# ISSN 1454 - 8003

Proceedings of 2012 International Conference of Hydraulics and Pneumatics - HERVEX
7 - 9 November, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania

203
RESEARCH ON FRICTION LOSSES IN THE TENSIONING DEVICES

Andrei GRAMA
1
, Constantin CHIRIȚĂ
1
, Mihai AFRĂSINEI
1
, Vasile DAMASCHIN
1
1
Tehnical University “Gheorghe Asachi” from Iassy, e-mail address andreiasi79@yahoo.com

Abstract: Determination the size of losses by friction under load tensioning devices used and their
comparison with values given in the literature, the tensioning devices made by companies profile
[1], [2], [3]. Friction is determined based on theoretical relationships and experimental with a
specially designed stand that determines the actual power draw. Knowing that the actual value
pulling force is less than the theoretical load force due to friction in the system, we obtain a relative
loss through friction. Based on both research theoretical and experimental, we get conclusions on
both friction losses and linearity check real force pulling.
Keywords: pretensioning, tensioning devices, friction losses
1. Introduction
Determination the size of losses by friction under load tensioning devices used and their
comparison with values given in the literature, the tensioning devices made by companies profile
[1], [2], [3].
Friction force due to friction tensioning devices that oppose the advance piston. This force
is opposite force must be added active and effective tensioning force.
2. Theoretical determination of friction single – wire tensioning devices
(Arial, 11pt, Regular) To determine by theoretical friction single - wire tensioning devices, will leave
the relationship (1.1) which gives the theoretical value of load force.
(1.1)
înc
F S = ⋅ P
where:
S - cylinder piston surface tension conducting effective cm
2
,
P - pressure hydraulic power source developed for prestressing in bar.

The actual value pulling force is less than the theoretical load force due to friction in the
system and, as such, we have a relative friction loss is given by (1.2)
(1.2)
exp
exp
100[%]
înc
f
F F
F
F

Δ =
where:
Fexp = real strength developed tensioning device measured the load at the output hydraulic
pressure source work.
It is noted that in determining relative losses by friction we need the theoretical values of
the loading force and the actual force values are obtained experimentally.
Theoretical loading force values, calculated for the period 60 bar - 390 bar, in increments of
10 to 10 bar are shown in Tab. 2.1.

ISSN 1454 - 8003
Proceedings of 2012 International Conference of Hydraulics and Pneumatics - HERVEX
7 - 9 November, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania

204

Table 2.1 The theoretical values to pretensioning a strand
Force 16 [tF] Pressure 700 [bar]
Pressure
[bar]
Force
[tF]
Pressure
[bar]
Force
[tF]
Pressure
[bar]
Force
[tF]
60 2,598 180 7,794 300 12,99
70 3,031 190 8,227 310 13,423
80 3,464 200 8,66 320 13,856
90 3,897 210 9,093 330 14,289
100 4,33 220 9,526 340 14,722
110 4,763 230 9,959 350 15,155
120 5,196 240 10,392 360 15,588
130 5,629 250 10,825 370 16,021
140 6,062 260 11,258 380 16,454
150 6,495 270 11,691 390 16,887
160 6,928 280 12,124
170 7,361 290 12,557

3. Experimental determination of pulling force at single – wire
tensioning devices
Real pulling force will be determined using the stand shown in Fig. 3.1.

Fig. 3.1. Experimental facility for determining friction from tensioner
TF - force transducer, PT - pressure transducer

Will be testing to two tensioning devices research conducted in the Department of Hydraulic
and Pneumatic Systems Engineering (DISAHP) Department of Machine Tools of Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering and Management Industial Technical University "Gheorghe Asachi" from
Iassy of which can strain tendons in force for 16 tF, one with working stroke of 200mm and second
500 mm. These devices are conducting cylinder piston surface tension of: 43.3 cm
2
.
Stand components to determine friction tensioning devices are shown in Fig. 3.1:
ISSN 1454 - 8003
Proceedings of 2012 International Conference of Hydraulics and Pneumatics - HERVEX
7 - 9 November, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania

205
• High pressure hydraulic source for tension;
• Stand experimental with mantle corbles
• wire TBP 9
• DMS force measuring unit applied wire calibrating the display of force pulling on high
pressure hydraulic source;
• pressure transducer 0 to 1200 bar,
• force transducer 0 to 25 ft;
• digital display of pressure;
• digital display of force;
• single –wire tensioning device
• power supply 220V, Uca.

