
G separation of policy-making and service delivery;
G greater management flexibility;
G greater financial accountability but with fewer
checks and balances.
Other drivers of asset management reform include in-
ternational accounting reforms and the entry of pri-
vate sector real estate professionals into public sector
management roles.
In the USA, years of under-investment and poor
management led the Administration to mandate de-
partments to produce asset strategies, plans and regu-
larly updated asset registers.
12.2 ASSET MANAGEMENT IN AUSTRALIA
The Australian approach to asset management has
been driven more by the introduction of regulatory re-
quirements and accounting standards, for example
(IAM 2002):
Chapter 12
Asset
Management –
An International
Discipline
Frank Bowyer, FB Consultants Pty Ltd,
Australia, Iain Gillies, Network Property,
New Zealand Telecom, Stephen Walton,
State government of New South Wales,
Australia, Clive Warren, University of
Queensland, Australia
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Chapter overview
This chapter contains a synopsis of public sector
asset management practice in Australia (AUS), New
Zealand (NZ) and the USA. It describes the context,
the main features of the government structures from
which the processes have developed and highlights
the benefits which have accrued.
12.1 OVERVIEW
Property asset management has been a focus for gov-
ernment and local authority attention outside the UK
for nearly 20 years. In these guidelines we have focused
on other English-speaking nations whose governmen-
tal systems are similar to the UK and where significant
progress has been made in property asset management
recently; namely Australia, New Zealand and the USA.
In Australia and New Zealand radical public sector
reform resulted in significant changes in accounting
conventions, reporting practice and ownership flexi-
bility, with a loosening of the hitherto tight controls
over the way the public sector managed assets and cap-
ital. The reforms changed the control parameters for
the cost of capital, ownership of property and man-
agement standards, resulting in a ‘market’ approach to
the way public sector operations were managed.
Centralised departments charged with creating and
managing all public sector property have largely disap-
G AAS 27 for local government;
G AAS 29 for government departments;
G AAS 31 for governments.
The Australian governmental system has close similari-
ties with that of the UK. The Australian National Audit
Office (ANAO) performs a similar function to the NAO
in the UK. The consensus from a number of their re-
ports confirms that there has been a much stronger drive
towards improved asset management, including prop-
erty asset management, at state level compared to central
government, where property has been treated as a ‘free
good’ rather than as a valuable business enabler.
The ANAO first examined asset management in the
general government sector in 1995 (ANAO 1995), ex-
cluding the Department of Defence. The ANAO found
significant scope for improvement in most organisa-
tions. They reported a lack of a strategic approach to
asset management, noting that this required decisions
about current and future asset holdings to be made as
an integral part of the corporate planning processes. Six
recommendations were made and the ANAO also pub-
lished an Asset Management Handbook, including strate-
gic asset management principles and approaches. By
1997–98 the ANAO was examining the extent to which
its earlier recommendations had been implemented.
The subsequent report noted that effective strategic asset
management remained a challenge for many govern-
ment organisations. It added that the gap had closed be-
tween what had been achieved and best practice during
the intervening two years. Noting the linkages with cor-
porate governance concerns, the ANAO report high-
lighted that many organisations had yet to:
G adopt a strategic approach to managing assets, in-
volving integrating asset planning into corporate and
resource planning frameworks;
G formalise and analyse systematically whole life cost
impacts of major asset acquisition, operational use
or divestment decisions;
G establish baseline cost and performance standards
for key assets, including monitoring outcomes
against these standards;
G implement financial management and asset man-
agement systems to facilitate the routine capture and
reporting of performance information for manage-
ment purposes;
G integrate disposal decisions into an overall planning
framework to monitor the outcome of disposal
processes.
The audit also confirmed the limited nature of central
policy advice and guidance compared with that in a
number of state governments. The federal government
in 1996 embarked on a major reform of the commercial
property portfolio, outsourcing in three major contracts
all asset management functions. All owned property was
subject to a 15% return on investment hurdle rates
which resulted in virtually all assets failing this owner-
ship test and the government entering a major divest-
ment campaign, with the space being leased back as
required. These major changes in property ownership
occurred during a period of high vacancy in the com-
mercial sector and resulted in property sales which did
not recoup the government’s initial investment.
The ANAO has continued to audit central govern-
ment departments and agencies in the asset manage-
ment and property management areas. The Auditor
General, in an Occasional Paper setting out his views on
Commonwealth assets and property management,
noted that a further ANAO audit conducted in 2003 had
still found difficulties experienced by a number of agen-
cies in relation to:
G poor documentation concerning asset acquisition
and disposal;
G assets not being recorded on the asset register; and
G asset registers not being reconciled to financial systems.
The property divestment and outsourcing programme
of the mid to late 1990s also passed the day-to-day man-
agement of commercial property assets back to the rel-
evant departments away from a central coordinating
asset management body. These changes have further re-
duced the government’s control over the strategic direc-
tion of the property they occupy and reduced the
transparency of acquisitions.
The state governments within Australia have adopted
a range of asset management methodologies over the
few years ranging from major outsourcing and divest-
ment similar to the federal government approach in the
case of Victoria, through to a largely in-house owner-
ship model followed by Queensland. Three examples of
the range of state government approaches to asset man-
agement and property asset management are presented
in the following sections.
