1.1 Background
The Southern Transport Development Project (STDP) is presently being implemented by the
Government of Sri Lanka (GSL) through !oad Development "uthority (!D")# The project is
financed from parallel funding by the "sian Development $ank ("D$) and the %apan $ank for
&nternational 'ooperation (%$&')# The main component of this project is the construction of an
e(press)ay (Southern *igh)ay) bet)een +otta)a and ,atara# &t consists of t)o segments-
about .. km long stretch from +otta)a to +urundugahahetekma and about ./ km stretch from
+urundugahahetekma to ,atara# The latter segment funded by "D$ is kno)n as the "D$
section- )hile the former segment funded by %$&' is referred to as the %$&' section# The
construction has already reached significant proportions over a large stretch of the "D$ section
of the e(press)ay- )hile construction )orks in the %$&' section has just commenced#
"dditionally- a ne) access road from the "D$ section of the e(press)ay to Galle- kno)n as
Galle Port "ccess !oad (GP"!) is been developed# This is a . km long 0non1access controlled2
alignment )hich )ill ultimately be a four1lane dual carriage high)ay#
The evolution of concept of a Southern 3(press)ay dates back to early 456/s# The original
high)ay trace kno)n as 7!D" Trace8 evolved as the outcome of a Pre19easibility study
concluded in 455:# " 9easibility Study conducted in 455; under the financial assistance of
"D$ recommended a ne) alignment kno)n as 7'ombined Trace8# This 'ombined Trace )as
also supported by the 3nvirionmental &mpact "ssessment (3&") conducted by <niversity of
,oratu)a in 4555 subjected to mitigation of certain impacts# The 'entral 3nvironmental
"uthority ('3") in granting 7'onditional "pproval8 to the 'ombined Trace recommended that
road trace should be deviated to avoid passing through certain )etlands# The 79inal Trace8 for
)hich the detailed designs )ere carried out and presently being implemented resulted due to
incorporation of these deviations#
The 9inal Trace evolved during the detailed design stage contained t)o major deviations from
the 'ombined Trace# These deviations had impacted land ac=uisition and resettlement as )ell as
environmental management and raised ade=uacy of environmental assessments conducted
earlier# The detailed design of the 9inal Trace )as also the basis for an updated S&" and some
updating of environmental assessment by the design consultants in >ovember ?///- and
preparation of an 3nvironmental ,anagement Plan (3,P)- re=uired prior to the commencement
of construction activities# "ssuming that the 3,P is based on the 9inal Trace- it has been
prepared )ithout the benefit of a full 3&" along that part of the road not coincident )ith
'ombined Trace# Social &mpacts )ere also not comprehensively assessed along some sections
of the 9inal Trace#
&n order to assess the magnitude and impact of changes that have occurred as a conse=uence of
change in alignment from the 'ombined Trace to the 9inal Trace an agreement )as reached
bet)een the "D$ and the GSL that a supplementary study on environmental assessment
should be undertaken# &t )as decided that this environmental assessment )ould be undertaken
by the !D" through <niversity of ,oratu)a (<,)# "ccordingly- <niversity of ,oratu)a
(<,) )as entrusted to conduct a Supplementary 3nvironmental "ssessment (S3") and an
<pdating of 3nvironmental ,anagement Plan (3,P) of the Southern Transport Development
Project (STDP) by Director- Project ,anagement <nit (P,<) of the !oad Development
"uthority (!D")#This report contains the findings of the present study#
"ccording to the agreement reached )ith the !D"1STDP- based on the revie)s- studies and
evaluations carried out the <niversity of ,oratu)a is for)arding follo)ing t)o reports as final
study output@
(i) Supplementary 3nvironmental "ssessment !eportA and
(ii) " draft updated 3,P as per "D$ 3nvironmental "ssessment Guidelines ?//:
and GSL re=uirements#
$oth reports are presented in t)o volumes- Bolume & 1 "D$ Section C Galle Port "ccess !oad
and Bolume && 1 %$&' Section#
The findings presented in the Supplementary 3nvironmental "ssessment !eport is based on
revie) and analysis of available background data and data ac=uired through field studies
conducted )ithin a limited scope of )ork for such studies# The field studies mainly
concentrated on the deviations of the 9inal Trace from the 'ombined Trace and locations along
that part of the 9inal Trace covered by the 4555 3&"- )here environmental settings have
undergone marked changes#
1.2 Descripion o! "e #ro$ec
1.2.1 Main Trace
The main trace of the "D$ section is appro(imately ./ km long# &t originates from the
+urundugahahetekma to)n- )hich lies appro(imately D km from 3lpitiya on the 3lpitiya1
"mabalangoda $4D road# The southern end of main trace is at Goadagama close to ,atara on
the ,atara1"kuressa "?D high)ay# This road trace traverses through Divisional Secretariat
Divisions of +arandeniya- Divitura1Polga)ila- $addegama- $ope1Poddala- "kmeeman-
&madu)a- Eelipitiya- ,alimbada- Thihagoda- ,atara and Galle 9our Gravets# The trace lies
bet)een appro(imately F km and 44 km inland of the e(isting "? coastal high)ay#
The main trace of the "D$ section of the Southern e(press)ay is designed as a limited access-
four lane- dual carriage)ay- eventually e(pandable to si( lanes by construction of an additional
lane to each carriage)ay adjacent to the median# &t is planned to construct in : stages ultimately
e(panding to si( lanes in consideration of lo) traffic volumes anticipated in early years upon
opening of ne) road#
• Sage 1 )ill comprise the construction of a single carriage)ay- t)o lane- access
controlled high)ay )ith a ne) road link to Galle kno)n as Galle Port "ccess !oad
(GP"!)# &nclusive of GP"! &t )ill have F grade separated access interchanges as given
Table 4#4#
• Sage 2 )ill upgrade the e(press)ay to a full four1lane dual carriage high)ay )ith
additional grade separated interchanges#
• Sage % )ill involve the addition of a further lane at the median side of eac" carriage)ay
in order to upgrade the e(press)ay to a si(1lane dual carriage high)ay#
The )ork on Stage 4 is already on progress#
The horiGontal alignment for the Project !oad commences at 4HF// km and terminates at
.4H/F/ km# The northern t)o third of the road trace runs through some of the inland hilly areas
comprising of predominantly steep1sided- parallel ridges rising generally F/ to 4//m above flat1
bottomed valleys of the lo)est peneplain# The southern third of the trace runs through more
irregular topography of lo)er rounded hills )ith flatter slopes of the lo)est peneplain# The road
trace runs through t)o major river basins of Gin Ganga and Pol)atta Ganga other than many
other streams and small )ater)ays#
The road trace has been generally set to follo) along the sides of the chain of hills- )hich are
located roughly parallel to the trace# $y aligning the road this )ay several advantages )ere
gained# These include minimiGation of impact of local residences- minimiGation of paddy and
)etland ac=uisition for road !E and improved road safety achieved by avoiding at1grade
intersections by ensuring physical separation )ith local cross roads#
The typical carriage)ay consists of t)o lanes- each :#./ m )ide and shoulders of :#/ m )idth
on each side for Stage 4 construction# Stage ? construction shoulders are :#/ m )ide on the left
side and 4#? m on the right (median) side of each carriage)ay (vie)ed as )hen driving along
each carriage)ay)#
The main trace in Stage 4 )ill be constructed )ith F interchanges# ut of these e(cept the
terminal interchange at ,atara all others )ill be grade1separtead interchanges# These
