COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PLAN OF MARADU MUNICIPALITY

ERNAKULAM DISTRICT, KERALA

(As per CRZ Notification 2011 in 1: 25000 scale)

Prepared for
Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment
Govt. of Kerala

NATIONAL CENTRE FOR EARTH SCIENCE STUDIES
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM 695011
May, 2014

PROJECT TEAM

Dr. K.V. Thomas

-

Principal Investigator

Dr M. Samsuddin

-

Co Principal Investigator

Dr. D. S. Suresh Babu
Dr. K. Raju
B. K. Jayaprasad
D. Raju
M.K. Sreeraj
M.K. Rafeeque
Project Staff
Dr. K.O. Badarees

-

Project Scientist (till 19.06.2013)

K. C. Vimal

-

Project Scientist/Senior Research Fellow

M. Rameshan

-

Project Scientist

Abhi Aravind

-

Senior Research Fellow

T. Neelima

-

Senior Research Fellow

R. V. Viji

-

Junior Research Fellow

T. J. Arun

-

Junior Research Fellow

C. Anoop

-

Technical Assistant

S. Sooraj

-

Technical Assistant (till 03.03.2014)

R. Swaraj

-

Technical Assistant

Muhammed Asif

-

Technical Assistant

P. T. Arun

-

Technical Assistant

Dileep Roy

-

Technical Assistant

Robert Thampi

-

Technical Assistant

Yedu Balachandran

-

Technical Assistant

Muhammed Sameer

-

Technical Assistant

Jose Mathew Varghese

-

Technical Assistant

R. Rajesh

-

Technical Assistant

K.V. Laju Prasad

-

Technical Assistant

R. Shihabudeen

-

Technical Assistant

CZMP of Kochi Corporation in 1:25000 scale
National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram - 31

CONTENTS
Page Number
I. Introduction

1

II. CRZ of Kerala

1

III. Coastal Zone Management Plans

2

IV. CZMP in1:25000 scale

3

1. High Tide Line

3

2. Low Tide Line

4

3. Setback lines

4

3.1. Setback line for CRZ II

4

4. Influence of Tidal action

5

5. Different approaches to demarcate HTL

5

5.1. HTL using morphological signatures

5

5.2 Field method

6

6. 100, 200 & 500m lines

7

7. HTL demarcation in the field and CRZ map generation

8

7.1 CRZ/CZM map in 1:25000

8

7.2 CRZ/CZM map in 1:4000

9

7.3 Base maps

9

8. Field mapping and map generation

9

8.1 Use of Remote sensing data for HTL

10

8.2 LTL delineation

11

9. CZMP/CRZ map of Kochi in 1:25000 scale

11

9.1 Data Sources

11

9.2 Salinity and upstream boundary

12

10. CRZ categories

12

11. Summary

14

List of Figures and Tables
Table 1. CRZ details of Kochi Corporation
Figure 1. HTL and coastal ecosystems such as mangroves demarcated in cadastral scale for
Maradu Municipality
Appendix 1. An overview of Reclaimed Lands in Maradu Village in the CRZ of Maradu Municipality

(based on imageries since 2002 and field study)

CZMP of Kochi Corporation in 1:25000 scale
National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram - 31

APPENDIX 1
An overview of Reclaimed Lands in Maradu Village in the CRZ of Maradu Municipality
(based on imageries since 2002 and field study)
Si. No. Sy No. Block No