Calibration of force transducer 0-25 tF
To measure the pulling force by pressure transducer included in high pressure hydraulic
source, it is necessary to calibrate the pressure transducer in units of force
In this respect it will use a DMS force measuring unit type DMS 25, produced by Paul
Maschinenfabrick calibrated and not damaged. DMS force measuring unit is installed between
blocking system and the single-wire tensioning device as shown in Fig. 3.1.
It will introduce the best possible positioning two washers glued on both sides DMS force
measuring unit. Will be effective tension-type TBP9 wire, by using the tensioning force of 16 tF and
200 mm stroke. Tension is achieved at working pressure hydraulic power source 100, 200, 300
and 400 bar.
Values of strength obtained DMS force measuring unit indicated by the digital display are
read and note that in Tab. 3.1.

Table 3.1 The force calibrating digital display unit pressure
Value read from the force
measuring equipment [tF]
(at DMS force measuring unit)
Value read from a digital display
unit pressure [tF]
(at electro-hydraulic power unit)
Working
pressure
[bar]
1 2 3 SD 1 2 3 SD
100 4,05 4,15 4,1 4,1 3,85 4,05 3,95 3,95
200 8,25 8,5 8,35 8,37 7,95 8,15 8,25 8,12
300 12,50 12,35 12,20 12,35 12,05 12,15 12,10 12,1
400 16,25 16,50 16,35 16,37 16,05 16,30 16,25 16,2

To make the correction digital device display pressure, use the relation (3.1)

(3.1)
average value obtained with DMS force measuring unit
average value obtained with pressure display device
k =

They obtained values of Tab. 3.2

Table 3.2 Values for different levels of pressure correction
Working
pressure
[bar]
Value read from the force
measuring equipment [tF]
(at DMS force measuring
unit))
Value read from a digital
display unit pressure
[tF]
(at electro-hydraulic
power unit)
Digital correction
value
100 4,1 3,95 1,0380
200 8,37 8,12 1,0308
300 12,35 12,1 1,0207
400 16,37 16,2 1,0105
ISSN 1454 - 8003
Proceedings of 2012 International Conference of Hydraulics and Pneumatics - HERVEX
7 - 9 November, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania

206

Calculation is the standard deviation digital correction value is obtained: k = 1.025
We say that after correcting digital display device using the relation 3.3, the force indicated
by the digital display device is less than 2.5% of DMS force measuring unit or, in other words, the
strength of strand is higher by 2 5%.
Next, digital display calibrated pressure device to the value found by calculation by applying
average correction factor displays program.
Repeat measurements after the above mode and obtain very similar values of pulling force
on both equipment were analyzed for all measurements.
A first set of tests were performed on the tensioning device of 16 tF and 200 mm stroke
work and to doing so.
For each pressure step in Tab. 2.1. were performed three sets of measurements yielding
three values of pulling force. These values, together with relevant theoretical load force taken from
Tab. 2.1 are shown in Tab. 3.3. Here, are numerically and arithmetic averages of sets of 3 values
measured experimental force and friction losses relative to the device.

