Information

Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
A50023-X4002-A2-3-7618
2 A50023-X4002-A2-3-7618
Technical Description TED Information
Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
f Important Notice on Product Safety
Elevated voltages are inevitably present at specific points in this electrical equipment. Some of the
parts may also have elevated operating temperatures.
Non-observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in personal injury or in prop-
erty damage.
Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system.
The systemcomplies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected has to comply
with the applicable safety standards.
The same text in German:
Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit
In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangsläufig bestimmte Teile der Geräte unter Spannung. Einige Teile
können auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen.
Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu Körperverletzungen und
Sachschäden führen.
Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die Anlagen installiert und
wartet.
Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Angeschlossene Geräte
müssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfüllen.
Trademarks:
All designations used in this document can be trademarks, the use of which by third parties for their
own purposes could violate the rights of their owners.
Copyright (C) Siemens AG 2003-2003.
Issued by the Information and Communication Networks Group
Hofmannstraße 51
D-81359 München
Technical modifications possible.
Technical specifications and features are binding only insofar as
they are specifically and expressly agreed upon in a written contract.
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Information
Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
This document consists of a total of 144 pages. All pages are issue 3.
Contents
1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1 Brief Description of the Radio Commander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 Who should Read this Document? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 Notational Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2 How the Operator benefits from the Radio Commander Concept - an
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1 Key Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2 Pick & Mix - Application Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3 Hardware Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.2 OMP - the Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3 OMT - the Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.4 Performance Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4 Software Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1 Basic Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2 Main Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2.1 Logical Layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2.2 O&M ToolSet and Open Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5 Working with the Radio Commander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.1 Graphical User Interface (GUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.1.1 Typical GUI Elements and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.1.2 Command Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.1.3 GUI Customization, Network Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.2 Command Line Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.3 Online Help System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.4 Remote Web Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
6 Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.1 General Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.2 Management of BSS/RNS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.3 Management of OMC Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.4 CM+ Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.5 Remote Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.6 Network Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7 State Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.1 What is Radio Commander State Management? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.2 State Summarization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.3 Maintenance State View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8 Fault Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.1 General Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.1.1 Fault Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.1.2 Alarm Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
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8.1.3 NMC Mediation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.1.4 Internal Fault Correction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.2 Alarm Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.2.1 Alarm Reporting and Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.2.2 Alarm Monitoring List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
8.2.3 Alarm Routing to External Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.2.4 Auto-acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.2.5 Specific Alarm Category Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
8.2.6 Adding of Comments to Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.2.7 Access to Alarm Manual from Alarm List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.2.8 Event Forwarding Discriminators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.2.9 Alarm Harmonization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.3 External Trouble Ticketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
8.4 FM+ Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
9 Test Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
9.1 Test Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
9.2 Test Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
9.3 Test Result Presentation and Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
10 Performance Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.1 Measurement Job Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.2 Data Collection, Storage and Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10.3 Presentation of Measurement Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.3.1 BSS measurement values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.3.2 RNS measurement values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
10.4 PM+ Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
10.5 Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
10.5.1 Call Tracing, IMSI Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
10.5.2 Cell Traffic Recording, CTR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
11 Security Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.1 User Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.2 Authorization Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.3 Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
11.4 Secure Communication within the UMTS O&M Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
11.5 Security Audit Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
11.6 LMT Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
11.7 Screen Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
11.8 Forced Session Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
12 Software Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.1 File Import/Export/Administration on the RC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
12.2 Download and Upload between RC and BSC/RNC/Node B . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.2.1 Download Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
12.2.2 Operator Control of Loading Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.3 Storage and Administration of Software on BSS/RNS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
13 Log Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
13.1 Log Instances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
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13.2 Log Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
13.2.1 Alarm Logging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
13.2.2 Command Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
13.2.3 Upload of BSC/RNC/Node B log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
14 High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
14.1 System Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
14.2 Data Safeguarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
15 External Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
15.1 General Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
15.2 RC-NMC Realtime Q3 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
15.3 Offline Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
15.3.1 Data Access Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
15.3.2 Network Planning Interfaces (RNPC and TNPC Interface). . . . . . . . . . . . 124
15.3.3 Bulk CM IRP Interface (MCCM Interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
16 UTRAN Transport Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
17 Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
18 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
19 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
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Illustrations
Fig. 1.1 Radio Commander, a part of the Siemens
network management concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Fig. 2.1 Radio Commander, the successor to OMC-B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Fig. 2.2 Radio Commander, a platform concept combining both
second generation and third generation mobile radio networks . . . . . . . 13
Fig. 2.3 Package concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Fig. 3.1 Sun hardware for the Radio Commander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Fig. 3.2 Hardware architecture concept, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Fig. 3.3 OMT-Server and X-Terminal configuration, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Fig. 3.4 Transparent Doubled Monitors, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Fig. 4.1 Software architecture, logical layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Fig. 4.2 Hierarchical structure of a Siemens GSM Mobile Radio Network,
logical function split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Fig. 4.3 Process flow of operations, Radio Commander and tool environment . . 30
Fig. 4.4 Interfacing, Radio Commander and O&M ToolSet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Fig. 5.1 Application Launcher of the Radio Commander as access point to Radio
Commander applications, example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Fig. 5.2 Radio Commander Applications window, that is the Application Launcher
of the Radio Commander, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Fig. 5.3 Geographical map, example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Fig. 5.4 GSM BSS region panel with help view for state attributes, example . . . 36
Fig. 5.5 Network entity site panel with logical icons and rack layout, example . . 37
Fig. 5.6 GSM OMC panel, example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Fig. 5.7 Panel Navigator with GSM panel tree, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Fig. 5.8 Command handling via panel window, example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Fig. 5.9 Command History List, example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Fig. 5.10 Input form, example of a CREATE operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Fig. 5.11 Output form, example of a GET operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Fig. 5.12 Network Editor window, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Fig. 5.13 Operator defined hierarchy and standard hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Fig. 5.14 Bullet mode, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Fig. 5.15 Command Line Interface, examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Fig. 5.16 Online help, possibile ways of use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Fig. 5.17 Components for remote access via Web interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Fig. 6.1 Changing attribute values of managed object instances, example. . . . . 59
Fig. 7.1 Creating a user-defined panel via Network Editor, example. . . . . . . . . . 68
Fig. 7.2 Maintenance State View, example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Fig. 8.1 Alarm Monitoring List, example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Fig. 9.1 Test Monitoring List, example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Fig. 11.1 Login window, example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Fig. 11.2 Creating an authorization profile, GSM example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Fig. 11.3 UTRAN management architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Fig. 13.1 Alarm Log records, GSM example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
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Fig. 13.2 Alarm Log records, UMR example, sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
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1 Introduction
1.1 Brief Description of the Radio Commander
The Radio Commander (RC) is a cutting edge Operation & Maintenance Center (OMC)
incorporating feature-rich element management functions for current and future
mobile radio networks.
Merging operation and maintenance for both 2nd and 3rd generation mobile radio net-
works, the Radio Commander introduces a new concept for mobile radio network
element management.
The Radio Commander supports different radio technologies, such as GSM, GPRS,
HSCSD, EDGE, UMTS, TD-SCDMA. Thus it provides a seamless evolution to 3rd
generation cellular networks. This allows the operator to benefit from reduced training
and operating costs in a highly competitive market.
The Radio Commander is based on the latest object oriented development tools,
methods and technologies as well as on a powerful and reliable hardware and
software platform.
All the operation and maintenance functions are accessible via the customizable
Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the alphanumerical Command Line Interface (CLI).
The Radio Commander is part of the overall Siemens network management concept,
see Fig. 1.1.
Fig. 1.1 Radio Commander, a part of the Siemens
network management concept
Featuring an open system architecture with high-level standardized
interfaces, the Radio Commander offers flexibility for additional external applications.
Siemens Mobile OSS
Element Managers
Service
Interfaces
Netviewer
Fulfillment
Service
Service
Billing
Assurance
SPOTS
Radio
Comman-
der
Commander Commander Manager
Switch IP @vantage
Message
Coordinator
Microwave
Mobile Radio
Mobile Core
Mobile Data
IMS
Enabling Services
IP and 3rd party
equipment
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This protects operator’s investment by providing a smooth integration into existing
TMN environments.
1.2 Who should Read this Document?
This document is intended for anyone who would like to
get an overview of the:
• benefits of using the Radio Commander
• technical capabilities of the Radio Commander
1.3 Notational Conventions
In the text, the names of macros, commands and operands are shown in italics, as are
screen elements.
Important information in the text is highlighted in bold print.
All hardware and software names used are trademarks of their respective
manufacturers.
i
Special notes
!
Warnings
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
2 How the Operator benefits from the Radio
Commander Concept - an Overview
This chapter provides an overview of the wide range of the features and their inherent
benefits of the Radio Commander, the element manager for Siemens mobile radio
networks.
The first part of the chapter, “Key Features” on page 11, highlights general concepts, the
second part, “Pick & Mix - Application Packages” on page 15, presents the package
concept.
2.1 Key Features
The Radio Commander introduces a new concept for mobile network management by
merging operation and maintenance for the different radio technologies of the second
and third generation on a single platform. The managed technologies include
• GSM, Global System for Mobile Communications
• GPRS, General Packet Radio Service
• EDGE, Enhanced Data Service for GSM Evolution
• HSCSD, High Speed Circuit Switched Data
• UMTS, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
• TD-SCDMA, Time Division - Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access
The Radio Commander is the new generation of the widely used Siemens OMC-B which
to date has performed the element management for GSM radio networks.
Fig. 2.1 Radio Commander, the successor to OMC-B
Radio Commander has been completely re-engineered and structured in a strictly
modular manner to offer communications service providers maximum flexibility and
early market entry in a highly dynamic and competitive market.
BTS
TRAU BTS
+ O&M ToolSet
Main Functions:
Fault, Configuration, Performance, Security Management
Trouble Ticketing Support, Event & Log Management
Integrated Tool Concept, NMC Interface
BSS
LMT (Local
Maintenance
Terminal)
LMT LMT
O interface
Radio Commander
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With its future-proof system architecture, as well as being embedded in the overall
Siemens network management concept, the Radio Commander exceeds
the requirements of today’s and meets the challenges of tomorrow’s element
management.
The Radio Commander’s well structured system architecture:
• achieves advanced performance, based on industry standard hardware,
– hardware and software scalability allows easy extension of capacity, see
“Hardware Architecture” on page 17 and “Software Architecture” on page 25
• protects operator’s investments:
– Radio Commander for Siemens Basestation Release 7.0 can reuse
existing OMC-B hardware, for details refer to the “Technical Stocklist”
– minimizes training costs by using a similar GUI to the OMC-B (so it has the same
look and feel).
– allows the rapid integration of new services in an economic way
• keeps the system open to future developments
– based on industry standard hardware and software platforms, the Radio Com-
mander is able to integrate Internet technology (Web clients)
– standardized interfaces, e.g. on its northbound side towards a Network Manage-
ment Center (NMC), allow seamless integration of Radio Commander into oper-
ator’s workflow environment
– is well prepared for the convergence of networks: voice-data, TDM-ATM-IP
• offers a feature-rich and customizable graphical user interface (GUI) which makes it
easy to work with, putting control of the real network at the operator’s fingertips, see
“Working with the Radio Commander” on page 33.
The different radio technologies realized within the GSM and UMTS network elements
are connected to the Radio Commander via their respective standard interfaces.
On its northbound side, the Radio Commander provides several open interfaces. There
is the powerful Q3 realtime interface towards an NMC, the file interface and the SQL in-
terface (to offline databases) for comprehensive access to radio network data, the Bulk
CM IRP (Configuration Management Integration Reference Point) for advanced config-
uration tools, and the interfaces towards radio (RNPC) and transport network planning
centers (TNPC).
Single Platform Concept
In mobile communications, a smooth evolution from 2G GSM to 3G UMTS networks is
desired. As the number of network elements to be managed steadily increases,
networks diversify, presenting a multi-vendor environment, with decreasing margins for
operators in an even more competitive market.
A key aim of the Radio Commander therefore is the management of UMTS and GSM
as one network relying on the same O&M platform, thus providing a common
management platformfor 2G, 2.5Gand 3Gnetworks. This allows the number of network
elements managed to be decoupled from manpower required in operations depart-
ments.
Fig. 2.2 shows the principle architecture for element management in
Siemens mobile radio networks.
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
Fig. 2.2 Radio Commander, a platform concept combining both
second generation and third generation mobile radio networks
Although differences due to inherent technology characteristics exist, the utmost care
has been taken to provide
• the same functions for all supported radio network technologies, and
• a homogeneous representation to the operator
Common management for GSM and UTRAN equipment consists of the entire range of
management functions, such as handling of both GSM and UMTS network alarms, and
stretching out to a homogeneous configuration handling, e.g. display and handling of bi-
technology network topologies.
Also covered are features such as similar logs for all connected network elements with
global search and retrieval, a state management based on a comfortable maintenance
state approach, as well as similar fault and performance management facilities.
In the same way the Radio Commander’s Operation & Maintenance functions offer full
management support for General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data
Service for GSM Evolution (EDGE) networks.
All general management principles applicable to the GSM circuit-switched connections
are also valid for the GPRS packet-switched connections and EDGE networks. This
means the operator is able to:
• verify the correct dimensioning of the network (short & long-term planning)
• examine the network planning parameters
• fine-tune the network configuration parameters
• identify the Quality of Service and performance of the network
The Radio Commander’s capabilities for UMTS terrestrial radio access network
(UTRAN) include common O&M management for Node B and for RNC functions. This
includes the radio parameters of Node B and RNC, as well as the parameters to config-
ure the ATM transport objects of these network entities.
RNC
Node B Node B
BSC/
TRAU
BTS BTS
Radio Commander
+ O&M ToolSet
OSS
2G 3G
N interface
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Finally, the Radio Commander also provides the unique entry point for data from both
the GSM and UMTS radio networks and mediates it to an upper-layer NMC.
User interface
There are different ways for the operator to get things done:
• by using the interactive functions of the GUI
The highly configurable GUI, which offers customization options as well as online
help and internationalization support, is easy to work with and helps to minimize
operator training costs.
• by entering single commands (= fast) on the Command Line Interface (CLI) or by
executing command scripts (= automated) containing the corresponding
commands.
The Command Line Interface is a fast, man-machine interface for experienced
operators, providing useful options such as scheduling and scripting.
Future-proof open system architecture
The Radio Commander implements open standard technologies. Its component-
based architecture, in combination with the high-level open interfaces, allows the
operator to customize and develop new management applications.
The Radio Commander offers
• industry standards, e.g. CORBA, Java, GDMO/ASN.1, Q3, SNMP, CMIP, RPC
• support of shared resources, e.g. LAN equipment, databases
• integrated database with external SQL access
• flexible remote access: WindowsNT PCs, Web technology
• supports management integration of multi-vendor equipment,
integrated tool support for network planning tools, trouble ticketing, mail, ...
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
2.2 Pick & Mix - Application Packages
As flexibility is one of the most important challenges in the dynamic world of mobile
communications, the RC is available in packages, one Kernel Package and additional
Application Packages.
Operators can pick and mix the packages to fulfill their specific needs.
Fig. 2.3 Package concept
Kernel - the basic package
The Radio Commander’s basic Kernel Package includes the essential components for
operating and maintaining mobile radio networks and for keeping the system open for
new technologies:
• technology Plug-Ins, supporting network elements for the different radio
technologies
• complete core functions for Fault, Configuration and Performance Management
• Security management
• online documentation
Special Application Packages
Everything that goes beyond the basics is available in special Application Packages.
Added to the kernel the special packages allow a tailored solution for all needs and in-
terests.
Standard
Management
Fault Software Performance Configuration
Test Log Security State
Management
Management Management Management Management
Management Management Management
Operability (GUI)
RC - O&M ToolSet Applications - Analysis and Configuration
GSM UTRAN TD-SCDMA
SW Plug-In SW Plug-In SW Plug-In
CM+ PM+ FM+
PM Analysis Fault Statistics
Trace SCA
Visualization
SQL
Interface
MCCM Interface
(Bulk CM IRP)
Network Planning Interfaces
to RNPC and TNPC
Extended Safeguarding
B&R Mirroring
Add Services
GPRS, EDGE, LCS
Q3
N-interface
File
Interface
Single
Features
Operability
RC - Optional Application Packages and Interfaces
RC Kernel - Basic Package - Common SW and HW Architecture
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Special Application Packages are:
• FM+, user and pre-defined alarm and event reporting, for preventive radio network
maintenance and monitoring, see also “FM+ Package” on page 80
• PM+, powerful performance reporting and quality monitoring,
including trend analysis and threshold monitoring, see also “PM+ Package” on
page 91
• CM+, full featured graphical and tabular network representation for fast and efficient
reconfiguration, see also “CM+ Package” on page 61
• Trace Management, IMSI trace and Cell Traffic Recording analysis for GSM net-
works, using system-immanent tracing capabilities, offering user friendly charts and
presentations, see also “Tracing” on page 91
• NMC I/F, a powerful realtime interface, see “RC-NMC Realtime Q3 Interface” on
page 121
• Network Optimization, see “Network Optimization” on page 63
• Extended Operability, see “Working with the Radio Commander” on page 33, with
– extensive GUI customization facilities, online and offline, special Network Editor
– high-performance, secure, remote Web access to complete GUI
– enhanced CLI handling and scheduling, ideal for permanent remote login, e.g.
from NMC
• Data Safeguarding
– Backup & Restore
– Data Mirroring
• Additional Services
– full O&M support for GPRS/EDGE
– location based services
• Special Interfaces like SQL, File, RNPC
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
3 Hardware Architecture
This section provides an overview of the hardware architecture of the Radio
Commander.
The main hardware components as well as the major features are described in “Over-
view” on page 17, followed by a more detailed focus on the Operation and Maintenance
Processor, see “OMP - the Server” on page 19, the Operation and Maintenance Ter-
minals, see “OMT - the Client” on page 20, and the “Performance Data” on page 21.
3.1 Overview
The hardware of the Radio Commander is based on the state-of-the-art commercial
computer hardware components for UNIX-based systems. The hardware was chosen
with the aim of achieving
• a high degree of modularity and flexibility for further capacity extensions
• provision of distributable and scalable system
• utmost system reliability
• local maintenance availability
The Radio Commander is designed as a distributed computing system consisting of a
set of components connected via LAN. The architecture is governed by the client/
server principle, which contributes to system flexibility and robustness.
Within the Radio Commander hardware architecture, the roles are distributed as follows:
• Server: OMP (Operation and Maintenance Processor), see “OMP - the Server” on
page 19
• Clients: OMTs (Operation and Maintenance Terminals), typically graphical work-
stations, X-Terminals, see “OMT - the Client” on page 20
The new state of the art hardware for the RC: Sun Fire 4800, used as OMP, Sun Blade
150, used as OMT, Sun Fire V480, used as OMT server or O&M ToolSet server.
The existing RC hardware - based on Sun Enterprise series, Sun Ultra series and Sun
Blade series - is still supported in BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0. All details concerning the de-
livered hardware components are listed in the “Technical Stocklist”, that is supplied to
customers with each new software load patch.
Fig. 3.1 Sun hardware for the Radio Commander
Of course, the Radio Commander will provide continued support for all the standard
hardware presently in field use, as far back as GSMrelease BR 4.5, with recommended
upgrading strategies.
Sun Fire V480 Sun Fire F4800 Sun Blade 150 Sun Blade 2000
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
In addition to OMTs and OMPs, the hardware is composed of the following components:
• Connection equipment
– hardware for LAN connectivity
– hardware for X.25 or PCM connectivity, for GSM
• Printer: LAN, or connected to OMP or OMT, supporting all standard paper formats
(A4, letter,..), spool oriented
– color, page oriented black-and-white
– graphic, character
– line printer
• Storage devices
– additional streamer tapes
– flexible dimensioned external disk storage
– external autoloader
• Special external alarm devices, configurable by operator via icon, distinguishing
between the three different events: incoming newalarm, ackknowledged alarm, and
ceased alarm, offering
– lamps in different colors, to indicate the alarm severity
– acoustic output for critical alarms
Fig. 3.2 illustrates the hardware architecture concept of the Radio Commander.
Fig. 3.2 Hardware architecture concept, example
Node B
BTS
BSC/
RNC
TRAU
IP
network
X.25
network
IP X.25 Dedi-
cated
X.25
PCM
30/24
NUC
OMP
Operation and Maintenance Processor
OMT/OMT Servers
Operation and
Maintenance Terminals
X-Terminals O&M ToolSet
Server
LAN
via
MSC
Radio Commander
2G
3G
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
3.2 OMP - the Server
The OMP is the main hardware, the server, where all the tasks for supervision and con-
trol are processed.
The Radio Commander uses the Sun server line for the OMP, a reliable and well-tested
product line.
The product line ranges from low-budget servers for small systems up to scalable high-
end servers for large systems. The servers are based on Sun Fire V480 (workgroup
server) and on Sun Fire 4800 (midrange server). Currently existing RC configurations
with Sun Enterprise 4500 or Sun Enterprise 420R (workgroup server) are supported. In
order to offer the latest and most advanced hardware available on the market, new
product families will be selected to continuously adapt Radio Commander’s capacity on
to operator requirements.
Scalability of the configuration
The minimum configuration for the Radio Commander is an OMP, equipped with
2 CPU/2 GB RAM(plus storage devices for installation and backup purposes), providing
also the OMP functions.
With a growing number of network elements being connected to the system, the pro-
cessing power of the OMP can be easily extended (RAM, hard disk capacity, CPUs).
Simultaneous sessions
There is no limit to the number of terminals that can be configured to be connected to
the OMP.
As for multi-session capability, several active graphic user interface (GUI) sessions plus
a number of alphanumeric sessions can run simultaneously. Under normal conditions
up to 20 running sessions are supported.
The sessions can be local or remote. GUI sessions can run on X-Terminals simulta-
neously. Alphanumeric sessions can be interactive when the operator is using the CLI
or unattended when using scheduled scripts.
Management Capacity
The RC can manage up to 48 BSC in the following maximum configuration:
• 200 sites (BTSE/BTSM, inclusive TRAU)
• 400 cells (BTS)
• 250 transceiver (TRX), with a maximum of about 12 000 TRX per RC
The RC can support e. g.:
• 10 RNCs
• 5000 Node Bs
• 15 000 cells
The numbers given largely represent maximum configurations possible. As dynamic
network load may vary depending on exact network configuration and topology it is
strongly advised to check each configuration in particular detail.
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
3.3 OMT - the Client
The OMTs are the clients, used by the operators to enter their commands.
Typically, the OMT (Operation and Maintenance Terminal) is a graphical workstation,
but given the Radio Commander’s flexibility, a broad range of different types of
OMTs can be worked with, such as for example:
• graphical workstations
• X-Terminals
• graphical workstations acting as X-Terminal
• PCs with X-Terminal emulation
• PCs/workstations with alphanumeric terminal emulation (e.g. VT420, VT520) for
alphanumeric access (via telnet)
Every type of OMT can act as a local or remote terminal. The protocol used on the link
between a remote OMT and the OMP is TCP/IP.
The currently recommended type is the Sun Blade 150, supported as well are Sun Blade
100, and Sun Ultra 1, 5 and 10. Introduced to act as OMT server is the Sun Fire V480,
for all details refer to the “Technical Stocklist”.
Fig. 3.3 OMT-Server and X-Terminal configuration, example
Local X-Terminals are connected via LAN. Remote X-Terminals provide quick and
easy access to RCs from any point in the network. The transmission rate on the link
between the OMT-Server and the X-Terminal has to be sufficient.
Technical Assistance Center support
The Radio Commander also supports TAC terminals, a special kind of terminal used
by the Siemens Technical Assistance Center staff for accessing different OMCs to pro-
vide quick, easy technical support.
OMT
Server
X-T. X-T. OMT
X-T.
Console
Disk Array
OMP
Alarm
Printer
Spool
Printer
Network Elements
LAN (Fast Ethernet
10/100 BaseT)
2 GUI sessions 8 GUI sessions
20 GUI sessions by combination of several OMT servers and OMTs
Radio Commander
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
Transparent Doubled Monitors
Another new feature of the Radio Commander is the hardware and software support
provided to allow 2 monitors connected to 1 OMT, thus doubling the viewing space in
a transparent way.
The Radio Commander application runs simultaneously on both monitors and can be
controlled via one mouse and keyboard.
Fig. 3.4 Transparent Doubled Monitors, example
In the doubled display area of the two monitors, operators get a lot more information at
a glance, making the system handling easier. Windows can be moved seamlessly from
one screen to the other.
Transparent Doubled Monitors can be used with all standard OMT configurations, but
not with X-Terminals or an OMP used as OMT.
3.4 Performance Data
The Radio Commander is designed along the following guidelines.
O&M Commands
The following command response times are achieved under normal conditions (that is:
no overload situation, 3 to 4 running sessions, in general up to 20 are supported, no ad-
ditional jobs running on the OMP).