Year of reclamation Land cover at the time of reclamation

1

3

13

2003

ITZ and MBZ

2

4

13

2004

ITZ and MBZ

3

6

14

2005

FP/ITZ/ MG

4

7

14

2005

FP/ITZ/MG

5

8

14

2006

ITZ and MBZ

6

9

13

2004

ITZ/MG and MBZ

7

9

14

2010

ITZ/MG and MBZ

8

10

13

2005

ITZ/MG and MBZ

9

10

14

2006

ITZ and MBZ

10

15

14

2008

FP/ITZ/MG

11

16

14

2008

FP/ITZ/MG

12

17

14

2008

FP/ITZ/MG

13

18

14

2005

ITZ/MG

14

19

14

2010

ITZ/MG

15

20

14

2010

ITZ/MG

16

27

14

2011

ITZ/MG

17

59

14

2005

FP/ITZ

18

77

14

2005

ITZ/MG

19

78

14

2005

ITZ/MG

20

79

14

2005

ITZ/MG

21

89

14

2006

ITZ

22

125

14

2009

ITZ/MG

23

129

13

2010

ITZ

24

129

14

2005

ITZ and MBZ

25

130

14

2002

ITZ

26

130

13

2010

ITZ and MBZ

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Sl. No. Sy No. Block No

Year of reclamation Land cover at the time of reclamation

27

133

14

2005

ITZ

28

135

13

2002

ITZ and MBZ

29

135

14

2002

ITZ/MG

30

136

13

2010

ITZ

31

138

14

2002

FP/ITZ

32

138

13

2005

ITZ and MBZ

33

139

13

2005

FP/ITZ

34

144

13

2005

FP/ITZ/MG

35

145

13

2006

FP/ITZ

36

146

13

2005

FP/ITZ

37

147

13

2005

FP/ITZ/MG

38

150

13

2002

FP/ITZ/MG

39

151

13

2002

FP/ITZ

40

152

13

2002

FP/ITZ/MG and MBZ

41

162

13

2006

ITZ

42

166

14

2010

ITZ

43

166

13

2006

ITZ/MG

44

167

14

2010

ITZ and MBZ

45

167

13

2002

ITZ and MBZ

46

168

14

2010

ITZ/MG and MBZ

47

168

13

2002

ITZ

48

177

14

2002

FP/ITZ/MG

49

178

14

2011

ITZ/MG

50

179

14

2005

ITZ

51

180

14

2005

FP/ITZ

52

181*

13

2005

Waterbody

53

185

14

2005

FP/ITZ/MG

54

193

14

2002

ITZ and MBZ

55

209

14

2008

FP/ITZ

56

210

14

2002

ITZ

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Sl. No. Sy No. Block No

Year of reclamation Land cover at the time of reclamation

57

211

13

2006

FP/ITZ

58

211

14

2002

ITZ

59

212

14

2002

ITZ

60

213

13

2002

ITZ/MG and MBZ

61

214

13

2006

ITZ/MG and MBZ

62

216

13

2008

ITZ/MG and MBZ

63

217

13

2009

ITZ/MG and MBZ

64

219*

13

2002

Waterbody and MBZ

65

293

14

2003

ITZ/MG

66

313

13

2002

ITZ and MBZ

67

314

13

2006

FP/ITZ/MG and MBZ

68

377

13

2008

ITZ/MG

69

380

13

2002

ITZ/MG and MBZ

70

381

13

2004

ITZ

71

382

13

2006

ITZ/MG

72

388

13

2006

FP/ITZ/MG

73

389

13

2006

FP/ITZ/MG

74

390

13

2006

FP/ITZ

75

391

13

2005

FP/ITZ/MG

76

394

13

2012

FP/ITZ

77

411*

13

2011

FP/ITZ

78

413

13

2012

FP/ITZ

79

414

13

2012

FP/ITZ/MG

80

415

13

2006

FP/ITZ

81

415

13

2006

FP/ITZ

82

416

13

2006

FP/ITZ and MBZ

83

418

13

2002

FP/ITZ/MG

84

419

13

2005

FP/ITZ and MBZ

85

420*

13

2002

FP/ITZ

86

421

13

2002

FP/ITZ and MBZ

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Sl. No. Sy No. Block No

Year of reclamation Land cover at the time of reclamation

87

427

13

2002

ITZ

88

430

13

2009

ITZ and MBZ

89

432

13

2002

FP/ITZ/MG and MBZ

90

434

13

2005

FP/ITZ/MG

91

435

13

2005

FP/ITZ and MBZ

92

437

13

2002

FP/ITZ

93

440

13

2005

FP/ITZ

94

449

13

2006

FP/ITZ/MG

95

451

13

2006

FP/ITZ/MG

96

452

13

2006

FP/ITZ and MBZ

97

453

13

2006

FP/ITZ and MBZ

98

456

13

2006

FP/ITZ and MBZ

99

457

13

2006

FP/ITZ and MBZ

100

462

13

2008

FP/ITZ/MG and MBZ

101

463

13

2011

FP/ITZ/MG and MBZ

FP: Filtration Pond; ITZ: Intertidal Zone; MG: Mangroves;
MBZ:Mangrove Buffer Zone;
*

CRZ as per1991CRZ Notification

Reclaimed area under CRZ: 0.9235 km2
Reclaimed area falling under 50m mangrove buffer zon:
0.1586 km2

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National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram

CZMP of Maradu Municipality in 1:25000 scale
I.

Introduction
The preparation of the CZMP for Maradu Municipality has been undertaken as part of the
CZMP preparation for the coastal zone of Kerala, including urban and rural areas. The
approach and methodology followed are the same for all the Corporations, Municipal
Councils and rural areas in the State.
The damages to the coastal zone and the impact of coastal hazards to communities and
properties, to a certain extent, can be controlled by regulating high impact activities in the
coastal zone. It was with this objective the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification
(MoEF, 2011; 1991) was introduced in the country.

II.