State government of New South Wales (NSW)
The NSW state government’s reform programme for
the management of assets and office accommodation,
initiated in 1996, established in 1998 a high-level body
– the Government Asset Management Committee
(GAMC) – with a whole-of-government focus to drive
its programme of reforms. The structure is shown in
Figure 12.1.
The GAMC was established to ensure the effective
management of investment in assets and office accom-
modation. The Committee is chaired by the Director-
General of the NSW Premier’s Department and
members include the Chief Executive Officers of The
NSW Treasury, Department of Commerce, Attorney
General’s Department, Roads and Traffic Authority, De-
partment of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Re-
sources and Forests NSW. The Committee meets
quarterly with terms of reference to provide advice to
the Budget Sub-Committee of Cabinet on:
G the alignment of asset and office accommodation re-
sources with government’s service delivery priorities;
G the appropriateness of agency asset management
strategies;
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
72
G strategic asset and accommodation issues involving
more than one agency;
G office accommodation strategies for metropolitan
and regional areas;
G major investment strategies – acquisition, major re-
furbishments, lease pre-commitments, leasehold,
and asset and property disposals;
G benchmarks and performance standards for asset
and property portfolios.
Policy, budgetary frameworks and planning
As part of the policy reforms, a series of Total Asset
Management (TAM) guideline papers were introduced
to achieve better planning and management of NSW’s
existing and newly acquired physical assets. In this in-
stance, these are defined broadly as land, buildings, IT,
infrastructure, collections, equipment or fleet owned or
controlled by an agency resulting from past transactions
or events, providing future economic benefits and hav-
ing a definite business function or supporting the deliv-
ery of services. The TAM guidelines have recently been
improved and aligned with the Results and Services Plan
(RSP) and the budget process overall. Changes include:
G a restructured approach to the development of an
asset strategy, with greater emphasis on risk man-
agement and asset performance measurement, and
better alignment with the RSP;
G a TAM template, to assist in the preparation and as-
sessment of the asset strategy and supporting TAM
strategic plans;
G a new capital investment strategic plan guideline, to
reflect the requirements of the government’s pro-
curement policy reforms for major capital works
projects;
G relocation of the TAM manual, which includes
detailed guidelines together with supporting
assessment and decision-making tools, to the NSW
Treasury website (www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/tam/
tam-guide.htm).
By 31 August each year, agencies are required to submit
to NSW Treasury an integrated set of TAM plans which
comprise an asset strategy driving four plans: a capital
investment strategic plan, a maintenance strategic plan,
an asset disposal strategic plan, and an office accom-
modation strategic plan. An agency’s RSP is considered
incomplete unless it is supported by the asset strategy
and all supporting plans which effectively link execu-
tive performance with asset-related budgets.
State government of Western Australia
In June 1994 the Premier of Western Australia intro-
duced a strategic asset management framework for
state government that recognised the need for a more
rigorous approach to the management of Western
73
Chapter 12: Asset Management – An International Discipline
Minister of
Commerce
State Government of NSW
Office of
Government
Procurement
Government
Procurement
Management
• Asset
procurement
practice
• Contract capital
advisory
• Expert
purchasing
State
Procurement
• Procurement
operations
• Major contracts
State Property
• Corp Real Estate
• Strategic
property
development
– TAM
State Project
Services
Government
Architect
Office of
Government
Business
Minister of
Fair Trading
GAMC
DGs of
• Premiers
• Treasury
• Attorney General
• Roads
• Infrastructure Planning
Director General
Dept of Commerce
Figure 12.1: New South Wales Government Total Asset Management Framework
Australia’s portfolio of public assets. Subsequently, a
Functional Review Taskforce was set up which
recommended the further development and imple-
mentation of appropriate strategies to strengthen asset
management policies and practices. This followed
recommendations in a report published by
PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2002 on the governance
and management of Western Australian public sector
assets. The principal Taskforce concerns and recom-
mended actions were:
Taskforce concerns Action
Increase rigour in the Improve the quality of
capital investment information provided by
process agencies for decision
making
Give greater attention Deliver the benefits that
to maintaining existing were initially projected
assets
Institute greater Planned disposal of
coordination of asset significant assets
management across the
state public sector
The state government structure incorporating the
strategic asset management framework is shown in
Figure 12.2.
As shown above, the Department of Treasury and
Finance retains regulatory responsibility, approving
funding and working in collaboration with the Depart-
ment of Housing and Works which provides the
technical expertise. The framework promotes linkages
between the agencies management of their asset port-
folios with asset planning and corporate planning
processes. It outlines the processes to manage assets
through the lifecycle from planning to disposal, includ-
ing an increased emphasis on maintaining existing
assets. The results of this work are included in the new
strategic asset management framework which
comprises four key components: asset planning, capital
investment, maintenance, and asset disposal.
The revised strategic asset management framework
now includes several significant changes, notably:
G strategic asset plans are to be approved by the Min-
ister and submitted to the Treasurer as part of the
annual budget process;
G agencies will be requested to include information
on maintenance expenditure within the strategic
asset plan, consisting of a summary of the agency’s
proposed maintenance expenditure over the
Budget, and forward estimates, identifying the
sources of funding, such as the split between recur-
rent and capital funding, and the prevailing level of
deferred maintenance, as well as any strategies to
manage deferred maintenance.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
74
Minister For
Housing & Works
Works & Building
Services
Major Works
& Construction
Economic &
Financial
Management
Asset
Management
Maintenance
Planning and
Contracting
Public Works Policy
Strategy &
Legislation
The traditional Treasury function of DFT involves
• Managing the allocation of resources to state
government agencies
• Providing expert analysis and advice
concerning the strategies and framework
necessary for the sound economic and financial
management of the state.