– < 2 seconds for RC internal commands, no RC database retrieval commands, no
overload on the LAN (e.g. by traffic from other computers connected to the LAN)
– < 5 seconds for database retrieval commands, with standard queries (e.g. alarms,
performance data)
user defined queries that include a lot of selection and filter criteria can exceed
the value
RNS and BSS commands, for all network entities average
simple commands (e.g. GET/SET states) 1 s
complex configuration commands (e.g. CREATE) 3 s
Tab. 3.1 Command response times
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Events
Average time between occurrence of event and display on RC:
The peak rate for receivable events (including alarms) on the RC from all the connected
BSS/ RNS, without overload handling, is 200 per second for a duration of 1 minute.
Link transmission capacity
RC-BSS link: The transmission capacity is 64 kbit/s.
The RC detects and reports a communication break to the BSS within 2 minutes.
The peak transfer rate is 15 events per second.
RC-RNC/Node B link: The transmission capacity of the RC - RNC link is 256 kbit/s per
RNC, for the RC - Node B link it is 64 kbit/s per Node B (recommended value:
128 kbit/s).
The RC detects and reports a communication break to the RNS within 2 minutes.
Information loss due to an outage of the RC-BSS/RNS link is overcome in less than 3
minutes. This includes all necessary alignments, e.g. alarm alignment and alignment of
the state display.
File transfer
A parallel down- and upload between RC and one BSC/ RNC is possible. That means
e.g. during a SW-download it is possible to start an upload of e.g. a performance data
file.
The RC provides parallel processing of file transfer to/from
• all connected BSCs
The minimum number of parallel file transfers is ten, the maximum number is only
limited by the system resources
• all connected RNCs and Node Bs
The maximum number of parallel file transfers (ftp sessions) is 50.
The bandwith guaranteed for ftp is
– 256 kbit/s between RC and each RNC
– 64 kbit/s between RC and each Node B (recommended value: 128 kbit/s)
Average time for a complete SBS software download (RC to BSCs) is 60 minutes.
Assumptions
– 12 MB for complete SBS SW, uncompressed
– no upload is running simultaneously on the O interface
– no overload situation at the BSC
notification / event report average:
alarm notification 1 s
state change notification 1 s
measurement result notification 5 s
test reports etc 3 s
Tab. 3.2 Display response times
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
Average time for a complete database download (via file) is 5 minutes.
Assumptions
– no upload is running simultaneously on the O interface
– no overload situation on the BSC/ RNC/ Node B
Logging capacity
The database of the RC can hold online:
Assumption:
system with maximum configuration of network entities with normal report rate.
“Events” are not only spontaneous events coming fromthe connected BSSs/ RNSs, but
also events produced in the OMP itself (e.g. the records of an uploaded performance
data file have to be logged).
The logging capability satisfies an assumed peak transfer rate of 200 events / second,
during one minute.
GUI response times
Time for opening a window: less than 5 seconds, including display of the current states
or the alarm information.
Exceptions
– operator defined windows (own views) may need a longer time for opening, depends
on their definition
– windows that display attribute values in addition to the states (additional GET nec-
essary)
RC startup and restart times
A first level of operation is supplied after less than 35 minutes. This includes the initital
reboot / restart and the first basic alignment (e.g. alarm alignment).
This first level of operation allows at least the starting of CLI sessions and the entering
of CLI commands.
The normal state of operation, especially including a valid state display, is reached in
less than 55 minutes.
Alarm event reports 4 weeks
State change event reports 2 weeks
Security data 8 weeks
Configuration changes, including changed parameter values 4 weeks
Test results 2 weeks
Performance Measurement event reports 1 week
Other events 1 week
Operator command history stack, user specific last 300 commands
All operator commands 2 weeks
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
OMP outage times
a) reboot of an OMP and restart of the necessary applications: less than 15 minutes
b) configuration and start of an installed backup-OMP (current RC SW-version) by us-
ing available backup-configuration data of a crashed OMP: less than 30 minutes
c) installation, configuration (using back-up tape) and start of an OMP available in the
customer network in less than 2 hours
After those time intervals, the OMP is active and all configured connections to network
elements, OMTs and other management centers (e.g. NMC) are available. A full align-
ment is not included in this time interval.
The times in b) and c) do not necessarily include the complete restoration of the data
base - especially the logs - but all the data base structures are available and all the con-
figuration data the RC needs for proper operation is generated / restored.
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Technical Description TED
4 Software Architecture
This section provides an overviewof the software architecture of the Radio Commander.
First, an overview of the basic principles and major features of the Radio Commander
software architecture is given in “Basic Principles” on page 25, followed by a more de-
tailed focus on the main software components in “Main Elements” on page 26.
4.1 Basic Principles
The software architecture of the Radio Commander is governed by the client-server
principle and strictly follows the object-oriented approach.
The software has been designed with the following aims in mind:
• Operability
• Flexibility, Scalability and Reliability
• High Performance
• Continuity and Robustness
It complies with common interface and application software standards such as CMIP,
Q3, GDMO/ASN.1, SNMP, FTAM, CORBA, standard C++.
The whole system is modular and distributed, which increases its flexibility, scalability
and robustness.
As far as possible, the Radio Commander is based on standard software products.
This applies especially to the following parts of the software:
• UNIX based operating system
• protocol stacks
• database tools
• communication software (TCP/IP,...)
• products for file-handling, backup/restoration of data on the RC
• window system (X-Windows / Motif)
• name services (supports the use of DNS or NIS / NIS+ in an operator LAN)
• commercial TMN platform
With regard to remote OMT connectivity, the Radio Commander is also compatible
with commonly used firewall products.
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
4.2 Main Elements
This section describes the main software elements of the Radio Commander. Fig. 4.1
illustrates how the Radio Commander software architecture is made up of logical layers.
The interfaces to BSS, RNS and NMC follow the Guidelines for the Definition of
Managed Objects (GDMO) and Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1). For more details
see “External Interfaces” on page 121.
4.2.1 Logical Layers
Fig. 4.1 shows the logical structure of the system, while not focusing on the complexity
of the underlying processes. You can see how the different layers of the systemare built
one on top of the other.
The two base layers are comprised of standard products, which increase the sys-
tem’s flexibility and robustness. They encompass the operating system and the TMN
platform as well as a number of tools.
The three top layers are comprised of the special functions:
• Application Base Services provide universal services that can be accessed and
used by all applications, reducing the need for individual applications to implement
services of their own.
• The next layer comprises the System Management Functions of the Radio Com-
mander.
• The top layer is the user interface.
Fig. 4.1 Software architecture, logical layers
Below is a short description of the main elements of the Radio Commander software.
The OMP and OMT operating system: Sun Solaris
Both the OMP and the OMT use powerful Sun Solaris as their operating system.
CORBA
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Command Line Interface (CLI)
Command Handler
FTAM
Commercial Commercial TMN platform
DBMS PMI, MIS, MPA
User Interface
System Management
Application Base
Functions
Services
Configuration, Fault,
Performance, Security, ...
Event Handler, File Handler,
External Device Handling,
Logging, Database Services
Operating System Solaris
3 top layers
2 base layers
Radio Commander
FTP
CMIP
Q3
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Technical Description TED
It has multi-user/multi-tasking capability, a high portability level and communication
capacity. Solaris incorporates matured security concepts. It is highly configurable to
cover the redundancy requirements of different operators. In addition, it supports
numerous applications such as TCP/IP, X-Windows, etc.
TMN platform
The state-of-the-art, standard-compliant, commercial TMN platformfor the Radio Com-
mander makes for improved functions, flexibility, reliability and scalability. It maintains
consistent information relying on:
• GDMO/ASN.1 model
• Management Information Tree (MIT)
• GUI data
• integrated logging manager
The Management Information Server is the “heart” of the TMN platform. Other important
features are the Management Protocol Adapters (MPA), which support different proto-
cols (CMIP, SNMP, RPC), and the Portable Management Interface (PMI), which
ensures location and protocol transparency for the applications.
CORBA
CORBA, the Common Object Request Broker Architecture, as defined by the OMGs
(Object Management Group) international standards, uses an object oriented approach
for creating software objects that can be reused and shared between applications. Each
object encapsulates the details of its inner workings and presents a well-defined inter-
face, which reduces application complexity.
With its simple and future-safe Interface Description Language (IDL) CORBA provides
operating system and programming language independent interfaces to all the
services and objects available on a network. CORBA thus reduces client-server
interdependence, laying the basis for improved scalability.
CMIP/Q3
CMIP/Q3 is the major commonly used network protocol standard for telecommunica-
tions management.
FTAM/FTP
The File Transfer, Access and Management and File Transfer Protocol are time-tested
and reliable commercial file transfer systems. They are used for GSM and UTRAN
management respectively.
DBMS
The Radio Commander relies on a reliable state-of-the-art commercial Relational Data-
base Management System (RDBMS) by Oracle.
Application Base Services
These services, which formthe first layer of the special Radio Commander applications,
provide universally required functions accessible by all applications, such as Log-
ging (see chapter “Log Management” on page 107 for a detailed description of this func-
tion), file handling or safeguarding. This layer shows clearly how the Radio Commander
software itself is modular and distributed, making for more flexibility and robustness.
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System Management Functions, SMF
The operation and maintenance functions are based on the System Management
Functions, which are in accordance with OSI definitions. The Radio Commander pro-
vides complete support of System Management Functions for all managed Siemens
mobile radio networks, e. g. GSMand UTRAN. The follwing SystemManagement Func-
tions are covered:
• Configuration Management
• Fault Management
• Logging Management
• Performance Management
• Security Management
• Software Management
• Test Management
• Trace Management
In addition, the Radio Commander offers a standard Q3 interface to the superior Net-
work Management Center (NMC). Thus, SystemManagement tasks issued at NMC lev-
el are mediated by the Radio Commander to be applied to the Siemens network
elements, see Fig. 4.2.
Fig. 4.2 Hierarchical structure of a Siemens GSM Mobile Radio Network,
logical function split
The uniformity of the System Management Function (SMF) modularity on every sys-
tem level is one of the main design principles, ensuring reliability and flexibility.
The SMFs make up the Radio Commander’s typical operation and maintenance func-
tions, covering various specific tasks such as Fault and State Management, Configura-
tion, Performance and Security Management. More detailed descriptions of the
System Management Functions can be found in the sections “Configuration Manage-
System Management
Functions
Network Management Center
(NMC)
Radio Commander
Network Elements
Q3
(RC-NMC link)
Standard
Approach
F
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g
u
r
a
t
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o
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e
r
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e
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t
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.

.

.
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ment” on page 57, “State Management” on page 65, “Fault Management” on page 71,
“Test Management” on page 81, “Performance Management” on page 83 and “Software
Management” on page 103.
User interface (GUI / CLI / Online Help)
The highly configurable and user-friendly man-machine interface of the new Radio
Commander features a Graphical User Interface (GUI), a Command Line Interface (CLI)
and an Online Help System: For more detailed information see “Working with the Radio
Commander” on page 33.
Graphical applications of the Radio Commander are based on the X-Window system
and OSF-Motif.
The OMT application runs on the Common Desktop Environment (CDE).
4.2.2 O&M ToolSet and Open Interfaces
The Radio Commander supports advanced interfacing to 3rd party tools, for further pro-
cessing of information related to the network elements. For optimum integration and
ease of use the Radio Commander offers a set of value adding applications. The net-
work management functions of the Radio Commander are complemented with Fault
Management statistics (FM+), performance analysis (PM+), and network configuration
(CM+). Additionally the IMSI and cell traces (in TrM) and the result files of Smart Carrier
Allocation (SCA) are analyzed and presented (SCA visualization).
The operator is able to interact with any external tools through Radio Commander’s
interface. The external tools can be grouped in two categories:
• Network Quality Surveillance (short-term orientation)
These include Trouble Ticketing, Quality and Alarm Monitoring.
• Network Optimization (mid to long-term orientation)
These include Network Planning and Information.
Fig. 4.3 illustrates the two processes and the relevant functions
• element management by Radio Commander, providing SMFs
• supplementary functions, e.g. Network Configuration Test
• service functions, e.g. Trouble Ticketing
The O&M ToolSet supports functions within each process.
30 A50023-X4002-A2-3-7618
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Fig. 4.3 Process flow of operations, Radio Commander and tool environment
In addition to the proven GUI and CLI, the Radio Commander provides an easy to use
interface for post-processing, see “External Interfaces” on page 121. This interface fa-
cilitates the access to network element data for typical post-processing tasks such as
Fault and Alarms management, and also Performance and Traffic measurements. Inter-
action with network planning tools is also supported.
As Fig. 4.4 shows, these interfaces allow communication with the Siemens tool world
via a common interface, and also to existing or upcoming 3rd party applications. Thus,
the Radio Commander can also easily interact with other commercial tools that are al-
ready installed in the operator's TMN environment.
Trouble
Ticketing
Expert
System for
Problem Mgmt
Network
Configuration
(Consistency)
Network
Information
(Status Config)
Network
Optimization
Circle
Network Quality
Surveillance
Circle Network Elements
Radio Commander
Network
Planning
Inventory
Network
Database
Quality and
Alarm
Monitoring
O&M
ToolSet
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Fig. 4.4 Interfacing, Radio Commander and O&M ToolSet
Key features and benefits of the Radio Commander and the complementing tool
environment:
• Radio Commander provides open standard interfaces (SQL, CORBA)
– comfortable access to RC database information
• Radio Commander acts as information broker for other applications and tools
– central, flexible and standardized data distribution from the RC
• Radio Commander provides complete core functions (CM, FM, PM)
• O&M ToolSet: The former stand-alone tool functions of CADDIE and MIXY are now
optional but fully integrated modules (CM+, FM+, PM+, Trace Management) of the
O&M ToolSet.
– simplifies the operation environment, rationalizes interfaces
• Evolution towards user friendly operation process
– streamlines process and data flow (handling, ease of use)
TrM
FM+
PM+ CM+
SCA
Visualization
O&M ToolSet
RC Core Functions
Database
3
rd
party
Radio Commander
(CM, FM,
PM data)
applications
(System Management Functions:
e.g. CM, FM, PM)
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5 Working with the Radio Commander
One of the most important aspects of any software product is its man-machine interface
- the way users can interact with the system. The Radio Commander platform incorpo-
rates advanced support capabilities to meet the operator’s demands for professional
network element management.
The flexible and user-friendly man-machine interface of the Radio Commander features
three main elements, each with customization options:
• Graphical User Interface (GUI), see below, with the powerful Network Editor, see
“GUI Customization, Network Editor” on page 46
• Command Line Interface (CLI), see “Command Line Interface” on page 51
• Online Help System, see “Online Help System” on page 54
5.1 Graphical User Interface (GUI)
The Radio Commander has a Graphical User Interface which offers a feature-rich, cus-
tomizable and interactive user guidance to support operators in their daily tasks. Its
overall concept of user-friendliness and its aim to provide a clear-cut network over-
view leads to easy-to-use operating facilities. Most of Radio Commander’s features are
individually customizable. This adaptation capability and flexibility allows for easy inte-
gration into existing software environments.
Immediately after the login, the Application Launcher is opened. Fig. 5.1 illustrates, how
this window allows the operator easy access to Radio Commander applications.
Fig. 5.1 Application Launcher of the Radio Commander as access point to Radio
Commander applications, example
Fig. 5.2 gives a detailed view of the Radio Commander Applications window.
Application Launcher
Panel Navigator
Network Editor
Online Help
Command Line Interface
Command History Alarm Monitoring
Network Management
(Panel windows providing
graphical representations
of the objects)
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Fig. 5.2 Radio Commander Applications window, that is the Application Launcher
of the Radio Commander, example
The Radio Commander supports different network management views. Customized
geographical maps, on different scales, represent the territorial structure of the network
(e.g. nation or region). On the maps the sites of the network elements are represented
by corresponding icons, with the current state of the element being indicated by the color
of the icons as well as by additional symbols on the icons. Node Bs are presented in a
list format.
The views are easily scalable. By simply pushing a button, the operator can quickly
scale the view in predefined steps.
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Fig. 5.3 shows a geographical map representation:
Fig. 5.3 Geographical map, example
To make the operator’s life easier the Radio Commander features a special
Maintenance View, which provides the operator at a glance with the key information on
the current network status, see “Maintenance State View” on page 69.
Each icon represents a network entity, a hardware unit or a functional unit. The back-
ground color of the icon indicates the current State of the represented managed object.
In addition, the respective Administrative State and the Stand-by State are indicated by
a separate symbol on the icon, if supported by the underlying entity.
To make things even easier for the operator, moving the mouse pointer over an icon will
automatically open a help view window. This help view displays the following informa-
tion:
• label or symbolic name (if defined and activated)
• managed object class (e.g. PCMB)
• all relevant state attributes
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The GUI provides an overview of all connected network entities (BSC, BTSE,
TRAU, RNC or Node B 1st platform, Node B 2nd platform) and links that are managed
by the RC.
Fig. 5.4 gives an example of a GSM BSS region panel, using Maintenance State View
with help view to present the relevant attributes of the managed objects:
Fig. 5.4 GSM BSS region panel with help view for state attributes, example
The presentation of the different hardware network entities is based on functional block
diagrams and rack layouts. Different icons and colors indicate the actual configuration
of the equipment and the corresponding alarm state, and relations between the man-
aged objects and their functional background. The embedding of hardware objects in
the corresponding rack layout helps to identify a faulty object easily. RNC hardware is
represented with stand-alone modules and groups of modules, that is shelves and parts
of shelves.
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Fig. 5.5 shows an example of a network entity site panel representing a GSM BTSE
site. The upper part of the panel contains leaf and summary icons e.g. for environmental
alarms (ENVA) and carrier frequencies (BTS). The lower part represents a detailed
physical view of the BTSE rack, containing dedicated icons for each physical hardware
unit.
Fig. 5.5 Network entity site panel with logical icons and rack layout, example
Similary to the administration of network elements, the Radio Commander also offers
advanced management capabilities for the RC’s physical equipment, i. e. OMP, OMTs,
including redundancy, links and connected devices like printers.
The graphical presentation is realized according to the same principles as for the net-
work elements, also using aggregated maintenance views.
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Fig. 5.6 shows an example of a Radio Commander window, displaying information
about all configured OMTs. The upper part of the panel contains dedicated icons for
general RC features and services.
Fig. 5.6 GSM OMC panel, example
The man-machine-interface is the focal point for all user activities. The systemman-
agement functions are built around or even merged within this user interface for faster
and more effective overview and handling
Making configuration changes is easy: a few mouse-clicks on the appropriate icons is
all it takes to select the required actions. The same applies to all the other management
areas, for example to performance management. Not only is it easily administered via
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the GUI, but with the help of the O&M ToolSet performance data can also be displayed
on the RC in a clearly arranged way.
Navigation tool
A special navigation tool supports the operator in navigating through the network hier-
archy.
Fig. 5.7 gives an example of a navigator window, presenting a GSM panel tree. The
window is split into the navigation area on the left and the object container on the right:
Fig. 5.7 Panel Navigator with GSM panel tree, example
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5.1.1 Typical GUI Elements and Controls
The GUI of the Radio Commander is based on the X Window graphical operating envi-
ronment (X.11 Rel.5 and higher), the standard for UNIX platforms. The OSF/Motif Win-
dow Manager has been used in order to comply with standard operation guidelines.
Also, the corresponding object libraries rely on OSF/Motif to obtain a common look and
feel for the graphical user interface.
The Radio Commander GUI mainly uses the following standard elements:
• pulldown menus
• popup menus
• dialog windows
• icons
Panel window
A Panel window provides a graphical representation of the objects managed in the sys-
tem. Icons are used to represent managed objects, while colors or other visual effects
(e.g. blinking) are used to indicate states and state changes. This is a quick way to
present information at a glance.
The Radio Commander comes with a predefined hierarchy of windows for different
network types: One standard hierarchy is optimized for GSMnetworks and one standard
hierarchy is especially defined for UTRAN.
At installation time operators can choose a standard view according to the configuration
of their network. The panels always contain all necessary elements for a full manage-
ment capability, offering rack-layouts, functional views and maps. The embedding of
hardware objects of network entities in a rack representation allows an easy identifica-
tion of a faulty element. The hardware objects of an RNC are embedded in a graphical
view of module groups and stand-alone modules.
Relations between managed objects and the functional background are illustrated with
block diagrams (e.g. the relations between TRAU and PCMA and PCMS objects are in-
dicated with lines/arrows between the ordered objects)
On top of the hierarchy is always the RC Region panel, followed by the panels for the
different network entities, with the network entity panels offering access to all kinds of
other Panel and List windows.
However the RC also offers the option of operator definable panels, which can be
stored in a new operator definable hierarchy (see “GUI Customization, Network Editor”
on page 46 and “Command Handling” on page 41).
List window
In addition to Panel windows, the Radio Commander also offers an alphanumeric form
of data representation - the List window.
Just as with the panels, the lists provide information on the state a particular managed
object is in. However, the information in a List window is presented in form of a table,
with rows and columns.
To open a List window, the operator often only needs to click on the corresponding icon
in a panel. Other List windows are opened by selecting a command.
In addition to List windows for single objects operators can open many kinds of global
lists, e. g. the Global Alarm List.
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Technical Description TED
All List windows offer a number of customizable functions such as searching, filtering,
sorting, even multilevel sorting, hiding and rearranging. Operators can save such set-
tings for their next sessions.
Lists can also display additional information that is not provided on the icons, e.g. chan-
nel type. (see below 5.1.2 "Command Handling").
5.1.2 Command Handling
Services are provided directly at the icon (Panel window) or list entry (List window) con-
cerned, or in the menu e. g. of the Application Launcher.
All that operators have to do is right-click the icon, list entry, or menu Item to open the
context menu. The services available for this object are displayed and executable, tak-
ing into consideration the access rights that have been set for this particular operator in
the user profile.
Commands for ATM transport layer management can be started via CLI. All other O&M
commands can be started via GUI or CLI.
To make command input and output as convenient as possible, the Radio Com-
mander provides dedicated forms for this purpose.
Such forms feature
• toolbar
• object identification
• attribute groups
• specific representation for each data type
• context sensitive help
Fig. 5.8 gives an example of command handling using panel windows. Clicking on an
icon in the related panel window opens a series of pop-up menus that offer the operator
all command actions that are allowed for the selected managed object.
A context menu might contain entries for single commands, script files or separate ap-
plications. Operators can add script files and separate applications for frequently per-
formed tasks, and arrange them in the menu as it suits them best. Thus they can tailor
the system to their needs.
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Fig. 5.8 Command handling via panel window, example
Entry fields of input forms offer default and/or current values (for SET commands), with
multiple selection possibilities. Before execution the RC checks the values and high-
lights faulty ones.
In input and output forms symbolic names are used, if defined and activated.
Input and output forms can be opened in parallel, e. g. for comparison. Copy&Paste is
possible between open Service windows.
Operators can list their command history and choose and modify old commands for a
further execution. This command history contains all the O&M commands and started
services, both of GUI and CLI.
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Fig. 5.9 shows an example of a command history list window:
Fig. 5.9 Command History List, example
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Fig. 5.10 shows an example of an input form (CREATE operation).
Fig. 5.10 Input form, example of a CREATE operation
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Fig. 5.11 shows an example of an output form (GET operation). As for the input form,
the appearance of the output form panels are also individualized depending on which
managed object the command was performed on:
Fig. 5.11 Output form, example of a GET operation
46 A50023-X4002-A2-3-7618
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5.1.3 GUI Customization, Network Editor
What makes a GUI user-friendly is not only providing access to logically ordered func-
tions in a visually convincing layout and in a way that is easy-to-learn, but also to allow
its users to re-arrange and redefine things in the way that suits them best.
Therefore, the Radio Commander offers a wide range of customizable features, such as
• operator-definable network views
• operator-definable comments for graphical objects
• bullet mode for icons
• desktop customization
• flexible searching and filtering in lists
• integration of operator specific CLI scripts
• integration of applications
To help operators in their customization efforts the Radio Commander provides a
powerful tool - the Network Editor.
The Network Editor (NED) is a flexible application for GUI customization. All custom-
ization and configuration activities can be performed online, without requiring a software
or hardware reboot.
For basic GSM configuration changes it is also possible to run the Network Editor in
stand-alone mode, thus avoiding interference with online operations, and taking effect
at times when minimum interference with online operations is expected.
The Network Editor supports the operator with state-of-the-art graphic design meth-
ods, such as drag & drop, in the customization process.
The range of customization options offered by the Network Editor includes:
• Panel window contents
e.g. background, dimensions, graphical objects represented on the panel
• operator-defined network views
e.g. new panels, new summary objects
• graphical objects
e.g. panel and position in panel, link to managed or external object, graphical at-
tributes (line or icon), popup menus
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Fig. 5.12 shows Radio Commander’s Network Editor window.
Fig. 5.12 Network Editor window, example
Operator-definable network views
The Radio Commander offers a predefined network view that contains all the configured
objects: rack layouts, functional views, maps.
In addition, every operator can define any number of new views by
• defining new panels (with an operator-defined new hierarchy)
• defining new summary objects and passive objects using the Network Editor
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Fig. 5.13 shows a comparison of the standard hierarchy and an operator-defined hier-
archy:
Fig. 5.13 Operator defined hierarchy and standard hierarchy
It is also possible to link parts of the standard view to an operator-defined view.
The network view system is as flexible as can be: operators can choose which view
they want to work in, either at GUI session startup time or they can switch to it during an
active GUI session at any time.