CRZ of Kerala
CRZ (2011) notification (para 7 (V) A(ii)) has approved a special status for Kerala coastal
zone as “areas requiring special consideration for the purpose of protecting the critical
coastal environment and difficulties faced by local communities”.
1. To facilitate the above requirement, the CRZ of Kerala has been categorized under
Category V (CRZ V).
2. While detailing the ‘Norms for regulation of activities permissible under this
notification it is mentioned under (para 8 (V) 2) that in view of the unique coastal
systems of backwater islands along with space limitations along the coast of Kerala,
the following activities are regulated in CRZ:
(i) all the islands in the backwaters of Kerala shall be covered under the CRZ
notification;
(ii) the islands within the backwaters shall have 50mts width from the High Tide
Line on the landward side as the CRZ area;
(iii)within 50mts from the HTL of these backwater islands existing dwelling units
of local communities may be repaired or reconstructed however no new
construction shall be permitted;
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(iv) beyond 50mts from the HTL on the landward side of backwater islands,
dwelling units of local communities may be constructed with the prior
permission of the Gram panchayat;
(v) foreshore facilities such as fishing jetty, fish drying yards, net mending yard,
fishing processing by traditional methods, boat building yards, ice plant, boat
repairs and the like, may be taken up within 50mts width from HTL of these
backwater islands.
3. Under ‘Guidelines for preparation of Coastal Zone Management Plans in Annexure
I(II)12, it has been directed that ‘In the CRZ V areas the landuse map shall be
superimposed on the Coastal Zone Management Plan and clearly demarcating the
CRZ I, II, III, IV.
The fisher people are confined to a very narrow stretch of 50 to 100 m from the HTL and
belong to ‘ecosystem people’ who require the coastal zone for their settlement
requirements and livelihood related activities. Considering the livelihood requirements of
the ecosystem people, the high density of coastal population, unique style of their
livelihood activities, the CZMP have to project the various requirements to address the
difficulties faced by local communities.
III.

Coastal Zone Management Plans
The CRZ provides a spatial planning framework for Coastal Zone Management Plans
which provide setbacks around sensitive eco-zones restricting development and other
activities close to it. Setbacks require specific reference lines and boundaries for its
meaningful implementation. The High Tide Line (HTL) forms the cardinal reference
line for determining the setbacks for CRZ. The 100, 200 and 500m CRZ lines
landward from the HTL are the landward setback lines. The Low Tide Line (LTL)
and the Territorial water boundary (12 nm) form the setback lines towards the sea.
The Coastal Zone Management Plans are prepared in 2 scales:
1. CZMP consisting of CRZ maps in 1:25000 scale with Survey of toposheets as base maps

2. CZMP consisting of CRZ maps in 1:4000 scale with cadastral maps as base maps

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CZMP of Maradu Corporation in 1:25000
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The approach followed is:
i.

Generation of data in 1:4000 scale on HTL, LTL and eco-morphological systems
relevant for CRZ

ii.

Demarcation of HTL, LTL, ecosystems and morphology relevant for CRZ in
1:25,000

iii.

Demarcation of HTL, LTL, ecosystems and morphology relevant for CRZ in 1:4,000
scale.

iv.

Preparation of CZMP maps consisting of CRZ maps in 1:25000 scale

v.

Preparation of Local level CZMP maps in 1:4000 cadastral scale.

The CZM/ CRZ maps in 1:25000 scale with Survey of India toposheets as base maps are required for
formulating policy decisions. These are to be submitted to MoEF, Govt of India for approval after
stakeholder/ public consultations. The local level CRZ/ CZMP are prepared in 1:4000 with cadastral
base maps and based on the approved CZMP.
Local level data in cadastral scale has been generated initially which is being used for preparing the
1;25000 CZMP on toposheet base maps. The same is used for local level CRZ/CZMP maps.

IV.

CZMP in 1:25000 scale
The present study and report provide the CZMP in 1:25000 scale.

1. High Tide Line
Different tide levels like Mean High Water Springs, Mean Low Water Springs, Lowest
Astronomical Tide, etc are defined and successfully used for navigational purposes and sea
surveying. The High Tide Level is dependent on lunar cycles. It is normally taken as the
water level at which the high tide intersects with the vertical plane.
The above definition is not in commensurate with the objectives of demarcating the HTL
which is to regulate the activities on the land. The experience of Naval Hydrographer while
demarcating the HTL in Goa way back in 1992-93 brought out the limitations in assigning
the usual definitions for the HTL (Menon, 1993). The HTL demarcated in this case for Goa
was found to be in the sea during the next monsoon.

