Pipes are of very important field in almost in industry. Pipes are used
mainly to transfer fluids from placer to another. Its shape is a hollow
cylinder. There are many codes and standards used for piping
engineering design such as:
The most important and common code for pressure piping is
 B31.1 for power piping
 B31.2 for fuel gas piping
 B31.3 for process piping
 B31.4 for pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid
Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
 B31.5 for Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components
 B31.8 for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
 B31.8S for Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines
 B31.9 for Building Services Piping
 B31.11 for Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
 B31G Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded

I think the most important codes for water desalination industry are
ASME B31.3 and ASME B31.4

Pipes materials:-

1- Plastic pipes: Plastic pipe comes as either ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-
styrene) or PVC (polyvinyl-chloride). Most homes since mid-1970 have
plastic pipes and fittings because it’s inexpensive and easy to use.
Simply glue the joints using a primer and liquid cement.

 ABS: This black pipe was the first plastic pipe to be used in
residential plumbing. Today, many areas don’t allow ABS in new
construction because joints can come loose.

 PVC: This white or cream-colored pipe is the most commonly used
pipe for drain lines. It’s corrosion resistant and chemical resistant.

2- Metallic pipes:-
These pipes are mainly used for pressure piping and can withstand high
temperatures unlike the plastic pipes. Examples are at the below table

Pipe thickness selection:

Design criteria for thickness selection are Temperature, Pressure, and the
material of the pipe.

According to ASME B31.3, Section 304

After calculating the minimum thickness for design pressure and adding the
corrosion allowance, we choose the pipes according to ASME B36.10M

we take the nearest largest thickness and get the schedule and the STD for
every nominal (inner) diameter

Pipe connection:

1- Welding: welding of pipes is very common to connect pipes. It’s
permanent connection and should be inspected carefully using non-
destructive tests NDT tests (such as radiographic test).

2- Using flanges:

Flange is shown in the blow figure

Flanges are selected based on the temperature and pressure, for every group
of flanges there are ratings that specify the flange. According to ASME B16.5

Pipe fittings:-
A fitting is used in pipe plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing
sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as
regulating or measuring fluid flow.

1- Elbow

2- Coupling

3- Reducer

4- Tee

5- Cross

6- Cap

7- Valves