Operator-definable comments for graphical objects
The operator can add, change and delete comments referring to a graphical object and
have that text displayed in a separate window. This feature lets operators use a desig-
nation for a particular object in a specific context that is easier for them to understand
and remember.
One use of this feature could be the addition of comments which give further explanation
of operator’s network specific information e.g. configuration details such as “leased line
of company xy”.
Bullet mode for icons
To keep network views as uncluttered as possible, the Radio Commander has intro-
duced the “bullet” mode for icons:
Bullet icons, which represent managed objects, open to full size only if their state dif-
fers fromthe default state. This allows the integration of a large number of icons in one
panel and presents only the relevant information to the operator.
As this feature depends largely on the preferences of the operator, it is fully
configurable:
• bullet mode for specific panels
• switching between bullet and normal mode
• bullets for all managed objects
• icon labels switched on or off
Operator defined panels
contains operator defined
summary objects and/or
single managed objects
and passive objects
View summary
summarizes
all operator defined parts
Operator defined views Standard network view
Operator defined panel
contains links to the
standard network tree
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This feature allows operators a high degree of flexibility in designing the screen, so they
can get the information they need displayed in the way they prefer.
Fig. 5.14 shows a screen with only a one icon displayed in normal size. The mainte-
nance states obviously differ from the default state. All other managed objects are pre-
sented by bullets as they are in their default states.
Fig. 5.14 Bullet mode, example
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Desktop customization
Of course, operators can configure their own desktop workspace the way it suits them
best, using all the available GUI modification functions.
Flexible searching and filtering capabilities in lists
The data pertaining to the managed objects is kept in tables made up of rows and col-
umns. To make such tables easier to read for operators, they can hide the columns
they are not interested in and re-arrange the order in which the columns are presented
in the List windows. Sorting by field contents is possible, too.
The system provides flexible and powerful searching and filtering functions:
• filtering by all object attributes
• filtering based on columns, with the possibility of combining criteria using Boolean
operators (AND, OR, NOT)
• filter settings can be saved for reuse, on an operator’s basis
The filtered data and data entries in general can then be sent to a printer or saved to file,
on the hard disk or on an external device.
Integration of scripts
To make routine tasks faster, easier and less repetitive, the Radio Commander provides
the option to integrate operator-defined commands in the GUI. New commands such
as command scripts written for a specific routine task, can be added to the list of possi-
ble actions of an object and then be easily accessed from the GUI.
It is also possible to add common UNIX scripts or tools to a suitable menu in the Radio
Commander GUI.
Integration of applications
The Radio Commander even provides the option to integrate application programs that
are not part of the new Radio Commander software in its GUI
• as an additional item in a popup menu
• as an icon in the Application Launcherl
Examples of such applications are post-processing tools for performance measure-
ments, a Trouble Ticketing tool and mail or pager programs, which would then be easily
accessible for the operator from the Radio Commander GUI, see also “O&M ToolSet
and Open Interfaces” on page 29.
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5.2 Command Line Interface
In addition to the object-oriented interaction model via the graphical user interface (GUI),
the Radio Commander also features a Command Line Interface (CLI) based on a com-
mand-oriented interaction model for alphanumeric input.
The Command Line Interface, which provides flexible and high-speed facilities for in-
teracting with network elements, is intended for operators who are familiar with system
handling and want to speed up their daily routine work even more, bypassing the user
guidance features of the graphical user interface.
The CLI is based on UNIX. A UNIX shell (e.g. csh) is active in the command window
and is used as a preprocessor for the execution of UNIX commands and for the routing
of the O&M command set to the actual command interpreter. As the system supports
several UNIX shells the operator can choose which one to use.
The CLI allows the execution of both O&M commands and UNIX commands and
even the merging of them in one and the same script.
Operators can define alias names for complete commands or parts of commands. The
syntax depends on the special UNIX-shell (e.g. csh, ksh).
Several CLI sessions can run simultaneously during one GUI session. The CLI can be
started and run completely independently of the GUI.
Fig. 5.15 shows examples of the working with the Command Line Interface:
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Fig. 5.15 Command Line Interface, examples
Direct alphanumeric CLI sessions
The Radio Commander makes it possible to start the CLI directly from the UNIX level,
without having to run an X-Windows environment. This mode of operation is especially
suited for bandwidth-saving remote alphanumeric access and for batch processing
(e.g. cron jobs for postprocessing).
Stand-alone CLI considerably speeds up remote access, e.g. from a laptop computer,
as it allows time-consuming graphics data required for the GUI to be bypassed.
Command scripts
The Radio Commander CLI supports the use of command scripts for complex config-
uration or postprocessing purposes. The CLI provides features for script develop-
ment and testing.
A UNIX shell script language can be used for command scripts: operators can choose
their preferred UNIX shell (configurable in the system) to write command scripts.
Command Scheduler
The Radio Commander allows the scheduling of O&M and UNIX commands and of
command scripts.
cli%>Get ADJC:BSS:7/BSC:0/BTS:0/ADJC:2;
cli%>Set BSC:BSS:7/BSC:0, MaxNCell=1;
cli%>Getfdn BSC;
cli%>BTSE_ULM=BSS:12/BTSE:80
cli%>Lock BBSIG:$BTSE_ULM/RACK:0/BBSIG:0;
cli%>alias getbss3=’Get bss:bss:3\;’
cli%>vi trxarea
>>while [ $Value -le 2 ]
>>do
Set TRX:BSS:9/BTSM:90/BTS:0/TRX:$Value,trxarea=inner;
Value = ’expr $Value +1’
done
O&M Commands UNIX
CLI C shell
csh
ksh
sh
Set
Create
Get
Delete
<action>
BTSE_ULM=BSS:12/BTSE:80
alias getbss3=’Get bss:bss:3\;’
vi trxarea
Value = ’expr $Value +1’
while...do...done
for each...end
if...then...else...fi
for...do...done
Get ADJC:BSC:0/BTS:0/ADJC:2;
Set BSC:BSS:7/BSC:0, MaxNCell=1;
Getfdn BSC;
Lock BBSIG:$BTSE_ULM/RACK:0/BBSIG:0;
Set TRX:BSS:9/BTSM:90...
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The execution of a command can be scheduled for a specific point in time or scheduled
to be carried out periodically.
The Scheduler can be accessed from both the GUI and the CLI. But it is fully indepen-
dent of the CLI, i.e. for the Scheduler to execute a command it is not necessary to run
the CLI or open a GUI session.
This feature provides independence from CLI sessions and allows advanced planning.
Support for TAC Access
Siemens TAC (Technical Assistance Center) terminals are terminals used by Siemens
service staff to access different OMCs for technical maintenance purposes.
The Radio Commander supports remote access, enabling TAC specialists to work on
the CLI and UNIX levels, allowing faster TAC reaction times to operator problems
Help Browser
An ASCII-based browser (LYNX) makes it possible for the operator to get help informa-
tion for all commands in one of the following forms:
• command listing
• brief descriptions
• full description - including attributes, outputs, references to related commands.
The browser provides a text-only version of the online manuals (online manuals see be-
low).
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5.3 Online Help System
The Radio Commander comes with a state-of-the-art online help system which gives
operators access to any information they may need at any point or time during their
work, e.g. by providing Radio Commander’s Online Help via intranet server.
Online help
The online help provides help on tasks of all management areas, on general
GUI/CLI/NED operations, with theory background information, on panels and lists of the
Radio Commander, on commands and parameters, on alarms, and on the use of the
help system itself.
To access the help system, operators just need to
• point the cursor to the position they need help on and press F1
• use the help menu to find the required information
It is also possible to add operator-defined help texts (annotations) to the system, so
operators can write down in their own words whatever additional information they deem
necessary. By using annotations they can also pass on valuable information to the next
shift.
This feature significantly facilitates systemoperation, resulting in a reduced need for op-
erator training as well as increasing operator speed and efficiency.
Any standard HTML browser, for instance Netscape Navigator, can be used to view
the user manuals. The operator can then make use of the standard features of the
browser, e.g. personal bookmarks.
Fig. 5.16 shows possibilities of working with the Radio Commander’s online help.
Fig. 5.16 Online help, possibile ways of use
CLI help
The CLI provides an integrated online help system for commands and parameters
featuring:
• CLI command overview, listing all available commands
Use the content tab to
viewHelp topics
Use the search tab to
find any word in the help
system
Use the index tab to
view a list of keywords
Use the browse sequences
to support your ........... with
the Help system
Click the expand and
colapsed books to
display Help topics
Click to a topic to view it in
the right topic pane
Use the
autosynchronisation to
support your orientation
within the Help system
Click the undefined text
of the hyperlink to jump
to another Help topic
Use the hyperlinks to
display related
internation
Use the up button to
jump to the beginning of
the Help topic
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• short command help, with parameters and default values for each command
• long command description, the complete command description of the command
manual
Online manuals
In addition RC manuals are available in pdf format.
The following manuals can be used online:
• Maintenance Manual
• Command Manual
• Performance Management
• Performance Measurements Description
• Backup and Restore Management
• Abbreviations / Glossary
Internationalization support
Chinese language is supported on the user interface.
5.4 Remote Web Access
The Radio Commander features a high performance, secure Web interface for remote
access to the Graphical User Interface. This allows the operator to provide the relevant
Radio Commander GUI and CLI applications also on the remote side. Remote Web ac-
cess is realized independently fromunderlying transmission media. Optionally, the Web
interface can be combined with a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for secure and efficient
encryption / decryption of traffic.
The Web interface relies on a commercial product based on Adaptive Internet Protocol
(AIP). Small Java applets are used as display engines that are downloaded on demand
to the client device. Thus throughput is optimized, allowing instant representation of GUI
data on the remote side. Any standard HTML browser, such as Netscape Communica-
tor, can be used. Flexible remote access to Radio Commander's GUI can be achieved
from various standard-technology configurations
• PC running various Operating Systems, e.g. Windows NT, LINUX
• connection via Ethernet LAN, e.g. low cost OMT, post-processing tasks
• connection via ISDN card / modem, SOHO
The supported user interface functions comprise
• Read/Write access to CLI
• Read/Write access to GUI-Fault Management, GUI-Performance Management,
GUI-Configuration Management
• database Read/Write access
• printing support on remote site
• user interfaces ASCII-based or HTML or original GUI via emulation
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Fig. 5.17 illustrates the communication flow between Web Server and Proxy process
and the Radio Commander platformall running in the OMC with the Web Client process
running on the remote side. Optionally, advanced security concepts such as firewalls
might be integrated.
Fig. 5.17 Components for remote access via Web interface
One of the comfortable features offered is full remote printing capability, i.e. sending
print jobs from the application server in the OMC to the client’s printers, e.g. PostScript
and PCL located at the remote side. Powerful Session Resume functions allow:
• applications to keep running when client device or network fails
• administrators to configure applications to be resumable
• administrators to disallow the resume facility on a per-application basis
• live application sessions to be moved from one client to another
Web Client (e. g. MS Internet Explorer or Netscape Communicator)
OMC
Web Server
Web Client
Proxy
Radio Commander Applications
contacts
Web Server
via HTTP
Proxy sends data to the client
Adaptive Internet Protocol (AIP)
Web Server starts
RC Application
compresses data stream
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6 Configuration Management
The primary task of the SystemManagement Function Configuration Management (CM)
is to define and modify the configuration of the network entities of the Siemens mo-
bile radio network system for all supported managed objects. New elements or chang-
es to the current configuration are introduced via the Radio Commander (or LMT).
Because the network configuration also defines the call processing behavior of the radio
network, Configuration Management also influences call processing.
All the information relevant for Configuration Management is stored in the management
information base (MIB). Configuration data can also be exported to offline tools.
The display of up-to-date configuration information on the graphical user interface
makes recurring configuration tasks for the operator as easy as possible.
• The Radio Commander supports dynamic object creation/change/deletion with
automatic creation/change/deletion of graphical objects. If the operator cre-
ates/changes/deletes a managed object, the corresponding graphical objects, such
as icons and list records will be created/changed/deleted automatically on the GUI.
If a managed object is being represented by more than one graphical object, for ex-
ample if operator defined views are used (see “Operator-definable network views”
on page 47), any change introduced will be reflected by all of them.
• The Radio Commander also supports operator-definable default values for
standard parameters, e.g. radio network parameters.
6.1 General Principles
Configuration Management deals with managed objects. These managed objects
model the network: the managed objects represent the physical (equipment-related)
and logical (function-related) network entities.
Within the Radio Commander, the network is represented in the form of a containment
tree. This hierarchy is mapped according to the different panels within the GUI.
As a rule, changes in the configuration data are made in confirmed mode, i.e. operators
will always receive feedback on the results of their operations. For GUI commands this
information is displayed in the Command History List.
If the operator changes critical configuration parameters, or starts critical operations,
e.g. deleting traffic-related object instances, the Radio Commander will always display
a warning and execute the command only after confirmation by the operator. Operators
can mark commands as critical, depending on their own choice.
This increases operational safety and helps to avoid operator mistakes.
In line with the Radio Commander security concept to be allowed to deal with
configuration data, operators must have the required authorization profile, see
“Security Management” on page 95.
The Radio Commander supports concurrent read and write access on the managed
object instance level.
The Radio Commander is able to request information about the configuration of hard-
ware, firmware and software from each network element and from the RC itself (OMT,
printers, etc., see “Management of OMC Configuration” on page 60).
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Configuration data can be exported to/imported from external back-up media, such as
floppy disks or streamers. This can be used for example for offline transfer to network
entities.
All modifications of network entity and Radio Commander configuration data either
performed manually or with script files are logged. Log files also record the identification
data of the user who made the changes, see “Log Management” on page 107.
6.2 Management of BSS/RNS Configuration
The Radio Commander supports the management and modification of operational
parameters, for both functional and equipment related managed object instances.
The Radio Commander offers different ways to initiate configuration changes:
• by operator command
• by means of command script files immediately, or time scheduled
• by means of an offline configuration database generation tool: only for BSC config-
uration data
GSM modifications are managed with reference to GSM12.06 / GSM 12.20.
The Radio Commander supports online configuration management. It is possible to
extend or reduce the managed mobile radio network during normal operation.
Creation of managed object instances
The Radio Commander supports the creation of object instances of all supported man-
aged object classes for all of the functional-related and most of the equipment-related
classes of BSS and RNC. The containment tree of the managed objects classes deter-
mines which object instance can be created in the given context.
It is also possible to create object instances “in advance”, i.e. to speed-up an upgrade
process without the corresponding hardware being available.
Generally, at creation time, the operational and administrative state of an object instance
are set to pre-defined initial values. Any attribute of a managed object class can have
systemdefined initial and default values, and in addition, operator defined default values
on the GUI. The initial values are used at object creation, the default values when setting
an attribute
The Radio Commander manages Object Creation Event reports sent by the network
entities.
Deletion of managed object instances
The Radio Commander allows the deletion of object instances of all managed object
classes for all of the functional-related and most of the equipment-related classes of
BSS and RNC.
To prevent the deletion of object instances affecting services in use, such changes
are rejected and the operator is advised to take the corresponding equipment out of
service.
Generally, an object instance can be deleted only if its administrative state is set to
Locked and all the object instances it contains are deleted.
The Radio Commander offers these services by using functions of the network entities.
The Radio Commander manages Object Deletion Event reports sent by the network
entities.
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Changing attributes of managed object instances
Using either the GUI or the CLI, the operator can easily change the attribute values of a
managed object instance. Operators do not have to enter the complete value set again
but can only enter the attribute values they want to change.
The Radio Commander supports operator-definable default settings for standard pa-
rameters, helping to speed-up configuration activities, e.g. for radio network parameters.
The Radio Commander manages Attribute Value Changed Event reports sent by the
network entities.
Fig. 6.1 shows how attribute values are changed:
Fig. 6.1 Changing attribute values of managed object instances, example
Plausibility checks
The plausibility checks carried out by the Radio Commander during configuration activ-
ities cover at least the following:
• authorization of the operator
• syntax of the configuration command (for CLI)
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• range of the attribute values and whether set and get is allowed
• semantic check of the involved managed object class (whether it is defined, and
whether it can be defined in the given context)
If a plausibility check detects an error, an error message is displayed.
In input forms a wrong parameter is highlighted.
Symbolic names
To make the Radio Commander user interface even more user-friendly, it is possible
to define symbolic names. The symbolic names are an alternative to the fully distin-
guished names (FDN) for addressing managed entities.
Once defined, the symbolic names are contained in all displays and commands, and can
be used for shortening CLI input of parameters and commands.
Symbolic names can be defined by simple commands. It is also possible to import the
symbolic names from file.
The operator can deactivate and reactivate the use of symbolic names.
The Radio Commander checks that the symbolic names are unambiguous within the
scope of the RC. Maximum length of a symbolic name is 64 characters.
Database generation and migration
The BSS database for GSMnetworks, as well as the RNCdatabase for UMTS networks,
i.e. the configuration data stored on the BSC/RNC disk, can be generated manually with
single configuration commands. The commands are executed sequentially and the
BSC/RNC database is expanded object instance by object instance until the database
has been created.
With the help of command scripts (both with and without operator “acknowledgement”)
it is possible to add, change or remove configuration data.
The Radio Commander offers the option of initiating an upload or download of a com-
plete database of a BSS, an RNC, or a Node B by a single operator command. Loading
can also be performed for several network entities in parallel (BSC, RNC, Node B).
The operator is able to verify if the copy of a BSS database available in the RC is aligned
with the current master copy on the BSC disk so as to avoid unnecessary uploads.
The Radio Commander also supports upward and downward database migration. If
the migration procedure is unsuccessful, fall back to the old configuration is ensured.
For GSMnetworks the Radio Commander can convert existing old binary formated BSS
databases into database images in the new binary format.
Database migration will be possible to the next following or preceding (for BR>6.0) re-
lease. All migration activities are logged.
6.3 Management of OMC Configuration
OMC Configuration Management deals with the configurable objects of the RC, i.e.
hardware components (e.g. OMPs, OMTs, X-Terminals, spool printers). It includes the
actions:
• creation
• deletion
• activation
• deactivation
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The Radio Commander also provides plausibility checks (e.g. syntax, value range, de-
fault value) for all activities related to OMC configuration.
In line with the Radio Commander’s customizable approach, the operator is allowed to
configure graphical (icon change) and acoustic (single beep or short audio signal) char-
acteristics for every user interface element according to the state information the ele-
ment represents, see also chapter “State Management” on page 65.
OMC configuration data takes effect at start-up time. OMC configuration changes can
be made during OMP operation and can be activated online.
6.4 CM+ Package
The Configuration Management plus (CM+) package is one of the five modules in the
O&M ToolSet that smoothly complement the core functions of the RC.
CM+ reports in graphical or tabular mode the current configuration of network elements,
their objects and attributes, and makes reconfiguration fast and efficient.
The network configuration changes edited and checked in CM+ are either transferred
into a CLI scriptfile (a sequence of CLI commands), or a binary image file for BSC, see
also “O&M ToolSet and Open Interfaces” on page 29.
In addition, the current configuration of the network can be easily transferred to radio
network planning, regardless of whether it’s a Siemens or OEM application. Of course
the bidirectional interface to Radio Network Planning Centers (RNPCs) also allows the
incorporation of work orders from radio planning.
The easy-to-use functions ensure integrity of the issued network changes with the gen-
erated and distributed databases. Here the most important functions of CM+:
• scheduled import of configuration information
• import from several RCs
• import from radio planning tools (customizable)
• automated (scheduled) upload of CM data and incorporation into data model
• geographical presentation of the network
• export of current configuration to network planning
• predefined reporting with standard reports
• generation of either complete or delta databases (CLI scripts) for the NEs
• configurable consistency checks on parameterization
• controlled download of CLI scripts to NEs
CM+ enjoys all advantages of the O&M ToolSet to facilitate data collection and
organization.
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6.5 Remote Inventory
The Radio Commander fully supports advanced remote inventory management for all
network elements of the Siemens mobile radio network. In order to automate the quality
and maintenance process, it is necessary for operators to keep inventory data (ID) for
all hardware, software and firmware systems installed in the network entities (GSM:
BSC, BTS, TRAU; UMTS: RNC, Node B). The following operational tasks are supported
by Radio Commander's remote inventory functions:
• planning of hardware extensions
• planning of system upgrades, e.g. hardware/firmware-modifications due to imple-
mentation of new features
• analysis of the hardware/firmware-inventory in the event of system faults
• fault clearance (determination of compatible replacement modules)
• reference certification for quality evaluations and statistics
In order to accomplish these tasks Siemens Customer Service has realized the world-
wide process Inventory Record Keeping. This process concerns the software as well as
hardware and firmware.
The Remote Inventory function of the Siemens mobile radio network performs electron-
ic, non-volatile storing of the complete product identification data (PID) of each individual
inventory object ( e.g. hardware boards). Storage is done in each inventory object itself,
including issue number and serial number. It is possible to include inventory data of ob-
jects without an on-board memory (e. g. frames, racks, OEM components) into the de-
centralized system database. The data from these objects is entered into a file
dedicated to the network entity via the local maintenance terminal (LMT).
The product identification data is read by the system during activation of the system or
of a module. This data is then combined with the mounting location and network entity
data to create the complete Inventory Data Table (IDT). For GSM networks, the inven-
tory data of all network entities of the whole network element (e.g. BSC area) is stored
in the network element (e.g. on the hard disk of the BSC for this area) to achieve online
access to the actual data, even if the inventory object is faulty. For UMTS, each network
entity (RNC/Node B) has its own IDT.
Siemens Remote Inventory concept is fully supported by Radio Commander by provid-
ing the following functions to the operator or the relevant service organization:
• fully automated process for collecting inventory data
• fast availability of complete inventory data of a complete management area
• management of all inventory data including racks, frames, etc.
• easy to handle interface for update of Product Identification Data (PID)
• standard Inventory Data File (IDF) interface to various inventory keeping systems
Operators at the Radio Commander can:
• upload the inventory data of BSS, RNC, Node B
• convert uploaded Inventory Data Tables (IDTs) to IDFs, adding headers and footers
• update IDF files of a BSS by scheduled polling of the BSC
The RC provides a browser at the GUI and a display function at the CLI. Operators can
view and print the files and save them for export. A search key function is also offered.
In addition, the Radio Commander can be used to accomplish the following:
• combine inventory information of several connected network entities
• export the resulting files in compressed format to inventory-keeping tools
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6.6 Network Optimization
For network optimization operators must be aware of the real performance as it is and
of the impact that suggested configuration changes might have on the performance of
the network. The network performance as seen by the subscriber defines the Quality of
Service (QoS).
For advanced GSMnetwork optimization, the Radio Commander introduces the innova-
tive feature Smart Carrier Allocation.
Smart Carrier Allocation
The Smart Carrier Allocation (SCA) provides a whole set of convenient features for
frequency surveillance and subsequent adaptation.
SCA assists the operator in frequency planning tasks by performing a comprehensive
analysis of the real interference situation in the Siemens Radio Access Network (RAN).
When the investigation of the existing interference situation is completed SCA proposes
a list of frequencies - ranked by their interference significance - that can be used to iden-
tify the most suitable frequency for a particular cell.
Thus the complete frequency plan can be analyzed and - if neccessary - adapted based
on either real measurement data such as RXLEV and RXQUAL or based on the calcu-
lated Carrier to Interference (C/I) between cells and adjacent cells.
The Radio Commander handles the user profile for the SCA core functions and exports
the SCA results e.g. to the O&M ToolSet for graphical representation. It handles the dif-
ferent SCA management areas, such as
• Configuration of the SCA functions: The operator can choose the cells to be ana-
lyzed and define the observation conditions for the measurements
• SCA activation: SCA is set on a per cell basis and can be disabled by default after
a systemstartup. SCA can be activated for up to 2000 cells per Radio Commander.
It is possible to put up to 250 cells per BSC under observation.
• SCA data elaboration: The elaboration for each cell previously put under observa-
tion consists of
– Generation of histograms: SCA provides histograms of frequency based mea-
surements and elaborates them to determine a list of ranked frequencies.
– Calculation of best frequency in ranked frequencies lists per serving cell:
The ranked best frequency list indicates the best substitute for a frequency that is
being tested e.g. for a micro cell or to be used in cases of interference.
– Calculation of dedicated statistics per serving cell: Operators can perform
further statistical analysis to determine the best frequency to be used. In particular
for micro cellular and pico cellular layers a significant reduction of interference
can be achieved.
– Calculation of an C/I interference matrix for all cells
• Export of SCA data elaboration results
The Radio Commander applies plausibility checks before processing operator com-
mands.
Operators can set and get the following information:
• which cells are activated
• what kind of measurements are activated
– Normal Measurements
– Extended Idle Channel Measurements
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• which frequencies are put under observation, up to 32 frequencies per GSM band
can be selected
• time of accumulation, up to four times per day between 6 o’clock a.m. an 12 o’clock
pm are possible
• observation period, one or more days, weekly or monthly
• date and time of trace activation/deactivation
Both scheduled upload of SCA files and upload on operator request is possible.
Data coming from different cells is kept separated.
After raw data has been transmitted to the Radio Commander, operators can start the
data evaluation. The RC generates cumulative histograms for every observed cell.