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CZMP of Maradu Corporation in 1:25000
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A functional HTL is defined in the CRZ notification with the sole objective of protecting a
given stretch of coastal strip from environmental degradation. Hence an approach different
from the ones followed for navigational purpose, is necessary for demarcating HTL, in tune
with the definition given in the Notification.
The HTL is defined ‘for the purpose of the notification’ as “the line on the land upto which
the highest waterline reaches during the spring tide” which is different from the well known
and widely accepted definition of High Tide Level. The above definition of HTL takes into
consideration not only the level of inundation due to maximum tide (spring tide) but also the
wave set up (having a seasonal periodicity). The sea level thus formed due to the combined
effect of spring tide and wave set up gives the line of maximum reach of water on the land.
There is a similarity between the HTL thus defined and the High Water Line (HWL) given in
Survey of India (SoI) toposheets. Both are lines drawn on the land. But the HWL and HTL
are different that the former gives the fair season shoreline (because SoI field mapping is
conducted during non-rainy season) during spring tide while the latter accommodates the
rough season (monsoon) shoreline oscillations due to monsoon wave set up in addition to
spring tide inundation.
2. Low Tide Line
Unlike the HTL the Low Tide Line (LTL) has not been defined for CRZ. The HTL required
specific definition since the 100, 200 and 500m setback lines are defined with respect to the
HTL. The conventional definition of lowest low water level and the resultant low water line
during spring tide may be taken as the LTL.
3. Setback lines
The 100, 200 and 500m setback lines are drawn landward of the HTL. Once the HTL is well
defined and demarcated, the above 3 setback lines could be drawn without any ambiguity
following planimetric methods.
3.1 Setback line for CRZ II
For urban areas like Maradu Municipality in which developed areas are eligible to be
categorized as CRZ II, the setback lines are different. Those prohibited activities listed in the
CRZ notification (2011: under para 3) are applicable for the entire CRZ. Other construction
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activities are permitted in CRZ II landward of ‘existing’ buildings or ‘existing’ or ‘approved’
roads. The word ‘existing’ and ‘approved’ are specifically defined in the notification.
4. Influence of Tidal action
The distance up to which CRZ is applicable upstream of estuaries, creeks, backwaters and
lagoons depends on the extent of tidal influence. The distance up to which tidal influence is
experienced is dependent on salinity concentration: if it is 5 ppt or more the water body is
considered to be influenced by tidal action (MoEF, 2011). Salinity measurements are carried
out to determine the limit. Tidal barrages and bunds constructed are also taken as the limit of
tidal influence.
5. Different approaches to demarcate HTL
The highest level horizontal positional and spatial accuracy in mapping and presenting the
HTL becomes necessary for field uses by CRZ implementing agencies. The agencies are
looking for a planimetric accuracy approaching zero error.
The different approaches now practiced in the country to demarcate the HTL are:

tide level projection

using morphological signatures
o field methods
o satellite data

The NCESS follows the approach using morphological signatures (CESS, 1995)
5.1 HTL using morphological signatures
Morphological signatures are good indicators of shoreline oscillation and inundation of
coastal waters, which could be used for identifying the HTL. The inundation of coastal
waters on to the land and seasonal shoreline oscillations are dependent on coastal
morphology. Shoreline remains stable and would not retreat significantly along cliffy coasts.
The shoreline retreats up to the cliff base along pocket beaches. Artificial morphologies like
seawalls confine the oscillation of shoreline along the line of the structure itself. Sandy
beaches are prone to seasonal and long term shoreline oscillation. Long term stability of the

