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We propose a new method for encryption of monochrome (Black & White image ) and text documents using Hilbert transform and chaos theory with added security feature of Rubik Cube Operation. T…Full description

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1

, Varsha Swaminathan

2

, Himanshu Shekhar

1

, Avinash Jha

*avinash_jha41@yahoo.com

1 VIT ,Vellore

2.

Abstract: We propose a new method for

encryption of monochrome (Black & White

image ) and text documents using Hilbert

transform and chaos theory with added

security feature of Rubik Cube Operation.

The input text or image is transformed using

Hilbert transform. Random phase mask is

generated using a logistic map function .The

transformed image is combined with the

random phase mask. The pixels of the

image obtained from the combination are

shifted row and column wise according to a

random number sequence ,which also acts as

a key .We call this as Rubik Cube Operation

as it resembles the Rubik cube .The image

obtained after Rubik Cube operation is the

encrypted image. The image has been

decrypted and the MSE and correlation

coefficient between the decrypted and input

image is calculated.

Index Terms: Image encryption/decryption

,Hilbert transform ,Logistic Map, Rubik

Cube ,Mean Square Error

I. Introduction: Information security is one

of the important issues in the present

information age. In cryptography,

encryption is the process of transforming

information using an algorithm (called

cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone

except those possessing special knowledge,

usually referred to as a key. The result of the

process is encrypted information (in

cryptography, referred to as ciphertext). In

many contexts, the word encryption also

implicitly refers to the reverse process,

decryption (e.g. “software for encryption”

can typically also perform decryption), to

make the encrypted information readable

again (i.e. to make it unencrypted).

Although encryption is actually done by

optical setups in real time system but in our

project it is actually done on the digital

image to show the efficiency of our

encryption scheme.

II. Hilbert Transform: In mathematics and

in signal processing, the Hilbert transform is

a linear operator which takes a function,

u(t), and produces a function, H(u)(t), with

the same domain. The Hilbert transform is

named after David Hilbert, who first

introduced the operator in order to solve a

Hindustan Uniniversity , Chennai

International Journal of Image Processing And Visual Communication

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012

1

special case of the Riemann–Hilbert

problem for holomorphic functions. It is a

basic tool in Fourier analysis, and provides a

concrete means for realizing the conjugate

of a given function or Fourier series. The

Hilbert transformed series has the same

amplitude and frequency content as the

original real data and includes phase

information that depends on the phase of the

original data. Explicitly, the Hilbert

transform of a function (or signal) u(t) is

given by

provided this integral exists as a principal

value.

When the Hilbert transform is applied twice

in succession to a function u, the result is

minus u i.e.; inverse Hilbert transform of u

III. a Logistic Chaos Function :

In mathematics, chaos theory describes the

behavior of certain dynamical systems ie.,

systems whose state evolves with time – that

may exhibit dynamics that are highly

sensitive to initial conditions (popularly

referred to as the butterfly effect). As a

result of this sensitivity, which manifests

itself as an exponential growth of

perturbations in the initial conditions, the

behavior of chaotic systems appears to be

random. This happens even though these

systems are deterministic, meaning that their

future dynamics are fully defined by their

initial conditions, with no random elements

involved. This behavior is known as

deterministic chaos, or simply chaos.

Chaotic behavior is also observed in natural

systems, such as the weather. This may be

explained by a chaos-theoretical analysis of

a mathematical model of such a system,

embodying the laws of physics that are

relevant for the natural system.

III.b Chaotic maps

In mathematics, a chaotic map is a map that

exhibits some sort of chaotic behavior. Maps

may be parameterized by a discrete-time or

a continuous-time parameter. Discrete maps

usually take the form of iterated functions.

Chaotic maps often occur in the study of

systems. In our encryption technique the

Random phase mask has been generated by

using logistic map as the chaotic map

III.c Logistic chaos map:

It is a one dimensional and discrete map

which is given by the equation

where :

**is a number between zero and
**

one, and represents the population at year n,

and hence

represents the initial

population or seed value (at year 0)

r is a positive number, and represents a

combined rate for reproduction and

starvation. It can be any number between 0

and 4.

IV. Rubik cube operation:

International Journal of Image Processing And Visual Communication

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012

2

For an mxn image two sequence of random

number of length m and n corresponding to

each row and column of the image are

generated. At first each pixel of the image is

replaced by the r’th pixel from the right

of the original pixel ,where r is the random

number corresponding to that particular

row. Same action is performed with respect

to column. During decryption same action is

performed in the reverse direction yielding

the correct image.The procedure is depicted

in fig.1

As the whole procedure resembles

mechanism of Rubik Cube we call this as

Rubik Cube Operation. The sequence of

random number acts as a set of key, and this

whole operation adds additional security

feature to the encryption.

V. Proposed technique:

The input image is obtained in the digital

form. Hilbert transform followed by a

Fourier transform is performed to get an

transformed image. The transformed image

is multiplied with the random phase mask

represented by exp(ipiC(x)) here C(x) is the

logistic map function. The Rubik cube

operation is performed on this output to

generate the encrypted image.

For decryption the pixels are shifted to their

original coordinates by applying Rubik cube

operation in the reverse direction, and then

this image is multiplied with the conjugate

of the random phase mask. Now inverse

fourier transform along with Hilbert

transform is applied and negative of the

transformed image yields the original input.

VI. Results and Discussion

Numerical simulations have been

performed on a MATLAB platform to vrify

the validity of the proposed technique .The

simulation has been done for a text

document as well as a fingerprint image.The

random phase mask is generated using

logistic map function with seed value .3757

and rate 3.78.

The results obtained are illustrated in the

following figures .Figure 2.a-2.c

corresponds to simulation performed with

Fingerprint pattern as input while figure 3.a-

3.c corresponds to simulation performed

with a sample text as input .The mean

square error and correlation coefficients are

calculated for each case. For the fingerprint

MSE is 4.0730e+003 and correlation

coefficient is 0.9567 and in case of text it is

752.5600 and 0.9836 respectively

If decryption is done with wrong key then

the output image is absolute noise and the

MSE is of the order of 10

6

,hence the

proposed method is highly reliable and

secure .In future we will try to encrypte

color images this method.

International Journal of Image Processing And Visual Communication

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012

Fig.1 Pixel modification by Rubik Cube operation

3

Fig.2.a Input fingerprint pattern

Fig.2. c Decrypted Fingerprint pattern

F

Fig.2.b Encrypted image of finger print

Fig.3.a input text

International Journal of Image Processing And Visual Communication

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012

4

VII.Conclusion

The encryption and decription system for

monochrome images and text has been

simulated and applied to finger print images

and text.

VIII. References

[1] Claerbout, J.F., Fundamentals of

Geophysical Data Processing, McGraw-Hill,

1976, pp.59-62.

[2] Computer Generated Hologram for

SemiFragile Watermarking with Encrypted

Images

[3] Marple, S.L., "Computing the discrete-

timeanalytic signal via FFT," IEEE

Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol.

47, No.9 (September 1999), pp.2600-2603.

Fig.3.b Encrypted text

Fig.3.c decrypted text

International Journal of Image Processing And Visual Communication

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , August 2012

5

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