Raw data is kept for 1 week after the cumulation and deleted automatically afterwards.
Operators can set thresholds to reduce the amount of data to be evaluated.
An ASCII file, stored in a predefined directory, is produced for each Radio Commander
elaboration command. Input is the cell ID and the parameters for the specific evaluation.
The following evaluations are offered:
• statistics
• ranking of monitored frequencies
• interference matrix table
The evaluations can be viewed on the GUI of the RC, or listed via CLI.
Raw data and elaborated data can be imported by the O&M ToolSet and by external
tools for further offline analysis and processing.
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7 State Management
By processing, summarizing and displaying the states of managed objects, the Radio
Commander State Management application provides one of the key features of the Ra-
dio Commander. Its advantages include:
• highly configurable display
• fast state alignment
• the concept of essence put into practice in the Maintenance State View
This chapter
• gives an overview of what State Management is, see below
• explains the concept of state summarization, see “State Summarization” on
page 67
• introduces the Maintenance State View, a new concept of presentation implement-
ed by the Radio Commander, see “Maintenance State View” on page 69
7.1 What is Radio Commander State Management?
Radio Commander State Management
• retrieves the state/status attributes of managed objects via state alignment or upon
operator's request
• monitors changes of state/status attributes of managed objects
• allows the operator to change configurable state/status attributes (administrative
state)
• propagates state/status values on the GUI (state summarization)
Below the term“state” is used to imply the meanings of both “state” and “status” for eas-
ier reading.
Since all state changes must be indicated to the operator, the Radio Commander offers
a wide variety of user-friendly display options.
Standard state attributes that are supported by the network elements can be retrieved
by the Radio Commander. The states defined in ITU-T X.731 are:
• Administrative State (AST)
• Operational State (OST)
• Availability Status (AVS)
• Procedural Status (PRS)
• Usage State (UGS)
• Alarm Status (ALS)
• Standby Status (STB)
• Control Status (CTS)
• Unknown Status (UNK)
Apart from the ITU standard state attributes, the RC supports a lot of additional states
depending on the network elements, such as:
• SS7 Control Status
• FTAM State
• LMT State
• NMC State
The Radio Commander is responsible for handling managed objects of all network en-
tities as well as for its own managed objects (printers, OMP, OMTs,..), for which it pro-
vides internal state management.
State Management is synchronized with respect to object creation and deletion.
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Automatic State alignment between state information stored in the Radio Commander
and state information stored in the network entities is carried out in the following ways:
• autonomously for all BSS / RNS after establishing the connection between the RC
and the underlying telecommunications network
• autonomously for a specific BSS / RNC / Node B after link failure between the RC
and that specific BSS / RNC / Node B, or after BSC / RNC restart
• autonomously for a specific network entity (BTS site / TRAU / RNC / Node B) after
interface link failure between the BSC / RNC and its subordinate network entities, or
after BTSE / TRAU, Node B restart
• manually, upon operator request for either all BSSs/RNSs, one specific BSS/RNS,
or specific network entities
What information does the operator need about state alignment?
• an active state alignment is indicated to the operator
• the operator is continuously informed about all state values currently displayed on
the GUI that have not yet been aligned (unknown status)
• for instant maintenance the operator has full read and write access to all network
entities (e.g. GET attributes command) while active state alignment is in progress
During state alignment blinking objects stop blinking.
State changes are logged in accordance with ITU X.731, ITU X.734 and ITU X.735, so
all state change event reports are logged by default.
The Radio Commander is capable of processing state change events reports (SCER)
reported according to ITU X.731. A discriminator construct for the logging of state
change event reports (SCER) is applicable for:
• managed object class
• managed object instance(s)
• state and status attribute value(s)
On request, the Radio Commander can also provide advanced state information in list
format for all managed objects. Here, managed objects represented by their fully distin-
guished name (FDN) and the associated state values (e.g. operational state (OST) = en-
abled) are listed for easy interpretation.
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7.2 State Summarization
Radio Commander’s State Summarization function relies on the complete state informa-
tion provided by State Management.
State Summarization provides the operator with a powerful mechanism for automatic
selection of all relevant information about the actual systembehavior. By presenting this
aggregated information in a user friendly way, the Radio Commander makes daily and
routine-tasks easier for the operator.
State Summarization uses dedicated algorithms to aggregate the attribute values to
produce summary information by using the following state types of all managed ob-
jects, included in the summary object:
• Operational state (OST)
• Alarm status (ALS)
• Administrative state (AST)
• Availability status (AVS)
For example, the following results for state summarization are calculated
• Operational state, summarization result is disabled if at least one of the observed
objects is in disabled state
• Alarm status, summarization shows the highest severity alarm status in occurrence
• Administrative state, summarization result
– is shuttingdown if at least one of the observed objects is in shuttingdown state
(and no object is locked)
– is locked if at least one of the observed objects is in locked state
• Availability status, summarization result according to ITU-T X.731, carries all values
deviating from zero
Single objects are maskable and therefore can be excluded from summarization.
The Radio Commander offers a default panel hierarchy with default summarization
settings to give the operator a predefined, ready-to-start, system overview.
Fig. 7.1 gives an example of how to create a user-defined panel for a GSM BSS region
by using the Network Editor, see page 46. The user defined panel contains standard
icons (EFD, Scanner list) and network specific icons related to network entities and the
relevant managed object instances (BSC, PCMB 4).
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Fig. 7.1 Creating a user-defined panel via Network Editor, example
The Radio Commander provides state summarization information at the following levels:
• telecommunications network level
• network element (BSS, RNS) level
• network entity (RC, BSC, BTS, TRAU, RNC, Node B) level
The predefined summary panels are created during the RC system startup.
In addition to the predefined summary panels operators can create their own user de-
fined summarization panels, using the Network Editor, see “GUI Customization, Net-
work Editor” on page 46.
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7.3 Maintenance State View
The Maintenance State View represents an all-new concept for network monitoring.
It shows the operator at once whether or not the radio network is degraded.
The overall benefits of the Maintenance State View concept are:
• enhanced support of the operator during the network state analysis
• operational condition of the network perceivable at a glance
• only the essential information displayed on the icons
• detailed state information available additionally in a help view
• operators needs less experience for network monitoring
The Maintenance State provides operators with the essential state/status information,
derived from the standard state/status attributes, using an algorithm.
The Maintenance State View presents the essential information in a way that is quick
and easy to understand using five colors to indicate the relevant states. The colors
are configurable, the following are the default values:
• GREEN for working properly
• ORANGE for reduced functions
• YELLOW for minor problem
• RED for does not work
• GRAY for unknown (e.g. during alignment)
This color-coding system makes the Maintenance State View easy to use, so
operators do not require extensive training. The operator immediately sees which icons
are calling for further action and can open a subpanel for more detailed information.
Summary and Leaf icons illustrate the different Maintenance State (MST) attributes as
background colors. The Administrative State (AST) is represented by a KEY symbol for
locked and a BUTTON symbol for Stand-by.
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Fig. 7.2 Maintenance State View, example
Figure 7.3 provides an example of Maintenance State View in a GSM BSS panel win-
dow. The network entities are shown as summary icons, represented by a blue top line
and SUMsymbol. Display of Maintenance State attribute ’Does not work’ of BTSE ’Graz
3’ indicates to the operator to investigate the BTSE and open the Summary icon to gain
more detailed information out of the subpanels.
The Radio Commander can indicate the state change of the Maintenance State both
visually (icon change) and acoustically. The latter is sounded by a single beep or short
audio signal, which can be configured globally on the Radio Commander.
i
Upon request, the states and statuses of all managed objects are presented in an al-
phanumeric form. The presentation of parameters, values, etc. is homogeneous for
OMT and LMTs, only at RNC-LMT there are no ITU states available.
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8 Fault Management
The System Management Function Fault Management (FM) of the Radio Commander
includes all the measures required for detecting and repairing faults in a mobile radio
communication network independent of the technology used, be it GSM, UMTS, or TD-
SCDMA. Radio Commander’s Fault Management concept is prepared to seamlessly in-
tegrate emerging technologies. For this reason, RC’s Fault Management is a key feature
for the reliability, availability and survivability of current and future mobile radio net-
works especially in heterogeneous and multi-technological environments.
Below an overview of the functions offered by the Radio Commander application Fault
Management (see “General Principles” on page 71) is given, followed by more details
of the visualization aspects of Fault Management (“Alarm Surveillance” on page 73).
8.1 General Principles
The Fault Management can be subdivided into the following main functions:
• Fault localization, i.e. identification of the faulty unit, see below
• Alarm surveillance, i.e. system monitoring and alarm reporting
As the alarm surveillance functions are of particular importance in GUI represen-
tation and also come with many new features which improve ease of use and
speed up operations, they are covered in a separate section (“AlarmSurveillance”
on page 73.)
• Alarm administration
Inside BSS/RNS (active alarm records) and Radio Commander (alarm report
records) in accordance with specified alarm conditions
See also “Alarm Administration” on page 72
• NMC related mediation, see “NMC Mediation” on page 72
• Internal fault correction, RC system recovery and/or restoration, see “Internal
Fault Correction” on page 72
The guiding principle for Fault Management handling between the network entities is
that as much fault treatment as possible takes place inside the faulty network el-
ement itself. In the event of a fault, it is first of all the affected hardware board and then
the affected entity as a whole that is responsible for performing fault treatment functions
to protect the system from damage. Network entities (for GSM: BSC, for UTRAN: RNC)
are informed about the physical location and the functional consequences of the fault
(e.g. loss of channels). This autonomy-oriented fault treatment concept is based on
the principle of internal redundancy that is realized in all relevant hardware components
of the Siemens mobile radio network.
The following functions are closely related to Fault Management:
• Testing of managed objects, see section “Test Management” on page 81.
• State changes caused by faults, see “State Management” on page 65.
• Logging of alarm reports Management, see “Log Management” on page 107.
8.1.1 Fault Localization
The Radio Commander is able to localize each detected fault in the mobile radio network
right down to the monitored objects level. All necessary information for fault localization
is included in the alarm reports.
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8.1.2 Alarm Administration
The Fault Management functions are split between all supported network entities in
the following way:
All GSM and UMTS network entities have a fault management for their own hardware
(their HMOs). Their role is that of an agent which monitors the system, detects faults,
localizes and corrects faults and generates and sends failure event reports to the Radio
Commander and to LMTs. Additionally, they maintain data about their outstanding alarm
conditions.
The Radio Commander covers:
• Fault management for MOs of the Radio Commander itself and of RC local ex-
ternal devices. Its role here is that of an agent that monitors the system, detects
faults, localizes and corrects faults, and generates failure event reports.
• The Radio Commander provides uniform and centralized access to alarm data
together with administration functions for all network entities. Its role here is that of
a manager in relation to the network entities plus the above mentioned Radio Com-
mander fault management agent part.
• NMC related mediation
An LMT can receive failure event reports and retrieve alarm data from all network enti-
ties to which it is physically or logically (e.g. via remote control) connected. In this re-
spect, it acts in a managing role just like the Radio Commander, but its administrative
capability is limited depending on the respective network entity.
8.1.3 NMC Mediation
With respect to Alarm and Fault Management of the Siemens mobile radio network en-
tities, the Radio Commander ensures harmonization with an NMC:
• The NMC controls the forwarding and logging of notifications sent by the Radio
Commander
• The NMC can create its own EFDs and its own log instances within the Radio Com-
mander (ITU-T X.734, X.735)
• Active alarms are received by the NMC (all perceived severities are supported)
Alignment of active alarm data
• First time alignment or alignment after major Radio Commander-NMC link interrup-
tions
• Use of deep alarm buffer within the Radio Commander in the case of minor Radio
Commander-NMC link interruptions
• Alignment after internal link interruptions (link to BSS/RNS and inside BSS/RNS)
Benefits of the alarm mapping concept:
• Precise information for network maintenance
• The Radio Commander autonomously compares the old and the new alarmlist and
generates appropriate alarm / ”cleared” notifications for the NMC.
The RC-NMC interface supports network-unique symbolic names for a user friendly
management at the NMC.
8.1.4 Internal Fault Correction
Once a fault has been detected in the Radio Commander's software processes or in the
Radio Commander's hardware resources, the Radio Commander performs autono-
mously adequate recovery actions to minimize the loss of service caused by the fault.
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The Radio Commander provides different levels of software recovery depending on the
nature of the fault:
• restart of a single process
• restart of multiple processes
• reboot
The operator is notified of all recovery actions performed autonomously by the Radio
Commander. Failure Event Reports (FER) are indicated locally, stored in the RC log
and sent to the NMC via Event Forwarding Discriminators (EFDs).
Apart from autonomous recovery, the Radio Commander also provides for the manual
triggering of the following recovery actions:
• Switch over to redundant equipment (if available). The Radio Commander rejects
the switch command if the partner managed object is not able to take over the ser-
vice.
• Initialize independent software parts of the application software.
8.2 Alarm Surveillance
Because alarm surveillance constitutes the central part of Fault Management from the
operator’s point of view, an extra section has been dedicated to this topic.
While an alarm indicates a special problem condition, it may or may not represent an
error. Therefore it is particularly important for the operator to be able to quickly distin-
guish between more important or less important alarms, so they can then take the
adequate steps required for the respective situation.
The Radio Commander provides a number of convenient internal tools to make alarm
handling and alarm analysis easier for the operator.
8.2.1 Alarm Reporting and Alignment
The Radio Commander provides information about events / failures occurring in the net-
work entities and the Radio Commander itself (including mobile radio network internal
connection-related events).
Alarm reporting and Alarm alignment are coordinated by the Radio Commander for the
complete Siemens mobile radio network and mediated towards the NMC via communi-
cation over the RC-NMC interface.
Alarm Reporting
The Radio Commander generates alarm reports for each detected fault in the mobile
radio network. The format of the alarm reports is compliant to ITU-T X.733.
With respect to alarm indication, alarm logging and alarm routing, the Radio Com-
mander alarmreports are handled in the same way as the alarmreports coming from
the mobile radio network entities. The underlying philosophy for assigning alarmreport
parameters (e.g. perceived severity, event type) is the same for both Radio Commander
and mobile radio network entities.
Likewise, the semantics and syntax (alarmreport parameters, values, names) is homo-
geneous between all possible types of presentation at the Radio Commander and
LMTs. Thus the operator can easily match alarmreports of Radio Commander logfiles
and LMT logfiles for the same alarm condition.
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Alarm Alignment
Alarmalignment concerns only active alarms. An alarmis classified as active if it is out-
standing with a perceived severity of minor, major, critical or indeterminate (i.e. any se-
verity but cleared or warning).
In the BSS/RNS, active alarms are aligned under the following conditions:
• autonomously
– for all BSS/RNC/Node B after Radio Commander bring-up, if event reports were
discarded
– for a specific BSS/RNC/Node B after link failure between Radio Commander and
BSS/RNC/Node B, if event reports were discarded, or after BSC/RNC/Node B re-
start
– for a specific network entity (BTS site / TRAU) after interface link failure between
BSCand its subordinate network entities, if event reports were discarded, or after
BTSE/TRAU restart
• on operator request for either all BSSs/RNSs, one specific BSS/RNC/Node B or
specific network entities.
Alarms that are no longer active but still present in the alarm monitoring list are re-
moved from the list after the end of the alignment procedure.
During alarm alignment, the following requirements are met:
• alarm alignment procedure is indicated to operator
• although alarm alignment is in progress the operator has access to all BSS/RNS
network entities
• new active alarms are indicated to the operator
The Radio Commander also provides for an upload upon request and browsing of
alarm history from the BSC/RNC/Node B.
8.2.2 Alarm Monitoring List
Alarm monitoring lists can be opened either at the top-level, that is at the Application
Launcher, or at the managed object level (for example object BTS in BTS Sum panel).
In line with the Radio Commander’s concept of maximum flexibility, the operator can
opt to have only those alarms indicated which require a maintenance action.
During a GUI session, the Radio Commander itself places no limit on the number of
alarm monitoring lists that can be simultaneously opened, only system resources
might limit.
Alarm monitoring lists are updated immediately after any communication breakdown
or on demand. New active alarms can also be acoustically signalled.
Alarms are grouped into acknowledged alarms and not acknowledged alarms to
improve readability and ease of use. Once an alarm has been acknowledged by the
operator and ceased by the system, it will automatically be removed fromthe alarmlist.
To provide easier and quicker handling, it is possible to jump fromeach alarmdirectly
to the related managed objects.
Fig. 8.1 shows an Alarm Monitoring List:
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Fig. 8.1 Alarm Monitoring List, example
In an alarm list window, the alarm information is presented in the form of a table with
one row for each alarm and one column for each parameter, with comfortable sorting
possibilities. As with all Radio Commander list windows, it is possible to select alarms
entries in the list and to show the selected alarms in another window with a different lay-
out, without any filtering (detailed view).
The Radio Commander also offers alarm summarization based on alarm status and
summarization, see also “State Management” on page 65.
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Within the Radio Commander it is possible to indicate active/ceased alarms with the
following properties:
• The service is available from all objects that are represented as icons and that are
able to generate alarms. In this case the alarmlist comprises the alarms of that spe-
cific object.
• The service is available from each summary object. In this case the list comprises
the alarms of summarized objects.
Ceased entries include all information of the active alarm plus cease date and time.
8.2.3 Alarm Routing to External Devices
It is possible to route incoming alarms to alarm printers or to forward by file to external
tools (e.g post-processing tools) for additional analysis according to the following crite-
ria:
• Perceived severity
• Alarm category level
• Event type
• Network element
It is possible to use multiple destinations for alarm routing.
8.2.4 Auto-acknowledgement
On the basis of alarm severity, the system administrator may define in the configura-
tion settings, whether an alarm should be subjected to:
• Auto-acknowledgement by the system, or
• Manual acknowledgement by the operator.
For the auto-acknowledgement the following criteria can be configured:
• Whether the automatic acknowledgement is performed after the occurence or only
after the clearance of alarms
• Whether or not the alarm is auto-acknowledged after a definable time interval after
alarm occurence/clearance
• Only alarms of defined severity and/or alarm category level are auto-acknowledged
• Only alarms for a defined object ID are auto-acknowledged
• Auto-acknowledgement can be defined on base of the event type
• Auto-acknowledgement can be scheduled
When auto-acknowledgement is activated it is still possible to acknowledge alarms man-
ually.
8.2.5 Specific Alarm Category Level
In order to align alarm severities between different radio technologies and standards,
especially in a multi-vendor environment, the Radio Commander allows the operator to
define a specific alarmcategory level for each managed object instance. The alarmcat-
egory level indicates the urgency of the alarm from the network operator’s point of
view and comprises the following information:
• Immediate maintenance action required
• Deferred maintenance action required
• Maintenance action recommended
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This alarm category level attribute is configurable only at the Radio Commander. It
is added to each alarm report generated by the Radio Commander and by the telecom-
munications network.
If no alarmcategory level is specified for a managed object instance, then the perceived
severity value of the incoming alarm is used for a mapping, according to the following
table:
The alarm category level is logged together with the alarm report in the Radio Com-
mander alarm log and can also be used as a parameter for filtering. The alarm cate-
gory level is not valid for alarms with the perceived severity “warning”.
8.2.6 Adding of Comments to Alarms
The Radio Commander allows the operator to add operator-defined comments to
alarms (either by alarm record or by alarm type). It is also possible to add an operator
specific text to each alarm description and even to include it in online help texts.
This feature constitutes a major advantage for the operator, as it makes it much easier
for them to know what each alarm really means. In addition, operators can describe
alarms not only in their own words, but also in their own language, to provide tech-
nology independent definitions for all supported networks entities.
Text added specific alarm record is stored together with the alarm in the Radio Com-
mander alarm log.
8.2.7 Access to Alarm Manual from Alarm List
The Radio Commander provides access to the alarmmanual directly fromthe alarmlist.
The operator is then able to see the alarm manual entry concerned with the selected
alarm in the alarm list.
8.2.8 Event Forwarding Discriminators
The Radio Commander provides filter capabilities for the Siemens mobile radio net-
work internal interfaces:
• Radio Commander-NMC
• BSC-Radio Commander, RNC-Radio Commander, Node B-Radio Commander
• BSC-LMT, Node B-LMT
BSC/RNC and Radio Commander form an Open System, with the interfaces between
them being implemented as Q3 interfaces. The control of the alarm reporting service
using event forwarding discriminators is compliant with ITU-T X.734.
The control of the alarm reporting service implies the following:
• Initiate / terminate alarm reporting
• Alarm report discrimination
By default, one Event Forwarding Discriminator (EFD) is created to route all alarm
event reports generated from the BSS/RNC/Node B to the Radio Commander.
Perceived severity Alarm Category Level
critical immediate maintenance action required
major deferred maintenance action required
minor maintenance action recommended
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The discriminator construct is applicable for:
• Network elements (GSM), network entities (UMTS)
• Managed object class
• Managed object instance(s)
• Event type
• Perceived severity
• Probable cause
• Trend indication
• Specific problems
The Radio Commander provides user friendly methods for displaying / editing the
discriminator construct.
8.2.9 Alarm Harmonization
For the Radio Commander AlarmSurveillance concept, the general rule is to avoid mul-
tiple alarms for the same error.
This is why the Radio Commander provides improved alarmharmonization based on
the following:
• use of standardized probable causes according to GSM Rec.12.11
• use of standardized alarm report parameters according to ITU-T Rec. X.733/X.721
• correlation of alarm reports and state change reports
• unique identification of an alarm
• introduction of the alarm status for managed objects.
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8.3 External Trouble Ticketing
The Radio Commander offers advanced interfacing with external Trouble Ticketing ap-
plications in two different ways:
• GUI-integrated Interactive Interfacing with an external help desk / Trouble Ticket-
ing software allows assigning network troubles to the responsible authorities in in-
teractive operator dialog
• Automated Interfacing does not need operator attendance, allowing to export
problem information in unmanned RC operation, e.g. during night time with batch
processing and communication via files
Commercially available external help desk or Trouble Ticketing software such as the
"Action Request System" from Remedy Corporation, an efficient and widely-deployed
software for Trouble Ticketing applications, are supported by GUI-integrated interactive
interfacing. But other applications might also be used to work with Radio Commander's
comprehensive file system.
The Radio Commander interacts directly with the Trouble Ticketing Tools used to gen-
erate and assign steps by communication files - each using dedicated formats, respec-
tively. The subsequent phases are then treated by the trouble-ticketing system to be
configured as external applications under operator responsibility.
Radio Commander's GUI-integrated Trouble Ticketing module allows the identification
of network troubles and assigns them to the responsible authorities in interactive oper-
ator dialog. An ASCII file is generated automatically on Radio Commander's disk sys-
tem containing the active alarms. Using a suitable mapping this ASCII file can then be
read by an external trouble-ticketing tool and split into single tickets to be distributed to
the operating personnel responsible.
The Trouble Ticketing functions provide an important link in the O&M workflow chain of
a communications service provider, efficiently resolving failures and problems reported
by the Radio Commander or otherwise. The organization-wide information flow on cur-
rent network problems can be monitored and controlled centrally by the RC: either inter-
actively by a human operator or automatically by the Radio Commander system itself.
Unmanned operation of the feature allows for especially efficient use of valuable labor
resources.
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8.4 FM+ Package
The Fault Management plus (FM+) package consists mainly of one of the five modules
in the O&M ToolSet, that smoothly complement the core functions of the RC.
The alarm statistics and reporting module provides operators with the means to extract
indicators on network behavior that go beyond classic alarm monitoring.
Predefined and user-specified reports on alarms and events are offered for network
quality monitoring and preventive maintenance. For example, by using predefined re-
ports on severity, type, object and time interval with the trend analysis features, opera-
tors gain new insights into the health of their network.
The ad-hoc reporting capabilities, with the export interface, let operators investigate any
suspicious alarm and event occurrences.
The module enjoys all advantages of the O&M ToolSet to facilitate data collection and
organization. In addition, it is integrated in the security and user administration, the in-
stallation procedure and the maintenance region concept.
But the FM+ Package consists of even more than that.
The RC provides a scheduling mechanism to activate of diagnostics inside all network
elements according to CCITT recommendation X.745. Each test can be executed at a
specified time or periodically (e.g. for preventive maintenance during low traffic hours).
Another feature allows to detect cells and TRXs with no activity (‘Sleeping cells’), al-
ready at an early stage. So operators can start appropriate recovery actions in time and
keep service outages at an absolute minimum.
For the RC interface to commercial trouble ticketing solutions for enhanced fault diag-
nostics, see “External Trouble Ticketing” on page 79.
Finally, the Online RF (Radio Frequency) Loop Back feature allows operators to test the
complete RF signal path of a BTSE, including its cabling, connectors and OEM equip-
ment (e. g. boosters). This increases significantly the overall test coverage. Online RF
Loop Back is a patented software solution based on standard measurements, ensuring
low maintenance costs.
