A Chaos Based Encryption Method for Monochrom Images and Text

1
, Varsha Swaminathan
2
, Himanshu Shekhar
1
, Avinash Jha

*avinash_jha41@yahoo.com
1 VIT ,Vellore
2.


Abstract: We propose a new method for
encryption of monochrome (Black & White
image ) and text documents using Hilbert
transform and chaos theory with added
security feature of Rubik Cube Operation.
The input text or image is transformed using
Hilbert transform. Random phase mask is
generated using a logistic map function .The
transformed image is combined with the
random phase mask. The pixels of the
image obtained from the combination are
shifted row and column wise according to a
random number sequence ,which also acts as
a key .We call this as Rubik Cube Operation
as it resembles the Rubik cube .The image
obtained after Rubik Cube operation is the
encrypted image. The image has been
decrypted and the MSE and correlation
coefficient between the decrypted and input
image is calculated.
Index Terms: Image encryption/decryption
,Hilbert transform ,Logistic Map, Rubik
Cube ,Mean Square Error
I. Introduction: Information security is one
of the important issues in the present
information age. In cryptography,
encryption is the process of transforming
information using an algorithm (called
cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone
except those possessing special knowledge,
usually referred to as a key. The result of the
process is encrypted information (in
cryptography, referred to as ciphertext). In
many contexts, the word encryption also
implicitly refers to the reverse process,
decryption (e.g. “software for encryption”
can typically also perform decryption), to
make the encrypted information readable
again (i.e. to make it unencrypted).
Although encryption is actually done by
optical setups in real time system but in our
project it is actually done on the digital
image to show the efficiency of our
encryption scheme.
II. Hilbert Transform: In mathematics and
in signal processing, the Hilbert transform is
a linear operator which takes a function,
u(t), and produces a function, H(u)(t), with
the same domain. The Hilbert transform is
named after David Hilbert, who first
introduced the operator in order to solve a
Hindustan Uniniversity , Chennai
International Journal of Image Processing And Visual Communication
Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012
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special case of the Riemann–Hilbert
problem for holomorphic functions. It is a
basic tool in Fourier analysis, and provides a
concrete means for realizing the conjugate
of a given function or Fourier series. The
Hilbert transformed series has the same
amplitude and frequency content as the
original real data and includes phase
information that depends on the phase of the
original data. Explicitly, the Hilbert
transform of a function (or signal) u(t) is
given by

provided this integral exists as a principal
value.
When the Hilbert transform is applied twice
in succession to a function u, the result is
minus u i.e.; inverse Hilbert transform of u

III. a Logistic Chaos Function :
In mathematics, chaos theory describes the
behavior of certain dynamical systems ie.,
systems whose state evolves with time – that
may exhibit dynamics that are highly
sensitive to initial conditions (popularly
referred to as the butterfly effect). As a
result of this sensitivity, which manifests
itself as an exponential growth of
perturbations in the initial conditions, the
behavior of chaotic systems appears to be
random. This happens even though these
systems are deterministic, meaning that their
future dynamics are fully defined by their
initial conditions, with no random elements
involved. This behavior is known as
deterministic chaos, or simply chaos.
Chaotic behavior is also observed in natural
systems, such as the weather. This may be
explained by a chaos-theoretical analysis of
a mathematical model of such a system,
embodying the laws of physics that are
relevant for the natural system.
III.b Chaotic maps
In mathematics, a chaotic map is a map that
exhibits some sort of chaotic behavior. Maps
may be parameterized by a discrete-time or
a continuous-time parameter. Discrete maps
usually take the form of iterated functions.
Chaotic maps often occur in the study of
systems. In our encryption technique the
Random phase mask has been generated by
using logistic map as the chaotic map

III.c Logistic chaos map:
It is a one dimensional and discrete map
which is given by the equation

where :

is a number between zero and
one, and represents the population at year n,
and hence

represents the initial
population or seed value (at year 0)
r is a positive number, and represents a
combined rate for reproduction and
starvation. It can be any number between 0
and 4.
IV. Rubik cube operation:
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Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012
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For an mxn image two sequence of random
number of length m and n corresponding to
each row and column of the image are
generated. At first each pixel of the image is
replaced by the r’th pixel from the right
of the original pixel ,where r is the random
number corresponding to that particular
row. Same action is performed with respect
to column. During decryption same action is
performed in the reverse direction yielding
the correct image.The procedure is depicted
in fig.1


As the whole procedure resembles
mechanism of Rubik Cube we call this as
Rubik Cube Operation. The sequence of
random number acts as a set of key, and this
whole operation adds additional security
feature to the encryption.
V. Proposed technique:
The input image is obtained in the digital
form. Hilbert transform followed by a
Fourier transform is performed to get an
transformed image. The transformed image
is multiplied with the random phase mask
represented by exp(ipiC(x)) here C(x) is the
logistic map function. The Rubik cube
operation is performed on this output to
generate the encrypted image.
For decryption the pixels are shifted to their
original coordinates by applying Rubik cube
operation in the reverse direction, and then
this image is multiplied with the conjugate
of the random phase mask. Now inverse
fourier transform along with Hilbert
transform is applied and negative of the
transformed image yields the original input.
VI. Results and Discussion
Numerical simulations have been
performed on a MATLAB platform to vrify
the validity of the proposed technique .The
simulation has been done for a text
document as well as a fingerprint image.The
random phase mask is generated using
logistic map function with seed value .3757
and rate 3.78.
The results obtained are illustrated in the
following figures .Figure 2.a-2.c
corresponds to simulation performed with
Fingerprint pattern as input while figure 3.a-
3.c corresponds to simulation performed
with a sample text as input .The mean
square error and correlation coefficients are
calculated for each case. For the fingerprint
MSE is 4.0730e+003 and correlation
coefficient is 0.9567 and in case of text it is
752.5600 and 0.9836 respectively
If decryption is done with wrong key then
the output image is absolute noise and the
MSE is of the order of 10
6
,hence the
proposed method is highly reliable and
secure .In future we will try to encrypte
color images this method.



International Journal of Image Processing And Visual Communication
Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012
Fig.1 Pixel modification by Rubik Cube operation
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Fig.2.a Input fingerprint pattern
Fig.2. c Decrypted Fingerprint pattern
F
Fig.2.b Encrypted image of finger print
Fig.3.a input text
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Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012
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VII.Conclusion
The encryption and decription system for
monochrome images and text has been
simulated and applied to finger print images
and text.
VIII. References
[1] Claerbout, J.F., Fundamentals of
Geophysical Data Processing, McGraw-Hill,
1976, pp.59-62.
[2] Computer Generated Hologram for
SemiFragile Watermarking with Encrypted
Images
[3] Marple, S.L., "Computing the discrete-
timeanalytic signal via FFT," IEEE
Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol.
47, No.9 (September 1999), pp.2600-2603.





Fig.3.b Encrypted text
Fig.3.c decrypted text
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Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012
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