Cell Cycle And Cell Division

Question 1. What is the average cell cycle span for a mammalian cell?
Answer: The average cell cycle span of a mammalian cell is 24 hours.
Question 2. Distinguish cytokinesis from karyokinesis.
Answer: The division of cytoplasm is called cytokinesis, while the division of
nucleus is called karyokinesis.
Question 3. Descrie the events taking place !uring interphase.
Answer: The interphase is divided into three further phases:
"1 phase #"ap 1$: G1 phase corresponds to the interval between mitosis
and initiation of !" replication. uring G1 phase the cell is metabolically
active and continuously grows but does not replicate its !".
% phase #%ynthesis$: # or synthesis phase marks the period during which
!" synthesis or replication takes place. uring this time the amount of !"
per cell doubles. $f the initial amount of !" is denoted as 2% then it
increases to 4%. &owever, there is no increase in the chromosome number' if
the cell had diploid or 2n number of chromosomes at G1, even after # phase
the number of chromosomes remains the same, i.e., 2n.
"2 phase #"ap 2$: $n animal cells, during the # phase, !" replication
begins in the nucleus, and the centriole duplicates in the cytoplasm. uring
the G2 phase, proteins are synthesised in preparation for mitosis while cell
growth continues.
Question &. What is "o #'uiescent phase$ of cell cycle?
Answer: #ome cells in the adult animals do not appear to e(hibit division
)e.g., heart cells* and many other cells divide only occasionally, as needed to
replace cells that have been lost because of in+ury or cell death. These cells
that do not divide further e(it G1 phase to enter an inactive stage called
,uiescent stage )G-* of the cell cycle. %ells in this stage remain metabolically
active but no longer proliferate unless called on to do so depending on the
re,uirement of the organism.
Question (. Why is mitosis calle! e'uational !ivision?
Answer: #ince the number of chromosomes remains same in parent and
daughter cells so mitosis is also called as e,uational division.
Question ). *ame the stage of cell cycle at which one of the following
events occur:
#i$ +hromosomes are move! to spin!le e'uator.
#ii$ +entromere splits an! chromati!s separate.
Answer: "naphase
#iii$ ,airing etween homologous chromosomes takes place.
Answer: .etaphase $ of meiosis
#iv$ +rossing over etween homologous chromosomes takes place.
Answer: /rophase $ of meiosis
Question -. Descrie the following:
#a$ synapsis #$ ivalent #c$ chiasmata
Answer: )a* uring 0ygotene of prophase $ of meiosis homologous
chromosomes pair together. This pairing is called synapsis.
#$ .ivalent: The comple( formed by homologous chromosomes during
0ygotene is called a bivalent.
#c$ +hiasmata: uring diplotene the paired chromosomes make a (1shaped
structure. This is called chiasmata.
Draw a !iagram to illustrate your answer.

Question /. 0ow !oes
cytokinesis in plant
cells !iffer from that in
animal cells?
Answer: ue to the
presence of a cell wall,
cytokinesis in plant cells is
significantly different from
that in animal cells.
2ather than forming a
contractile ring, plant cells construct a cell plate in the middle of the cell. The
Golgi apparatus releases vesicles containing cell wall materials. These
vesicles fuse at the e,uatorial plane and form a cell plate. The cell plate
begins as a fusion tube network, which then becomes a tubulo1vesicular
network )T3!* as more components are added. The T3! develops into a
tubular network, which then becomes a fenestrated sheet which adheres to
the e(isting plasma membrane.
Question 1. 2ist the main !ifferences etween mitosis an! meiosis.
Answer: ifference 4etween .itosis "nd .eiosis

Question 13. What is the significance of meiosis?
Answer: #ignificance of .eiosis
1. .aintaining of genetic identity by maintaining number of chromosomes.
2. 4ringing variations to ensure better species.
5. 6acilitates se(ual reproduction.