Here the most important functions of FM+:
• Scheduled import of alarms and events
• Import from several RCs
• Predefined reporting on alarms and events
• User-defined alarm and event reporting
• Presentation in tables and diagrams
• Export to file for post-processing (CSV, Excel)
• SQL interface to FM+ data
• Setting time windows for testing
• Sleeping cell and TRX detection within SBS
• Interface to trouble ticketing systems
• Online RF Loop Back testing
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9 Test Management
The tasks of the Radio CommanderTest Management (TM) function are to
• Apply and control tests, see “Test Administration” on page 81
• Monitor test execution, see “Test Monitoring” on page 81
• Log and present the final test results, see “Test Result Presentation and Logging”
on page 82
Testing extends only to hardware.
Responsible for the entire Siemens mobile radio network, the Radio Commander man-
ages or initiates testing, i.e. acts as test conductor. The tests themselves are executed
by the managed network entities, i.e., by the BSC, BTSE, TRAU, RNC and Node B.
As Node B 2nd platform(NB-2) does not support Test Management, hardware self tests
are performed during start-up. They can also be initiated by operators with a reset com-
mand.
Tests can be performed either scheduled or upon operator command. The Radio
Commander also allows routine tests to be scheduled by CLI script files.
The Radio Commander also ensures harmonization with an NMC.
9.1 Test Administration
The Radio Commander administers all of the tests available within the Siemens GSM
mobile radio network using dedicated test objects. Actions include:
• Start test, including parameter settings
• Stop test (not supported by Node B)
• Read the attributes related to tests (not supported by RNC and Node B)
• Schedule tests, a combination of daily, weekly and periodical is allowed
To ensure that there is no disturbance to ongoing operations, it is possible to initiate
an intrusive test only if the managed object to be tested is locked.
The Radio Commander allows 200 tests to be run at the same time.
For security reasons, it is also possible to define authorization profiles regarding on
the Test Management services (start test, stop test, read attributes).
Initiate tests
A Radio Commander operator can initiate tests for a specific object from the icon
representing that object, e.g. a hardware board of the BTSE such as the BBSIG.
The second way to initiate tests within a Siemens GSM mobile radio network is to use
an icon represening an object with Test Action Request Receiver (TARR) functions,
such as BSCE, BTSE, TRAUE.
Tests can also be initiated fromthe CLI. This is possible for GSMnetworks and UTRAN.
9.2 Test Monitoring
To inform the operator of GSM mobile radio networks about the progress of testing a
Test Monitoring List can be opened. It displays for each BSS all running tests initiated
from the Radio Commander, providing the following information:
• Performer Object (represented by symbolic name, if available)
• Object under test
• Test state
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• Start date
• Executed phases
• Failed phases
• Initiator (rcsysadm, nmcuser)
When opened, the Test Monitoring List contains all active tests. Operators can update
the list by simply pressing a reload button.
The following commands can be applied on the list entries:
• Stop test
• Read the attributes related to the test
For GSM networks, monitoring is also possible for a single managed object. In this
case the list will contain only one entry referring to the testing of the corresponding ob-
ject. Fig. 9.1 illustrates an example of a Test Monitoring List:
Fig. 9.1 Test Monitoring List, example
Information about tests running on an RNCcan be displayed via CLI upon operator com-
mand.
9.3 Test Result Presentation and Logging
There are two different views to have the test results presented:
• The standard list window is organized as a table, with one row for each report, and
one column for each test result parameter,
• The detailed view shows test results that have been selected by the operator.
GSM specific: The layout (i.e. the strings for test result parameters, values, names) at
the user interface is the same in all possible types of presentation regardless of the way
of retrieval at the RC and LMTs.
UMTS specific: Test results from Node B are provided in the response to the start test
command. They are transferred to the CLI only and not logged.
It is possible to retrieve test results in the following ways:
• directly from the log object
• from the objects from which tests can be initiated (GSM feature)
The Radio Commander logs all test result reports in accordance with ITU X.735.
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10 Performance Management
Full Performance Management capability for the Siemens mobile radio network has
been implemented in the Radio Commander. Thus, it provides comprehensive informa-
tion about all relevant parameters, allowing powerful performance analysis and produc-
tion of performance related post-processing statistics.
Performance measurement provides the operator with the necessary information for
efficient use of existing infrastructure and ongoing network optimization. Performance
measurement comprises:
• Traffic measurement, including both user traffic and signaling traffic
• Resource access and availability measurements
• Quality of service measurement (e.g. subscriber connection establishment)
The Radio Commander application Performance Management organizes the collection
of the data as well as their final presentation to the operator, including:
• Measurement data collection
• Measurement job administration
• Measurement storage and logging
• Measurement result data presentation of raw data for GSM
Performance Management helps to locate potential problems like capacity bottle-
necks as early as possible. In cooperation with Fault Management (identifying the
source of failure) and Configuration Management (changing routing and control param-
eters), it allows potential system failures to be avoided.
The Radio Commander provides all functions required for state-of-the-art performance
management, easily accessible via the Radio Commander’s user friendly GUI or via
CLI.
Performance measurement result data is generated within the network entities and can
be collected by the RC in different ways, according to the settings of the operator.
10.1 Measurement Job Administration
The Radio Commander’s Performance Management administration for GSM network
entities is based on the GSM recommendation 12.04. For UTRAN it is based on 3GPP
TR 32.404.
The Radio Commander is able to handle simultaneously up to 90 measurement jobs
(scanners) for each BSC and up to 100 measurement jobs (scanners) for each
RNC (with up to 5 scanners for each Node B).
All measurement data is administered by the Radio Commander offering:
• Several measurement types as predefined sets of measurements
• Scheduling the upload
the operator can specify a list of times for each day of a week when the upload from
BSC is to be performed, for RNC/Node B the operator can use the general com-
mand scheduler
• Selecting the type of identification of monitored object in measurement results
There are different options for the operator to administer performance measure-
ments:
• Interactively by command input via GUI
• By single commands (CLI)
• By executing command scripts containing the corresponding commands
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As both the GUI and the CLI implement mechanisms which minimize the input activi-
ties to be performed manually by the operator, the handling of measurement jobs is sig-
nificantly simplified.
Measurement types
To be able to carry out the necessary measurements, the operator can rely on pre-
defined measurement types containing performance measurement counters provided
by the Radio Commander.
Measurement job list
The Radio Commander provides all the information and all the operations related to
performance measurement jobs in one comprehensive list.
The list contains e. g. the following information:
• Symbolic name of the measurement job
• Administrative state
• Operational state
The CLI provides a specific command for retrieving the list of configured measurement
jobs.
All the scanner attributes, especially the monitored objects and the measurement
types, are displayed in a clearly structured form.
When creating or modifying a measurement job, the operator can enable or disable a
Self Adaptation of measurement jobs. Self Adaptation means, if a measurement con-
cerns all existing objects of a certain type, then as soon as a new object of that type is
created, it is monitored too, without further operator action.
When modifying a measurement job the operator is able to delete or add single items
from or to the list of measurement types or the list of monitored objects. In other words,
the operator has only to define measurement types and monitored objects once.
Scanner definition/handling
To achieve the results the operator wants, they may create a scanner.
Upon scanner creation the RC makes plausibility checks: Implausible inputs like an un-
known symbolic name or measurement types of different objects lead to the rejection of
the command.
Scanners for GSM networks:
Supported measurement types for scanning include
– BSC measurements
– BTS measurements
– BTSE measurements
– BTSIHO (Incoming handover) measurements
– BTSM measurements
– CTRX measurements
– BTSOHOI (Outgoing handover internal)measurements
– BTSOHON (Incoming handover neighbor) measurements
– GPRS measurements
– CHAN measurements
– SS7L measurements
– TRX measurements
Scanners for UTRAN networks:
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Supported measurement types for scanning include
– RNC measurements
– Node B measurements
– Handover measurements
– Cell measurements
– Different ATM measurements
This includes the following mandatory parameters:
• One or more measurement types (only types that monitor the same object may be
chosen)
• One or more measured objects (e.g. BTS, RNC)
• Granularity period
• Reporting type (only for GSM)
For improved readability, the operator may specify a symbolic name for each scanner.
The operator can perform several actions on an active scanner:
• Delete
• Retrieve the current state and status
• Retrieve the parameters
• Modify one or more parameters
• Set the administrative state
From the overview of measurement jobs, the operator is able to retrieve more informa-
tion about the scanners (e.g. granularity, start/stop date, objects defined, measures de-
fined,..).
When selecting the measurement types to be performed, the operator is able to get a
short description of each measurement.
This short description includes:
• Full measurement name
• Short explanation of what is being measured
• Counters within this measurement (e.g. handover causes) with explanations
• Operator hints (e.g. restrictions) where applicable
When a scanner is being created or the attributes of a scanner are being modified, the
Radio Commander will perform plausibility checks on the specified attribute values. If
the operator has entered an inadmissible value, they will be informed immediately.
Examples:
• Value range checks
• Consistency checks (e.g. correct combination of measurement types and observed
objects)
• Restriction checks (e.g. specification of measurement types which are not allowed
to report by event)
If restrictions apply (e.g. a measurement type must not be combined with the other mea-
surement types within one and the same scanner), all measurement types will be auto-
matically selected, with the exception of the one to which the restriction applies.
Granularity period
The granularity period determines the rate at which measurement data is collected
frommonitored objects during schedule periods. Supported granularity periods are 0, 5,
15, 30, 60 minutes. The scanning process is synchronized to full hours.
Additional granularity periods for UTRAN are 360, 720 and 1440 minutes.
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Scheduling of measurement jobs, GSM specific
For GSM networks the Radio Commander supports measurement job schedules.
A schedule determines the time frames during which a scanner will be active. The
operator defines the start and stop times. GSMmeasurement jobs can be scheduled on
a per day or a per week basis.
The definition of the schedules is fully compliant with GSM 12.04, Version 4.3.1., chap-
ter 3.2.1.2 “Measurement Schedule”.
Scan report
A scan report contains all the measurement results (collected at the end of a granular-
ity period) plus header information. Each scan report is time stamped and also con-
veys information about the validity and completeness of the measurement data:
Header information
• Scanner identification
• Time stamp referring to the end of granularity period
• Measurement set
• Monitored object list
• Granularity period
• Indication about completeness of the scan
Measurement result data
• Result values
• A validity indicator for each monitored object’s result value
By activating a scan report, the operator causes the scanner to perform an immediate
scan of all measurements; this does not affect periodic scanning.
Object grouping
When creating or modifying a measurement job the operator can select all or a group
of objects to be monitored (e.g. BTS, Node B) without having to select each object one
by one.
The Radio Commander makes it possible to mix group and single selection of ob-
jects. The operator may, for instance, select a group of BTSs and some single BTSs in
addition.
The terms All objects and Group of objects refer to objects configured in the BSS/RNS.
Automatic adaptation mechanism
The scanners on BSC/RNC/Node B can perform an “automatic adaptation mechanism”
for the list of monitored objects. A scanner, set to observe an object of a certain kind,
automatically includes/excludes a created/deleted object of this kind in its observation,
without any further operator action.
This also allows for adjacent cells, which need to be specified in separate measure-
ments. For Handover measurements Self Adaptation applies not to the cells themselves
but to the adjacencies.
The operator can enable/disable this Self Adaptation mechanism.
Symbolic names
When creating or modifying a measurement job the operator can select objects to be
monitored by their internal identification or by their symbolic name.
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The symbolic name can be defined, upon the export to an ASCII file.
This also allows for adjacent cells to be specified in some measurements. When using
symbolic names, the system offers a list of available objects to the operator.
Measurement grouping, GSM specific
The Radio Commander allows the operator to create self-defined measurement
groups containing one or more measurement types (measurement types themselves
cannot be created).
To define a measurement group, the operator has to specify the following information:
• The group name (from 1 to a maximum of 25 characters)
• A set of one or more measurement types
The defined measurement group is then saved on the OMP. It is available for selec-
tion the next time the operator creates a measurement job (on the GUI or the CLI). On
the GUI, it is presented for selection together with the available measurement types. The
groups are available for all users of the OMP, i.e. another user on another OMT may use
this group once it has been defined and may then use it independently on the BSS in
which the measurement job will run.
When selecting a measurement group, the operator will be given, instead of a measure-
ment description, the list of measurements contained in this group.
If a measurement group is used for the creation of scanners and the group is subse-
quently changed by the operator, the measurement jobs already created will not be
adapted.
Furthermore the operator can not only define measurement groups, but also delete self-
defined measurement groups once they are no longer needed.
10.2 Data Collection, Storage and Processing
Any kind of evaluation of system behavior requires performance data. Data can be
collected either periodically (according to a schedule established by the operator) or
on operator demand.
Measurement result data is reported to the Radio Commander
• by file (BSC/RNC/Node B log file upload).
• by event (event notification), for special GSM scanners
The Radio Commander collects the measurement reports sent by the BSC/RNC.
There are three different situations which may lead to the upload of the measurement
log file from the BSC/RNC/Node B.
• Operator initiated upload
• Scheduled upload
• Automatic upload, only if requested by a BSC (file threshold reached)
In all cases, the upload mechanism is identical.
The maximumsize of the measurement result files that the RC can handle depends only
on the storage and processing capability of the RC, which is scalable.
The operator is able to schedule the upload of measurement log files from the network
entities. It is possible to upload the files more than once per day and at different points
of time each day of the week, without affecting automatic upload mechanisms of BSC
measurements.
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The Radio Commander also provides measurements and presentation of internal per-
formance indicators. The purpose of these measurements is to measure mean and
peak loads within the RC in order to determine performance requirements of the and/or
to verify the ability of the Radio Commander software itself to handle a certain load.
The following measurements are supported:
• OMP/OMT processor load
• LAN load
• Throughput on the RC-BSC/RNC interface (including protocol overhead)
• Database transactions
The results of the RC local performance measurements are logged in a different log
than that of the performance measurements performed within the network elements.
For Radio Commander’s internal measurements commercially available standard tools
are used (e.g. perfmeter).
Data collection, GSM specific
Single measurement reports in GSM networks can be collected at the end of a
granularity period for scanners with reporting type ’by event’, or ’by file’, or as a result of
an operator’s request for current measurement values.
The operator may request current measurement values for measurements of a scan-
ner independent on the scanner’s attributes (e.g. reporting type). However, this will be
successful only if the scanner is collecting measurement data at the point of time this
service is activated.
Even though current measurement values are displayed on the screen, they are not
stored in the database.
BSC measurement log file
BSC logfiles are uploaded automatically when the log file occupation reaches a cer-
tain threshold.
The operator can also manage the size of the BSC measurement log file by
• Getting the current maximum log file size
• Setting a new maximum log file size
• Retrieving the current log file occupation
Additionally the operator is given an approximate estimate of the Performance Manage-
ment logfile daily usage. The size of the estimate depends on the amount and kinds of
attributes of the created scanners.
Performance measurement data storing/processing, GSM specific
In this context, logging means the storing of measurement result data in a DBMS. Raw
scan reports coming fromthe BSS will be subdivided, with each piece containing the fol-
lowing elements:
• Measurement result data fields for one measurement type and one monitored object
• Measurement type
• Monitored object identification
• Time stamp
• Granularity period
• Measurement job identification
• Validity information, BSS/RNS version
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The operator can configure the way monitored objects are identified in the measure-
ment result records. Possible criteria are
• BSS internal identification
• Symbolic names (where applicable)
• Use of a combination of the types of identification above
The result data field also contains additional information specific to certain measure-
ment types, e.g. identification of adjacent cells for measurements on cell neighborhood
relationships. For monitored objects the adjacent cells identification also consists of
symbolic name and BSS internal identification.
All fields are mandatory. Only the number of counters representing the measurement
result of one measurement type may vary depending on the measurement type.
The operator may choose the name of the file to which the data should be written.
It is also possible to delete measurement data from the measurement log for space
reasons. Single data items or complete sets of data may be deleted. The data may be-
long to
• A time interval
• One or more scanners
• One or more monitored objects
• A combination of the criteria above
Compact ASCII format
GSMmeasurement data can be stored on the hard disk. The measurement data can be
converted from the database format to a compact ASCII format upon operator request
(from the GUI and the CLI).
If required, the operator can convert only parts of the measurement data by specifying
filter criteria, such as
• A time range during which the measurements were collected
• One or more BSCs
• One or more measurement types
• One or more monitored objects
Database bypassing, GSM specific
Performance measurement results of the reporting type ’by event’ can be converted
and routed to an operator defined target process with or without storing the measure-
ment data also in the database.
The operator may choose between the following options for the measurement data:
• Only store in the database (default configuration)
• Store in the database and additionally convert and route to the operator defined pro-
cess
• Only convert and route to the operator defined process, thus no storage in the data-
base but bypassing is performed
The operator defined target process might be a postprocessing tool or a threshold
surveillance tool.
The operator may specify duplication and routing of measurement result notifications for
single scanners or for all scanners of single BSCs and all BSSs.
Performance measurement results of the reporting type ’by file’ may be stored on the
RC disk in flat file format, with or without inserting the measurement data also in the da-
tabase.
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By deactivating the storage of data in the database, the Radio Commander is able to
process large-volume BSC log files.
10.3 Presentation of Measurement Results
Incomplete and suspect measurement data is clearly marked within the measure-
ment presentation.
10.3.1 BSS measurement values
As a result of operator initiated requests, current BSS measurement values are pre-
sented immediately after receipt from the BSC on the GUI or CLI in a clearly struc-
tured form.
Measurement data is presented in one of the following forms:
• Table
• Formatted ASCII, after mediation by offline UNIX tool included in the Radio Com-
mander software package (provides predefined file format), or SQL on UNIX level
Selection of measurement results from the database
The measurement results logged in the RC database are presented on request.
The operator may define a filter for displaying only parts of the available measurements
according to
• A time interval
• One or more symbolic scanner names
• One or more measurement types
• One or more monitored objects including ranges of objects or all objects of a BSC
Filter criteria can be combined (AND, OR, NOT).
Table presentation
The tabular formof presentation provides all the information contained in the scanners
(scanner parameters) as well as the measurement results stored in the RC log file.
Customization of table presentations
In addition to the commonly available customization functions, the operator is able to
• Add additional text (e.g. headlines, comments) outside the table
• Activate/deactivate the suppression of suspect and incomplete measurements.
10.3.2 RNS measurement values
Measurement data can be displayed in formatted ASCII format.
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10.4 PM+ Package
The Performance Management plus (PM+) package is one of the five modules in the
O&M ToolSet, that smoothly complement the core functions of the RC.
The PM+ package puts performance and traffic analysis at the operators fingertips. Both
regular reporting as well as ad-hoc investigation of the PM information pool (counters,
scanners) is possible. The flexible reporting engine of the PM module can be used with
predefined or user-defined views. This includes the free definition of key performance
indicators and trend analysis to identify upcoming network operation needs.
The aggregated figures can be tracked online and compared with the thresholds for per-
formance alarming.
The module enjoys all advantages of the O&MToolSet for facilitating data collection and
organization. In addition, it is integrated in the security and user administration, and the
installation procedure.
Here the most important functions of PM+:
• Scheduled import of raw performance data
• Import from several RCs
• Predefined reporting with standard reports
• User-defined reporting, ad-hoc and periodical reporting
• Flexible formula editor for definition of tailored key performance indicators (KPI)
• Presentation in tables and diagrams
• Evaluation of measurement data of BSC, BTS (incl. handover, master), CHAN, TRX,
RNC, Node B
• Export to file (CSV, Excel)
• SQL interface to PM+ data
PM+ is available both for GSM and UTRAN.
10.5 Tracing
The Radio Commander provides comprehensive tracing facilities for GSMnetworks and
will support call tracing for UTRAN networks in UMR 3.5.
Tracing has to give information about activities of subscribers and system behavior, es-
pecially interesting when specific events occur within the PLMN.
With the help of Trace Management (TrM) operators can observe the system behavior
to get at the root of problems, detect potential problems and consequently optimize the
network performance.
Trace files produced in the network elements are normally uploaded to the RC in re-
sponse to an automated request and specifically in response to an operator request.
Trace files are stored on the RC as encoded binary files.
The Radio Commander provides a browser for viewing uploaded and converted trace
files both on GUI and CLI.
The Trace Management module of the O&MToolSet consists of innovative software ap-
plications that
• use the system immanent tracing capabilities
• present trace data in a customizable and user friendly way
Since reports are based on fundamental radio network parameters such as received
quality, received power level or timing advance together with the recorded link protocol
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messages, they report on a great variety of radio network situations traditionally only ob-
tained using test drives or link tracers.
For each BSS the RC can manage up to 16 traces. Of those 16 traces, up to 7 can be
IMSI traces.
IMSI traces always have precedence over Cell Traffic Recording (CTR). That means, if
already 16 connections are under trace, with every further IMSI to be traced (until the
maximum of 7 is reached) one CTR trace is deactivated.
10.5.1 Call Tracing, IMSI Tracing
IMSI Tracing is the collection of data related to one subscriber identified by International
Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). IMSI Trace is an important feature for operators to
trace
• subscriber complaints
• problematic network areas with test mobiles etc.
The Radio Commander provides comprehensive functions to manage and monitor trac-
es. IMSI data is collected by the network elements currently serving the subscriber. IMSI
data handovers between the mobile switching and mobile radio network elements are
also supported. In the case of handovers the target network elements are informed to
take over the tracing activities. This includes
• Collection of measurement data, e.g. for GSM networks in the BSC, and BTS, and
for UMTS networks in the RNC
• Generation of trace records
• Temporary storage of trace records in trace files in the BSC, or in the RNC
• Upload of trace files to the Radio Commander
IMSI Tracing in the Trace Management Module of the O&M ToolSet
Using a client or an internet browser operators have access to the following general
features:
• Trace Administration - Activate/Deactivate/Synchronize IMSI Trace in the HLRs
• Automatic Trace Data Collection, conversion of binary files into ASCII format, aggre-
gation and processing of fragmented files data (due to inter BSC handovers or file
size limit), enabling the complete call analysis evolution
• Import / Export of existing trace data files
• Powerful Call Trace Analysis, user definable tables and views, customizable repre-
sentation of information, e.g. combination of radio measurements and events allow-
ing quick problem detection
• Two profiles - O&Mand Optimizer Profile - and the ability to re-use the experienced
user settings upon new user creation
• Visualize or delete all the trace files at the RCs, import the files into the TrM server
• Geographical representation of the trace information (available as add-on module),
project- based feature
• Easy installation at the TrM Server and remote installation of the agencies at each
RC
The TrM module integrates seamlessly into the operational processes of the operator.
The possibility to remotely control all the system and the integration between the O&M
and the optimization departments simplifies the workflow in troubleshooting operations.
The user friendly GUI of the TrM module is available as a client or via internet browser.
The windows contain menu bars and tool bars, navigation areas with tree views, object
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overview and action status areas - apart from the trace analysis charts. The trace anal-
ysis charts themselves are also divided in three main areas, with a snapshot information
area, that refreshes regularily.
10.5.2 Cell Traffic Recording, CTR
The Cell Traffic Recording (CTR) offers advanced monitoring capabilities of the sys-
tem's behavior and the quality of service. Cell Traffic Recording provides comprehen-
sive information enabling the operator to efficiently monitor the system.
CTR traces collect data chronologically, giving a valuable and detailed insight into the
behavior of the system.
Whereas IMSI tracing is subscriber related, CTR is resource (cell) related. The data re-
corded is used to identify and fix specific problems which have been discovered in a cell
by - for example - performance measurements. But it might also be used to check the
behavior of a newly installed cell or after system upgrade.
CTR is local to the mobile radio network element, i.e. neither a trace invocation is re-
ceived from the mobile switching network nor is the mobile switching network informed
about any cell tracing activities. For each network element, e.g. a GSM BSS, up to 16
calls can be simultaneously traced (incl. IMSI traces). IMSI traces take
precedence over cell traces.
The operator activates a cell trace from the Radio Commander GUI or from the LMT by
command, specifying, for example, the cell in which the trace should run. At a given start
time the trace commences, tracing a specified number of calls. The recorded trace data
is temporarily stored in the network element. For example, for a GSM radio network,
trace data collected includes:
• BTS ID
• Trace type
• Start / end time
• BSC, TRAU, TRX IDs
• Measurement reports
• Radio channel types and descriptions
• Terrestrial Circuit Identification Code (CIC)
• Message contents (Abis, BSC-MS)
An active cell trace can also be deactivated at any time on a per cell basis. Tracing is
disabled for the whole network element: in the event of an overload situation; during a
system reset; in the event of hardware and / or software error.
Cell Tracing in the Trace Management Module of the O&M ToolSet
The TrM module applies innovative software technologies for an easy access to trace
data.
The CTR functions offer a set of predefined Cell Trace Analyses.
Using an internet browser operators have access to the following general features:
• Trace Administration - Activate/Deactivate/Schedule Cell Traces
• Automatic Trace Data Collection – conversion of binary files into ASCII format, pro-
cessing of fragmented files data (due to file size limit), aggregation and database
storage of main statistics and measurements reports
• Import / Export of existing Cell Trace Analysis files
• E-mail notification – As soon as data is available for analysis the operator receives
an e-mail notification
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• A set of predefined Cell Trace Analysis forms is available, allowing the operator to
select the counter and use filtering functions (e.g. Time advance or TEI values). The
operator can efficiently customize the report analysis and save it in "My Charts", in
a created folder, so that this specific analysis is available for later re-use
• User definable environment – Every user can fully customize the representation of
the information and save changes at the end of the session. Also new users can
profit by re-using experienced user settings.