Table 3.3. Experimental results obtained for losses
tensioning device of 16 tF with stroke 200 mm
F
exp
[tF]
No.
crt.
Pressure
[bar]
1 2 3
F
înc
[tF]
SD
F
exp
[tF]
Relative
loss in
device
[%]
1 60 2,4 2,56 2,61 2,52 2,598 2,87
2 70 2,83 2,79 2,68 2,77 3,031 8,72
3 80 3,25 3,27 3,26 3,26 3,464 5,89
4 90 3,67 3,7 3,71 3,69 3,897 5,23
5 100 4,06 4,04 4,12 4,07 4,33 5,93
6 110 4,52 4,53 4,61 4,55 4,763 4,40
7 120 4,9 5,03 5,03 4,99 5,196 4,03
8 130 5,42 5,33 5,43 5,39 5,629 4,19
9 140 5,82 5,84 5,82 5,83 6,062 3,88
10 150 6,21 6,24 6,28 6,24 6,495 3,87
11 160 6,57 6,56 6,6 6,58 6,928 5,07
12 170 6,97 6,96 7 6,98 7,361 5,22
13 180 7,32 7,41 7,46 7,40 7,794 5,10
14 190 7,82 8,02 8,06 7,97 8,227 3,16
15 200 8,3 8,45 8,42 8,39 8,66 3,12
16 210 8,58 8,75 8,72 8,68 9,093 4,51
17 220 9,01 9,12 9,15 9,09 9,526 4,54
18 230 9,48 9,69 9,62 9,60 9,959 3,64
19 240 9,9 10,03 10,02 9,98 10,392 3,93
20 250 10,39 10,34 10,34 10,36 10,825 4,33
21 260 10,78 10,81 10,82 10,80 11,258 4,04
22 270 11,12 11,02 11,21 11,12 11,691 4,91
23 280 11,46 11,54 11,6 11,53 12,124 4,87
24 290 11,96 12 12,02 11,99 12,557 4,49
25 300 12,34 12,52 12,65 12,50 12,99 3,75
ISSN 1454 - 8003
Proceedings of 2012 International Conference of Hydraulics and Pneumatics - HERVEX
7 - 9 November, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania

207
26 310 12,75 13 13,06 12,94 13,423 3,62
27 320 13,11 13,35 13,35 13,27 13,856 4,23
28 330 13,64 13,81 13,81 13,75 14,289 3,75
29 340 14,1 14,12 14,2 14,14 14,722 3,95
30 350 14,51 14,61 14,62 14,58 15,155 3,79
31 360 14,9 15,02 15,02 14,98 15,588 3,90
32 370 15,21 15,43 15,43 15,36 16,021 4,15
33 380 15,7 15,94 15,93 15,86 16,454 3,63
34 390 16,05 16,34 16,26 16,22 16,887 3,97

From experiments with efective pull force values obtained for the single – wire tensionig
device of 16tF and stroke of 200 mm, graphs were drawn based on the values of pressure, without
pressure multiplier Fig. 3.2 and pressure multiplier Fig. 3.3, in order to check the linearity real
force.

Fig. 3.2. Force at low pressure variation made with tensioning device for 16 tF with 200 mm
stroke

Fig. 3.3. Force at high pressure variation made with tensioning device for 16 tF with 200
mm stroke

ISSN 1454 - 8003
Proceedings of 2012 International Conference of Hydraulics and Pneumatics - HERVEX
7 - 9 November, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania

208
Tests performed on the same single – wire tensioning device but with 500 mm stroke; were
made using the same methodology as in the previous case, the values obtained are presented in
Tab. 3.4.