interchanges are located such as to accommodate the re=uirements of present urban centers and
are e(pected to cater for any short term development needs# &n Stage ?- . more interchanges
)ill be introduced to meet the demands of development in the middle and long term future#
1.2.2 &a''e #or Access Road
This is a ne) . km long non1access controlled alignment )ith at1grade intersections )ith local
roads )hich provides a direct link from the e(press)ay to "D high)ay just south of the city of
Galle# The purpose of incorporating this road kno)n as the Galle Port "ccess !oad (GP"!) is
to accommodate projected traffic including that from the e(opnded Galle Port# The e(isting $1
4?5 route from Galle to <dugama through Pinnadu)a is very narro)- sharply curved and highly
urbaniGed along much of its length and cannot be considered to serve the intended functions of
The GP"! )ill ultimately be a four lane- dual carriage)ay )ith araised curbed median ?#/ m
)ide (bet)een faces of the median curbs) )idened at channeliGed intersections to provide a
protected right1turn bay# 'hanneliGation )ill be e(tended to accommodate storage of
southbound vehicles north of the railroad crossing- and special access )ill be provided for the
cement factory- leaving appro(imately ;// m- )hich )ould be an undivided- t)o lane- t)o1
direction road)ay#
1.% T"e E(ising En)iron*en
The <niversity of ,oratu)a Study Team in their assessment of e(isting environment
concentrated on the deviations of the 9inal Trace from the 'ombined Trace and at any specific
locations )here conditions have undergone marked changes since the conduct of previous 3&"
in 4555#
1.%.1 Main Trace
The main trace of the "D$ section lies on the lo)est peneplain- )hich is mainly flat- )ith fe)
lo) hills and undulations- and being in the )et Gone- having its fair share of )ater bodies# The
average rainfall in the region is appro(imately in the range ?/// mm to D/// mm# &t runs
through four significant )atersheds- namely- Gin Ganga- +oggala Lake- Pol)atta Ganga and
>il)ala Ganga# ut of these major flood causing streams crossed by the 9inal Trace are Gin
ganga and Pol)atta Ganga# ,inor flooding has been observed at the places )h)ere drainage
structures have not been connected to the lead1a)ay drains# This flooding is mainly due to the
)ater stagnation because of the road embankment and the culvert crossings )hich have not been
properly connected to the do)nstream drainage paths# "s a result of deviations the surface
)ater =uantity passing through the 9inal Trace is reduced in comparison to the 'ombined Trace
and therefore the effect of flooding has been reduced#
The important mineral deposits )ithin or in the vicinity of the project area are graphite and
gems# ther types of industrial minerals- that are present )ithin the road trace- are the rock
forming minerals# &solated boulder of varying dimensions are clearly visible )ithin / H/// km
to D: H /// km stretch of the trace and the presence of boulders on the slope is an indication of
shallo) )eathering and e(istence of bedrock at shallo) depths# Southern Province- )ithin
)hich the "D$ section of the STDP lies- is the second main consumer of sand behind Eestern
Province# This demand for sand is mainly met )ith the supply of river sand# Therefore- almost
all the river basins )ithin the project area have already been mined e(cessively creating severe
environmental problems#
The laboratory testing of samples from selected locations indicated that surface )ater bodies
appear to be slightly turbid during )et )eather season compared to dry )eather season due to
the sediments brought in by rain induced runoff# The organic and faecal pollution )as also
higher during the )et )eather season# The oil and grease contamination )as high due to
disposal of oil rich effluents from the residential- commercial and industrial sector# The ground
)ater sampling at selected locations in general indicated prevalence of ano(ic conditions )ith
some bacterial proliferation and degradation of organic nitrogenous matter#
The areas monitored in the main trace did not manifest significant air pollution scenarios in
consideration of 'entral 3nvironmental "uthority2s ('3") ambient air =uality standards# The
noise sensitive areas in the vicinity of 9inal Trace )ere identified and included schools-
residential areas- religious sites and lands )here serenity and =uiet are of e(traordinary
significance# The noise measurements at selected locations indicated marginal e(ceedance of
ma(imum permissible limits during day time#
Eith respect to the biological environment- the habitats encountered by the e(press)ay may be
categoriGed as man made habitats (home gardens- paddy fields and plantations) and natural and
semi1natural habitats (marshland- rivers- streams- scrubland or forest)# 9ourteen butterfly
species- ; small mammal species and . reptile species )ere found to inhibit the areas adjacent to
the deviated trace# 9auna is not uni=ue to the area but constitutes of common species that
occupy inhibited )et lo)land areas# 9orty t)o species of birds inclusive of migrant bird species
)ere observed along the trace and they occupied terrestrial and a=uatic habitats- particularly
associated )ith paddy fields#
The proposed 9inal trace of the "D$ section runs through 44 DS divisions in Galle and ,atara
districts in the Southern Province# The land use pattern in the project impact area is dominated
by highland cultivated )ith perennial and semi1perennial crops (D5I)- roads and buildings
(?DI) and paddy lands (44I)# The most of paddy lands are freehold lands )ith different tenure
pattern# The highlands including home gardens have t)o types of land tenure pattern- freehold
lands and lands )ith government permits for cultivation (LD land)#
The road trace in general does not run through densely populated urban or rural settlements#
&nstead it has been designed to construct through paddy lands- and other lands that are not used
by communities for settlements# The deviated section (Sandara)ela to +ongahadu)a) runs
through less populated areas )here communities did not oppose to the project# The highly
populated villages such as Poddala- Pan)ila- ,eepe)ela are located in the area fallen under the
previous trace# The main reason for the decision to deviate )as to avoid the serious objections of
the communities- )ho had highly valuable houses#
The total affected families due to different interventions under the proposed project are ?5/5#
"bout ;46 houses of different nature have been evacuated# The number of relocated families is
about .;6# (??/ resettled in the !D" established resettlement sites and another DF6 families had
chosen their o)n )ays to get resettled )ith the compensation paid by !D")# Though the areas
under P&Ds are rural significant percentage of population has ac=uired G'3 ("JL) and university
education# This is a common feature of education in Southern Province especially in Galle and
,atara Districts#
&ndustries- )hich concentrated in major cities- Galle and ,atara- and 9ree Trade Kone located
in +oggala provide employment opportunities for a small part of the )ork force especially in
garment industry# ,ajority of the )ork force in +oggala 9ree Trade Kone are coming from rural
areas of &madu)a- Eeligama- *abaradu)a and Eelipitiya DS divisions# Tourism provides
employment opportunities in the cities of <na)atuna (Galle)- *ikkadu)a- "mbalangoda#
Leather 9actory ( DS&) located in Galle provides a considerable portion of employment
opportunities for young girls and boys especially in "kmeemena DS division# &t )as noted that
if there are ne) entrepreneurs to invest in the area a considerable amount of unemployed- under