The Strategic Asset Management Framework
(SAMF) is an integrated policy strategy
developed to improve asset management and
capital investment across the State public sector,
comprising 11 policies and guidelines to facilitate
the provision of quality advice to government to
support its decision-making.
The Department of Treasury and Finance’s Asset
Planning & Management Branch worked in
collaboration with the Department of Housing
Works to develop the SAMF.
Department of
Treasury & Finance
State Government of WA
Collecting State
Revenue
Central Contracting
& Tendering
Government
Agencies
Ownership,
Implementation
& Decision
making
Regulation/Funding
Expertise
The Department of Housing and
Works represents all of the state
government’s housing and works
functions, covering:
• Public and community housing
• Aboriginal and regional housing
• Keystart home loans
• Property sales
• Major government projects
• Capital works projects
• Property & facilities management
The Department of Housing and
Works consolidates the public
sector’s built environment and the
government’s assets and projects
management to enhance the
delivery of services in these areas.
Figure 12.2: State Government of Western Australia Strategic Asset Management Framework
The objectives and outcomes of the process are as
follows:
Planning objectives Desired outcomes
Strategic planning for Management of property
management of assets asset portfolios as a
corporate resource
Ensure that facilities Accountability for strategic
meet current and future management of all real
requirements estate assets
Benchmarking and Rationalisation
performance management supported by specific
to competency and business case reviews
consistency standards
Optimise each asset
lifecycle
Identify surplus assets Divestment of high-cost
and under-utilised assets
Matching space needs Achieving efficiencies
with staff requirements through collocation of like
functions
Minimising ‘all in’ costs Improvement of the asset
of owning, leasing, data and management
occupying and using information systems and
space transparency
Maximising flexibility in
space use and tenure
Conforming real estate
strategies
Key reporting and tax
requirements
The Government Office Accommodation Working
Group (GOAWG) exists to ensure a whole of govern-
ment perspective in managing the office accommoda-
tion portfolio. The GOAWG comprises senior
representatives from the Department of Treasury and
Finance, Department of the Premier and Cabinet plus
Department of Housing and Works (DHW). The
GOAWG evaluates office space proposals (new leases,
refurbishments, etc.) exceeding $1m, referred to it by
DHW and GOAWG makes recommendations to the
Minister for Works who signs off on commitments.
State government of Queensland
Asset management in Queensland is centralised under
the Department of Public Works and Housing with di-
visions of Queensland Property Management (QPM),
Qbuild and Project Services. Each of these divisions
provides services to government departments on a fee
for service basis. The structure provides for adminis-
trative separation of the construction and maintenance
aspects of property provision from the strategic
review processes and the ongoing maintenance and
leasing management functions. This is illustrated in
Figure 12.3.
Commercial office procurement is governed by a
number of guidance documents and administrative
procedures. The office accommodation management
framework (OAMF) sets the basis on which property
procurement is administered. It outlines the authority,
scope, principles and working environment under
which it operates and establishes clear roles and re-
sponsibilities for the department and other agencies
utilising its services.
The OAMF is guided by the broader objectives of
government and the strategic direction developed for
the department. The wider governance issues include
the Treasury’s State Purchasing Policy. So, in imple-
menting property procurement objectives, the policy
provides clear guidance on the process to ensure state
objectives are achieved. The Treasury also provides
agencies with a framework for developing strategic
asset plans within a ‘sustainable total resource man-
agement framework’. The guidance seeks to encourage
strategic management of outcomes through the align-
ment of assets, resources and agency services to meet
government priorities.
Queensland differs significantly from other states
in that it recognises the need for a balanced portfolio of
owned and leased property and seeks to maintain an
approximately equally balanced portfolio of the two.
There is also recognition that government has the abil-
ity to manage in-house the processes of property man-
agement to achieve the best fit with a whole of
government approach to the provision of supporting
property infrastructure.
The strategic direction of property asset provision
and management is set by the Government Office
Accommodation Committee (GOAC) which has
responsibility for setting the strategic direction and
approach to ownership and management of govern-
ment office accommodation. It also reviews all
acquisitions, both freehold and leasehold, and dispos-
als of buildings greater than 5,000m
2
. The Committee
is the final arbiter in any property-related dispute be-
tween an agency and the Department of Public Works
(DOPW).
At all levels of asset provision a regime of internal
contracting and fee for service exists to promote per-
formance evaluation and to prevent waste. All agencies
pay a market based rent to Building Services for the ac-
commodation they occupy. In turn, the Building Divi-
sion engages and pays QBuild to undertake
maintenance on the owned estate through contracts at
market-based rates for the services undertaken. Thus,
a commercialised property system exists, with a high-
level strategic management group taking government
priorities and interpreting them, in terms of asset out-
comes, via GOAC, which is documented and dissemi-
nated both within DOPW and to other agencies. At the
same time, agencies will develop their own strategic
75
Chapter 12: Asset Management – An International Discipline
planning outcomes, based on government priorities,
and, through representation on GOAC, communicate
their strategic direction and needs for supporting
property resources.