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beach and the position of the stable part of the beach would be evident from morphological
signatures such as berm and berm crest.
This could be done by field methods and using satellite data.
5.2 Field method
The HTL has to be fixed with respect to certain reference points on the land. These reference
points at sufficiently close intervals (preferably at least 1 km alongshore) have to be marked
with respect to lat-long and known points in the base map. Geomorphologic features like
berm crest, cliff, headland, line of permanent vegetation, etc are indicators of the reach of sea
water into the land. Stable coastal protective structures like seawall also limit the intrusion of
seawater. Hence High Tide Line (line of maximum reach of seawater into the land during
spring tide) can be fixed in the field, with respect to these features and tied to the reference
points, as detailed below.
a. Landward (monsoonal) berm crest for beaches
In all the well-formed wide beaches, one or more berms (which are nearly horizontal part of
the beach formed by the deposition of sand by wave action) are usually observed. The
seaward end of the berm, which shows a sudden downward slope is called the berm crest.
When there is only one berm, it normally gets eroded during the monsoon with a berm crest
on the landward side. But when there are two berms the landward berm is the monsoonal
berm, which normally do not get eroded. Or else we can say that the erosion reaches only to
the second berm crest. Since the tidal waters do not reach the coast beyond this landward
berm crest, it is taken as the HTL. The distance to this point from the reference point is
measured using the beach profile to fix the position of the HTL.
b. Seawall/revetments/embankments
In highly erosion-prone areas, there are no landward second berms. Such locations will be
protected mostly by seawalls. During monsoon season majority of these are devoid of
beaches. The waves impinge upon the seawall during the monsoon season, especially during
the high tide. Thus they are the artificial barriers stopping the waves/tides at the coast. Since
the seaward part of the seawall in most cases is defaced due to erosion, the landward toe is
taken as the HTL boundary in such locations. There are some locations with two or three
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lines of seawall, particularly in the accreting areas. The seaward seawall is considered here
for the purpose. On the other extreme, in the case of continuously eroding sites there are lines
of sea wall which are now in the sea. In such cases the landward seawall is taken. In order to
facilitate the demarcation of HTL at seawall locations, the latter has to be clearly marked in
the beach profile during coastal surveys.
c. Permanent Vegetation Line
Permanent vegetation develops on the stable part of the beach. The part of the beach
landward of monsoon berm crest is mostly stable. Hence the line of permanent vegetation
normally follows the line of monsoon berm crest which is the HTL.
d. Tidal flats and mudflats
Tidal flats and mud flats are formed by fine-grained silts and clays in a medium to large tidal
environment. They have a fairly large intertidal zone fringed by vegetation. In such cases the
landward limit of HTL can be demarcated as the line of permanent vegetation other than salt
marsh vegetation and mangroves of intertidal habitat. Other geomorphic signatures like
changes in land forms & sediment characteristics can also be used.
e. Rocks, Headlands, Cliffs
At the rock outcrops, headlands and cliffs the water is quite deep that there is virtually no
spatial displacement in the waterline. Hence, the High Water Line available in the
topographical maps (transferred to the base map) can be taken as such (Fig.4). However, at
the eroding laterite cliffs (e.g. Varkala, Paravoor, Thalassery in Kerala), the latest position of
the toe is taken from the cross section measured at the respective sites. This is to be verified
against the satellite imagery and transferred to the base map.
6. 100, 200 & 500m lines
Once the reference points and the HTL are available, it is not difficult to draw 100, 200 and
500 m line on the map as required in the Notification.
The distance of 100, 200 and 500 m from the HTL is converted to the map scale at each
reference point and demarcated. The above lines are drawn parallel to the HTL uniformly all
along the coast.

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For the use in the field, the distance of LWL, 100, 200 and 500 m line from HTL from all the
reference points can be given as a table. The location details, including place names, latitude,
longitude etc can also be given in these tables.
7. HTL demarcation in the field and CRZ map generation
Since CRZ is applicable to inland water bodies, the influence of tidal action upstream of the
water bodies is determined by verifying the salinity of the water body during the driest month
of the year. If the salinity is 5 ppt or more, then the water body is considered to be influenced
by tidal action. This is assessed from field measurements and indicators like the limit of tidal
influence given in the CZMP (1996) and presence of mangroves.
Field studies are undertaken for fixing ground control points for georeferencing and referring
the position of the HTL. A hybrid approach of field studies supported through information
extracted from satellite imageries and existing maps are relied upon for CRZ mapping to
identify the HTL, LTL, eco-geomorphic systems and land use relevant for CRZ. The ecogeomorphic systems include mangroves, intertidal zone, mudflats, salt pans, etc.
7.1 CRZ/CZM map in 1:25000
The CRZ map in 1:25000 is prepared with Survey of India topsheets as base maps. These
toposheets being of the coastal area, are restricted and hence have to be procured through
proper channel following specified procedures and after giving statutory undertakings to
ensure authorized use and safe custody. Toposheets of the area of study are georefernced and
the High Water Line (HWL) in the toposheets have been extracted along with other coastal
features like waterbodies, inter tidal zones, mudflats, beaches, mangroves, slat pans, prawn
aqua farms, etc.

The HWL is updated with current field measurements and satellite

imageries to get the present HTL. Field measurements were made in 1:4000 scale for better
accuracy and compatibility with large scale local level CZMP.
The variations of present HTL from that of CZMP (1996) is verified and documented. The
probable reasons for the variations are looked into and the details are given wherever
possible.