employed and disguised )ork force is available in the area#
The road trace travels through an array of crop lands# ,ajor crops gro)n are tea- rubber-
coconut- paddy and cinnamon# "lthough paddy covers the largest e(tent of cultivated lands in
Galle and ,atara districts- salt )ater intrusion- poor drainage and )ater scarcity have reduced
the cultivated e(tent of paddy# The paddy lands are generally rain1fed and the largest number of
paddy fields in the project area is found &madu)a- "kmeemana and Eelipitiya DS divisions# Tea
is generally found to)ards the southern end of the project area# $eing lo)1gro)n tea- it
generally fetches high prices at 'olombo auctions# ,ost of the tea lands in the project area are
plantations- either privately o)ned or state1o)ned- and are )ell managed# &n contrast to tea-
rubber cultivation is spread out over the entire project area and its importance is more
pronounced in areas such as +arandeniya- $addegama- "kmeemana and Eelipitiya#
The e(isting =uality of the landscape character of the main trace of the "D$ section is of rural-
rustic- simple- unsophisticated- and semi urban and average or lo) in its scenic value )hen
compared )ith other areas in Sri Lanka# &nformation collected from Department of "rcheology
and other sources revealed that all the historic and archeological monuments found in the "D$
Project area are found in temples- de)ala- and churches- a fe) of )hich are found to be over F//
years old#
1.%.2 &a''e #or Access Road
The Galle Port "ccess !oad (GP"!) starts on the e(isting Galle L ,atara road near the coastline
and runs parallel to the Galle L <dugama road and connects to the main trace at Pinnadu)a##
This road segment mainly runs through soft soil deposits in the flat terrain and the terrain
becomes hilly closer to the main e(press)ay# &t is mainly on the lo) lying areas consisting of
paddy and other marshy vegetation#
The surface )ater =uality in GP"! is similar to )hat )as observed for main trace# The
ground)ater table elevation is very closer to the e(isting ground surface- e(cept in the case of
fe) hills# The air =uality of GP"! could be assumed to be similar to main trace as similar
traffic flo)s are found# The noise levels can be are assumed to be similar to those given for
main trace due to the similar vehicular traffic#
The proposed GP"! crosses Lunu)ila 3la at a location closer to <dagama !oad# # This
encompasses a relatively small catchment area# During field visits it )as observed that the area
covered by the chainages /HF//m1 4H///m of the GP"!- is a lo) lying marsh# During heavy
rains the area on the right hand side of the proposed road at the Lunu)ila 3la crossing gets
The GP"! traverses over built up land and along the north )estern margins of the mangrove
areas of ,agalla# Terrestrial flora consists of the common terrestrial plants in home gardens
)hich are mostly cultivated by man# >o natural stretches of vegetation occur along this trace#
ut of the 54 plant species encountered in this part of the trace- 4/ )ere found to occur in the
mangrove )etland at ,agalle# 9our of them )ere true mangroves )hile the rest )ere mangrove
associated species#
Terrestrial fauna of this part of the trace is restricted to the species that generally occur home
gardens# Since the variety of available habitats for terrestrial fauna is limited due to high
population density of the area- the diversity of terrestrial fauna is relatively lo)# *o)ever they
comprise important pollinators such as insects- bats- birds and s=uirrels# "=uatic fauna of the
mangrove area at ,agalla is of high importance ecologically as it accommodates a=uatic
organisms from the fresh)ater streams- sea and those that are characteristic to brackish )ater
The GP"! traverses through marshy lands- abandoned paddy fields- paddy fields and homestead
gardens# "s structures along this road trace are already removed and demolished it is difficult to
e(plain the initial environment of ac=uired lands# "kmeeemana DS division is a )ell developed
residential area and it has been a challenging task to mark the trace to minimiGe the damages to
residential areas# *o)ever- the marked trace has generated a minimum damage for residential
%ambugasmulla 3la and surrounding small )ater bodies in lo) lands are located at proposed
Pinnadu)a interchange# &f necessary steps are not taken to avoid )ater logging- during the
period of earth )ork- severe adverse impacts )ill be caused as the area is highly residential# "t
the other end- at Devata ('loser to e(isting Galle road) there are several pits )hich are used as
fermentation grounds of coconut husks and also )ill be badly affected during the period of earth
)ork# "s there are several employees directly and indirectly (especially )omen labour) depend
on coir industry it is very important to take preventive actions to avoid damages to lo) lying
areas of Devata#
1.+ Anicipaed I*pacs o! "e #ro$ec
The identification of the environmental impacts that have a bearing on the design- construction
and operation of the project )as based on the site visits by the e(perts- project documentation
)ith the !D" including the comments from the public and other agencies# &n case the detail
designs are not available- the team made interpretations and recommendations based on the data
made available#
The methodology used for impact assessment )as consistent )ith that adopted in 4555 3&"# The
project )as divided into project elements covering investigation- construction and operation
stages# The affected environment )as divided into environmental elements considering the
general environment of the area and the environmental issues highlighted in the T!# These
environmental elements covered physicalJchemical aspects- biological aspects and socialJsocio1
economic aspects#
nce the elements are identified- it )as possible to form the !elevance ,atri(# The columns in
the !elevance ,atri( )ere the identified project elements- )hile the ro)s )ere the
environmental elements# The list of environmental elements )as divided among study team core
members in accordance )ith their specialties# This means that each member )as looking at fe)
ro)s and all columns in the full matri(# $ased on the assessments made by each member the
Team Leader eventually finaliGed the full !elevance ,atri( in consultation )ith the entire team#
nce the relevance matri( )as prepared- the team )as in a position to select areas that need to
be studied in detail# "ll impacts identified as 7significant8 in the !elevance ,atri( needs )ere
studied in detail- in order to =uantify the impact- and recommend mitigatory measures and
monitoring plans# The impacts identified as 7marginal8 )ere mentioned and avoided if possible-
or mitigatory action and monitoring plans recommended# The details of impact assessment and
=uantification of impacts are given Section ?#:#;#
1.+.1 Main Trace
The proposed corridor of the project doesn2t go through areas )ith economical =uantities of
industrial minerals such as graphite or gems# *o)ever- the deposits of minerals used in the
construction industry )ithin the road trace are e(pected to deplete due to the project# Since these
minerals are commonly found in other areas of the region there )ill not be a significant impact
on the mineral resources due to the construction of the road trace# Tthe re=uirement of the rock
for the construction of the road)ay is generated from the e(cavations )ithin the project trace#
Therefore- there is no significant impact on the environment caused by that project activity#
*o)ever- transportation of the e(ploited material from the point of generation to the fill location
and the crusher plant )ill have a certain impact on the environment#