• Two profiles – O&M and Optimizer profile, and the ability to re-use the experienced
user settings upon the creation of a new user
• Visualize or delete all the trace files at the RCs, import the files into the TrM server
• Easy installation at the TrM Server and remote installation of the agencies at each
RC
The TrM module integrates seamlessly into the operational processes of the operator.
The possibility to remotely control all the system and the integration between the O&M
and the optimization departments simplifies the workflow in troubleshooting operations.
The user friendly GUI of the TrM module is designed to support internationalization, the
default language is English.
Tables in the GUI of the TrM module support the ability to define and store user specific
filters, column size and visible columns in the user's profile. User specific filters are de-
fined per table and per user.
The Cell Trace Analysis area presents general statistics about the Cell Trace selection,
for example: Total number of calls, Number of dropped calls, Number of Measurement
Reports, Percentage of Calls with Handovers, Percentage of dropped calls, Number of
Handovers. Invoking an analysis opens a new CTR Analysis Window.
The CTR Analysis window allows the operator to view the available statistics for the se-
lected CTR. This windowcontains two navigation trees. The first tree allows the operator
to open a predefined chart analysis, where the operator can change the resolution of
statistics and filter them.
The second tree allows the operator to create folders and store all user definable charts
for later re-use ("My Charts").
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11 Security Management
To protect the O&M network against intrusion of unauthorized persons and, more
generally, against any malicious use, Radio Commander’s Security Management
provides the following features:
• user authentication
• authorization and access control
• reporting and logging of security related events
• administration of Security Management features
The appropriate assignment of access rights to the operating personnel is one of the
most important and sensitive tasks of Security Management. To provide the required
level of flexibility access is generally granted on a ‘per user’ base. As access rights for
each user can be specified down to individual network elements the system administra-
tor disposes of a very fine granularity for access right management.
An extremely valuable feature of Radio Commander’s Security Management is that var-
ious parameters can be used to grant access rights such that Security Management fits
perfectly to the operator’s workflow concept.
Special access rights are:
• full access rights at network element and System Management Function level
• time-controlled user access
• session control (abort and disconnect) by the system administrator
All of the above contributes to providing increased security and more flexibility in Se-
curity Management, both key requirements in multi-technology and multi-vendor net-
works.
The subsequent sections provide more details on all key Security Management features
of the Radio Commander.
11.1 User Authentication
Every user has to go through a two-step authentication procedure that includes en-
tering their user name and password in order to:
• Log in at UNIX level
• Log in at Radio Commander application level
i
However, if the user name and password are identical for both UNIX and the Radio
Commander, the second step will be performed automatically.
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Fig. 11.1 Login window, example
The authentication procedure applies to all users who request access, regardless of the
type of the operator interface (OMT, X-Terminals, other OMCs, NMC).
The enhanced password handling of the Radio Commander comprises:
• no display of passwords during input
• no transfer of password in plain text formbetween systems, not even between OMP
and OMTs, storage in RC databaseis encrypted
• format/content
– default minimum length of a password is eight characters
– case-sensitivity is supported
– pattern matching management, i. e. the Radio Commander may force the user to
select passwords that match a certain pattern (e.g. at least 3 numeric characters)
– password history checks, i.e. the last n password must not be used again by the
same user (n is configuable by the administrator)
– a “black list” of “dictionary words” not to be used as passwords can be kept by the
administrator, a check is made every time a user password is defined for the first
time or changed
• ageing management: a number of days can be configured by the
administrator for the valididity of the password, after the expiration of the password
users are only allowed to log in once to change their password
• passwords can be changed
– by the user, in two steps, with confirmation
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– by the administrator without knowledge of the previous password
• access disabling, after a configurable number of failed login attempts because of
wrong password (can be re-enabled by the administrator)
• accounts with expired password are blocked
User profile
A user profile contains, apart from user-specific information such as user name and
password, a reference to the specific authorization profile and additional parameters
such as time permissions or access flag.
Time permission
Time permissions are checked whenever a user logs in or a screen lock is released.
If the granted time interval expires while the user’s session is still active, it will not affect
the current session, but become valid only at the next log-in. The first action after the
granted time interval causes a security alarm.
To prevent an operator whose time interval has already expired from "extending" their
session by not logging out, the Radio Commander will also check the time permissions
whenever a screen lock is released (see also “Screen Locking” on page 102). If the al-
lowed time has expired, an unlock is not successful.
For details concerning the authorization profile see the following section, 11.2.
What all operators can do, regardless of their authorization profile, is to
• change their own password
• lock/unlock their own terminal
• list their own permissions (set of particular functions that the user is allowed to
access, as stated in their authorization profile)
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11.2 Authorization Profiles
Authorization is about defining and controlling various levels of access permitted to
specifically “authorized” people. Authorization profiles make sure that only authorized
staff will be able to perform specific operations.
The Radio Commander comes with default authorization profiles, such as:
• system administration, designed for administration tasks
• configuration, for Configuration Management tasks
• reading, allowing no configuration changes
• monitoring, for supervision only
The default profiles are unchangeable and cannot be deleted, for details refer to the
theory chapter of the online help. A Radio Commander system administrator has the
capability to define new authorization profiles online. Administrators are able to
create a new profile, and they can list, modify and delete those additionally defined
authorization profiles.
Fig. 11.2 shows how an authorization profile is created:
Fig. 11.2 Creating an authorization profile, GSM example
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To define a new profile, the systemadministrator only needs to select and combine var-
ious access permissions.
Authorization profiles with certain access permissions support the concept of manage-
ment areas. This is achieved by sub-profiles.
Permissions may refer to:
• Network entities
The amount of management capabilities accessible to a certain user can be restrict-
ed to particular network entities.
In respect of BSC, RNC, Node Bthe permission relates to specific instances. This
permission includes all contained managed objects.
In respect of BTSE/TRAU, the permission refers to the complete entity.
On the GUI, only the services of the network entities, which the OMT operator in
question is authorized to access, will be selectable.
On the CLI, the authorization for each command input will be checked by the Radio
Commander.
• System Management Functions
This makes it possible to define, for example FM users authorized only for Fault
Management; CM users authorized only for Configuration Management; or expert
users authorized for all management functions.
• Services and actions (e.g. SET, GET)
• Access to logging data.
11.3 Access Control
Common security services concerning authentication and authorization are available
with reference to ISO/IEC 10164-9 (X.741), independent of the access location (OMT,
X-Terminals, other OMCs, NMC). For event reports there is no X.741 access control.
An OMT can have access (X.25 (only GSM), LAN) to any remote RC running a compat-
ible Radio Commander software version if the security requirements are fulfilled. Only
one session at a time is allowed from one OMT to a remote RC, with no other sessions
running in parallel from this OMT.
All Radio Commander access control mechanisms are based on comprehensive se-
curity checks, as there are:
• Is the accessing terminal registered and unblocked?
• Is the accessing user registered and have they verified their identity correctly?
The Radio commander will not just “trust“ any remote system without checking on
the user who desires access. In the case of a TAC access request, the Radio Com-
mander operator needs to explicitly grant access (e.g. concerning starting time, time
interval, etc.)
Depending on the accessing systemand the user identity, the Radio Commander grants
the corresponding access rights.
If UNIX remote procedure calls are used for establishing terminal sessions, the realiza-
tion is based on Sun Microsystem’s secure remote procedure call system (RPCS). No
security mechanisms are used for CORBA connections between RC internal processes
and also not between RC and Node-B and external tools.
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11.4 Secure Communication within the UMTS O&M Network
The Data Communication Network ( DCN) carries the O&M traffic between the RC and
other UMTS network entities (RNC, Node B, other RC).
As a DCN may be implemented on top of some public transport networks, the complete
UTRAN O&Mtraffic has to be protected on wire to be secure. This is achieved deploying
IPSec boxes in the DCN.
Fig. 11.3 illustrates the management architecture of UTRAN.
Fig. 11.3 UTRAN management architecture
An RC communicates with an RNC via direct link. The communication between an RC
and a Node B is implemented on top of the link between the RC and the RNC and that
between the RNC and the Node B.
The use of IPSec is mentioned in the UTRAN security standards [3G 25.442] and [3G
32.101] for where a secure O&Mnetwork is required, leaving open the actual implemen-
tation. Using IPSec basically means
• there is a secure connection ("pipe") between the RC and the network entity
• employ IPSec tunnels for communication over an external IP network (not under the
carrier's control)
• employ IPSec tunnels for communication over the carrier's internal IP network to
protect against internal attacks
• firewalls with application proxies to protect internal platforms against external at-
tacks (e.g. denial of service)
Specific IPSec use
Radio Commander - RNC link: Installation of IPSec boxes between RNC and RC pro-
vides data security on wire between the RNC location and the RC.
Radio Commander - Node B link: This link consists of two parts: a link RC - RNC and a
link RNC - Node B.
– link RC - RNC is secured as described above
– link RNC - Node B is seen as reasonably secure as it is a kind of dedicated ATM -
link
11.5 Security Audit Trail
To be able to trace security-relevant events, the Radio Commander generates and
logs such events in the form of security records.
LMT
Radio Commander
Integration OMC-R + OMC-B
LMT
NodeB RNC
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The Radio Commander generates and logs security records within the RC database
The following events are generated and logged by default:
• User login/logout, if supported by the network entity
• Session lock/unlock
• Unauthorized command input (CLI)
• Security related administrative activities (user profile creation/change/deletion, user
permission change, user password change, time permission change (user inactivity
time))
• Blocking/releasing of LMT connection, if supported by the network entity
• Session abort by system administrator
• Deletion of logging data
A security record contains at least the following information, most of which can be used
as search keys for information retrieval:
• Cause of security alarm
• Alarm severity
• Correlated information
• Date/time of the security-relevant event
• User ID (user name)
• Event type
• Host name
• Session number
• Terminal address
• Affected user (e.g. for password change by system administrator)
The system administrator or another authorized user can select, display, print and ar-
chive (on external back-up media) the security records.
As a special security precaution, the display of a security record is also registered in
the form of a security record.
For general information about logging see “Log Management” on page 107.
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11.6 LMT Control
The Radio Commander is notified of every successful LMT login at a GSM network en-
tity (BSC, BTSE, TRAU). Additionally, the Radio Commander always has an overview
of all the logged LMT users.
On the OMT, LMT availability is displayed as an icon, contained in the panel of the net-
work entity to which the LMT is logically connected. The icon also indicates the following
different LMT connections:
• to BSC
• to BTSE/TRAU in local mode Phase 3
• to BTSE/TRAU in BSC remote mode
• blocked by Radio Commander
The OMP operator can block the LMT connection to a BSC (local or remote mode)
for LMT commands by
• a “forced” log-out during an active LMT session
• rejecting a new LMT login
The blocking is released
• if the OMP operator explicitly removes the LMT blocking
• if a failure of the RC-BSC link is detected by the BSC (after link re-establishment the
LMT connection will be blocked again automatically)
• after a fixed time-out
11.7 Screen Locking
The screen will be locked if:
• the user has not been active (no input) for a certain amount of time. This screen
lock time is configurable.
• the operator issues a lock command.
Screen locking is only available if the X-server is running on the OMT.
A screen lock can be released if the last user enters their UNIX password or by the UNIX
system administrator:
11.8 Forced Session Control
The Radio Commander system administrator can abort a
• user session at any time
• UNIX session of a specific OMT.
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12 Software Management
The System Management Function Software Management covers the following two
main functions in the Siemens mobile radio network:
• Import and export of files from/to external media
• Administration of the network entity software (activation, initiating/controlling the dis-
tribution of software loads/patches, ensuring a faultless version change, handling
parallel versions)
With the help of RC’s comprehensive Software Management features, operators can
upgrade Siemens Radio Access Network software to a new release with minimal
manual impact even from a remote site.
The Radio Commander Software Management functions offer the following services for
all supported network entities respectively:
• File import/export/administration on the RC (see “File Import/Export/Administra-
tion on the RC” on page 103)
• Complete software downloads from Radio Commander disk to
BSC/RNC/Node B, including all associated patches. Initiation of software down-
loads from BSC to BTSE/TRAUE (see “Download and Upload between RC and
BSC/RNC/Node B” on page 104)
• Administration of software loads and patches (delete, change states of software
loads, display version information) (see “Storage and Administration of Software on
BSS/RNS” on page 106)
12.1 File Import/Export/Administration on the RC
To prepare for a software upgrade the Radio Commander provides wide-ranging
import functions to read all kinds of files from external devices. The following devices
can be used
• Bulk storage devices (e.g. 150 MB-streamer, DAT or EXABYTE)
• Floppy disk (UNIX and DOS formatted)
• CD-ROM
Imported files will be written to the hard disk of the host specified in the command.
For software downloads to the network entities the Radio Commander also provides
comfortable export functions for all kinds of files. File export is possible to bulk storage
devices and floppy disks.
To be able to choose the right destination or to perform completeness checks (e.g. for
software versions), The Radio Commander lets the operator select one of the following
types of files for import/export:
– Complete software versions
– Single software images (executable file for one processor), GSM only
– Patches
– RC configuration data (e.g. Radio Commander settings, X.25 address)
– BSS/RNC/Node B configuration data (database files)
– Inventory data files (IDFs)
– Other files, e.g. script files (such files can also be imported via commercial tools, e.g.
File Manager)
Before starting to import or export one or more files, the Radio Commander checks
whether or not there will be sufficient free space on the destination side. If not, the
import or export will be aborted sending the relevant error message.
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Administration of files stored on the Radio Commander
To administer common files stored on the disks of OMP and OMT, the state-of-the-art
file management tool X.11 File Manager is provided. It can be used on UNIX machines
with X-window systems. Command execution depends on the UNIX authorization level
of the operator.
On the Radio Commander it is allowed to store at the same time:
• more than one RC software version, limitation is the disk space
• more than one software version for each BSS / RNC/ Node B, limitation is the disk
space
In addition to normal file handling, there are some specific commands for the handling
of complete software versions stored on the OMP disk:
• list all installed software versions (filter: network entity type)
• list the contents of one software version (header file, software images, patches)
• delete a complete software version
• copy a complete BSS / RNC, Node B software version from one RC to another
• transfer package of RC software versions on the OMP disk
GSM specific: To ensure consistency, the RC performs completeness checks on soft-
ware versions involved in an operation. If all the files of a software version are available
(software load header, software images, additional files for compatibility checks, e.g.
VAM), the check is considered successful. The check is executed automatically:
• after import of a software version from external devices
• before export of a complete software version to external devices
• before download to the BSC
• before copying a complete version on the RC disk.
If the check result is negative, the operator is informed accordingly.
12.2 Download and Upload between RC and BSC/RNC/Node B
The Radio Commander features a comprehensive set of facilities for file transfer be-
tween RC and the network entities.
Uploads from BSC/Node B can be scheduled using the general CLI/GUI facilities.
12.2.1 Download Operations
Software downloads from a central point in the system help to speed up and simplify
the distribution of software throughout the BSS/RNS and to ensure consistency.
Software Download from the RC to the BSC/RNC/Node B
The RC offers commands for a transfer of software loads, data files,.. from the RC to
connected BSC/RNC/Node Bs.
It is possible to download:
• complete software versions of network entities, or
• single files (e.g. patches)
If a software image is already present in the destination directory on a BSC disk, the op-
erator will be informed accordingly. Operators have to delete an existing software im-
age, before starting a download.
The Radio Commander also allows downloads to be made to several
BSC/RNC/Node Bs at the same time.
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Compatibility check, as available with UMR 3.5: Before a download is started, the RC
checks the compatibility of a software load or a database type with the type of the net-
work entity. This helps to avoid unnecessary downloads.
Unforced download, as available with UMR 3.5: The possibility of unforced download
helps to reduce the download time and the activities of the network element controllers
so that outage times may be avoided. Unforced means that only those modules which
are not already there are downloaded. The systemitself selects the necessary modules
from the complete software version.
Download of Software from the BSC to the BTSE and TRAU
Files downloaded from RC are stored on the BSC disk. From the RC, the operator can
start a download of a complete software version from the BSC to the BTSE or to the
TRAU.
Parallel download and upload between RC and BSC/RNC/Node B
During a software download it is possible to start an upload of a performance data file.
So, for one BSC/RNC/Node B, it is possible to have one upload and one download op-
eration at the same time.
Effects on call processing and O&M commands caused by software download
There is no impact on call processing or on the execution of O&M commands during a
download operation from the RC to the BSC/RNC/Node B. There is also no impact on
the download from the BSC to BTSE or TRAU if the download was started via operator
command.
12.2.2 Operator Control of Loading Operations
From the RC, the operator is able to control and get feedback on loading operations
being performed.
Control of parallel download jobs
The RC operator can control concurrent download jobs to different BSS/RNS. That
means a download of software to multiple network entities or upload of perfor-
mance data files from multiple network entities is possible simultaneously.
Buffering of download/upload jobs
If a download or upload job is running, all subsequent requests are buffered for sequen-
tial execution, ensuring that no jobs are lost.
Abort a download or upload job
The Radio Commander allows the operator to abort running download or upload jobs at
any time.
Indication of file transfer progress
The progress of a file transfer between RC and BSC (download and upload) is indicated
on the RC in percentage values.
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12.3 Storage and Administration of Software on BSS/RNS
One Radio Commander software version is able to handle different BSS / RNC, Node B
software versions simultaneously by also including their different database versions,
limitation is the disk space.
This feature is especially useful during software upgrades when the new Radio Com-
mander software version supports the current and previous BSS / RNC, Node B soft-
ware version.
General file handling and administration of the BSC/RNC disk
The BSC/RNC disk can be administered via commands from the Radio Commander.
The following common functions are supported:
• Format BSC disk (only one system administrator should have the permission to do
this)
• Create and remove directories (supported for RNCon a limited area by generic FTP)
• Move and copy files (supported for RNC on a limited area by generic FTP)
• List the contents of a directory (supported for RNC on a limited area by generic FTP)
• Delete files (supported for RNC on a limited area by generic FTP)
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13 Log Management
With its extensive logging capabilities the Radio Commander’s Log Management per-
fectly meets the demand for advanced quality assurance post analysis. Log Manage-
ment is one of the key Base Services (see “Logical Layers” on page 26).
Not only does Log Management offer services that are important for all System Man-
agement Functions provided by the Radio Commander, but in storing information
about events, it provides the basis for analytical and statistical activities.
The Radio Commander’s Log Management application is implemented entirely in ac-
cordance with ITU X.735, offering:
• Administration of log instance attributes, suspension/resumption of logging activity
of a log instance (see “Log Instances” on page 107)
• Browsing / deletion of log records (see “Log Records” on page 109)
For example, the Radio Commander offers operator-definable network entity event
logging (e.g., per BSC), including discriminators for easy analysis.
To be able to provide all of these logging functions, the Radio Commander relies on a
commercially available relational database.
The Radio Commander database management system (DBMS) guarantees:
• Data integrity of the contents (i.e., log records) of all of the created log instances
• Flexible key selection for the retrieval of log records of one log instance
13.1 Log Instances
The Radio Commander allows each type of event received from the Radio Command-
er itself and fromthe network elements to be logged. The event is received in a separate
log instance.
Since a separate log instance is defined for each event type, it is also possible to have
a separate log administration for each event type, for example for
• Alarm reports
• Performance measurement reports (not for UMR 3.0)
• Configuration change reports
• Security event reports (not for RNCand Node B, although RCinternal security event
reports are provided for UMR 3.0)
• Test result reports
• Commands (although, strictly speaking, commands are not events)
• Software event reports
Relying on these dedicated log reports, log administration becomes more flexible and
easy for the operator to handle. The definition of more than one log instance for one
specific type of event report is also permitted.
A log instance is defined by a number of attributes providing in-depth information about
all logged events. It includes:
• Log ID
identifies the log instance
• Discriminator construct
specifies the condition an event must satisfy to be logged
A discriminator construct has the following properties:
– operates on all information elements of the event report that is a subject
for logging
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– allows by default the logging of all events (of the event type related to the log in-
stance)
• Administrative state
The administrative state attribute indicates the operator-determined capability of
the log instance to create new log records. Allowed services are GET and SET.
The administrative state can assume one of two values:
– Unlocked: operator permits logging, i.e. creation of new log records is possible.
(Unlocked is the default value)
– Locked: operator prohibits logging; no creation of new log records permitted, but
retrieval of old ones and administrative services on log instance attributes are
possible
In the case of a state change, a state change notification and an appropriate entry
in the corresponding log is generated.
• Operational state
The operational state attribute indicates the systemdetermined operability of the
log instance. The only allowed service is GET.
The following values are defined:
– Enabled: the log instance is partly or fully operable; retrieval of log records and
administrative services on log instance attributes are possible; new log records
may be created dependent on other log attributes
– Disabled: log instance is fully inoperable
In the case of a state change, a state change notification and an appropriate entry
in the corresponding log is generated.
• Availability status
The availability status attribute indicates the systemdetermined availability of the
log instance. The only allowed service is GET.
• Current logsize
Specifies the current size of the log file in percentages of the maximum log size
• Max logsize
Specifies the maximum size of the log in mega bytes.
• Log full action
The log full action attribute specifies the action to be taken when the maximum size
of the log has been reached. Possible values are wrap or halt.
• Number of records
Specifies the current number of entries within the log instance
• Capacity alarm thresholds
One or more capacity alarm threshold can be set (in percentage terms of the maxi-
mum log size) to generate a specific alarm before the maximum log size is reached.
Creation / deletion of RC log instances
One log instance for each record type (e.g. for alarm reports) is created automatically
by the Radio Commander.
Such automatically created log instances cannot be deleted.
However, the Radio Commander allows the operator to individually create and delete
additional log instances.
For the purposes of system security, the Radio Commander supports user (authori-
zation) profiles for the administration of RC log instances (creating, locking, deleting).
Typically, only the system administrator has write permission for log instances.
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13.2 Log Records
Every log record (in accordance with ITU X.735) contains the following information:
• Log record ID: unique identifier of the log record within the scope of the log instance
• Logging time: specifies the creation time of the log record
• Full information: contained in the event report itself
For the purposes of logging, a specific type of log record is defined for each specific type
of event report type (e.g. state change event reports -> state change log record)
The Radio Commander creates a log record automatically if the following conditions
are fulfilled:
• received event satisfies the discriminator condition
• administrative state (AST) of the log instance is unlocked
• operational state (OST) of the log instance is enabled
• maximum size of the log file is not yet reached or logFullAction is set to wrap
Log record browsing/retrieving
The Radio Commander supports search keys for the browsing of log records. Such
search keys apply to:
• Every information element contained in a log record with the exception of
– measurement counters for scan log instances
– attributeList field for browseBSClogfile / browseNElogfile
• Every log record contained in the same log instance
• Every log instance of the same record type
For the purposes of system security, the Radio Commander supports the definition of
user (authorization) profiles for the retrieval of specific log record information ele-
ments.
In order to provide as much flexibility as possible in the processing of log information,
the Radio Commander allows the export of retrieved log records to the following desti-
nations:
• Formatted output (table) on the GUI and printers (the format is operator definable)
• Output in ASCII files on external storage media
• Output on a standardized SQL interface for post-processing (e.g., statistics), see
“Data Access Interface” on page 123.
Log record deletion
In principle, it is possible to delete all of the log records, for all log instances.
To comply with systemsecurity standards, it is possible to define access rights to the
logging data in user authorization profiles.
13.2.1 Alarm Logging
As with every other log record, an alarm log record contains the following information:
• Log record ID:
unique identifier of the log record within the scope of the log instance
• Logging time:
specifies the time the log record was created
• Content of alarm event report, in accordance with ITU X.733 (e.g., event type, per-
ceived severity)
As with all log records the RC includes symbolic names, if they were defined.
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In addition, however, an alarm log record provides the following information that may
turn out to be useful for alarm handling:
• Additional text (optional, if entered by the operator)
• Time of alarm-ceased condition
• Time of acknowledgement
• User name of operator who acknowledged the alarm
Alarm log records can be retrieved from every object that can send alarms, with the re-
sult shown on the GUI.
The figures below show examples of alarm log records.
Fig. 13.1 Alarm Log records, GSM example
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Fig. 13.2 Alarm Log records, UMR example, sector
Retrieval of alarm event reports from the Radio Commander log can be used for:
• Generation of alarm statistics (based on SQL-retrieval only)
• Formatted output on screen or printers (GUI, SQL)
• Output in ASCII files on external storage media (GUI, SQL)
• Transfer to OS by file transfer service (based on SQL-retrieval only)
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13.2.2 Command Logging
Apart fromlogging all actual events, the Radio Commander also offers logging of all op-
eration and maintenance commands. This Radio Commander feature can, for exam-
ple, be used to record modifications of the configuration data for network elements and
Radio Commander, and to enhance the functions of Configuration Management. The
logging mechanism and degree of logged information depends on the network entity
concerned.
Command logging covers commands and additional information (e.g. user name of
the operator, time stamps).
The Radio Commander also supports the structured retrieval of commands selected
by search keys.
In accordance with the relevant ITU standards, the Radio Commander interprets com-
mands as local system notifications. Each command executed without syntax errors
results in two log records being written: one record indicating that a command has been
issued, the second one recording the command results.
