5 views

Uploaded by surya_kotni

Magnetism material for Engineering Students and is useful for intermediate also

save

- IEEE Trans Jour TICon2017
- Bench
- Manual
- ABUnits_1
- Electrical Cheat Sheet
- Unit 12(Complete)
- Lecture10_Magnetic Properties of Solids
- MHD Free Convective Flow through a Porous Medium with Periodic Permeability
- ET08.pdf
- iasr2
- Lorentz Force Law
- Magnetic Susceptibility Mapping of Brain Tissue In Vivo Using MRI Phase Data
- 7 Teaching Learning Material
- VAIYUKTHIKA BEDHAALU
- ENGBOOKLET (1) 2014
- 4th Class EVS 9
- 10th Physical Science Bit Bank
- I-Year
- LS Siddhanthy Telugu Calendar 2015 Hindupad.com
- Engineering Physics Sem -1 & 2
- Bagavadgita Telugu
- Psychology Definitions1
- 10th Physics Bit Bank
- 9th Beejiya Samasalu
- 10th Chemistry Bit Bank EM
- Seagate Dashboard User Guide Us
- Polytechnic Jan62012(1)
- 12
- Electromagnetism 8
- Magnetism 06
- Results of 2nd Stage Exam for NTPC (UG) (DOE-19.01.14)
- 12
- 23-02-2011
- Airways
- AP X Physics EM
- Electricity 7
- 02-02-2011
- 10 Science English 2013
- Historical Events
- Pathajali Yoga Sutramulu
- 12

**Magnetic Units & Terminology
**

In the study of magnetism there are two systems of units currently in use: the mks

(metres-kilograms-seconds) system, which has been adopted as the S.I. units and the

cgs (centimetres-grams-seconds) system, which is also known as the Gaussian

system. The cgs system is used by many magnets experts due to the numerical

equivalence of the magneti c i nducti on (B) and the appl ied fi eld (H).

When a field is applied to a material it responds by producing a magnetic field, the

magneti sati on (M). This magnetisation is a measure of the magnetic moment, m, per

unit volume of material, but can also be expressed per unit mass, the specific

magnetisation (s).

M = m

total

/ V

The Total Magneti c fi eld (B) or Magnetic Inducti on, is the total flux of magnetic field

lines through a unit cross sectional area of the material

B = B

o

+ µ

o

M

where B

o

is the externally applied magnetic field.

Another way to deal with the magnetic fields which arise from magnetization of

materials is to introduce a quantity called magneti c fi eld strength, H . It can be

defined by the relationship

H = B

0

/ m

0

= B/m

0

- M

and has the value of unambiguously designating the driving magnetic influence from

external currents in a material, independent of the material's magnetic response. The

relationship for B above can be written in the equivalent form

B = m

0

(H + M)

H and M will have the same units, amperes/meter.

Considering both lines of force from the applied field and from the magnetisation of the

Contents http://www.gitam.edu/eresource/Engg_Phys/semester_2/magnetic/def.htm

1 of 6 3/27/2014 11:26 AM

material. B, H and M are related by equation 1a in S.I. units and by equation 1b in cgs

units.

B = µ

o

(H + M) Equ.1a

B = H + 4 π M

Equ.1b

In equation 1a, the constant m

o

is the permeability of free space (4π x 10

-7

Hm

-1

)

(which is the ratio of B/H measured in a vacuum). In cgs units the permeability of free

space is unity and so does not appear in equation 1b. The units of B, H and M for both

S.I. and cgs systems are given in table 1. Note that in the cgs system 4π M is usually

quoted as it has units of Gauss and is numerically equivalent to B and H.

Another equation to consider at this stage is that concerning the magneti c

suscepti bi li ty (c),, equation 2, this is the same for S.I. and cgs units. The magnetic

susceptibility is a parameter that demonstrates the type of magnetic material and the

strength of that type of magnetic effect.

χ = M /

H

Equ.2

Sometimes the mass suscepti bi li ty (c

m

), is quoted and this has the units of m

3

kg

-1

and can be calculated by dividing the susceptibility of the material by the density.