Due to e(cavation of fill material from the road trace and other borro) pits- the landscape of
these areas )ill change significantly# The vegetation cover- )hich protects the soil underneath-
)ill be removed and the e(posed soil )ill be subjected to erosion during the rainy season# The
eroded material )ill be transported to the lo) lying areas and )ill cause other environmental
issues such as@ blocking of e(isting )ater)ays- reducing the yield of economical crops such as
paddy- tea etc- pollution of drinking )ater sources- and instability of the cut slopes# During the
dry season the dust generated from the e(cavation and filling of soil could create other
environmental issues such as@ health problems due to inhaling of dusty air- reducing the yield of
economical crops such as paddy- tea etc- pollution of drinking )ater sources etc# Such problems
may be aggravated due to spilling of the fill material during transportation#
Sand )ill be mainly used for making concrete and mortar in construction )ork# Due to the
related severe environmental issues- sand mining from the rivers is restricted to some selected
segments of inland streams# ,oreover- the demand for sand due to Tsunami reconstruction )ork
has made the situation )orse# Therefore- as the only other economically feasible source- crushed
rock is being used for production of fine aggregates in the project# Due to crushing of large
=uantity of aggregates a large =uantity of =uarry dust is produced# ,oreover- crushed rock
should be processed to remove e(cess fines (dustJclay siGed particles) before being used#
Eorkability of manufactured sand is poor but both strength and )orkability could be improved
by blending )ith fine sand# &n the crushing plants the emission of dust could be a significant
impact unless mitigation measures are incorporated#
" significant impact on the landform )ill occur due to the construction of the road trace# The
changing of the stabiliGed landform over a long period of time )ill create an environmental
instability# The natural agents like rain and gravity in particular )ill contribute to the
stabiliGation process of the nature through soil erosion and landslides#
The removal of the soft material and replacement )ith stronger material has led to severe
environmental problems involving disposal of the )aste material# "t present the )aste material
is stored along the trace on both sides of the road embankment# The severity of the
environmental pollution depends on the organic content of this material as material )ith high
organic content produces leachate )ith higher p* value# Ehen a program is developed for
permanent disposal of these organic soil- organic content- shear strength and consolidation
properties must be given due consideration as further consolidation settlement of the )aste
deposit and slope failures could pose severe environmental threats#
The utiliGation of surface )ater to the project components from the vast =uantity of surface
)ater available is negligible and there is no significant impact on the surface )ater =uantity#
The e(ploitation of ground)ater for the project activities is comparably lo) compared to the
available )ater )hich is mainly surface )ater- hence there )ill not be any significant impact on
the ground)ater =uantity# Pooling of )ater- blocking of )ater )ays- restrictions to surface run1
off and flood )ater flo)s could result in due to unplanned stockpiling and disposal of spoil-
unstable e(cavations- careless stockpiling in construction materials and careless camp siting#
'hanges in )ater =uality and )ater levels from such activities could affect flo)s into or out of
e(isting )ater bodies#
During the construction phase large =uantities of asphalt and concrete )ill be re=uired for
strengthening and surfacing of the high)ay# Therefore )ash )ater arising during the cleaning of
the machines involved in asphalt and concrete plant operations could also lead to significant
colour and turbidity problems in )ater bodies# 9urther any significant oil spills from machinery
and other e=uipment used for construction )orks may lead to contamination of )ater bodies
)ith oil particularly during heavy rainy periods# "tmospheric emissions from industries and
vehicles may come do)n )ith the rains and adversely affect )ater bodies through run1off# <se
of pesticides for turfing vegetation could contribute to air pollution )ith reference to aerosols#
Spraying of pesticides in )indy days could result in elevated levels of haGardous materials into
the atmosphere#
" simple proportional model )as used to predict the impacts on air =uality from the predicted
traffic during operational period# This model is based on the measurements done at +otta)a for
a kno)n number of vehicles# The results elucidated that the emission of >
- S
- SP, and '
increases )ith the time period# *o)ever the 41hour average values reported from the model
seemed to be lo)er than the stipulated ambient air =uality standards#
'onstruction processes such as blasting operations could result in severe damages to nearby
properties such as archaeological- religious and culturally important sites# 3=uipment involved
in cut and fill operations are kno)n to generate e(cessive noise# Similarly e=uipment used in
clearing sites are also generate significant noise levels# "sphalt and concrete plants may also be
cause e(cessive noise and vibration# Therefore such plants should be located in poorly or
sparsely populated areas to minimiGe impacts on any nearby human settlement#
"ccording to present noise legislation- ma(imum permissible noise levels at boundaries of the
land in )hich the construction activities are undertaken are stipulated as ;F d$(") and F/ d$(")
during daytime and night time- respectively# The noise levels generated from the machinery
involved in construction )orks e(ceed the daytime limit of ;F d$(")# The e(posure levels and
time limits adopted in the <nited +ingdom )hich are less stringent can be used as guides in Sri
The model described by 9ederal *igh)ay "ssociation of <S" (9*E") )as used to predict
noise levels generated by high)ay traffic up to ?/?F- and results )ere compared )ith ma(imum
allo)able noise levels generated by high)ay traffic# The results elucidated that predicted noise
levels increases )ith time (irrespective of speed) as a response to anticipated increase in traffic
flo) and the predicted noise levels )ould have a significant disturbing effect on schools-
religious sites and other places or areas listed under 'ategory $# &t should be noted that the "D$
section comprises at least 4/ $uddhist temples- F schools and 4 mos=ue#
&n the 9inal Trace )ith deviations the 9lood DetentionJ<nit Length is less than that of the
'ombined Trace# &t could be inferred by this that the impacts on the flood retention lengths is
less in the case of deviations after )hich the 9inal Trace has been fi(ed# *o)ever in the case of
Gin Ganga- the Department of &rrigation is in the opinion that the road embankments abutting
the bridge could have an impact on the flood flo)s# The department is carrying out further
studies about this aspect# The number of drainage structures per unit lengths is less for the 9inal
Trace than for the 'ombined Trace# Therefore it could be inferred that the deviations have
resulted in less impacts in terms of the number of drainage structures# The overall flood C
drainage impacts rendered by the deviations are estimated to be F/I less#
The loss of patches of vegetation due to road construction- particularly home gardens )ill
contribute to depletion of habitats available for pollinators that are important for local crops and
hence crop yields may negatively affected temporarily# Since the )etlands associated are man1