The logging functions apply for all commands issued by the operator from the Radio
Commander. Optionally, it is also possible to discriminate certain commands in the
course of the logging procedure (e.g. of GET commands). However, command logging
does not apply to SQL and UNIX commands. The interfaces for command input by the
operator are GUI or CLI, including script files.
Apart from the command itself, the following information is stored for every com-
mand, just like for every other log record:
• A log record ID
• A time stamp when the record was logged
In addition, the log record will contain the following information:
• User ID on the UNIX level
• A time stamp when the command was issued
• Final state of command execution (successful or failed).
User specific command history
Operators are offered a user specific command history list. The maximum number of
commands kept in the command history is 300.
The user interface offers the retrieval of commands for modification and re-execu-
tion. Commands started via GUI are also available as CLI commands and vice versa.
The user specific command history list contains the state of execution:
– accepted
– in progress
– cancelled
– failed
– successful
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13.2.3 Upload of BSC/RNC/Node B log files
Upon operator command the Radio Commander loads up the complete logging informa-
tion from a BSC/RNC/Node B.
• BSC: The BSC log file can be uploaded and displayed on operator request. The file
is presented to the operator in ASCII format. A new upload of a BSC log file over-
writes a previously uploaded one.
• RNC: The RNC internal logs are uploaded to the RC by a single command.
• Node B: The Node B internal logs are stored in an ASCII file within the Node B.
A new upload of a log file overwrites a previously uploaded log file, if it is of the same
log type and the same Node B.
The Radio Commander supports authorization profiles for the upload of the log files.
The log records that are contained in uploaded log files from network elements are not
stored in RC log records.
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14 High Availability
High reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) are of overall importance.
High availability, achieved by reducing downtime to a minimum, is one of the key advan-
tages of Siemens mobile radio networks. Even though a downtime of the RC does not
affect the network entities and therefore call processing can continue undisrupted, the
RC itself is also designed to be continuously accessible and useable.
How the RC accomplishes this is outlined in “System Concepts” on page 115 and in
“Data Safeguarding” on page 117.
14.1 System Concepts
The RC is designed as a resilient system, which means it is designed to minimize
downtimes - both planned and unplanned.
All essential OMP components can be redundantly implemented so that all tasks of a
failed component can be taken over by another one without manual intervention. Easy
installation, upgrade and migration strategies keep planned downtimes at a minimum.
The high availability concept makes use of internal hardware redundancy and self-
recovery, which is provided by the Sun server family.
The Sun servers represent one of the highest fault-resistant systems in their class. The
redundancy strategy covers e. g. redundant network interfaces and mirrored, redundant
storage devices, too.
RC internal OMP hardware redundancy is available for:
• main processor boards with processor and RAM (with load sharing)
• hard disk
• power supply and cooling
• I/O-boards
• communication boards
OMP configurations that supply full redundancy (N + 1) even for the maximum capacity
figures are possible.
In addition to the internal hardware redundancy of Sun Enterprise 4500 and Sun Fire
4800 the Sun Fire 4800 offers availability benefits with Dynamic System Domains and
Dynamic Reconfiguration. These features depend on the configuration of the operator.
Dynamic System Domains allow a single system to be divided into separate, virtual
servers, each running a copy of the operating environment with exclusive use of own I/O
devices. Because of the domains that are logically separated systems, each of the
domains is isolated from the effect of hardware related or software induced errors that
occur in other domains. This helps to prevent an application error or system fault within
one domain affecting the operation of applications running in other domains on the same
system.
By implementing a system using redundant Sun Fireplane switches, the system can
continue operation (upon reboot) even if one switch fails. The switchboards are hot
swappable and allow an interconnect-level failure to be addressed and repaired while
the system continues to operate.
Each domain is capable of running a different version of the operating system software,
making the domains very useful for testing of applications or system software.
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Using the Dynamic System Domains, it is possible for operators to run a GSM and a
UMTS Radio Commander application simultaneously on one hardware platform.
Separate modules for power and cooling purposes are responsible for the entire sys-
tem. Temperature sensors are placed throughout the system in order to measure tem-
peratures on processors and key ASICS as well as the ambient temperature at several
locations.
Each power supply has its own power cord. The power supplies are hot swappable, and
an intelligent power switching mechanism automatically switches over to remaining
power supply modules, upon failure or removal of a power supply. A sophisticated
Redundant Transfer Unit (RTU) can choose between power sources, and enables con-
nection of Sun Fire cabinets with two independent power sources via a pair of integral
Redundant Transfer Switches (RTS). Operators can connect power feeds with an unin-
terruptible power supply (UPS), or utilize isolated power grids from different power
sources.
Dynamic Reconfiguration enables changes to the system's hardware resources while
the system is running. System downtime can be avoided since components such as
CPUs, memory and I/O subsystems, can be added to and removed from a running sys-
tem. Resources may be added to a systemin order to increase capacity on an as-need-
ed basis, esp. for avoiding downtime occurrences while the systemis needed the most.
Failed components are automatically detected and taken out of operation, allowing re-
placement to be scheduled. The Error Correction Code (ECC) protection of data in-
creases the data integrity throughout the system.
Enhanced Automatic System Recovery (ASR) quickly reconfigures the system to
substitute a failed component. This approach prevents faulty hardware fromcausing re-
peated failures or keeping an entire system down. Various hardware components are
tested when the system is first powered on, or when an external reset is generated.
The Sun System Controller implements clear distinctions between platform and domain
administration that is enforced by secure passwords and access-control list mecha-
nisms. For example, within a single platform, different systemadministrators can admin-
ister their domains. Each domain administrator has the rights and responsibilities to
manage own resources, while platform administrators retain responsibility for overall
system resources. These roles are flexible and can be adjusted as required.
Sun Management Center Software uses a three-tiered, client server architecture to pro-
vide a high level of scalability. The three tiers in the software architecture consist of con-
sole layer, server layer and agent layer. By utilizing an object-centric, dynamic,
intelligent design, the system enables processing to be done at the source where the
managed object is located. By distributing management intelligence, the system en-
hances the reliability, availability and serviceability of the enterprise network. The sys-
tem employs autonomous agent technology, a technique in which agents are not
dependent on other software components.
Possible failure behavior
• Faults on one CPU board concern both separate elements mounted on the board
e.g. CPU and RAM or board circuitry. System behavior can be one of the following:
– The OMP panics e.g. after a system process crash. The OMP reboots automati-
cally using the embedded automatic system reconfiguration mechanism. The
OMP usually isolates the failed board.
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– An application crashes e.g. after an application process crash. The application is
recovered according to internal recovery policies applied by the safeguarding pro-
cess.
– The OMP hangs e.g. after process crash of a critical application. The intervention
of the system administrator is required.
• In case of an I/O board fault the second board is able to provide all functions.
• The power supply of Sun servers is fault tolerant, provided that the server is fully
configured. In case of fault, the OMP does not crash, but usually remains up and
running.
• In case of a system disk board fault, it is distinguished between the disk drive fault
and the disk board fault (circuitry). As for disk drive faults, the OMPis absolutely fault
tolerant. In particular, even in case of a fault of the drive of an operating systemdisk,
the OMP keeps running. As for disks board faults where the operating system is in-
stalled, the OMP automatically reboots, and uses the embedded Automatic System
Recovery (ASR) configuration mechanism. The OMP usually isolates the failed
board.
• As for external disk faults, the OMP is absolutely fault tolerant, thanks to the mirror-
ing.
• For a GSM system link failures on communication boards concern either X.25 com-
munication board or PCM board. In case of total link failures on the X.25 communi-
cation board, the OMP behaves as follows: the links with BSC go down, the X.25
network is not stopped, and the standby X.25 communication board restores the
links with the BSC. In case of total link failures on the PCMboard, the OMP behaves
as follows: the links with BSC go down, the X25 network is not stopped, the leased
line is switched over to the standby PCM board, and the links of the BSC are re-
stored on the standby PCM board.
OMT redundancy
The redundancy of OMTs is provided by adding supplementary OMTs with the possibil-
ity to start a graphical session on an RC.
Overload handling
An overload handling is supplied, which prevents the system not only from crashing in
overload situations, but allows a basic level of operation even in overload situations.
Disaster recovery
In addition to this a spare OMP can have the complete RC software installed to cope
with disaster at an OMC, i.e. complete loss of an OMC for more than 12 hours.
14.2 Data Safeguarding
In order to ensure that any downtime causes the minimum disruption the RC utilises a
number of data safeguarding methods. These include a fully integrated network backup
and disk mirroring.
Fully integrated network backup
The fully integrated network backup releases the operator from routine activities.
Both online mode and offline mode are possible. Backup activities are performed in
online mode, running in a shared environment and thus reducing the systemresources.
Data restore and recovery activities are usually executed in offline mode. Online restore
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is possible for files that have no direct influence on the running application or the files
will be stored in parallel in a different directory.
The networking environment support is fully compatible to the client-server architecture.
A high scalability of all functions is supported in all RC configurations. Backup activities
are executed in different RC configurations under a similar backup session configura-
tion. According to the high scalability the same backup quality level is maintained in dif-
ferent RC configurations.
A single administration and management access point supports the centralized ac-
tivities of the RC network backup system. This offers a single location for storing config-
uration data files, a single scheduling point for all backup activities commanded, and a
single monitoring point for all backup activities executed.
The more advanced backup functions which the RC network backup system provides,
concern the different types of backup levels i.e. full or incremental, the multiple
scheduling system which is supporting calendars, levels, users and groups, the
functions for the labeling, synchronizing and expiring media access and the functions for
indexing and expiring the media contents.
Operators can configure the following parameters for backup:
• source (OMP or OMT)
• destination device (can be locally connected or via LAN)
• definition of data to be saved
– complete partitions
– directory trees / sub-trees
– configuration data of BSC, BTS, TRAUE, RNC, Node B (stored on RC, e.g. via
upload).
– installed software loads (RC, network elements and entities)
• incremental or full backup
The backup procedures can run as batch jobs.
In a situation of disaster recovery, an integration activity is provided between the OS
data restore session and the data restore and recovery session, i.e. concerning user
data and RDBMS data.
Backup of the user data is performed in a full or incremental backup session. The data
is stored in a common partition by using different scheduling times, e.g. monthly full
backup and daily incremental backup. The backup of the RDBMS data is performed in
a full backup session by using a scheduled frequency, e.g. weekly full backup. The
backup of the redo logs and data archived is performed in a full backup session by using
a scheduled frequency e.g. daily full backup. After the data saving session has complet-
ed, the archived redo logs and data archived are erased.
Predefined backup scripts can be provided for
• complete OMP installation (OMP-software and configuration data)
• OMP configuration data (including addresses etc.); full or incremental backup
• OMT software kernel
• OMT version specific software
• operator specific modifications (e.g. additional manual entries
• user specific data (environment; e.g. for distribution to another RC)
Disk mirroring
Internal disk mirroring secures the Radio Commander against hard disk failures. This
feature can be handled by the operator on system command level.
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Hard disk mirroring enhances data availability. A mirror copy of the data is kept trans-
parently on another disk and automatically used in the event of a hardware failure. Mir-
roring provides complete data redundancy for the server. Online system recovery is
supplemented by the use of a hot spare utility, which automatically replaces online failed
mirror components. This facility migrates new partitions in order to replace the failing
ones. Users are still supported by the surviving copy of the data, and a new mirror is
automatically generated. Users can continue working even if there is a disk or controller
failure. Data is kept accessible and its organization continues.
The OMP configuration with disk mirroring is introducing storage devices with SCSI con-
trollers on separate I/O boards. The storage device technology leads to, a system fault
tolerance in case of an external disk fault, a system fault tolerance in case of multi-pack
power supply fault, and a preservation of data in case of hardware failure. Every disk
inside the pack is enabled for hot plugging, and can be replaced while the system is up
and running. Improved systemflexibility, scalability and reliability follows thereof. The in-
troduction of SCSI controllers on separate I/O boards leads to, a system fault tolerance
in case of SCSI controller fault, a prevention of data corruption in case of I/Oboard fault.
Thereon the SCSI chain can be interrupted without loss of service when the system is
up and running.
As can be easily seen fromthe point of view of recovery, disk mirroring prevents the stop
of services in most cases. Fromthe point of view of maintenance, in the case of a single
OMP without mirroring, the systemmay always be restarted only after the fault has been
repaired. While in the case of disk mirroring, maintenance requires no stop of service
when the failure is located on the storage device. Actually, the storage device in fault
may be isolated and detached from the rest of the system, subsequently repaired and
reinserted again without shutting down the system itself.
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15 External Interfaces
This chapter gives an overview of the most important facts of the external interfaces of
the RC:
• RC-BSS interface
The interface between RC and BSS is a Q3 interface according to GSM
12.xx series Phase 2.
The management information is modeled with reference to GSM Recommendation
12.20 Phase 2.
• RC-RNS interface
The interface between RC and RNC is a Q3 interface, the interface between RC
and Node B is a CORBA interface.
The management information is modeled with reference to 3GPP TS25.xxx / Rel.4,
respectively 3GPP TS32.xxx / Rel.4 where applicable.
• RC interface to the Switch Commander
The RC will support a remote login of Switch Commander operators.
• RC-NMC interface, see “RC-NMC Realtime Q3 Interface” on page 121 and
“Security Management by the NMC“ in “Data Access Interface” on page 123
• Offline interfaces to external applications, see “Offline Interfaces” on page 123
The chapter starts with “General Principles” that apply to all external Interfaces of the
RC.
Then, the interfaces that are especially interesting for operators, are presented in
special sections: The online interface RC-NMC, see page 121, and the offline interfaces
to post processing tools and radio network planning systems, see page 123.
15.1 General Principles
The RC supervises its connections to external systems (e.g. OMC/N, NMC, CBC)
or devices (terminals, alarm devices).
The protocol stacks for transferring information between the RC and the BSS/RNS or
other NMC/OMCs use standardized protocols, procedures and services for TMN
applications.
Network management via TCP/IP (LAN)
For the connection to an RNS, to a superior NMC, to the Switch Commander, or to other
remote RCs the RC supports a TCP/IP based Ethernet LAN protocol stack with ACSE,
ROSE, CMISE, FTAM, ISO 8823 and ISO 8327.
Network management via X.25
For the connection to the BSS, to a superior NMC, to the Switch Commander, or to other
remote RCs the RC supports an X.25 protocol stack with ACSE, ROSE, CMISE, FTAM,
ISO 8823, ISO 8327, ISO 8073, ISO 8208, ISO 8878, ISO 7776, CCITT X.21.
15.2 RC-NMC Realtime Q3 Interface
TMN distinguishes different layers for network operation. The RC is a representative of
the element management layer. The layer above is the network management layer: An
NMC interfaces with underlying element managers fromdifferent suppliers and technol-
ogies and controls radio and core network resources as well as transmission equipment
of more than one RC region.
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The importance of NMC O&M tasks is growing with the increasing complexity and cost
of network operation, because of
• increasing number of vendors
• different radio and transmission technologies (2G, 3G, PCM, ATM, IP)
• network growth and quality demands
The implementation of Radio Commander’s NMC real-time Q3 interface provides online
management capability from a network management level to mobile radio network op-
erators. The RC Q3 solution is part of the integral Siemens TMN solution, it allows for
easy integration into any existing TMN environment.
General Features of RC-NMC Q3 Interface
As the NMCinterface has to be independent of manufacturer-specific properties, the RC
provides a Q3 interface, based on CMIP technology, in accordance with accepted in-
dustry and TMN standards (ITU-T M.3010, ITU-T X-series, as well as GSM12.xx series,
and 3GPP TS 32.XXX series).
The interface uses an adapted object model, which assumes mediation functions in RC.
The RC event reporting to the NMC comprises alarms, state changes, object creation /
deletion, attribute value changes, test reports. Some special features are listed below.
Event Forwarding Discriminators of the NMC are managed and stored by the RC for all
event types.
Event logging is also already provided by the RC-NMC, even though it is not yet sup-
ported by 3GPP standard.
Besides this, the RCsupports NMCcommands to retrieve information about the network
configuration and all active and logged alarms. This may be used to update the NMC
database after a newinstallation or whenever notifications may have been lost, e.g. after
an RC-NMC communication interruption or a management system recovery.
Although the RC-NMC Q3 interface is manufacturer-independent, the information pro-
vided to the NMCalso contains precise information about the failed hardware. Using this
information, the NMC operators can trigger targeted maintenance activities on-site, e.g.
by generating a detailed trouble ticket for the maintenance staff.
In UMR 3.5 the RC provides information about the RNC-Node B relationships to the
NMC, which is then able to display the RNCs with their Node Bs in the real hierarchical
relationship
With BR7.0/UMR3.5 a bi-directional surveillance mechanism for the RC-NMC Q3 inter-
face is offered. This automatic supervision of the communication results in an especially
high reliability of the Q3 interface.
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Fault and State Management for NMC
Features supported by the RC for network management by an NMC:
• Alarm and state change reporting
All alarm types defined in ITU-T X.733 / X.721 are supported on the RC-NMC inter-
face.
• Sophisticated alarm and state alignment (automatically / on request)
• Flexible, co-operative alarm acknowledgement/unacknowledgement between RC
and NMC operators
• Alarm history
• Alarm correlation
Configuration Management for NMC
Features supported by the RC for network management by an NMC:
• Real-time reporting of configuration changes
• Provision of the network configuration data on request
• Network-wide symbolic names
Test Management for NMC
Based on the ITU-T X.745 and X.737 standards, the RC supports the following features
for network management by an NMC:
• Initiation of hardware tests related to a specific alarm or as preventive measure
• Reporting of test results
• Monitoring and control of test execution
• Logging of test results
• Triggering fault repair by using any existing trouble ticketing mechanism or those
provided by the Siemens TMN solution set. Fault repair can be either remote (e.g.
reconfiguration, software initialization) or local (e.g. hardware exchange)
The TM features can only be used, if they are supported by the network entities.
15.3 Offline Interfaces
For a smooth cooperation with external applications the RC offers open access to the
data collected from the mobile radio network via the following offline interfaces:
• Data access interface, see below
• RNPC/TNPC interface, see page 124
• Bulk CM IRP, see page 125
15.3.1 Data Access Interface
The RC offers open access to the data collected from the mobile radio network with two
different methods:
• File interface (binary and/or ASCII)
A file copy service in the RC performs the “file transfer task”.
• Direct data transfer between databases via SQL query (read access)
The SQL query interface is given by means of components of Oracles SQL*Plus
product.
For the latter an optional, dedicated offline database is introduced in the data storage
concept.
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This allows a smooth cooperation of RC with external applications/tools based on a de-
fined interface structure:
• access to configuration data
• transfer of fault management data, performance measurements and tracing data
• easy access interface to the RC's database
• appropriate modes for information transfer to choose from
This interface is well documented for either transfer method.
This means that for each data category (FM, PM, CM, IDF, IMSI, CTR, etc.) the file for-
mat, transfer mechanismand the database content is defined and documented for open
use by the operator.
Features supported by the RC for Security Management by the NMC
• Remote login procedure fromNMCterminals (GUI or CLI) connected to RCvia X.25
or LAN
• Management of the connected network elements by the NMC operator according to
their authorization profile
• Security significant data is collected within RC, kept as security records and may be
provided to NMC using FTP on NMC operator request
The RC offers suitable ways to poll data from the mobile radio network for any kind of
post-processing by 2nd and 3rd party tools/applications.
Data categories offered at the RC interface
• BSC/RNC/Node B configuration files (binary or enhanced ASCII), in the most recent
copy
• PM measurement files (binary or ASCII)
• SCA (Smart Carrier Allocation) results and raw data files (ASCII)
• IDF (Inventory Data File) file (ASCII)
• Symbolic name mapping table (ASCII)
• IMSI trace files (binary)
• CTR (cell traffic recording) files (binary)
• CM data from RC offline DB (SQL query)
• PM data from RC offline DB (SQL query)
• FM data from RC offline DB (SQL query)
• IDF data from RC offline DB (SQL query)
15.3.2 Network Planning Interfaces (RNPC and TNPC Interface)
The two main features an interface to a radio or transport network planning center (=
RNPC or TNPC) has to offer are:
• Import of a network plan
• Export of a network plan
Those import and export features are offered by the O&M ToolSet CM+ module in a
comprehensive and comfortable way: The O&M ToolSet imports a proposed network
plan from an RNPC/TNPC and can export the current network plans to an RNPC.
Operators can order a distinct network plan and get a status report of the current net-
work configuration. The O&M ToolSet supports consistency checks on the network
plans and checks the requested actions to adapt and to extend the network configura-
tion. It is possible to compare a current configuration with one or more proposed plans.
To achieve a flawless exchange of network plans, the O&M ToolSet CM+ module me-
diates between the information models of the RNPC/TNPC and its own model. This
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compensation of differences is possible as long as the RNPC/TNPC model supports ei-
ther symbolic names and/or cell global identities.
O&M ToolSet Information Model
The O&M ToolSet manages all objects via a managed information base (MIB) and a
managed information tree (MIT). All object instances are created and accessed within
the tree hierarchy of the MIT.
The hierarchical levels of the O&M ToolSet model are not always present in
RNPC/TNPC models, e.g. RNPC models may only refer to cell objects without their as-
sociations to the RCs, BSS/RNSs, BSC/RNCs, base stations, etc.. The RNPC/TNPC
models address network elements via their symbolic names or CGIs.
All elements in the O&MToolSet database are selected by their fully distinguished name
(FDN) or their symbolic name. In addition to their selection via FDN(s) cells can also be
selected via cell global identifiers (CGI) or local area coding cell identifiers (LAC-CI).
15.3.3 Bulk CM IRP Interface (MCCM Interface)
Mobile network operators face a multiplying number of neighbor relationships between
cells of different radio technology (GSM or UMTS), and supported by different
manufacturer’s equipment. Their Configuration Management (CM) facilities have to
provide consistent parameters for this multi-technology and multi-vendor mobile
network world.
Influential operators and vendors have therefore started a project to standardize an in-
terface between element managers and the network mangement level, that allows the
change of radio parameters for all 2G and 3G cells of a whole area with one single Bulk
CMtool. This interface is the Bulk CMIntegration Reference Point (IRP) interface, stan-
dardized in R4 of the 3GPP.
As Siemens is a driving force of this project, its RC supports the Bulk CM IRP.
The Bulk CM IRP is an object oriented interface. The technologies used, XML and Cor-
ba, ensure a state of the art implementation for application services. The interface offers
the following possibilities for single network elements, or a collection of network ele-
ments, or the whole network:
• Bulk retrieval of configuration parameters
• Bulk download of configuration parameters
• Network-wide activation of configuration parameters by a single operation
• Ability to fall back to a previous stable configuration through a single operation
So the radio parameters of a whole area can be changed properly and for example
UMTS cells can be integrated in an existing 2G network without difficulties.
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16 UTRAN Transport Network Management
The Radio Commander is also an efficient manager for the parts of RNC and Node B
that are related to the UTRAN transport networks: All of the important data can be
viewed and set, notifications received and properly handled, measurements initiated
and monitored.
For Configuration Management of transport networks the RC supports data retrieval
and setting, relating to
• Physical transmission
• ATM traffic
• AAL traffic
• SAAL traffic
• SS7 traffic
• Packet/IP oriented transport
For Fault Management of transport networks, the RC can receive and handle notifica-
tions sent by the network elements because of failure detection or performance impair-
ment concerning the
• Transmission system
• ATM traffic, including continuity checks and loop back tests
For Performance Management of transport networks, the RC supports data retrieval
and initiation of performance monitoring.
Some special features of UTRANTransport Network Management are presented below.
Packet Switch Public / Private Data Network of UTRAN
An Outband O&M solution for the link between the RNC and the RC is provided to en-
able the reuse of an existing WAN or LAN network (Outband O&M). RNC O&M traffic is
sent as Internet Protocol (IP) datagram over Ethernet to the RC and vice versa. The
Node B O&M traffic can be routed transparently via the RNC. In this case, the Node B
O&M traffic is sent as IP datagrams via Ethernet from the RC to the RNC. After this,
communication between the Node B and the RNC transports the Node B implementa-
tion-specific O&M traffic on the same physical line as the subscriber and the call pro-
cessing traffic. This enables the reuse of existing transport facilities (Inband O&M).
Since ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is used on the link between the Node B and
the RNC, IP over ATMis the bearer for Node B implementation-specific O&Mtraffic. For
this purpose, Node B implementation-specific O&M traffic is converted at the RNC from
ATM to Ethernet and vice versa.
Additionally, remote control of co-located equipment is possible via a transparent con-
nection at the Node B using an IP forwarding function.
Physical Transport Layer Management for UTRAN
The physical layer management of the ATM transport network is used to configure and
administer external ATM lines (Configuration management) as well as to detect, verify
and isolate physical problems in an ATM network (Fault management, Test manage-
ment).
The standardized management functions and the support of standardized ATMinterfac-
es allow RC operators to administer and maintain a transport network.
• Configuration Management
Configuration management acts according to the information models for digital lines
in PDHtechnology (E1 / J1) with or without CES, SDHtechnology (STM-1 interface),
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Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) and Fractional ATM. CES and Fractional ATM
provide the option to co-locate GSM and UMTS entities.