12.3 ASSET MANAGEMENT IN NEW ZEALAND
The New Zealand public sector is structured on the
principle that each public entity is held individually re-
sponsible for delivery of services as required by gov-
ernment. Each department has autonomy and there is
no central body managing assets. The structure is il-
lustrated in Figure 12.4.
Most public sector organisations report perform-
ance on an accrual accounting basis in a similar fash-
ion to private corporations. A capital charge is applied
to capital utilised in an agency’s operations, effectively
creating a proxy for borrowing capital from Treasury.
This has changed the asset mix over time as agencies
have been encouraged to reduce capital assets.
The most comprehensive work in asset manage-
ment has been undertaken by local authorities. Legis-
lation – Local Government Act 2002 – introduced an
expectation that all assets held by a local authority
would be identified, managed well and would be con-
sidered in every part of the planning process for all ac-
tivities of the authority. This required local authorities
to generate clear asset management plans. These are
generally developed from the bottom-up, commenc-
ing with an asset register entry for each asset and work-
ing on from there.
The NAMS Group, established by the association of
Local Government Engineers, has developed a range of
manuals that are now widely in use throughout the
local authorities.
The NAMS manuals and guidelines are distributed
worldwide and include the following:
G The International Infrastructure Management Man-
ual (2006) is positioned as the Group’s core docu-
ment in asset management theory and practice. The
manual is prescriptive in style, and sets out clear re-
quirements to achieve a practical and effective asset
management function. Although it covers a wide
range of asset types, it focuses on infrastructure as-
sets.
G Optimised Decision Making Guidelines provide eco-
nomic analysis for decision making on the mainte-
nance, renewal and replacement of infrastructure
assets and includes over 30 actual case studies.
G Depreciation and Valuation Guidelines are a practi-
cal guide into the assessment of value, economic life
and depreciation methods for infrastructure assets.
G Developing levels of service and performance
measures guidelines 2007 demonstrate how to
establish levels of service and performance meas-
urement for assets based on client requirements.
12.4 ASSET MANAGEMENT IN THE USA
The US Government has 3.3 billion square feet of of-
fice space and 655 million acres of land. The General
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
76
Assistant Director
General
(governance)
State Government of Queensland
Whole-of-
government
strategy
Integrated
Services Delivery
Assistant Director
General (works)
Project
Services
Deputy Director
General
Human Resources
Finance
Building Division
Old Purchasing
Infrastructure/
major project
Q Build
Director
General
Governance
and Review
Executive
Services
Adult
Performance
Review
Minister of
Public Works Housing
& Racing
GOAC
DGs of
• Premiers
• Treasury
• Public Service
• Works
Figure 12.3: State Government of Queensland Strategic Asset Management Framework
Services Agency (GSA) controls some 11.7% of the real
property space inventory. In January 2003 the Govern-
ment Accountability Office (GAO) identified real es-
tate and its management as a high risk federal
programme due to under investment. In that same year
the GAO testified that federal property was deteriorat-
ing badly and decision makers lacked reliable data.
As a result, in February 2004, Executive Order (EO)
13327 was signed by President Bush adding improved
real property asset management to the President’s
management agenda. The EO defined real property
as any real property owned, leased or otherwise
managed by the federal government domestically
and internationally and includes improvements to
federal lands.
The EO established the Federal Real Property Coun-
cil (FRPC), under the administration of the Office of
Management and Budget (OMB), to serve as a centre of
best practice and assist the efforts of Senior Real Prop-
erty Officers (SRPOs), a role described further below.
The structure of the FRPC is set out in Figure 12.5.
The Council comprises the SRPOs, the Controller,
and, Deputy Director of Office of Management and
Budget (as Chair), the Administrator of the GSA and
any other officials or employees deemed necessary by
the Chair. The Council is seen as a mechanism to assist
SRPOs develop and implement agency property asset
management plans. The Council, in conjunction with
the Administrator of the GSA, works out appropriate
performance measures for real property. As part of its
remit, the FRPC has also produced a template for prop-
erty asset management plans to be rolled out across
agencies. These plans are reviewed by the OMB as part
of the normal budgetary review process and in achiev-
ing government-wide property management priorities.
The SRPO is required to submit an initial asset
management plan to the OMB which:
G identifies and categorises all real property owned,
leased or managed by the agency within and out-
side the USA;
G prioritises actions to be taken to improve the oper-
ational and financial management of the agency’s
real estate;
G makes lifecycle cost estimates of these actions;
G identifies authorities also required to address the
priorities established;
G identifies and pursues goals, with appropriate dead-
lines, consistent with the asset management plans,
measuring progress. Incorporates planning and
management requirements established under ear-
lier EOs for heritage property and for environmen-
tal management;
G annually lists and describes property assets under
the control of the agency.
Every agency must determine what it owns, what it
needs and what it costs to manage its real properties. It
must develop and implement property asset manage-
ment plans and performance measures. Surplus prop-
erties are to be sold.
The role of the GSA has been expanded to include
establishing and maintaining a government-wide real
property inventory database and reporting perform-
ance measures.