made (predominantly paddy fields) and that they are connected to other such areas in the
respective basins- the species of a=uatic flora and fauna sho) a )ide distribution# *ence total
loss of species is an unlikely occurrence due to road construction in this part of the trace#
"vifauna )ithin the deviations of the trace is similar to that of the other part of the road trace
e(cept for the peacocks that are found in abundance around FFH/// km# Peacocks )ere found
on both sides of the road trace and apparently their habitats are fragmented due to the road trace
and they may use this area to cross the road#
"bout 4:? ha of paddy lands and :D4 ha of other lands )ith different land use pattern )ill have
negative impacts# The main negative impacts being the paddy farmers having to stop their
cultivation and the perennial and semi1perennial crops in other lands being affected# $oth these
impacts are assessed to be moderate in magnitude# "bout ./I of the land affected )as freehold#
The o)ners )ere able to obtain compensation )ithout delays and also the fficers found the
process effective and easy# "c=uisition of 3state Land got some)hat delayed due to long process
to be follo)ed#
The road !E falls across +urundugahahetekma to)n ship and therefore- the to)nship got
separated into t)o# There are no housing schemes seriously affected due to proposed road#
"bout F6 villages have some negative impacts due to construction of the proposed road across
their villages# ,ost of these villages are traditional rural villages )here social relations among
community members are very strong# "bout :/ sub1roads that run across the proposed high )ay
)ill have some impacts during construction and even in the post construction stage These are
the roads that are being used by local communities for their routine transportation and travel#
The domestic )ater supply schemes )ill not be affected by road construction# The electricity
distribution lines on 4; sub1roads may be affected# The po)er lines run across the !E )ill
have to be removed temporarily during construction stage# This )ill be a significant impact for
the communities in the area# The market value of the annual loss of employment along the trace
from +urundugahahetekma to ,atara is estimated as !s# D4#?. million and the annual economic
loss of employment is !s# :4#4 million# after correcting for disguised unemployment#
&mpact on other employment categories such as those employed in the private and public sector is
minimal provided that employees )ho are displaced due to land ac=uisition are relocated in
locations from )here their )ork places can be accessed )ithout much difficulty# *o)ever- if
people )ho are self employed and those )ho find employment in the casual labour market are
displaced due to land ac=uisition- they may confront )ith different market situations unless they are
relocated )ithin their village# >evertheless- it is difficult to predict the net impact on employment
in respect of the above employment categories# During the construction phases- a large number of
people )ill have to be employed by the contractors for road construction )ork and- this )ill be a
direct positive impact of the project on employment#
ut of total loss of income from agricultural production- "D$ section contributes the highest
portion (FFI) compared to DDI by %$&' section# Tea is the most significant cash crop in the trace
as its gross margin is high# "round ;.I of the total tea lands along the trace are located in the
"D$ section# 3specially in the construction phase- due to e(cavation of soil- blocking the
irrigation and drainage canals- e(posing peat to the air and rain )ould make some adverse impacts
particularly on paddy fields#
The proposed high)ay- by enabling speeding transport of produce- )ill have a positive influence on
agriculture by )ay of e(panding markets- reducing )astage during transportation- timely
availability of inputs- =uicker disposal or produce- etc# The proposed road- )ith interchange points
linking important markets in the interior regions of the country to the producing areas- )ill ensure
availability of produce like fresh fish in such markets# The consumers in these areas )ill reap
benefits due to the presence of important consumption goods that )ere not previously available
and- producers )ill benefits due to the increased demand created by consumers in the interior
regions# "fter construction of the road it is envisaged that the tourist industry and Galle harbour
)ould be developed )ith improved access# 3mergence of urban centers )ith increased business
activities )ould enable the government (the local authorities) to earn revenue from the collection of
ta(es based on number of business enterprises in different categories irrespective to business
volume of each enterprise#
The anticipated environmental impacts on the places of )orship and religious interest )ould be
dust- acoustics and vibration during construction period- acoustics during the operational stage-
changes in =uality and character of the religious environment- disturbance to the conte(tual
dominancy of the )orshiping places due to huge road structures#
During the construction phase- the movement of fleet of heavy vehicles involved in the
construction activities )ill be a threat to the safety of other vehicles and pedestrians at the
construction site as )ell as the nearby roads# The blasting of rocks for clearing the site as )ell
as for obtaining construction materials particularly close to the e(isting main roads )ould pose a
threat to traffic and pedestrians on these roads# During the operational phase of the high)ay-
some of the likely accident black spots )ould be the access roads to the high)ay at the entry and
e(it points# Drivers may fail to control the speed of the vehicles at these locations- unless proper
mitigatory measures are taken during the construction of the road- such as )ell1designed humps
and rumble strips# Safety of pedestrians )ill be at high risk- particularly at places like pedestrian
crossings and close to schools#
"t sections of the road )here the driver is directly facing the sun- or the glare from the vehicle
in front is affecting the driver in the vehicle behind- there is a risk of accidents# This )ould be
most likely at road sections )hich are running in the 3ast1Eest direction# Slo) moving traffic
such as three )heelers and bicycles may be at risk even on the access roads if they come close to
the high)ay- as the entering and e(iting traffic )ill be moving at high speeds- and not e(pecting
any slo) traffic at these points# " suitable distance should be available for accelerationJ
deceleration of merging traffic on access roads#
1.+.2 &a''e #or Access Road
&n general- Galle Port "ccess !oad )ill have similar impacts as the main trace of the
e(press)ay# Since relatively small amount of rock forming minerals )ill be depleted and
considering the abundant supply of the rock forming minerals )ithin the road trace- there )ill
not be significant impact )ill be on mineral resources# *o)ever- temporary storage of material
and transportation from the main carriage)ay to the Galle Port "ccess road )ill have some
impact on the environment# The disposal of the e(cess fill material generated )ithin the trace
should be done in a planned )ay )ithout having an adverse impact on the environment#
The use of surface )ater in the GP"! from the vast =uantity of surface )ater available is
negligible and there cannot be any significant impact on the surface )ater =uantity# There is no
evidence about ground)ater level reductions in the Galle Port "ccess Trace as major