IMA provides for transport of a high bit rate ATM cell stream on several low bit rate
physical links. These physical links are grouped to form a higher bandwidth logical
link (IMA group) whose data rate is approximately the sumof the individual link rates.
From a configuration management point of view, an IMA group appears as a new
port type, an IMA virtual port. An IMA object in the RC supports creation of the cor-
responding group and link objects.The object can be administratively locked or un-
locked, as it has an assigned administrative state according to X.731.
The RC can read current K1 / K2 byte values for K1 / K2 monitoring and control. An
interface can be "out of service" (closed) or "in service" (opened) via administrative
actions to "lock" or "unlock" the respective ports.
• Fault Management
Fault management is provided for all interfaces, IMA and Fractional ATM. If a failure
in a physical line is detected, a communication alarmnotification is issued. Following
failure and physical line recovery the alarm is cleared. Defects are not reported as
alarms. If a defect persists for a certain time, the physical line is classified as failed.
This event is then reported as an alarm.
Each monitored point sends a communication alarm notification to the RC with the
probable cause, specified problem and severity level of the failure. Failure on lower
layers may also cause failure on higher layers, however, only the lower layer fault is
notified as an alarm. As long as a communication alarm exists, the corresponding
managed object is in the operational state 'disabled'.
• Test management
The RC can perform remote testing including a loop back test.
The loop back test is provided for all interfaces, including the groups of Inverse Mul-
tiplexing for ATM (IMA). Loop back tests can be remotely selected via RC.
ATM Transport Layer Management for UTRAN
The management functions introduced for Node B and RNC provide extended O&M
competence at the RC. User traffic and signaling data is transported via ATMpermanent
virtual connections (PVCs) on the data paths to and from other network entities (peer
RNCs, Node Bs, 3G MSC, 3G SGSN).
The RC support of ATM configuration of the UTRAN helps operators in establishing
ATM Permanent Virtual Connections (PVCs) and ATM Cross-Connections (CCs). The
information provided via RC about already utilized resources and identifiers speeds up
the ATMconfiguration process and also reduces the probability of configuration failures.
Operators do not have to take care of complex alignment procedures to keep data con-
sistent. The network elements supply information about already utilized resources to the
RC. Data is read from the network elements when requested by the operator.
ATM connections are configured mostly upon establishment of a new ATM connection
or when increasing the capacity of network elements already installed. The RC carries
out establishment. Different types of ATMconnections are used depending on the inter-
face. Concerned interfaces are the interfaces of RC, RNC and Node B to the ATMback-
bone and ATM / Ethernet converters.
RC operators do their work with parameters that are previously configured, already uti-
lized or free resources, i.e. as soon as physical hardware interfaces are available. At
first, underlying protocol layers such as AAL5, SSCOP, MTP, etc. are configured, then
the permanent connections established, e.g. user traffic links, signaling links and O&M
links.
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For an overview of the established parameters, operators can enter the specific com-
mand. To get the values for a definite RNC or Node B, the operators have to set the cor-
responding RNC and Node B numbers. Then the relevant part of the networks element
database is read, transferred from the network element to the RC and displayed to the
operator by the RC. The display of the actual state of the parameter settings is well or-
dered. For example, the RC displays all PVCs of the same line with identical VPI-values
and line-numbers in sequence.
The RC management for the ATM layer comprises Configuration, Fault and Perfor-
mance management for both Node B and RNC, in particular:
• Configuration Management
ITU-conformant standardized Configuration Management is realized so that Node B
is able to act as ATM-Cross-Connect. Configuration management functionality of the
RC covers the creation and deletion of ATM-Cross-Connections. Within the RNC,
ATM cross connections are used for O&M purposes: the Itf-B interface (implemen-
tation specific O&M traffic between RC and Node B) is routed through the RNC by
means of an ATM cross connection that links a Node B interface with the RNC’s in-
terface to the RC.
With UMR 3.0 the feature traffic shaping enforces the peak cell rate of the egress
traffic, at the expense of a higher cell transfer delay.
• Loop Back Test
Loop back tests can be initiated by the RC to verify the existence of reported prob-
lems or to localize the fault by setting up different loops. Special OAMcells are used
for loop back testing. These are introduced into the subscriber cell streamof a PVC
(permanent virtual connection) and thus do not result in any service interruption. A
loop back test can be activated at Node B or RNC by the RC. If the loop back test
fails, Node B launches another attempt. Following three unsuccessful attempts, the
RC is informed of the failed loop back test.
• Continuity Check
The Continuity Check (CC) function allows the RC to isolate faults and to check the
transport capability of ATM PVCs even if no subscriber cells are transmitted.
A Continuity Check can be performed on VP and VC level as end-to-end or segment
flow(distinctions in predefined VCI values and PTI-Codes). For CC, used OAM-cells
are characterized by predefined values in the OAMCell Information Field. Two alter-
native mechanisms exist for the insertion of CC cells after activation of the CC func-
tion at the source-point.
At the sink-point where CC functions are activated via the operator, the cell stream
is checked for CC-OAM-cells. If no subscriber cell or any CC-OAM-cell is detected
within a time interval of ~3.5 seconds, AIS-state due to Loss of Continuity (LOC) is
declared and an alarm notification is sent to the RC.
• Performance Management
Performance measurement parameters defined at the ATM Layer cover a large
spectrum:
– Measurements at ATM interfaces
– Performance Monitoring of individual selected VPCs/VCCs
– Cell Level Protocol Monitoring at ATM-Interface
– Performance measurements of OAM flows at individual selected VPCs/VCCs
– Calculated performance parameters
The basic principles of the RC Performance management concept are:
– Performance measurement is activated through the creation of 'scanner-objects'
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– Scanner types are defined according to the MOs (Managed Objects) to be mea-
sured
– Upon creation of a scanner-object an object list defining all objects to be mea-
sured by the scanner-object and a measurement list summarizing several mea-
surement types (performance counters) are created
The basic principles of the RC mapping concept for ATM-performance parameters
are:
– Measurement types are defined representing ATM performance parameters
– Measurement lists are defined to collect performance parameters
– Scanner types especially for ATM performance measurements are defined
Thus the RC is able to handle comprehensive ATM layer performance measure-
ments.
• Logging of Performance Data
– Granularity periods defined for performance measurements supported by the
'scanner-object' are 5,15, 30, 60, 360, 720, 1440 minutes.
– The measurement log is in accordance with ITU-T X.735. Performance data is
stored in a log file.
– When events occur (failures, testing routines, or reconfigurations of an interface),
the network element flags the collected data as suspect.
For general information about logging capabilities of the RC, see “Log Manage-
ment” on page 107.
In UMR 3.5 the RC can forward information about the ATMtransport network resources
to the NMC, so the ATMtransport related part and the radio related part of Siemens net-
work entities can be supervised by the same NMC. This even exceeds 3GPP standards.
AAL Management for UTRAN
ATM Adapation Layer (AAL) Management enables Configuration and Performance
Management for the AAL Layers.
The RC is able to configure the following O&M parameters:
• AAL2 parameters
– Timer_CU
– Max_SDU_Length
– A2EA_address
– Path_Id
• AAL5 parameters
– Max_SDU_Deliver_Length
– SSCS_Type
SAAL Management for UTRAN
Signaling ATM Adapation Layer (SAAL) Management enables mapping services of the
ATM Layers to the needs of layer 3 protocols and provides assured data delivery be-
tween AAL connection endpoints.
The RC supports the various components necessary for the ATM Adaptation Layer
functions for signaling between two peer entities.
Implemented notification packages.
• Attribute Value Change, used to report changes to the attributes of a managed entity
(except the Managed Entity ID attribute). The notification identifies the attribute that
changed its old value and its new value (optional).
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Technical Description TED
• Managed Entity Creation, reports the creation of an instance of a managed entity
(mandatory)
• Managed Entity Deletion, reports the deletion of an instance of a managed entity
(mandatory)
SS7 Transport Layer Management
The Common Channel Signaling SystemNumber 7 (SS7) provides a reliable means for
transfer of information blocks in the correct sequence and without loss or duplication.
SS7 features require the configuration of many parameters.
The RC support for the configuration of SS7 parameters offers an easy selection of re-
lated parameters. Operators recognize related parameters, avoiding difficulties of SS7
configuration. If one parameter is selected, the related parameter values are reduced to
selectable values or ranges. For example SS7 MTP traffic and performance measure-
ment features are supported.
Packet/IP Oriented Transport Layer Management
This layer is comprised of the GTP-U, UDP and IP protocols on the user plane between
RNC and 3GSGSN. The GMUX card and the PRLC card of the RNC support the packet
transport function.
On the man-machine interface of the RC, the following can be set, changed and read:
• node IP address for each GMUX
• destination node IP address, TINF port line, virtual path (VP), virtual circuit (VC),
traffic type (CBR) and cell rate for GMUX
• corresponding GMUX for each PRLC
IP Routing by Node B
IP routing by Node B offers the capability of transparent IP forwarding. IP routing per-
forms especially between IP over Ethernet and IP over ATM.
The feature supports the remote control of external, co-located equipment. It enables
the reuse of already existing transport facilities on the UMTS networks for the remote
control of external co-located third party equipment.
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Technical Description TED
17 Glossary
Base Station Controller
BSC
The BSC is the central control entity of the BSS and provides the interfaces to BTSE,
TRAU, RC and LMT. The BSC administers the radio resources, maps radio channels to
terrestrial network channels and performs handovers between the controlled cells.
Base Station System
BSS
The BSS provides the base station functions for the PLMN according to GSM12.00, that
is it is responsible for communicating with mobile stations in a certain area. (The func-
tions are realized within the Siemens Base Station System (SBS) by the Siemens net-
work entities BSC, BTSE and TRAUE.)
Base Transceiver Station Equipment
BTSE
A BTSE comprises the entire radio equipment in a given site. The BTSE performs func-
tions such as speech and channel encoding/decoding, transmission and reception, etc.
The BTSE contains one or more transceivers (TRXs).
Local Maintenance Terminal
LMT
The LMT is a portable terminal (e. g. a laptop) used for local or remote operation and
maintenance functions. Its software is completely independent of the Radio Command-
er. Compared to the Radio Commander the LMT provides O&M functions on a reduced
scale.
Managed Object
A resource that can be managed by (object oriented) software is represented by a so-
called managed object.
The resource may be a physical or logical one. A printer is an example of a physical re-
source (hardware managed object), a network service is a logical one (functional man-
aged object).
Network Element
NE
A network element according to the GSM-TMN model is the BSS (itself consisting of the
network entities BSC, BTSE and TRAUE). The corresponding UTRAN network element
is the Radio Network System (RNS), itself consisting of the network entities RNC and
Node B.
Network Entity
NEy
A network entity is part of a network element. It is a physical and logical unit such as
BSC, BTSE, TRAUE, LMT, RNC and Node B or an RC equipment, like a printer.
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
Node B
A Node B is a base transceiver station, it is responsible for radio transmission in one or
several cells of a UMTS network. It communicates with the RNC and the Radio Com-
mander and realizes the physical layer to the user equipment.
Operation and Maintenance Center
OMC
An OMC with its hardware and software provides all operation and maintenance func-
tions necessary for the management of the network elements. The Siemens solution for
the management of mobile radio network elements is the Radio Commander.
The Radio Commander provides all functions necessary for the GSM BSS (formerly
OMC-B) as well as all functions for the whole UTRAN (both OMC-B and OMC-R).
Operator
In the context of this description, operator refers both to the
• human being that controls and manages the network
• company that runs a network
Radio Network Subsystem
RNS
An RNS is a network element of a UMTS. An RNS consists of an RNCand its associated
Node Bs.
Radio Network Controller
RNC
The RNC is the central control entity of an RNS, it provides the base station functions
for the PLMN according to UMTS. The RNC manages the radio frequency resources, is
responsible for the communication with mobile stations in a certain area, for link main-
tenance and for handover mechanisms.
Siemens Base Station System
SBS
The Siemens Base Station System(SBS) includes a BSS together with its LMT and Ra-
dio Commander. So, the SBS consists of the network entities BSC, BTSE, TRAUE, LMT
and Radio Commander (RC). See also Fig. 2.1.
Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit
TRAU
For each traffic channel, the TRAU adapts the different transmission rates for speech
and data calls on the radio side. It also performs transcoding between the different
speech coding algorithms used on the radio interface and the interface used within the
terrestrial network.
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Technical Description TED
18 Abbreviations
AIP Adaptive Internet Protocol
ALS Alarm Status
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One
AST Administrative State
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AVS Availability Status
BSC Base Station Controller
BSS Base Station System
BTSE Base Transceiver Station Equipment
CC Continuity Check
CDE Common Desktop Environment
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CGI Cell Global Identity
CI Cell Identifier
CM Configuration Management
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CSV Comma Separated Values (text file format, ASCII)
CTR Cell Traffic Recording
CTS Control Status
DAT Digital Audio Tape
DCN Data Communication Network
DNS Domain Name Service
DOS Disk Operating System
EDGE Enhanced Data Service for GSM Evolution
EFD Event Forwarding Discriminator
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
FDN Fully Distinguished Name
FM Fault Management
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GDMO Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GUI Graphical User Interface
HMO Hardware Managed Object
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data
HTML Hypertext Markup Language
HW Hardware
IDF Inventory Data File
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
IDL Interface Description Language
IDT Inventory Data Table
IMA Inverse Multiplexing for ATM
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IP Internet Protocol
ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization, derived from the greek
expression "iso", meaning equal
ITU International Telecommunications Union
KPI Key Performance Indicator
LAC Local Area Coding
LAN Local Area Network
LMT Local Maintenance Terminal
MIB Management Information Base
MIT Management Information Tree
MO Managed Object
MPA Management Protocol Adapter
MST Maintenance State
NE Network Element
NED Network Editor
NFS Network File System
NIS Network Information Service
NIS+ Network Information Service Plus
NMC Network Management Center
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OMC Operation and Maintenance Center
OMC-B 2G O&M Center, for BSS
OMC-R 3G O&M Center, for RNC
OMG Object Management Group
OMP Operation and Maintenance Processor
OMT Operation and Maintenance Terminal
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSS Operations Support System
OST Operational State
OTS O&M ToolSet
PC Personal Computer
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PID Product Identification Data
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PMI Portable Management Interface
PRS Procedural Status
QoS Quality of Service
RAM Random Access Memory
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Technical Description TED
RC Radio Commander
RNC Radio Network Controller
RNPC Radio Network Planning Center
RNS Radio Network System
RPC Remote Procedure Call
RPCS Remote Procedure Call System
SBS Siemens Base Station System
SCA Smart Carrier Allocation
SCER State Change Event Report
SMF System Management Function
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SQL Structured Query Language
SS7 Signaling System No.7
SSL Secure Socket Layer
STB Standby Status
SW Software
SWLH SoftWare Load Header
TAC Technical Assistance Center
TARR Test Action Request Receiver
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
TDD Time Division Duplex
TDM Time Division Multiplex
TD-SCDMA Time Division Synchronous CDMA
TM Test Management
TMN Telecommunications Management Network
TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit
TrM Trace Management
UGS Usage State
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UNK Unknown Status
VAM Version Attachment Mechanism
WAN Wide Area Network
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Information
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Technical Description TED
19 Index
Numerics
3rd (3G) generation network 12, 13
A
access
alphanumeric 52
control 99
remote, TAC 53
restrictions 99
right 41
Web interface 55
active
alarms 74
tests 82
administration
files 104
software loads, BSS 106
testing 81
Administrative State 65
alarm
active 74
administration 72
alignment 74
auto-acknowledgement 76
category level 76
data alignment 72
external devices 18
filtering 77
harmonization 78
list 75
log record 109
manual access 77
mapping 72
monitoring panel 74
reporting 73, 77
reporting and alignment 73
routing 76
severity 74
statistics 111
summarization 75
surveillance 73
Alarm Status 65
alarm threshold
logging 108
alignment
alarms 74
alphanumeric
access 52
input 51
alphanumeric data
alarm list 75
List window 40
analyzing
logging 107
Application Base Services 27
Application packages 15
architecture
hardware 17
logical layers 26
software 25
ASCII format
data conversion 89
authentication 95
authorization
profile 98
profile, for testing 81
profile, log deletion 109
auto-acknowledgement
alarms 76
autonomy-oriented fault treatment 71
availability measurement 83
Availability Status 65
B
Base Station Controller, BSC 133
Base Station System
Siemens 133, 134
Base Station System, BSS 133
Base Transceiver Station Equipment, BTSE 133
batch processing 52
block diagram 36
browser
for online manuals 54
LYNX 53
BSC measurement log 87
BSS database 60
Bulk CM IRP interface 125
bullet mode 48
C
CADDIE 31
call processing 57
Call Tracing 92
capacity
maximum management 19
capacity alarm threshold 108
CDE, Common Desktop Environment 29
Cell Traffic Recording 93
change
configuration data 38, 57
managed object instances 59
state 70
client types 20
CM+ 61
140 A50023-X4002-A2-3-7618
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
command
handling 41, 51
handling, scheduling 52
logging 112
scripts 50, 52
Command Line Interface, CLI 51
Common Desktop Environment, CDE 29
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CORBA 27
communication software 25
completeness checks
software versions 103, 104
configuration data
change 38, 57
export / import 58
logging 58
planning tool 61
request information 57
Configuration Management 57
plausibility check 59, 61
SBS 58
containment tree 57
Continuity Check 129
Control Status 65
controlling
software loads 105
conventions
notational 10
CORBA, Common Object Request Broker
Architecture 27
counters
performance measurement 89
create
managed object instances 58
CTR, Cell Traffic Recording 93
customization
desktop 50
GUI 46
table presentation 90
D
data collection measurement 83
data safeguarding 117
database 27
BSS 60
bypassing 89
logging 107
tools 25
delete
managed object instances 58
disaster recovery 117, 118
discriminator construct
logging 107
disk mirroring 118
doubled monitor 21
download
software 104
drag&drop 46
dynamic object creation 57
Dynamic System Domains 115
E
element manager 9
evaluation of system behavior 87
event forwarding discriminator
alarms 77
exporting
files 103
external devices
alarms 18, 76
file import 103
external interfaces 121
F
fault
localization 71
Fault Management 71
file
import/export 103
transfer between RC and BSC 104
file interface 123
File Transfer, Access and Management, FTAM 27
filter handling, performance measurement 84
filtering
alarms 77
data display 90
functions 50
logging 107
firewall 56
firewall products 25
FM+ 80
forced session control 102
FTAM, File Transfer, Access and Management 27
G
General Packet Radio Service, GPRS 13
GPRS support 13
granularity period
measurement data 85
Graphical User Interface, GUI 33
GUI, Graphical User Interface 33
customization 46
typical elements 40
H
hard disk mirroring 118
hardware
architecture 17
architecture, configuration example 18
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Technical Description TED
redundancy 115
Technical Stocklist 17
testing 81
harmonization with NMC 72
Help Browser 53
help system 54
help view 35
hierarchy
windows 40
high availability 115
I
icon help view 35
importing
of files 103
IMSI Tracing 92
integration
of applications/tools, GUI 50
of new services 12
Interface Description Language, IDL 27
interfaces
Bulk CM IRP 125
external 121
offline 123
real-time Q3, RC-NMC 122
RNPC 124
interfacing to tools 29
internal disk mirroring 118
internal state management 65
internationalization 55
alarm comments 77
intrusive test 81
inventory data 62
Inventory Record Keeping 62
J
job administration measurement 83
K
Kernel 15
L
List window 40
LMT
access control 102
Local Maintenance Terminal, LMT 133
locating problems 83
log administration, per event type 107
log export, postprocessing 109
log instance 107
handling 108
log record 109
log size 108
logging
commands 112
configuration data 58
security 101
state change 66
test result reports 82
Logging Management 107
Login window 96
loop back test 129
M
Maintenance State View 69
concept 69
managed object 57, 133
create/delete/change instances 58
display state 65
dynamic creation 57
summarizing 65
management areas 99
management capacity 19
Management Protocol Adapters, MPA 27
man-machine interface 29, 33
manual 55
acknowledgement of alarms 76
recovery actions 73
measurement
data conversion, database format to compact
ASCII 89
define group 87
job administration 83
job list 84
log file in a BSC 87
performance 83
result presentation 90
types 84
migration
Configuration Management 60
MIXY 31
modules
packages 15
monitoring
alarm panel 74
tests 82
MPA, Management Protocol Adapters 27
multilingual environment 55
alarm comments 77
multi-session capability 19
multi-user/multitasking capability 27
N
name services 25
network
management view 34
-monitoring 69
optimization 63
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
representation 57
Network Editor 46
network element, NE 133
network entity, NEy 133
new services
integration of 12
NMC
mediation 72
Node B 134
notational conventions 10
O
O&M ToolSet 15, 31
CM+ 61
FM+ 80
PM+ 91
RNPC interface 124
Trace Module 91
object (managed object)
dynamic creation 57
object grouping
performance measurement 86
offline interfaces 123
OMC-B3G O&M Center, for Node B 134
OMP, Operation and Maintenance Processor 19
OMT, Operation and Maintenance Terminal 20
online
help system 54
manuals 55
operating system 26
Operation and Maintenance Center, OMC 134
operation and maintenance functions 28
Operation and Maintenance Processor, OMP 19
Operation and Maintenance Terminal, OMT 20
Operational State 65
operator-definable
alarm comments 77
BSC event logging 107
colors 69
commands 50
comments 48
default values 57, 59
GUI 46
help texts 54
network view 47
panel 40
overview
by Summarization 67
P
packages
concept 15
panel window 40
password
handling 95
perfmeter 88
performance
data 21
measurement 83
Performance Management 83
performance management
GUI 38
performance measurement
counters 84
data collection 83, 87
data storing/processing 87
job list 84
object grouping 86
scanner handling (filtering) 84
scheduling 86
permissions
user profile 97
planning tool
configuration data 61
plausibility check
Configuration Management 59, 61
PM+ 91
Portable Management Interface, PMI 27
postprocessing
logging 109
post-processing of data 30
presentation
measurement results 90
Procedural Status 65
processing power 19
protocol stacks 25
Q
Q3 interface to NMC 122
quality of service measurement 83
R
rack layout 36
Radio Commander 134
advantage overview 11
and TD-SCDMA 11
and UTRAN 12
brief description 9
support of 2nd (2G) and 3rd (3G) generation
networks 12, 13
support of GPRS 13
Radio Network Controller, RNC 134
Radio Network Subsystem, RNS 134
RAS 115
RC
software versions 104
RC-NMC Q3 interface 122
real-time Q3 interface 122
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Technical Description TED
recovery actions 72
redundancy 115
relational database 27
reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) 115
remote
access 52
access, TAC 53
access, Web interface 55
inventory management 62
reporting 107
alarms 73, 77
resource access 83
restrictions
access 99
result data
performance measurement 89
transfer measurement 83
RNC 134
RNS 134
S
SBS
configuration management 58
scalability, HW19
scan report
performance measurement 86
scanner handling, performance measurement 84
scheduling
commands 52
performance measurement 86
tests 81
upload of BSC measurements 87
screen lock 102
search keys
logging 109
security record 101
security
forced session control 102
logging 109
record 100, 101
Security Management 95
security requirements
access 99
server line 19
session
capability 19
forced control 102
lock 101
severity of alarms 77
Siemens Base Station System, SBS 133, 134
simultaneous sessions 19
Smart Carrier Allocation 63
SMF, System Management Functions 28
software
architecture 25
architecture, logical layers 26
download 104
Software Management 103
software versions
administration 106
completeness checks 103, 104
SQL query interface 123
SS7 Control Status 65
Standby Status 65
state
alignment 65, 66
change 70
change, logging 66, 108
State Management 65
statistics
alarm 111
logging 107
storage and logging measurement 83
Subscriber Tracing 92
summarization 65, 67
alarms 75
surveillance
alarm 73
symbolic name
Configuration Management 60
performance measurement 87
System Management Functions, SMF 28
system security
logging 109
T
TAC access request 99
TAC terminal 20, 53
target group 10
TD-SCDMA 11
technical
maintenance 53
Technical Assistance Center, TAC 20, 53
Technical Stocklist 17
terminal types 20
test
administration 81
result reports 82
Test Action Request Receiver, TARR 81
Test Management 81
Test Monitoring List 81
testing
hardware 81
Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple
Access, TD-SCDMA 11
time-out
LMT login 102
screen lock 102
TMN platform 27
tool environment 29, 50
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Radio Commander BR 7.0/UMR 3.0/TD 2.0
trace
security-relevant events 100
Trace Management 91
traffic measurement 83
Transcoding and Rate Adaption Unit, TRAU 134
transferring files 104
Transparent Doubled Monitors 21
transport network mangement 127
Trouble Ticketing 79
U
UMTS 12
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System,
UMTS 12
Unknown Status 65
Usage State 65
user
authentication 95
-friendliness 33
interface 29
manuals 55
profile 97
UTRAN 12
Transport Network Management 127
V
views 34
testing 82
visualization 65
W
Web access 55
window
List 40
Panel 40
Window Manager 40