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7.2 CRZ/ CZM map in 1:4000
The base map on which HTL and LTL are demarcated have to be familiar for officials of
local bodies and the public. These have to be of sufficiently large scale with sufficient
number of reference points identifiable on the ground for facilitating field applications.
7.3 Base maps
Cadastral maps available with Revenue/ Survey and Land Records Dept are in 1:4000 or
1:5000 scale. Survey plots and plot boundaries are locatable on the ground. ‘Plot boundary
junction points’ are taken as the reference points. The Centre for earth Science Studies has
successfully used cadastral maps for preparing Panchayat resource maps which are being
widely used by local bodies for local level planning (CESS 2000).
8. Field mapping and map generation
Initially cadastral maps of the required area are obtained from the concerned departments
(Revenue/ Survey and Land Records Dept). These are checked for its scale accuracy through
comparing the distance of 2 known points from the map and from the ground. Toposheets
and imageries of the area for which HTL is to be demarcated, are referred to know the
features and available morphological signatures. Information derived from toposheets and
satellite imageries of different coastal ecosystems in the given area is used as baseline
information for planning the field investigations. Cadastral maps are rectified with
coordinates of known ground control points (GCP) taken from the field. The datum used is
WGS 84 and the projection is UTM.
Ground features that can be clearly identified both on the ground and on the cadastral map
are used as ground control points (GCP). With precise planimetry of the identified GCPs, the
cadastral maps are geo-referenced with GPS/ DGPS measured geo coordinates. GCPs used
are survey plot boundary junctions or survey stones established at the time of field survey for
the preparation of cadastral maps. These are identified in the field. At least one control point
is identified within 1 km of alongshore length. The coordinates (Latitude; Longitude) of the
identified control points are taken using GPS/DGPS. The signature for the nearest HTL is
identified and distance to the HTL from the control point is measured with distometer
(usually laser distometer). The GPS/ DGPS is moved along the HTL identified through
signatures and the readings are recorded. Wherever possible these are linked to the control
9
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points identified earlier and distance to HTL measured with distometer. The data thus
collected is transferred to cadastral maps and superimposed in GIS platform. Information
from satellite imageries are used to verify the data collected and also to supplement the data
wherever the area is not approachable. Cadastral maps and satellite images are rectified in the
same geographical coordinate system and projection.
The most difficult part is the transferring of information from imageries to unprojected
cadastral maps on which CRZ maps are prepared. This is overcome by using sufficient
number of precise reference/control points spread over the entire study area for
georeferencing and compartmentalizing the maps. One of the major contributors to errors is
those occurring while reproducing the cadastral map from original map through
photocopying and scanning. While photocopying the enlargement or reduction produce the
scale error; also the shrinkage/folding of paper during the process. Another is the scale error
during geo-referencing the map. It may be noted that cadastral maps have no projection while
the images are projected. When overlying cadastral map on image by applying a common
coordinate system, some distortions do occur at edges and in the shape of features such as
road network, plot boundary, etc. The errors in reproduction of cadastral maps can be
minimized by taking proper precautions. The errors in georeferencing could be controlled by
taking precautions through selection of proper field Ground Control Points (GCPs) and
identifying the field GCPs in the cadastral as well as satellite images precisely. And by
making some finer adjustments, the ecosystem boundaries delineated from satellite images
could be matched with real cadastral boundaries on the ground.
The use of satellite imageries in combination with field mapping provides better results in
cadastral level mapping. At the same time, various location and spatial errors that could get
magnified in large scale maps like cadastral maps require to be contained through appropriate
approach.
8.1 Use of Remote sensing data for HTL
With the availability of precision GPS and high resolution satellite data like Quick Bird,
IKONOS, Resource Sat (P 6) and Cartosat, it is now possible to get a mapping accuracy of
less than one meter for the demarcation of HTL / LTL. It requires georeferencing using
accurate GPS data at precisely locatable Ground Control Points (GCPs) in satellite images to
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have improved accuracy level in the identification and demarcation of HTL/LTL. Accurately
identifying the positions for HTL with respect to signatures may become difficult when
vegetation like coconuts cover the signatures. For getting multispectral data with high spatial
resolution, the Cartosat (PAN) image has been merged with IRS-1C/1D LISS III, IRS P6
LISS IV and has been used wherever required. The IRS-1C/1D LISS III image has a spatial
resolution of 23.5m; the IRS P6 LISS IV has a resolution of 5.8 m whereas Cartosat-1 (PAN)
has a spatial resolution of 2.5 m.
LTL delineation
The LTL also depends on lunar cycle. The seaward/waterside limit will depend on the width
of tidal flat and beach. An initial assessment of LTL could be made from Hydrographical
charts. While mapping HTL the signatures of LTL could be noted and the distance from HTL
to LTL may be assessed. This is further verified and corrected with the information from
Hydrographical charts and satellite imageries. Information on LTL is derived from satellite
imagery by identifying the seaward limit of beach/ tidal flat during fair season when the
beaches/ intertidal zone have maximum width. The imageries could be selected for a spring
tide low.
9. CZMP/ CRZ map of Maradu in 1:25000 scale
The Maradu Municipality area is shown in 1:25000 toposheet No 58 C5 NW.
In addition to Maradu Municipality, parts of Kochi Corporation and adjoining panchayats are
also seen in this sheet.
The CRZ field mapping was carried out during March- May 2012. As already discussed
High Water Line (HWL) has been extracted from geo-referenced SOI toposheets following
standard procedures. Field data was generated in 1:4000 scale from two blocks of Maradu
Village that comprises Maradu Municipality.
The HWL has been appropriately modified with the HTL obtained from field observations
and satellite imageries for preparing the CZMP as per CRZ 2011.
9.1 Data Sources
In addition to field investigations including GPS/DGPS mapping, data sources such as
topographic sheets, hydrographic charts and satellite images have been used. Field mappings
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were carried out during March to December 2013. An initial assessment of the morphology
and ecosystems is obtained from Google imageries which are mostly QuickBird images.
Google imageries (QuickBird) of 2010 and 2011, available in the public domain, were down
loaded as different scenes with resolution zoomed to the required level. These are then
merged in photoshop and georeferenced.
PAN merged IRS-1C/1D LISS III and IRS P6 LISS IV data were also used wherever
required. PAN has a resolution of 5.8 m, whereas LISS III has 23 m resolution. The IRS P6
LISS IV has a resolution of 5.8 m.
9.2 Salinity and upstream boundary
Salinity measurements have been carried out to determine the upstream boundary of CRZ
along rivers and canals during March to May 2014. It is observed that the backwater and its
interconnecting canals in Maradu Municipality is saline with salinity more than 5ppt.
10. CRZ categories
The CRZ of Maradu consists of CRZ I (CRZ IA & CRZ IB), CRZ II, CRZ III and CRZ IV.
The CRZ IA are those ecologically sensitive and the geomorphological features which play a
role in maintaining the integrity of the coast as listed under para ‘7(i)A’ such as mangroves,
corals, sand dunes, etc. The CRZ IB is area between Low Tide Line and High Tide Line. The
CRZ II is those developed areas (with more than 50% built up area) in legally designated
urban areas. Maradu being a Municipal area, the CRZ in Maradu which have more than 50%
built up area, is CRZ II. The CRZ III is undeveloped areas in the CRZ of Maradu Municipal
area. The CRZ IV is the nearshore waters, the inland water bodies and the bed. The details
are given in the attached CRZ map (Fig 1) and Table 1 & 2.
Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucranata, Acanthus ilicifolius, Bruguiera gymnorhiza,
Acrostichus aureum, Lumnitzera racemosa, Bruguiera sexangula, Derris trifoliate and
Barringtonia racemosa are the dominant variety of mangroves. Tidal influence in some of
canals and rivers is regulated by bunds/ sluices to regulate saline incursion. Many of such
sluices have become non-functional. Reclamation of mudflats/ tidal flats and waterbody has
caused significant changes in the morphology and HTL in many places. In that process
mangrove also have been damaged (Appendix 1).
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National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram – 11