construction )ork has not started# *o)ever impacts on ground)ater could be anticipated during
the construction and operation phases#
During the construction phase material e(ploitation- site clearing- cut and fill operations- land
reclamation- ditching and drainage- spoil disposal- asphalt and concrete plants and construction
of bridge and culverts could result in significant pollution of surface )ater bodies- though the
effects are temporary in comparison )ith the effects on )ater =uality caused by the operational
activities# During the operational phase un1planned and planned road1side development
activities may cause degradation of ground)ater =uality in Galle Port "ccess !oad area unless
precautions are taken#
The same model mentioned under Section 4#D#4 )as also used to predict the impacts on air
=uality in the Galle Port "ccess !oad# The results elucidated that the emission of >
- S
SP, and ' increases )ith the time period# *o)ever the 41hour average values reported from
the model seemed to be lo)er than the stipulated ambient air =uality standards) as )as observed
in the "D$ section#
The anticipated noise and vibration during the construction activities in the "D$ section is also
applicable to the Galle Port "ccess !oad area# &t is anticipated that the nearby residential areas
in the >ugadu)a site )ould be subject to intense noise levels and even the possible vibration
effects associated )ith the construction activities# The model described by 9*E" )as used to
predict noise levels )ith reference to average speeds of 6/ kmJh- 4// kmJh and 4?/ kmJh# Eith
this model the possible noise levels generated by high)ay traffic )ere calculated up to ?/?F as
)as done in the "D$ section and results )ere compared )ith ma(imum allo)able noise levels
generated by high)ay traffic# "lthough the predicted noise levels are high particularly )ith time
period as a response to anticipated increase in traffic flo)- it )ill not affect sensitive areas such
as religious sites and schools since such areas are not encountered in the vicinity of the Galle
Port "ccess !oad area#
The 9lood Detention per unit length and drainage structures per unit length for Galle Port "ccess
is found to be higher than that for the main trace# Therefore it could be inferred that the impact
on drainage in Galle Port "ccess !oad is higher than that of the 9inal Trace )ith deviations#
The Galle Port "ccess crosses Lunu)ila 3la around the chainage /#Fkm )hich is a fairly critical
catchment due to its lo) lying nature# This is because of the lo) lying nature of the catchment#
Since the Galle Port "ccess !oad embankment runs through this lo) lying area the embankment
could impede the flood flo)s and there could be inundation at the upstream if ade=uate openings
have not been provided#
The impact on terrestrial flora is minimal as it is a highly populated semi1urban area )ith
vegetation mainly composed of cultivated plant species# The presence of this mangrove )etland
bet)een land and the sea has attenuated the forces of tsunami )aves and thus they have not
caused damage to the property# Since the removal of mangrove trees )as observed on the north
)estern part of the )etland and in the hinterland- this may cause marginal impact on the coastal
defense ability of the treesJ )etland# Since this )etland has relatively a lo) catchment in its
populous hinterland- obstruction to surface runoff by the road may cause declining fresh)ater
inputs to the )etland- )hich in turn may affect the primary productivity of the )etland on )hich
the near1shore organisms- hence the fisheries based on them are largely dependent on#
"s the area along )hich the road trace traverses- in comparison to the entire e(tent of the
mangrove )etland is small- fragmentation of small animal populations is an unlikely
phenomenon to take place under the circumstances# $esides- no anadromous fish species )ere
evident to occur in this estuary# Loss of habitats- fragmentation of ecosystems and e(posure of
areas may affect faunal populations leading to their decline# Eith time fauna may be migrated to
better habitats and biodiversity of the area in general may sho) degradation# "vifauna
associated )ith ,agalla mangrove area also )ill be e(posed to the unfavourable conditions
(noise- lights during night) created by road construction and introduction of traffic#
&t )as observed that the selected trace for the Galle Port "ccess causes minimum negative
impacts in terms of economic activities as it runs through less populated lo) line areas# Paddy
fields along the trace also abandoned during last decade due to poor drainage and less
productivity# The market value of the annual loss of employment along the GP"! is estimated as
!s /#:. million and the annual economic loss of employment as !s# /#?; million after correcting
for disguised unemployment# "t >ugadu)a there are about 4F/ )orkers involved directly and
indirectly in coir industry based on coconut husk# "s the road )ill traverse through the fermentation
pits of coconut husk the environment )ill be totally damaged during construction stage and the
people )ill loose their employment unless preventive actions are not taken# 3stimated market value
of employment in coir based industry is about !s#4D#D million per year#
1., Miigaion Measures
1.,.1 Main Trace
The major adverse impact of the project on the community is due to destruction of large number
of properties and break up social relationships bet)een closed linked communities# The !D"
has taken mitigatory action to reduce the number of families that )ill be adversely affected due
to various project interventions# "s a result of such attempts made through various studies- the
number of families to be displaced has been brought do)n to .;6 as at present# "ll these .;6
families are presently resettled under !D" sponsored resettlement sites (??/ families) and the
rest have opted to resettle on their o)n initiative# "bout ?5/5 families in total had various
impacts and all of them have been compensated according to the Sri Lankan government and
"D$2s policies and guidelines on social impact management frame )ork# "ccording to affected
community the main dra)backs of the resettlement process are inade=uate )ater supply
facilities at resettlement sites- unsatisfactory allocation of land and non1inclusion of active
participation of them in the process#
" )ell designed program should be implemented during the post resettlement phase to assist the
affected parties to reestablish their livelihood systems through the effective utiliGation of the
granted compensation# This process should also be e(tended to the parties )ho have resettled on
their o)n initiative# " verification methodology and action plans should be incorporated to
ensure the better status of the resettled communities up to the end of the maintenance period#
,itigatory measures should be implemented by the provision of ade=uate drainage facilities
through the road embankment# pening siGes of the culverts and bridges should be sufficient to
pass the flo)s through the trace minimiGing temporary retention# The drainage crossings of the
road should be designed to ensure sufficient drainage )ith minimum back)ater effects along the
drainage paths )hich have either been hindered or altered by the road embankments# 9looding
in most of the places in the construction area has taken place because of the absence of leada)ay
drainage paths from the crossings already provided# "s described in the previous sections all
leada)ay drainage paths from the culvert crossings should be properly connected to the
do)nstream to ensure the drainage continuity# This impact is very common and the e(ecution of
the mitigatory measures is a prime and urgent need#