77
Chapter 12: Asset Management – An International Discipline
New Zealand
Advising/policy/
regulating
State Services
Commissioner
• Public Sector
Performance
LINZ
• Crown land
ownership
• Provide Land
Information
• Manage ownership
NZ
Treasury
• Advise on the NZ
Economy
• Assist with budgets,
planning
• Advise on standards
Minister of
Finance
• Annual budgeting
• Supervise Treasury
• Set Financial
Standards
Office of the
Auditor General
• Annual audits
• Controller function
• Approvals of
process
Governance
• Ministers of the Crown
• Statutes relevant to each public sector
Works and construction
Contracting and tendering
Maintenance and planning etc.
Ministries/Departments State Owned Enterprises Other Crown Entitles
Crown Research Institutes • District Health Boards
• Local Authorities
• Tertiary Education Sector
The Crown The entity The entity
Entitles
Asset owner
Figure 12.4: New Zealand Government: Where Asset Management Fits
So in the USA, under-investment triggered the de-
velopment of a mandatory property asset management
process. A national body oversees the development and
dissemination of best practice and a series of KPIs have
been established for measuring the performance of
property assets over time.
12.5 SUMMARY
Whilst the US and Australian models of property asset
management have developed from different drivers,
there are a number of similarities and differences that
could inform a UK model of excellence:
G The US and Australian ‘models’ both recognise the
need for a central coordination committee to de-
velop and disseminate best practice in property
asset management; for example, the FRPC in the US
and the GAMC in the NSW state government.
G The US approach has been mandated by Presiden-
tial Executive Order.
G The US and Australian models link the property
asset management planning process into budgetary
cycles.
G Both countries have produced best practice guidance
centrally; state governments in Australia have also
developed their own approach and a review of three
of these (New South Wales, Western Australia
and Queensland) indicates close similarities
and consistency of approaches and some marked
differences.
G The US model has set out the requirement that a
named individual at strategic level in all major
agencies should be held responsible for property
asset management.
G The ANAO has conducted a number of formal au-
dits of the embedding of asset management and
property asset management in central government
departments and agencies.
12.6 APPENDICES
Appendix 1 sets out in tabular format comparisons of
the asset management structures in Australia, New
Zealand and the USA. Appendix 2 shows, again in tab-
ular form, comparisons between asset management
arrangements for the states of Western Australia,
Queensland and New South Wales.
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
78
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
Federal Real Property Council (FRPC)
Asset Management Performance Measures Inventory Systems
Chaired by Chaired by Chaired by Chaired by
General Services National Aeronautical Department of Department of
Administration (GSA) and Space Administration Defence (DoD) Agriculture
(NASA)
Senior Real
Property Officers (SRPOs)
Figure 12.5: The Structure of the Federal Real Property Council
Appendix 1
Asset management policy comparisons
79
Chapter 12: Asset Management – An International Discipline
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Appendix 1 continued
Appendix 2
Asset management comparisons – Australian states
81
Chapter 12: Asset Management – An International Discipline
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83
Overview
This section lists publications about asset manage-
ment and linked subjects, which have been brought
to the attention of the editors. As more information
is published, the RICS website will carry details and
access information.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT ASSET
MANAGEMENT AND ASSOCIATED TOPICS
Achieving Excellence in Construction; Better Asset
Management; Improving Property Asset Management in
the Central Civil Government Estate; Management
of Risk; OGC Gateway Review for Programmes & Proj-
ects; Programme and Project Management Resources;
Public Sector Construction Clients’ Forum, Office of
Government Commerce, publications available free
online at www.ogc.gov.uk
Acting on Facts: Using Performance Measurement to
Improve Local Authority Services; Improving School
Buildings; PFI in Schools; Worth the Risk, Audit
Commission publications available free online at
www.audit-commission.gov.uk
Asset Management, Audit Report No. 27, 1995–96,
Australian National Audit Office, ANAO, 1995
Asset Management, Audit Report No. 27, 1998,
Australian National Audit Office, ANAO, 1998
Asset strategic plan guidelines, Queensland Government,
Brisbane, 2003
Bourne, M. and Bourne, P., Change Management in a
Week, Chartered Management Institute, Hodder and
Stoughton, 2002
BRE Environmental Assessment Method, available at
www.breeam.org
Building Better Services, IPF/FPS(Scotland)/CIPFA
joint publication, 2003
Centres of Excellence for Programme & Project Manage-
ment – Information Pack, OGC, 2004
CIPFA Capital Accounting Review: Interim Position –
November 2002, available at www.cipfa.org.uk/pt/cap
italreview.cfm
Competence and Competency Frameworks, Chartered
Institute of Personnel and Development, available at
www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/perfmangmt/competnces
Core Competency Framework, I&DeA, available at
www.idea.gov.uk/idk/aio/6055695
Dow, P., Gillies, I., Nichols, G. and Polen, S., New
Zealand: State Real Property Asset Management in O.
