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**Abstract— In this paper, we propose the use of game theory as
**

a general formalism for representing, comparing and providing

insight into solutions to a wide class of robot control problem.

Particularly, we show how game theory can be applied to the

problems of multi robot coordination, distance planning without

communication error .We consider a very general game structure

for the control of robots, its independent task. Here we use the

game theory for only analyzing the value of distance for various

robots without any communication error.

I ndex Terms—Control, cooperative game theory, coordination,

fire hazards, multi robot system

I. INTRODUCTION

he need for a device that can detect and extinguish a fire

on its own is long past due. Many fire hazards originate

when someone is sleeping or not home. With the invention of

such a device, people and property can be saved at a much

higher rate with relatively minimal damage caused by the fire.

Here we have a team of mobile robots and these robots have to

navigate autonomously performing cooperative tasks such as

detecting fire, extinguishing fire after detecting the fire

extinguisher. In this paper we are considering the situations

where sensors are placed on mobile robots, fire extinguishers

and in every room. We are applying cooperative game theory

in order to optimize the performance of the team of robots.

In every day life, all of us face decision making problems and

most of the time we have to make rational decision using

limited information. Here comes the role of game theory.

Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is concerned

with the action of individual who are conscious that their

action effect each other. Game theory can be again classified

as non –cooperative and cooperative game theory depending

upon how they formalize interdependence among the players.

In non-cooperative gametherory a game is a detailed model of

all the moves available to the players while in cooperative one

abstract awat from this level of details and describe the only

outcome that results when the players come together in

different combination. Non cooperative game theory is

procedutral game theory where as cooperative gametheory is

combinational gametheory.

The cooperative gametheory can be applied in this fire hazards

problem in a very effective manner. A cooperative game

theory consist of two elements. First elements are a set of

players and the second element is a characteristic function

specifying the values created by different subset of players in

the game. Here the players are two robots. These robots have

to perform several functions. The values can be assigned

either by taking both magnitude and phase angle or by taking

magnitude to the target. The works related to cooperative

control of mobile sensor networks, both magnitude and phase

angle is consider for assigning the values.

This paper is divided in to three section. The first section

describe about the detailed study of scenario, we are going to

apply the gametheory. The second section about a detailed

case study of this problem by assigning values using

cooperative game theory. Third section consist of an

algorithm for performing this operation using the robots.

II. STRUCTURING OF THE SCENARIO

We know that proper coordination of robots is necessary for

completing our task of fire extinguishing in a manner that each

robot travels only the shortest path.

Now we can denote the team of robots as a set :

X={x

i

} i = 1,2,3,…N (1)

The actions performed by the robots are given by the set:

Y={y

i

} i = 1,2,3,…M (2)

A set of possible actions of the i-th robot in the state x

i

is

defined by :

Y

i

(x

i )=

{ y

1

,y

2,

y

3,......

y

k

} (3)

y

k ⊂ Yi is a mapping:

y

k

: x

i

n

→ x

i

n+1

Game Theoretic Control of Multi Robots for

Fire Hazard Conditions

Jasna .S. B (jasnapadman@gmail.com), Pranav .M. S (pranavms1@gmail.com), Sreelakshmy Suresh

(sreelakshmisuresh40@gmail.com)

T

2

where x

k

n

is the current state of the i-th robot, and x

k

n+1

is a

state that the robot will be in as a result of the action y

k..

Here we are considering the following actions that a robot

can perform

Idle – Both the robots are not performing any

operation

Detect fire – identification of hazard either by robot

1 or 2 or both

Fetch fire extinguisher and extinguish the fire-

operation after detection of fire

Stop

Fig. 1.Layout of the workspace

III. CASE STUDY

Consider a workspace having nine sectors including 4

rooms. Area of the workspace is (12*6) meter. Area of the

room is (4*2) meter. We are considering two robots R1, R2.

R1 is located in S4 and R2 is located in S6. Each room has

two doors. These doors are assumed to be located at the

centre. Assuming that the fire is detected in room 1 and

room 4. Here we having 4 conditions.

Fire is detected in room one and extinguish : FDG1

Fire is detected in room nine and extinguish : FDG9

Ideal

Game theory is applied in these three conditions for 2 robots

using corporative game theory. It is as shown below.

TABLE I

RANDOM ASSIGNMENT OF VALUES

Robot 2

FDG1 FDG9 IDLE

FDG1 (2,10) (2,2) (2,0)

FDG9 (9,10) (10,2) (9,0)

IDLE (0,10) (0,2) (0,0)

Robot 1

For case study, we are taking two sectors 1 and 9 and two

robots, robot 1 and 2. FDG1 and FDG9 here denotes the fire is

detected and extinguished in sector 1 and 9 respectively The

FDG1-FDG1 combination, taking (2,10) as example ,robot

R1 has to travel 2 units only to the sector 1 whereas R2 has to

travel 10 units. So R1 will moves to the sector 1. Thus the

value of the set is 2.If the combinations of sectors and robots

arise (FDG1-FDG9/FDG9-FDG1), both the values has to be

taken into account as we have two robots and two sectors

where fire is detected.

If combination of IDLE and FDGi arise like (0,a) or (a,0),

the value of set is taken as a.

IV. ALGORITHM OF THE SCENARIO

Here our robots are in idle condition if there is no fire. If the

fire is detected in any sector S, the robot R

i

, which is close to

the sector where fire is detected is activated. If the fire

extinguisher is not in the same sector, R

i

moves to the sector

S

i.

. If the extinguisher is detected, after fetching it, fire is

extinguished. The robot R

i

has to check regularly that is there

any sector still remaining without extinguishing the fire

completely. If so it has to move to the respective sector and

accomplish the task. When fire is extinguished completely in

all sectors, the robots will stop their action and returns to the

idle state.

The algorithm is as shown in the Fig 2

3

Fig. 2.Algorithm of the scenario

V. CONCLUSION

The problem of coordination of tasks and planning of a multi

robot system is discussed here. In this paper, the intention of

our robot team was to detect the fire and extinguish it in a

workspace like a shopping mall, hospital etc. We employed

cooperative game theory here and an algorithm is formulated

using this. Our future researches shall be focused on making

the robots capable of rescuing the people as well as

extinguishing the fire simultaneously

REFERENCES

[1] Krzysztof Skrzypczyk ―Game theory based task planning in multi robot

systems

[2] Fox D. ;W.Burgard.; and S. Thrun. 1998. ― A hybrid collision avoidance

method for mobile robots.‖ Proc. Of the IEEE International conference

on Robotics and Automation, Leuven, Belgium

[3] Li, Q and s. Payandeh. 2001. ―On Coordination of Robotics Agents

Based on Game Theory:, ICRA 2001, Seul, Korea,(private

communication)

[4] M.J. Matari6, M. Nilsson and K.T. Simsarian, Cooperative

Multi-Robot Box-Pushing, in Proceedings, IROS-95,

Pittsburgh, PA (1995):

[5] L. Peters, M. Pauly, and K. Beck, ―Servicebots—Mobile robots in

cooperative environments,‖ ERCIM News, no. 42, pp. 30–31, Jul. 2000.

[6] J. P. Desai, J. P. Ostrowski, and V. Kumar, ―Controlling formations of

multiple mobile robots,‖ in Proc. 1998 IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics and

Automation, vol. 4, Leuven, Belgium, May 1998, pp. 2864–

2869.Examples:

[7] J. C. Latombe, Robot Motion Planning. Boston, MA: Kluwer, 1991.

[8] Ahmadi, M. and Stone, P. (2006). A multi‐robot system

for continuous area sweeping tasks, In Proceedings of

the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and

Automation.

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