"s there is an identified impact further hydraulic studies should be carried out in collaboration
)ith the &rrigation Department to determine the e(tent of the upstream flooding at Gin Ganga
bridge crossing# The solutions agreeable should be implemented# This may include curtailing the
embankments near the bridge abutments- provision of additional flood bunds for possible
inundation areas# The designers have to perform back)ater calculations in order to assess the
impacts on the upstream to fulfill the issues of the &rrigation Department#
During the operation phase it is appropriate to monitor the mobility of fauna- type of accidents-
sensitivity to noise levels- etc# across and in the vicinity of the road trace# This information is
very relevant to identify the ne) impacts on fauna because of the road trace and to design
suitable further mitigatory measures# ,itigatory measures must be adopted to protect the fairly
large but fragmented peacock clusters that inhabits the area bet)een FDH/// and F.H///- )hich
appear to cross the high)ay# Speed reduction sign boards indicating the presence of peacocks-
bird nets etc# could be adopted as mitigatory measures#
The mitigatory measures to minimiGe impact on surface )ater =uality have been recommended
and are presented in detail in 'hapter .# Deep e(cavations for foundations particularly for the
bridge and culvert construction )orks should be avoided to avoid any alterations in ground
)ater table# The e(cavations to be done should not reach belo) mean sea level to avoid saline
)ater intrusion# "lternative foundation techni=ues including sheet piling- injected bentonite
)alls may be considered under such circumstances#
"ll dust emissions that could arise during the constructional phase needs minimiGation through
measures such as )etting or )et spraying of dusty surfaces- roads and e(posed earth)ork
surfaces periodically- transporting construction and e(cavated material or spoil )ith covers-
regular cleaning of the site and removal of e(cessive or unnecessary e(cavated material ()hich
could be recycled to back fill foundations and for other construction )orks)- screening and
enclosing dusty )orking places- and even thatching of e(posed soil areas )ith live or dead
vegetation# 3nforcing limitations to speeds of construction vehicles carrying material is another
measure that needs to be practiced in reducing dust emissions# Transport through more inhabited
areas should also be avoided )here possible#
During the construction phase it is also imperative that the vehicles and the machinery to be
used are regularly and )ell maintained in order to avoid smoke emissions# They shall be fitted in
full compliance )ith the national and local regulations (>ational 3nvironmental "ir 3missions
9uel and Behicle Standards 3## GaGette 44:;J:F of %une ?///- updates by air emissions fuel
and vehicle standards (importation standards) 4?.6J46 December ?//? and 4?5FJ44 %une ?//:)#
During the construction phase operation of any high noise generating e=uipment should be
restricted only during daytime# Percussion (pile driving) operations should be avoided in
sensitive areas unless geotechnical conditions re=uire this method to be used# *ammer type pile
driving operations should be restricted to day time# The vehicles to be used for the construction
phase needs to be regularly and )ell maintained in order to avoid generation of significant noise
levels also# 9urther the machinery to be used for the construction phase should be regularly and
)ell maintained to avoid irritating noise levels )hich may include hums#
Peaty soils should not be kept in the open areas adjacent to the paddy fields# Peaty soils once
e(cavated should be immediately transported to pre designated soil dumps# "ll temporary peaty
soil dumps should be covered )ith thick polythene sheets to mitigate temporary erosion#
&n terms of slope stability the original designs should be revie)ed in light )ith the ne)
subsurface information gathered during e(cavation for the road)ay# "dditional Loading at the
top of the slope outside the !E- due to construction of ne) structures etc#- should be avoided#
Similarly unloading at the toe of The indications of slope instability such as@ settlement of the
top of the slope- cracking of the surrounding area including the road surface- appearance of
springs at the bottom of the slope and elevation of the ground)ater table near the top of the
slope should be monitored# Gro)ing a suitable vegetation cover to minimiGe infiltration of
surface )ater into the slope and binding of the subsurface soil )ith the root net)ork of such
vegetation should be implemented#
Solid )astes should not be disposed on the sides of the road and any debris shall not be left after
construction )orks is complete since it may be carried a)ay by )ater# Locations of sites for
disposal of spoil and other construction )astes and reclamation needs to be carefully selected# &t
should be noted that the recycling potential of some of the construction generated )astes such as
rock material- e(cess concrete and bricks is good# Therefore attempts should be made to trade
off or sell such )astes to relevant stakeholders#
Proper traffic management practices are crucial to be implemented )ith appropriate pollution
control measures for vehicles during the operational phase# &t is also important to emphasiGe the
fact that vehicles to be used in the road traces are regularly )ell maintained to reduce both air
pollution and engine noise# The sun1shine effect on the motorists operating on the road in the
3ast to Eest direction- has not been considered in the previous studies and the Detailed Design
Stage# The follo)ing measures are applicable to mitigate this impact#
3nforcement stringent la)s governing maintenance aspects of vehicles is essential through
periodic or random on1site monitoring of vehicular e(haust emissions by specially trained Police
personnel perhaps )ith assistance of '3"- &T& or >$!# &mposing of legally possible heavy
fines or penalties for vehicles not meeting e(haust standards )ould mitigate the air =uality
impacts# ,oreover development of mass transit and reformulation of diesel oil )ould be
beneficial in the long run to mitigate the rate of SP, emission though air pollution#
Drastic noise level reduction should be practiced by means of noise barriers if necessary
together )ith acoustic insulation of buildings in areas having noise sensitive places such as
residences- schools- etc# 'onstruction of thick parapet )alls of sufficient height (around F1F#D m
in height) on both sides of the high)ay roads to achieve noise attenuations up to around 4F1?/
d$(") is one good method of reducing traffic noise transmission to noise sensitive areas#
*o)ever such noise barriers to be built have to be constructed such that there )ould be no
development of cracks or gaps on e(posure to sun and rain- and therefore the masonry )alls
should be finished )ith render or cement based paint# "ny development of cracks and gaps in
noise barriers have to be regularly monitored and immediately repaired by the !D"# "lternately
concrete or any other type of barrier systems is recommended in places )here there is no
possibility of having an earthen beam due to lack of space#
1.,.2 &a''e #or Access Road
The same mitigatory action proposed for main trace should be taken for the Galle Port "ccess
!oad in terms of displacement of people# "s there is no significant impact on the surface )ater
=uantity during the investigation C preparation stage no special mitigatory measures are
necessary# &n terms of e(ploitation of ground )ater there )ill be hardly any impact# The major