Kaganova and J. McKellar (eds), Managing Government
Property Assets: International Experiences, Urban Insti-
tute Press, 2006
DTLR Implementation of Asset Management Plans and
Corporate Capital Strategies: Baseline Report available
at www.local.odpm.gov.uk/research/finance/index.htm
Edwards, B., Green Buildings Pay, Spons, first published
in 1998 and subsequently revised
Financial Incentives for Sustainable Buildings – 10 years
on, Drivers Jonas, 2007
Framework for Highway Asset Management in the UK,
County Surveyors Society, 2004
Bibliography
What’s been
Published
Already
STRATEGY
Business Drivers
Financial Drivers
Asset Strategy
Asset Management Plan
Asset
Management
System Review
Performance Management
of Assets
Balance Scorecard
Delivery
Planning
Achieving the Desired
Outcomes
Procurement
Project Management
REVIEW DELIVERY
Change in Asset
Management
Corporate Change
AM Services Change
The Attributes
Needed
CHANGE
Leadership
Culture
Customers
Structure
Roles
Responsibilities
Resources and
Capacity
Governance
Data
Sustainability
Asset Reviews
Business Cases
Asset Programmes
Financial Planning
for Assets
PROGRAMMES
Gershon, P., Releasing Resources to the Front Line, 2004,
available at www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/C/A/effi
ciency_review120704.pdf
Getting Value for Money from Construction Projects
through Design How Auditors Can Help; Good practice
in PFI property management deals; Good practice in
selling publicly owned assets; Good practice in the
application of risk management – self-assessment
questions for departments; Innovation in PFI Financing:
The Treasury Building Project; Joining Up to Improve
Public Services; Making joint ventures work; Mod-
ernising Construction; Purchasing Professional Services;
Ten key questions departments need to consider in man-
aging the risk of policies not delivering what is intended;
Using call centres to deliver public services, National
Audit Office publications, available free online at
www.nao.org.uk/
Grant, R., Contemporary Strategy Analysis (5th edi-
tion), Blackwell Publishing, 2005
Green Book, Appraisal and Evaluation in Central
Government, HM Treasury, available at
http://greenbook.treasury.gov.uk/
Guidance for Improved Asset Management, Federal Real
Property Council, FRPC, 2004
Hedley, C., International Total Occupancy Cost Code,
IPD Occupiers Property Databank, 2004
High Performing Property: Routemap to asset manage-
ment excellence, available at www.ogc.gov.uk/docu
ments/CP0137HighPerformanceProperty.pdf
Highway Asset Management: Worldwide Experience and
Practice, County Surveyors Society, 2004
Hot Property: Getting the best from local authority
assets, Audit Commission, 2000, available at
www.audit-commission.gov.uk
Howarth, A., Report on Improving the Capability and
Capacity of Managing Property Assets in Central Civil
Government, OGC, 2006
International Infrastructure Management Manual (UK
Edition), The Institute of Asset Management, 2002
Kaplan, R. S. and Norton, D. P., Putting the Balanced
Scorecard to Work, Harvard Business Review, Sept–Oct
1993
Kaplan, R. S. and Norton, D. P., The Balance Scorecard:
Translating Strategy into Action, HBS Press, 1996
Lindholm, A. L. and Nenonen, S., ‘A conceptual frame-
work of CREM performance measurement tools’,
Journal of Corporate Real Estate, Vol. 8, no. 3, Emerald
Group Publishing Limited, 2006.
Local Government Asset Management Guidelines,
RICS/ODPM, 2005
Lyons, M., Towards better management of Public Sector
Assets, HM Treasury, December 2004, available at
www.ogc.gov.uk/documents/Towards_better_manage
ment_of_public_sector_assets_-_Sir_Michael_ Lyons.pdf
Male, S., Improving Property Asset Management in the
Central Civil Government Estate, Leeds University, April
2006, available at www.ogc.gov.uk/documents/
Improving_property_asset_management_in_govt_
estate_-_StephenMale(1).pdf
National Competition Policy – Report by the Independ-
ent Committee of Inquiry (Hilmer Report) Industry
Commission, 1993
Oakland, J. S., Total Quality Management, Elsevier But-
terworth-Heinemann, 2003
Office accommodation management framework,
Brisbane, Queensland, Department of Public Works,
2003
Option Appraisal – Building Our Future: Scotland’s
School Estate, Scottish Executive, 2004, available at
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/05/19436/
38224
PAS 55-1 Asset Management Part 1 and 2, The Institute
of Asset Management, 2004
Project Portfolio Management Framework, DCLG/Cam-
bridgeshire County Council
Sayce, S., Walker, A. and McIntosh, A., ‘Building Sus-
tainability in the Balance’, London Estates Gazette, 2004
School Estate Management Plans Building Our Future:
Scotland’s School Estate, Scottish Executive, 2003
available at www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2003/
08/18009/25296
Scottish Public Finance Manual, in particular on
Disposals, available at www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/
Government/Finance/spfm/Intro
Staff Development and Organisational Capacity – Non-
profit Good Practice Guide, Johnson Center, Grand
Valley State University, USA
State purchasing policy, Queensland Government, Bris-
bane, 2003
Strategic Asset Management Framework for Western
Australia, Department of Treasury and Finance,
Government of Western Australia, August 2005
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
84
Survey of Property trends: Green Issue, GVA Grimley,
2006
The Business Excellence Model, EFQM Excellence
Models
Total Asset Management, New South Wales Treasury,
September 2004
Total Asset Management Manual, New South Wales
Public Works Department, Capital works investment:
NSW Government, Sydney, 1992
Varcoe, B., A Management Guide to Facilities Perform-
ance article in Facilities Management, No. 7, Eclipse,
1995
Warren, C. M. J., Public sector property strategies within
Australia, 2002 (paper presented to CIB W70 Facilities
Management and Asset Maintenance Applying and
Extending the Global Knowledge Base, Glasgow)
Wilkins, R. and Webster, E., Better Management: Effec-
tive management of the Government estate, Office of
Government Commerce, 2006