Another parameter that demonstrates the type of magnetic material and the strength of

that type of magnetic effect is the permeabi l ity (m) of a material, this is defined in

equation 3 (the same for S.I. and cgs units).

Equ.3

In the S.I. system of units, the permeability is related to the susceptibility, as shown in

equation 4 and can also be broken down into µ

o

and the relative permeabil ity (µ

r

),

as shown in equation 5.

µ

r

= χ +

1

Equ.4

µ = B /

H

Contents http://www.gitam.edu/eresource/Engg_Phys/semester_2/magnetic/def.htm

2 of 6 3/27/2014 11:26 AM

µ = µ

o

µ

r

Equ.5

If the material does not respond to the external magnetic field by producing any

magnetization, then µ

r

=1.

Finally, an important parameter (in S.I. units) to know is the magneti c polari sation (J),

also referred to as the intensi ty of magneti sati on (I). This value is effectively the

magnetisation of a sample expressed in Tesla, and can be calculated as shown in

equation 6.

J = µ

o

M Equ.6

Quantity

Gaussian

(cgs units)

S.I. Units

Conversion factor

(cgs to S.I.)

Magnetic Induction (B) G T

10

-4

Applied Field (H) Oe

Am

-1

10

3

/ 4p

Magnetisation (M) emu cm

-3

Am

-1

10

3

Magnetisation (4π M) G - -

Magnetic Polarisation (J) - T -

Specific Magnetisation (s)

emu g

-1

J T

-1

kg

-1

1

Permeability (µ) Dimensionless

H m

-1

4 p . 10

-7

Relative Permeability (µ

r

) - Dimensionless -

Susceptibility (χ) emu cm

-3

Oe

-1

Dimensionless 4 p

Maximum Energy Product

(BH

max

)

M G Oe

k J m

-3

10

2

/ 4 p

Tabl e 1: The relationship between some magnetic parameters in cgs and S.I. units.

(Where: G = Gauss, Oe = Oersted, T = Tesla)

Intrinsic Properties of Magnetic Materials

The intrinsic properties of a magnetic material are those properties that are

Contents http://www.gitam.edu/eresource/Engg_Phys/semester_2/magnetic/def.htm

3 of 6 3/27/2014 11:26 AM

characteristic of the material and are unaffected by the microstructure (e.g. grain size,

crystal orientation of grains). These properties include the Curie temperature, the

saturation magnetisation and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

Saturation Magnetisation

The saturation magnetisation (M

S

) is a measure of the maximum amount of field that

can be generated by a material. It will depend on the strength of the dipole moments

on the atoms that make up the material and how densely they are packed together.

The atomic dipole moment will be affected by the nature of the atom and the overall

electronic structure within the compound. The packing density of the atomic moments

will be determined by the crystal structure (i.e. the spacing of the moments) and the

presence of any non-magnetic elements within the structure.

For ferromagnetic materials, at finite temperatures, M

S

will also depend on how well

these moments are aligned, as thermal vibration of the atoms causes misalignment of

the moments and a reduction in M

S

. For ferrimagnetic materials not all of the moments

align parallel, even at zero Kelvin and hence M

S

will depend on the relative alignment

of the moments as well as the temperature.

The saturation magnetisation is also referred to as the spontaneous magnetisation,

although this term is usually used to describe the magnetisation within a single

magnetic domain. Table 2 gives some examples of the saturation polarisation and Curie

temperature of materials commonly used in magnetic applications.

Material

Magnetic

Structure

J

S

at 298K

(T)

T

C

(ºC)

Fe Ferro 2.15 770

Co Ferro 1.76 1131

Ni Ferro 0.60 358

Nd

2

Fe

14

B Ferro 1.59 312

SmCo

5

Ferro 1.14 720

Sm

2

Co

17

Ferro 1.25 820

BaO.6Fe

2

O

3

Ferri 0.48 450

SrO.6Fe

2

O

3

Ferri 0.48 450

Fe 3wt% Si Ferro 2.00 740

Fe 4wt% Si Ferro 1.97 690

Fe 35wt% Co Ferro 2.45 970

Fe 78wt% Ni Ferro 0.70 580

Fe 50wt% Ni Ferro 1.55 500

Contents http://www.gitam.edu/eresource/Engg_Phys/semester_2/magnetic/def.htm

4 of 6 3/27/2014 11:26 AM

MnO.Fe

2

O

3

Ferri 0.51 300

Tabl e 2: The saturation polarisation (J

S

) and Curie temperature (T

C

) of a range of

magnetic materials.