Figure 1. HTL and coastal ecosystems such as mangroves demarcated in cadastral scale for
Maradu Municipality

Maradu Municipality being highly developed with a very high potential for further
development, the Kerala Coastal Zone Management Authority and the Govt of Kerala took
the view that the CRZ in Maradu Municipality, other than CRZ I, CRZ IV and open spaces
13
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National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram – 11

such as parks and play grounds have built up area more than 50% and hence could be
considered as CRZ II. Accordingly the CRZ in Maradu Municipality, other than CRZ I, CRZ
IV, are shown as CRZ II.
The Municipality has HTL for a length of 76.78 km. The total CRZ area is 1.72 km2.
Mangrove area (CRZ IA) is 0.41 km2 with a mangrove buffer zone of 1.07 km2. The
intertidal zone (mostly mudflats on the banks of backwater) is spread over 0.40 km2.
Table 1. CRZ details of Maradu Municipality

HTL Length
(km)

Mangroves
(CRZ IA)
(km2)

Inter Tidal Zone
(CRZ IB)
(km2)

Mangrove buffer
zone
(CRZ I) (km2)

CRZ II

76.78

0.41

0.40

1.07

1.72

(km2)

11. Summary

Maradu Municipality is in Ernakulam district in. It has Lakshadweep Sea is on its
west. Vembanadu backwater and interconnecting canals crisscross the Municipality.
The Kochi tidal inlet provides a permanent connection to the sea.

Maradu Municipality is contained in toposheets No. 58 C5 NW. Parts of Kochi
Corporation and adjoining parnchayats are also seen in this toposheet.

The CZMP is prepared in 1:25000 scale based on field information collected in
1:4000 cadastral maps.

Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucranata, Acanthus ilicifolius, Bruguiera
gymnorhiza, Acrostichus aureum, Lumnitzera racemosa, Bruguiera sexangula, Derris
trifoliate and Barringtonia racemosa are the dominant variety of mangroves are the
dominant variety of mangroves.

Flow in many canals is blocked due to reclamations restricting tidal flow. Bunds and
sluices have regulated the flow of tidal waters in many canals and rivers.

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National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram – 11

Maradu Municipality is highly developed with a very high potential for further
development, the CRZ in the Municipality, other than CRZ I, CRZ IV and open
spaces such as parks and play grounds is considered to have built up area more than
50% and hence categorized as CRZ II.

The Maradu Municipality has HTL for a length of 76.78km.

The CRZ of the Municipality consists of CRZ I, CRZ II and CRZ IV. Parks, play
grounds and similar open spaces (not shown in the present CZMP) are to be
categorized as CRZ III.

The total CRZ area is 1.72 km2 which includes those areas outside the revenue
boundaries in the intertidal zone.

Mangrove area (CRZ IA) is 0.41 km2 with a mangrove buffer zone of 1.07 km2.

Intertidal zone (which includes mudflats on the banks of backwater/ river) is CRZ IB
and is spread over 0.40 km2. No distinction is made between biologically active and
not biologically active mudflats.

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308 307 304
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359 358
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2020 1138
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1944 1946 1950
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1985
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299
369 371
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0
478 477
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253
1935
395
216
401
321
189 184 183
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368 373
457 455
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2018
1939
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2015
323 1919 317
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302
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249 248 229
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213
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231
212
246
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1470
232 235
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1564245 244 233
236 211209 1560
1468
234
237
202
1503
1578
240 238 210
1582243
1512
242 241 239
1524
1514 1557
1559
1467 207
203
1489
1495
1558
1460 205
1581206 204 1501
1526
1580 1579
168

172

169 170

173

INDIA
Karnataka

KASARAGOD

EDAPPALLY SOUTH

K O C H I

58 C5 NW

Index Map

KANNUR
MAHE
WAYANAD
KOZHIKODE

MALAPPURAM

PALAKKAD

C O R P O R A T I O N

KERALA

Kerala

TRISHSHUR

ERNAKULAM
IDUKKI

Lakshadweep Sea

Tamil Nadu

KOTTAYAM
ALAPPUZHA
PATTANAMTITTA

KOLLAM

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

ERNAKULAM

Vembanad Backwater

PALAKKAD
THRISSUR

58 B8 SW
Aluva
Paravur

Edappally North

Edappally
South
Mulavucad
Elankulam
Eranakulam
Elankulam
Fort Kochi Mattancherry
Poonithura

ERNAKULAM
Kochi

Kothamangalam
Kochi Corporation

58 C1 NE

Maradu Municipality

Lakshadweep Sea

58 C5 NW

Muvattupuzha

Thoppumpady

Kanayannur

Rameswaram

Maradu

Palluruthi

ALAPPUZHA

KOTTAYAM

±

ELANKULAM

CZMP MAP IN 1:25000
DISTRICT

SHEET No.

58 C5 NW

CORPORATION/MUNICIPALITY

KOCHI (part), Maradu

ERNAKULAM

9°57'30"N

9°57'30"N

IDUKKI

Kunnathunad

Cheranalloor

POONITHURA

MATTANCHERRY

INDEX TO SHEETS

THOPPUMPADY

WILLINGDON ISLAND

Legend

Road
Railway line

MA R AD U M U N IC I PA LI TY

Seawall

MARADU

Municipal/ Corporation Boundary
Village Boundary
High Tide Line
Low Tide Line
CRZ Line for River or Backwater
100m CRZ Line
200m CRZ Line
500m CRZ Line
Mangroves - CRZ IA
Mangrove Buffer Zone - CRZ I
Inter Tidal Zone - CRZ IB

9°55'0"N

9°55'0"N

RAMESWARAM

CRZ II

p
w e e
d
a
s h
L a k

a
s e

PALLURUTHY

[ Being in Corporation,the developed area
( >50% builtup area ) in the CRZ is CRZ II ]

CRZ III
Waterbody (sea) - CRZ IV A
Waterbody (backwater) - CRZ IV B
Waterbody (non-tidal)
13

Survey Plots

Coastal Zone Management Plan
Maradu Municipality, Ernakulam District,
Kerala
Scale

Mapped During
0

March - May 2012

250 500

1,000

Meters

1:25,000
Vembanad Backwater

Checked by

Approved by

DRAFT MAP
Refer CRZ report for details
National Centre for Earth Science Studies
Akkulam, Thuruvikkal P.O
Thiruvanathapuram - 11
76°17'30"E

76°20'0"E