ADDITIONAL WEB REFERENCES FOR
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
Australia
New South Wales: Total Asset Management 2000
www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/tam/tam-intro.htm
Queensland
www.treasury.qld.gov.au/office/services/asset-manage
ment/index.shtml
Victoria
www.budget.vic.gov.au/CA256FE000059F74/0/FE6329
A137D83161CA2570A800193481?OpenDocument
Western Australia
www.dtf.wa.gov.au/cms/tre_content.asp?ID=1269
New Zealand
National Asset Management Steering (NAMS) Group
www.nams.org.nz/Home
The following documents can be purchased from the
NAMS website:
Developing levels of service and performance
measures guidelines 2007
International Infrastructure Management Manual
2006
Property and Depreciation and Valuation Guidelines
85
Bibliography: What’s been Published Already
87
A
Achieving Excellence Guides 28, 29
Achieving Excellence in Construction initiative 26
annual budget process 23
asset base
developing performance management see performance
management
review see asset review
asset management
concept diagram and arrangement of guidelines 7–8
descriptions from various documents 5–7
good organisation see organisation
international discipline see Australia; New Zealand; USA
plan see asset strategies
reviewing system see performance management; review
asset programmes
benefits of effective programming 17
delivery see delivery
development and evaluation 21–22
financial planning for assets
asset management and the annual budget process 23
principles 22
preparation, stages 17
project evaluation see business cases
review of asset base see asset review
asset review
approach 17–18
asset category reviews 18
geographic area 18
outcome 18–19
timing 18
asset strategies
asset management plan
content 12
coverage 10–11
pivotal role 15
delivery see delivery
pivotal role 15
preparation, key elements
asset strategy document 15
business drivers 11, 13
buy-in 13–14
stages 11
testing 14–15
visioning 13
purpose and role
fitting asset strategy into organisation’s business process 10
overview 9
strategy development – an iterative process 10
Australia 71–72, 78
policy, budgetary frameworks and planning 73
policy comparisons 79–80
state comparisons 81
state governments
New South Wales (NSW) 72–73
Queensland 75–76
Western Australia 73–75
B
Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment
Method (BREEAM) 61, 64
buildings see land and buildings
‘Building Sustainability in the Balance’ (Sayce, S. Walker, A.
McIntosh, A., London Estates Gazette, 2004) 62
business cases 19
data project 67–68
key elements
commercial assessment 21
financial assessment 19–21
non-financial assessment 19, 20
options identification 19
project management assessment 21
recommendation 21
risk assessment 21, 22
strategic justification 19
reasons for 19
C
change management 41
attributes of good change managers
communication 46
effective use of time – delegation and empowerment 45
leadership 44–45
motivation 46
organisation and programmatic approach 46
understanding people and engagement 45
benefits 41
nature of change, understanding
asset management services change 44
context 41–43
corporate change see corporate changes
gradual process 44
commercial assessment 21
communication
change management 43, 46
project delivery 29
corporate changes
acquisition and disposal 44
asset management planning 44
asset management strategy and policy 43
communication 43–44
generally 43
operation and maintenance 44
performance review and accounting 44
roles, responsibilities and governance 43
corporate project management
leadership 48–49
customers see stakeholders
D
data management 65
benefits of good data management 65
business case 67–68
Index
implementing systems
other key implementation activities 68
project management 68
sponsorship and resources 68
managing and maintaining data
data governance and stewardship 68
responsibilities for data 68
standards for data definition 68–69
sustaining data quality 69
options for systems 67
specifying requirements
approach to defining data and reporting requirements 66
asset data structure and categorisation 66–67
further requirements 67
need for data 65–66
prioritising requirements 66
types of data 66
definitions
sustainability and the triple bottom line 59–60
sustainable development 59
delivery 25, 31
benefits of good delivery 25
communications 29
direction 26
key issues 25–26
means of
procurement strategies and routes 28
third party involvement and partnership 26
whole life 28
monitoring, incentives and benefits realisation 30
planning and managing, cycle 26, 27
project planning
project plan 29
stage plans 29
project structure and governance
insulation 28
need for good governance 28
PRINCE2 28
roles and responsibilities 28–29
resources and capabilities 26
risks 30–31
successful 25
Disability Discrimination Act 2005
social sustainability of buildings 61
F
financial assessment 19–21
financial planning for assets
asset management and the annual budget process 23
principles 22
G
Green Buildings Pay (Edwards, B., Spons, 1998) 62
I
Improving Property Asset Management in the Central Civil
Government Estate (Male, S., Leeds University for the Office of
Government Commerce, 2006) 5, 10, 34, 41–42, 56
information management see data management
international discipline see Australia; New Zealand; USA
L
land and buildings see also sustainability
property management 6–7
strategic asset management 6–7
leadership
benefits 47
leadership skills
corporate project management 48–49
development 48
identification 47–48
human, IT and financial resources, use of 48
knowing the business 48
personal skills 48
technical expertise 48
leading the agenda for asset management 47
M
Modernising Construction report (NAO, 1999) 31
N
NAMS Property Manual (National Asset Management Steering
(NAMS) Group, Thames, New Zealand, 2006) 11, 34
New Zealand 71, 76, 77
policy comparisons 79–80
non-financial assessment 19, 21
O
Office of Government Commerce (OGC)
Achieving Excellence Guides 28, 29
Successful Delivery Pocketbook, 2006 25, 26
Successful Delivery Toolkit 26
websites 31
organisation
benefits of good organisation 51
