FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & SUMBER ALAM

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG
ANSWER SCHEME (MID TERM) BAA2213 SEM 1 2013/14
QUESTION 1 (CO1) – First Principle
REFERENCE CALCULATION MARKS
Question
1(a)

By using the given data, calculate the ultimate moment resistance of singly
reinforced section as follows:
M
bal
= 0.167f
ck
bd
2

Solution
M = F
cc
. Z
= (0.454 f
ck
b x) (d-0.4 x)

EC2 has limit the neutral axis, x = 0.45d

M
bal
= (0.454 f
ck
b x) (d-0.4 x)
= (0.454 f
ck
b (0.45d)) (d-0.4 (0.45d))
= (0.454 f
ck
b (0.45d)) (0.82d)
M
bal
= 0.167f
ck
bd
2
PROVEN


5 Marks
Question
1(b)
Calculate the ultimate moment of resistance of the reinforced concrete beam
shown in cross section in Figure 2.0. Is the section classed as "under-reinforced"
or "over reinforced", explaining why. Use concrete grade C32/40 (f
ck
=32 N/mm
2
)
and steel grade 500 (f
yk
=500 N/mm
2
)

Solution

2H25 : As = 982 mm
2

F
cc
= F
st

0.45f
ck
bx = 0.87fykA
s

x = 0.87fykA
s
/0.45f
ck
b
= 98.88 mm
Lever arm, z = d-0.4x = 500-0.4(98.88)
= 460.5 mm
Ultimate moment resistance,
MR = Fst*z
=0.87fykA
s
* z = 0.87(500)(982)*(460.5)
= 196.49 kNm

Check the section "under-reinforced" or "over reinforced"
x = 98.88 mm < 0.617d = 0.617(500) = 308.5 mm
Section is under reinforced







10 Marks
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & SUMBER ALAM
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG
REFERENCE CALCULATION MARKS


Question
1(c)


i. Calculate the additional moment of the beam due to the compression
Solution
Moment additional from compression steel, M
add

M
add
= 0.87fykA
s
’* (d-d’) = 0.87 (500*402)*(440-50)
= 68.2 kNm

ii. Provide tension reinforcement to produce ‘balance’ section for this beam
Solution
F
st
= F
cc
+ F
sc
0.87f
yk
A
s
= 0.454f
ck
bx + 0.87fykA
s
’ , use x=0.45d
A
s
= (0.454f
ck
b*0.45d + 0.87fykA
s
’)/ (0.87f
yk
)
= [(0.454*25*250*0.45*440)+ (0.87*500*402)]/(0.87*500)
A
s
= 1694 mm
2

iii. Calculate ultimate moment capacity, M
ult
of this beam.
Solution
M
ult
= F
cc
*z + F
sc
*z
1

= 0.167f
ck
bd
2
+ (0.87f
yk
)(d-d’)
= 270.3 kNm


10 Marks











FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & SUMBER ALAM
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG
QUESTION 2
(Beam Design – Main Reinforcement, Shear Reinforcement, Deflection and Detailing)
REFERENCE CALCULATION MARKS
Question
A simply supported beam for an office building has a span of 7.5 m will be
designed to support permanent and variable action as shown in Figure 2.0 (a). The
beam will be cast monolithically with slab and having cross section as given in
Figure 2.0 (b).

You are required to design the beam A-B by using the following data:


Figure 2.0
Characteristic concrete strength, f
ck
= 30 N/mm
2
High yield steel strength, f
y
= 500 N/mm
2
Slab thickness, h = 150 m
Main reinforcement diameter = 20 mm
shear reinforcement diameter = 8 mm



Solution
Design load
W
1
= 1.35gk + 1.5qk = 1.35*20 + 1.5*15 = 49.5 kN/m
W
2
= 1.35gk + 1.5qk = 1.35*30 + 1.5*25 = 78.0 kN




Design Bending Moment, M
Ed
= 257.39 kNm
Design Shear force, V
Ed
= 211.62 kN







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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & SUMBER ALAM
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG
REFERENCE CALCULATION MARKS
Main Reinforcement (at mid span-Flange Section)

M
f
= 0.567f
ck
b
eff
h
f
(d-h
f
/2)
= 0.567(30)(1950)*150 (400-150/2) = 1617 kNm > 257 kNm
----------------------- Neutral axis in flange: Used formula for rectangle section

K = M/bd
2
f
ck
= 257*10
6
/(1950*400
2
*30)
= 0.027 <0.167 – no compression reinforcement required!
z = d[0.5 + 0.25 – k/1.134] = d[0.5 + 0.25 – 0.027/1.134] = 0.97d > 0.95d
As
req
= M/0.87f
yk
z
= 257*10
6
/(0.87*500*400*0.95 ) = 1555 mm
2


As
min
= 0.26(f
ctm
/f
yk
)bd = 0.26(2.9/500)bd = 0.0015bd > 0.0013bd
= 0.15%bd = 0.15(250)(400)/100 = 150 mm
2

As
max
= 4%bh = 4(250)(400)/100 = 4000 mm
2


Provide 5H20 (As = 1571 mm
2
)


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Table 6.2.3







9.2.2(b)



6.2.4(6)
Shear Reinforcement
Design Shear Force, V
Ed
= 211.62 kN

Concrete Strut Capacity:
V
Rd,max
= (0.36f
ck
b
w
d(1- f
ck
/250))/ (cot + tan )
= 327.7 kN, if  = 22
o

= 475.2 kN, if  = 45
o
V
Ed
< V
Rd max
cot  = 2.5
V
Ed
< V
Rd max
cot  = 1.0 , Therefore angle  < 22
O
, use  = 22
o


Shear link , Use H8 (Asw = 101 mm2)
A
sw
/ s = V
Ed
/0.78f
yk
dcot < 0.75d
s = 101/ (211.62x10
3
/(0.78*500*400*2.5)) < 0.75d = 0.75(400)
= 186 mm < 300 mm -------
Use H8 - 175

Additional longitudinal reinforcement
Additional tensile force,
F
td
= 0.5VEd cot
= 0.5 (211.6 X 2.0)
= 211.6 kN
Additional tension reinforcement
As = F
td
/ 0.87f
yk
= 211.6*10
3
/(0.87*500) = 486 mm
2

Provide 2H20 (As = 628 mm
2
)



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Section 7.4
Deflection

Percentage of required tension reinforcement
ρ = As
req
/bd = 1555/(250*400) = 0.01555
ρ
o
= (f
ck
)
1/2
10
-3
= (30)
1/2
10
-3
= 0.0055
ρ
o <
ρ
Structural system = simply supported beam , K = 1,0

(L/d)
basic
= 1.0[11+2.9] = 13.9
Modification factor
i. Flange beam, b
eff
/b
w
= 1950/250 = 7.6 : 0.8
ii. Beam span, 7.5 > 7 m ; = 7/7.5 = 0.93
iii. As
prov
/As
req
= 1571/1555 = 1.01

(L/d)
allow
= (L/d)
basic
x modification factor
= 13.9 *0.8*0.93*1.01
= 10.44


4 Marks
















FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM & SUMBER ALAM
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG
REFERENCE CALCULATION MARKS

(L/d)
actual
= L/d = 7500/400 = 18.75

(L/d)
actual
= 18.75 > (L/d)
allow
Deflection failed!
Solution
i. Increase steel reinforcement at tension zone
ii. Increase beam size, especially height of beam
iii.







2 Marks
Detailing
2 Marks