Magnetic Anisotropy

In a crystalline magnetic material the magnetic properties will vary depending on the

crystallographic direction in which the magnetic dipoles are aligned. Figure 4

demonstrates this effect for a single crystal of cobalt. The hexagonal crystal structure

of Co can be magnetised easily in the [0001] direction (i.e. along the c-axis), but has

hard directions of magnetisation in the <1010> type directions, which lie in the basal

plane (90° from the easy direction).

A measure of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the easy direction of magnetisation

is the anisotropy field, H (illustrated in figure 1), which is the field required to rotate all

the moments by 90° as one unit in a saturated single crystal. The anisotropy is caused

by a coupling of the electron orbitals to the lattice, and in the easy direction of

magnetisation this coupling is such that these orbitals are in the lowest energy state.

The easy direction of magnetisation for a permanent magnet, based on ferrite or the

rare earth alloys, must be uniaxial, however, it is also possible to have materials with

multiple easy axes or where the easy direction can lie anywhere on a certain plane or

on the surface of a cone. The fact that a permanent magnet has uniaxial anisotropy

means that it is difficult to demagnetise as it is resistant to rotation of the direction of

magnetisation.

Fi gure 1: The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of cobalt.

a

Contents http://www.gitam.edu/eresource/Engg_Phys/semester_2/magnetic/def.htm

5 of 6 3/27/2014 11:26 AM

Contents http://www.gitam.edu/eresource/Engg_Phys/semester_2/magnetic/def.htm

6 of 6 3/27/2014 11:26 AM

- IEEE Trans Jour TICon2017Uploaded byNayibe Soraya Sanchez Leon
- BenchUploaded byPaulo Likey
- ManualUploaded byChigozie Uzor
- ABUnits_1Uploaded by1cvbnm
- Electrical Cheat SheetUploaded byNarcisa Rudnic
- Unit 12(Complete)Uploaded bykarnatisharath
- Lecture10_Magnetic Properties of SolidsUploaded byMuhammed Sultan
- MHD Free Convective Flow through a Porous Medium with Periodic PermeabilityUploaded byIOSRjournal
- ET08.pdfUploaded byKalai Vanan
- iasr2Uploaded byLilou Bouchet
- Lorentz Force LawUploaded byMalou Ruiz Denolan
- Magnetic Susceptibility Mapping of Brain Tissue In Vivo Using MRI Phase DataUploaded byKofi Deh

- 7 Teaching Learning MaterialUploaded bysurya_kotni
- VAIYUKTHIKA BEDHAALUUploaded bysurya_kotni
- ENGBOOKLET (1) 2014Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- 4th Class EVS 9Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- 10th Physical Science Bit BankUploaded bysurya_kotni
- I-YearUploaded bysurya_kotni
- LS Siddhanthy Telugu Calendar 2015 Hindupad.comUploaded bysurya_kotni
- Engineering Physics Sem -1 & 2Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- Bagavadgita TeluguUploaded bysurya_kotni
- Psychology Definitions1Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- 10th Physics Bit BankUploaded bysurya_kotni
- 9th Beejiya SamasaluUploaded bysurya_kotni
- 10th Chemistry Bit Bank EMUploaded bysurya_kotni
- Seagate Dashboard User Guide UsUploaded bysurya_kotni
- Polytechnic Jan62012(1)Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- 12Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- Electromagnetism 8Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- Magnetism 06Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- Results of 2nd Stage Exam for NTPC (UG) (DOE-19.01.14)Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- 12Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- 23-02-2011Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- AirwaysUploaded bysurya_kotni
- AP X Physics EMUploaded bysurya_kotni
- Electricity 7Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- 02-02-2011Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- 10 Science English 2013Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- Historical EventsUploaded bysurya_kotni
- Pathajali Yoga SutramuluUploaded bysurya_kotni
- 12Uploaded bysurya_kotni