key steps 51
organisational culture 51
process
clear and regular asset management reporting lines
throughout organisation 53
clear demarcation between asset management and
property management decision making 52
effective annual business process for assets 53
elements 51–52
full involvement of all key operational areas 52
good linkage to corporate aims/objectives and corporate
decision makers/budget holders 52
good linkage with other support functions 53
integration with financial planning 53
single point of contact for asset management team 52
roles and responsibilities 53
asset champion 54
corporate asset management group (CAMG) 53
senior manager for asset management (SMAM) 53
structure 54
Our Common Inheritance (Brundtland Commission, World
Organisation on Economic Development, 1987) 59
P
PAS 55 (Publicly Available Specification 55) – Asset Management
(BSI, 2004) 11, 34
performance management 33
benefits 33
development for asset base 35
balanced scorecard 36
benchmarking 37–38
key performance indicators 36–37
measurement 37
organisational performance, understanding 35
reporting and improvement planning 38
review and quality management 37
taking improvement action 39
reviewing asset management system see review
procurement routes 28
RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines
88
design and build 28
prime contracting 28
private finance initiative 28
procurement strategies 28
development, factors to be considered 28
project evaluation see business cases
project management assessment 21
project planning
project plan 29
stage plans 29
project structure and governance
insulation 28
need for good governance 28
PRINCE2 28
roles and responsibilities 28–29
property asset management (PAM) 5
operational component 5
strategic component 5
property management 6–7
Public Accounts Committee Report
Improving Construction Performance (December, 2001) 26
R
Report on Improving the Capability and Capacity of Managing
Property Assets in Central Civil Government (Howarth, A.,
National School of Government for OGC, 2006 and work of
The Institute of Asset Management) 57
resources and capacity
analysing, key steps 57–58
benefits and proper regard 55
defining
organisation and team capacity for asset management 56–57
skills and competencies for asset managers 57
role 55–56
training and development
asset management in the corporate context 57
potential traps in implementing plans and programmes 58
review
assessment method 34
assess performance 34, 35
evaluation framework 34
improvement action, identification and implementation 34
using a framework 33–34
RICS/ODPM Guidance on Asset Management 2005 (RICS/ODPM,
2005) 11
risk assessment
business cases 21, 22
risk management 30–31
Risk, Reputation and Reward (Sustainable Construction Task
Group, 2000) 60
S
stakeholders
consultation 49–50
effective 49
improved, benefits 50
engaging key internal decision makers 50
identifying and engaging external stakeholders 50
Strategic asset management (SAM) 5
land and buildings 6–7
Strategic Benchmarking (Watson, G.H., 1993) 37
Successful Delivery Pocketbook, 2006 25, 26
Successful Delivery Toolkit 26
sustainability
benefits 59
building impacts
building-in-use phase 61
construction phase 61
environmental impact of buildings 60
life-end phase 61
social impact of buildings 61
sustainable assets 61–62
context 59
criteria approach for asset management
action for asset manager 62
considerations in respect of demolition versus
refurbishment decision 62–63
management and valuation 63
promoting sustainability during procurement
of buildings 62
definitions
sustainability and the triple bottom line 59–60
sustainable development 59
summary of principles for asset managers 63–64
U
USA 71, 76, 78
policy comparisons 79–80
V
Value for Money Evaluations in Complex Procurements 28
W
Websites 31
89
Index
The efficient delivery of services is repeatedly emphasised across the public sector.
Rarely do performance reports focus on the key fact that public services are
invariably delivered directly or indirectly from buildings. The property portfolio of public
organisations has to be right for people – for staff and customers – and for the
processes for delivering products and services. The property must be in the right place
and must be affordable – the price must be right.
In his 2004 report ‘Towards Better Management of Public Sector Assets’ Sir Michael
Lyons stressed the importance of property assets, their place within the business
planning of public organisations and the gain to be achieved by developing strategic
asset management plans which align with business strategies.
These RICS Public Sector Asset Management Guidelines have been developed
by experts in the variety of disciplines which are required to produce effective
asset management plans. They will assist all those involved in the process of asset
management and planning whether property practitioners or operational managers.
RICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors) is the leading organisation
of its kind in the world for professionals in property, land, construction and
related environmental issues. As part of our role we help to set, maintain
and regulate standards – as well as providing impartial advice to
Governments and policymakers. RICS has 140 000 members who operate
out of 146 countries, supported by an extensive network of regional offices
located in every continent around the world.
To ensure that our members are able to provide the quality of advice
and level of integrity required by the market, RICS qualifications are only
awarded to individuals who meet the most rigorous requirements for both
education and experience and who are prepared to maintain
high standards in the public interest. With this in mind it’s perhaps
not surprising that the letters RICS represent the mark of property
professionalism worldwide.
The Royal Institution
of Chartered Surveyors
12 Great George Street
Parliament Square
London SW1P 3AD
United Kingdom
T +44 (0)870 333 1600
F +44 (0)20 7334 3811
contactrics@rics.org
www.rics.org

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