Table 3.4. Experimental results obtained for losses
tensioning device of 16 tF with stroke 500 mm
F
exp
[tF]
No.
crt.
Pressure
[bar]
1 2 3
F
înc
[tF]
SD
F
exp
[tF]
Relative
loss in
device
[%]
1 60 2,43 2,4 2,42 2,598 2,417 6,98
2 70 2,8 2,85 2,82 3,031 2,823 6,85
3 80 3,22 3,23 3,23 3,464 3,227 6,85
4 90 3,68 3,67 3,71 3,897 3,687 5,40
5 100 4,08 4,09 4,12 4,330 4,097 5,39
6 110 4,4 4,41 4,45 4,763 4,420 7,20
7 120 4,7 4,85 4,89 5,196 4,813 7,36
8 130 5,2 5,25 5,23 5,629 5,227 7,15
9 140 5,76 5,73 5,73 6,062 5,740 5,31
10 150 6,02 6,03 6,03 6,495 6,027 7,21
11 160 6,53 6,51 6,53 6,928 6,523 5,84
12 170 6,92 7,02 7,12 7,361 7,020 4,63
13 180 7,46 7,46 7,47 7,794 7,463 4,24
14 190 7,85 7,9 7,83 8,227 7,860 4,46
15 200 8,25 8,24 8,47 8,660 8,320 3,93
16 210 8,58 8,62 8,61 9,093 8,603 5,39
17 220 8,92 8,9 8,94 9,526 8,920 6,36
18 230 9,28 9,35 9,29 9,959 9,307 6,55
19 240 9,81 9,76 9,81 10,392 9,793 5,76
20 250 10,23 10,21 10,25 10,825 10,230 5,50
21 260 10,61 10,65 10,54 11,258 10,600 5,84
22 270 11,23 11,36 11,36 11,691 11,317 3,20
23 280 11,48 11,73 11,71 12,124 11,640 3,99
24 290 12,03 11,92 12,03 12,557 11,993 4,49
25 300 12,46 12,51 12,4 12,990 12,457 4,11
26 310 12,92 12,91 12,86 13,423 12,897 3,92
27 320 13,3 13,2 13,28 13,856 13,260 4,30
28 330 13,65 13,86 13,72 14,289 13,743 3,82
29 340 14,02 14 14,03 14,722 14,017 4,79
30 350 14,4 14,64 14,64 15,155 14,560 3,93
31 360 14,71 14,84 14,85 15,588 14,800 5,06
32 370 15,21 15,4 15,34 16,021 15,317 4,40
33 380 15,58 15,52 15,75 16,454 15,617 5,09
34 390 16,01 16,01 16,03 16,887 16,017 5,15

The efective force values obtained experimentally for pretensioning device of 16tF with
stroke of 500 mm graphs were drawn based on the values of pressure, without pressure multiplier
Fig. 3.4 and with pressure multiplier Fig. 3.5, in order to check the linearity real force.
ISSN 1454 - 8003
Proceedings of 2012 International Conference of Hydraulics and Pneumatics - HERVEX
7 - 9 November, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania

209

Fig. 3.4. Force at low pressure variation made with pretensioning device for 16 tF with 500 mm
stroke

Fig. 3.5. Force at high pressure variation made with pretensioning device for 16 tF with 500 mm
stroke

4. Conclusions
The data analysis presented in Tab. 3.3 and 3.4 and the graphs in Fig. 3.2. - 3.5, we draw
the following conclusions:
⇒ The four graphs shown real strength is observed that the variation can be
considered linear, so we can say that the real strength varies directly proportional to pressure as
the force varies theoretical (equation 1.1.)
⇒ Also the tab. 3.3 and Tab. 3.4, it is observed that the relative loss of power by
friction device limits vary between 3.16% and 8.72%, maximum known in the literature [1], [2], [3],
pretensioning devices with similar characteristics is 10% - 15%.
⇒ The above led to the conclusion that the devices studied achieved comparable
performance with devices made by other manufacturers, which validates the use of this device
stand prestressed tension reinforcement.

REFERENCES
[1] http://www.bianchicasseforme.it
[2] HYDRAMOLD Contract grant no. 151, Tensrelax, Phase I Studies and experimental models
"Development of a hydraulic power equipment technology, innovation, modernization of tension
reinforcement for prestressed concrete structures", November 2008
[3] Paul Maschinenfabrik GmbH&Co. KG “Operating Manual – Pump Unit – Mach. No.:07196878/2”, Max-
Paul-Straße 1 88525 Dürmentingen/Germany
[4] . Chiriţă, A. Grama, D. Zetu, „High Pressure Hydraulic Unit Used in Making Presstresed Reiforced
Concrete Structure” Buletinul I.P. Iaşi, publicat de U.T. „Gheorghe Asachi”, Iaşi, Tomul LVI (LX), Fasc. 1,
(2010), Secţiunea Construcţii de maşini, pag 213-222