and critical drainage crossing is at Lunu)ila 3la# The design needs to be revie)ed considering
the upstream and do)nstream retention- the design return period and the possible back)ater
effects and upstream inundation in order to mitigate possible flood impacts#
Deep e(cavations for foundations particularly for the bridge and culvert construction )orks
should be avoided to avoid any alterations in )ater table# The e(cavations to be done should not
reach belo) mean sea level to avoid saline )ater intrusion# "lternative foundation techni=ues
including sheet piling- injected bentonite )alls may be considered under such circumstances# &n
borro) areas )here the project does not permit the green land cover to be brought back closer to
the previous status- it is imperative to plant )ith suitable native trees in the surrounding area to
lo)er the ground )ater levels so that earlier levels could be maintained# Eherever surface cover
is tampered )ith during the project activities- suitable tree planting should be carried out to
ensure lo)ering the possibilities of the land becoming saline due to rise in ground)ater# *eavy
deforestation should not also be allo)ed to minimiGe saliniGation#
& terms noise reduction during the construction phase the same recommendations made for the
main trace are applicable for the GP"! as )ell# Eith reference to the siting of asphalt and
concrete plants- proper site planning together )ith noise abatement measures should be practiced
to reduce air1borne noise transmission# 'oncrete and asphalt facilities should be up)ind of
sensitive receptors (e#g# residential areas and schools) a minimum of F// m and do)n)ind of
sensitive receptors minimum 4// m# Eith reference to blasting activities ne)ly developed
blasting methods should be used )herever possible in order to reduce vibration effects on nearby
structures# This may include special controlled vibrationless techni=ues to avoid any damage to
e(isting buildings including houses in the urbaniGed areas in both sections# "lternately blasting
activities could be carried out using the normal techni=ues if there is a possibility of using ne)ly
developed blasting methods#
Temporary construction )aste disposal sites should be located in such a manner not to obstruct
natural ground )ater flo) resulting stagnation of )ater# 'onstruction )aste consisting of peaty
soil- placed in permanent dump sites- should be covered )ith a suitably selected soil cap to
avoid e(posure to rain )aster and a grass cover should be maintained on the e(posed surface of
such soil caps to avoid erosion# Transportation of peaty soils immediately after e(cavation
should be avoided- as the li=uid nature of such )aste at that stage )ill pollute the environment
due to spilling during transportation# Such material should be kept in temporary storage at near
by places before transporting to distant permanent storage sites#
This GP"! trace traverses along the north )estern boundary of the mangrove area at ,agalla-
across the streams that drain its immediate catchment# Since fresh)ater input to a mangrove area
is as important as the tidal effect for its survival- it is vital to maintain the fresh)ater input to this
mangrove area# 'ulverts of appropriate siGe and number that fulfill this re=uirement should be
incorporated in the design as a mitigatory measure# The GP"! is mainly traveling through the
paddy areas and once construction is complete there is no significant impact on the bio diversity#
The road is short in length and usually high speeds are not practical therefore no special
mitigation measures are necessary#
>oise sensitive areas such as schools and religious sites are not encountered in the Galle Port
"ccess !oad area# *o)ever the provision of noise barriers )ith proper landscaping using native
trees )ould be necessary in areas such as >ugadu)a )here substantial human settlement occurs#
The noise barriers to be built have to be constructed such that there )ould be no development of
cracks or gaps on e(posure to sun and rain- and therefore the masonry )alls should be finished
)ith render or cement based paint# "ny development of cracks and gaps in noise barriers have to
be regularly monitored and immediately repaired by the !D"# "lternately concrete or any other
type of barrier systems is recommended in places )here there is no possibility of having an
earthen beam due to lack of space#
1.- Insiuiona' Re.uire*ens and Monioring #rogra**e
&n order to make sure that the proposed mitigatory measures are implemented- and also to check
)hether the predicted impacts actually take place- and )hether they could be mitigated by the
recommended measures- it is necessary to establish a ,onitoring Programme and provide the
necessary institutional set up to implement it# The monitoring of environmental and social
&mpacts and implementation of special projects is the responsibility of the Project ,anager
operating from the Galle ffice for the "D$ section- being implemented by the !egional
fficers at +urundugahahetekma and +amburupitiya for the "D$ section# "t each !egional
ffice there )ould be a Social &mpact ,onitoring fficer- 3nvironmental &mpact ,onitoring
fficer- $usiness Development fficer and 'ommunity !esettlement fficer- the latter t)o
appointments to be terminated after one year of completion of the Land "c=uisition and
!esettlement activities#
9or the purpose of implementing the 3nvironmental ,anagement Plan- an 3nvironmental
,onitoring 'ommittee (3,') has been set up under the '3"# The 3,' comprises
representatives from !D"- project management unit (P,<)- representatives of Divisional
Secretaries- and representatives from other relevant Government "gencies# 3,' )ill have
meetings )ith affected persons ("P) or their representatives# The implementation of mitigation
measures arising from the 3nvironmental "ssessment- )ill be the responsibility of the P,<-
project consultants- and contractors# The independent monitoring team )ill monitor the
implementation of the 3,P and )ill report to the 3,' through the '3"#
9or the purpose of environmental management a heavy burden is cast upon the construction
engineers and the environmental officers to keep the impending impacts at bay through a
carefully planned monitoring programme# The number of environmental officers appointed in
the staffing schedule is not ade=uate to cover all the monitoring aspects# &t is necessary to have a
Drainage 3ngineer )ho could coordinate )ith the &rrigation Department- Provincial &rrigation
3ngineer- and SLL!D' etc# to monitor the drainage congestion- flooding aspects and the impacts
on irrigation schemes#
There are t)o basic environmental monitoring tasks in the assessment of the success of
mitigation and identifying residual impacts are construction compliance monitoring and post
construction monitoring of maintenance and operational project activities# The !D" needs to
supervise these monitoring activities carried out by the contractor and relevant reports have to be
given to the '3"# "t the operational stage- the !D" is re=uired to undertake the monitoring
aspects ()ith assistance from reputed ! C D organiGations) )ith subse=uent submission of
relevant reports to the '3"#
Since the project activities are on a major scale the impact causing potential is very high# The
3nvironmental ,onitoring 'ommittee )ith !D" has to constantly obtain the feedback from the
3nvironmental &mpact ,onitoring fficers- Social &mpact ,onitoring fficers- Drainage
3ngineers and the construction staff regarding the ne) impact trends and the implemented
mitigation measures# &t is also very important to obtain the feedback from all affected social
groups to prevent social protests inimical to the construction programme#