1

CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD
MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA









GROUND WATER INFORMATION
KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH







SOUTHERN REGION
HYDERABAD
J ULY, 2007




2













CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD
MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA







GROUND WATER INFORMATION
KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH





SOUTHERN REGION BHUJAL BHAWAN,
GSI Post, Bandlaguda NH.IV, FARIDABAD-121001
Hyderabad-500068 HARYANA, INDIA
Andhra Pradesh TEL: 0129-2418518
Tel: 24222508 Gram: Bhumijal
Gram: Antarjal



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GROUND WATER INFORMATION
KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

By

G.R.C. Reddy,
Scientist-D
CONTENTS

Contributors’ Page
Kadapa District at a glance

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Drainage
1.2 Land use
1.3 Irrigation
1.4 Geology
1.5 Previous work by CGWB

2.0 RAINFALL

3.0 GROUND WATER SCENARIO

3.1 Hydrogeology
3.2 Water level
3.3 Ground Water Resources
3.4 Ground Water Quality
3.5 Status of Ground Water Development

4.0 INFORMATION ON BORE WELL FAILURES

5.0 GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
5.1 Ground water development
5.2 Water conservation and artificial recharge

6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
2

CONTRIBUTORS

GROUND WATER INFORMATION
KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH





Principal Author

G.R.C. Reddy
Scientist-D






Hydrometeorology & Map Generation

P.Sudhakar, Scientist-B
D.V.Anjaneyulu, Asst.Hydrometeorologist
B.Sarath, Draughtsman (Grade-II)







Scrutiny

B.Jaya Kumar, Suptdg.Hydrogeologist
G.Sudarshan, Scientist-D










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KADAPA DISTRICT AT A GLANCE

1. GENERAL FEATURES
Location : North Latitudes:13° 43¢ and 15°14¢
East Longitude: 77°55¢ and 79° 29¢

Geographical area : 15,379 Sq.km
Dist. head quarters : Kadapa
No. of Revenue mandals : 51
No. of Rev. villages : 965
Population (2001 census)
Urban : 5,87,753 (22.60%)
Rural : 20,14,044 (77.40%)

Population density : 169 per sq.km.

Work force

a) Cultivators - 252029 - 9.69%
b) Agricultural labour - 299239 - 11.50%

Major Rivers : Pennar and its tributaries viz.
Papagni, Cheyyair, Chitravati,
Sagileru, Kundu
Geology : Granites, Gneiss, Phyllites,
Quartzites, Shales
Soils : Red loamy soils, Red sandy soils,
Red earths, Black cotton soil
2. RAINFALL

Normal annual rainfall : 696.2 mm
South west monsoon : 388.7 mm
North east monsoon : 231.3 mm
Cumulative departure from normal
rainfall (for the last five years) : - 27%

3. LAND USE (2004-05) (Area in Ha):

Forest : 5,05,495 (33%)
Barren and uncultivated : 2,40,392 (16%)
Cultivable Waste : 71,000 (5%)
Current fallows : 54,351 (4%)
Net area sown : 4,19,150 (27%)



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4. IRRIGATION (2003-04) (Area in Ha)
Source of irrigation
Canals : 16,756
Tanks : 3,531
Dug wells : 8,171
Bore/Tube wells : 1,24,700
Others : 1,450
Net area irrigated : 1,25,657
Gross area irrigated : 1,54,607

Major irrigation projects : 4. K.C. Canal
(completed) TBP-HLC Stage I
TBP-HLC Stage II
Pulivendula Branch canal

Medium irrigation projects : 5. Lower Sagileru project
(completed) Upper Sagileru project
Pincha project
Buggavanka project
Annamayya project

Principal irrigated crops : Sunflower, groundnut, paddy,
lemon and citrus, cotton and
vegetables

Major Irrigation Projects : 4. K.C. Canal
(completed) T.B.P HLC Stage.1
T.B.P - HLC Stage-2
Pulivendula branch canal

Medium Irrigation Projects : 5 Lower Sagileru
project(completed) Upper Sagileru project
Pincha project
Buggavanka project
Annamayya project

5. GEOLOGY : Alluvium 450 sq.km
Kurnool/ Kadapa
Formation 12,725 sq.km
Archaeans 2,200 sq.km
6. GROUND WATER

Well Census (2000-01)
Number of dug wells : 41,783
Number of shallow tube wells : 17,059
Number of Deep Tube wells : 20,280
Total : 79122
5

Exploration by CGWB
1. Number of wells drilled : EW 43
Major aquifer zones : 32 to 150 m.
2. Aquifer Properties
a) T (m 2/day)
Hard rock 12 to 818
b) Storage Coefficient
Hard rock : 1 x 10
3
to 1.4 x 10
-4


3. Monitoring
a) Number of observation wells
Dug Wells 28
Piezometers Manual : 3

4. Range of water levels,
m bgl (May 2005)
Minimum : 4.4
Maximum : 87.25
General range : 10-30

7. GROUND WATER RESOURCES (MCM)
i. Net annual Ground water Resources: 937.55
ii. Net Annual Ground water draft : 697.94
iii. Balance Ground water resource : 239.61
iv. State of ground water development: 74%

8. GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT CATEGORY
i) Safe (<70% of net available resource) : 14
ii) Semi Critical (70-90%) : 18
iii) Critical (90-100%) : 4
iv) Over-Exploited (>100%) : 15
v) No. of villages notified for restricted : 358 villages in 43 mandals
development
(by State Ground Water Authority)

9. CHEMICAL QUALITY
Electrical Conductivity
(micro siemens/cm at 25 C) : 320-5570
Chloride (mg/l) : 39-1049
Fluoride (mg/l) : 0.41 2.19
Nitrate (mg/l) : 1 to 200





6

GROUND WATER INFORMATION
KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Kadapa district is one of the chronically drought affected districts of
Rayalseema region of Andhra Pradesh. It has a total geographical area of
15,379 sq.km with 3 Revenue divisions, 51 mandals, 831 gram panchayats, 965
revenue villages and 4533 habitations. Kadapa district lies between the 13° 43¢
and 15°14¢ North latitudes and 77° 55¢ and 79° 29¢ of the East longitude. As per
the 2001 census, the population of the district is 26,01,797 of which the rural
population is 20,14,044 (77.40 %). The density of the population is 169/sq.km.
The SC and ST constitute 4,09,492 (15.73%) and 61,371 (2.35%) in the district.
The administrative divisions are shown in Fig.1.

The normal annual rainfall of the district is 696 mm. The SW and NE
monsoons contribute 389 mm (55.89 %) and 231 mm (33.18 %) respectively.
Successive failures of the monsoon during 2002-2003 and 2004-2005 with
meager annual rainfall of 416 mm and 494 mm in the district has led to failure of
crops with no or low productivity. This productivity coupled with lack of
supplementary income from other sources, burden of high interest loan on
farmers, higher input costs for fertilizers, seeds, etc., inadequate irrigation
facilities, drought, farmers turning to private money-lenders with high interest
rates. Un-remunerative prices for the farm produce, failure of existing bore wells
and failure of new bore wells has led to the critical situation that the farmers has
lost their moral strength that they will return to normal situation financially and
finally led to the suicides of the farmers.

1.1 Drainage
The Kadapa district is drained by Pennar river. Its chief tributaries are
cheyyair, Papaghni, Chitravati, Sagileru and Kunderu. Pincha and Mandavi are
minor streams that join cheyyair. The Pennar river traverses through the center
7

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of the district from west to east. Kunderu and sagileru drain from northern side
and chitravati, papagni and cheyyeru from south.

1.2 Land-use:
Out of the total geographical area of 15,37,838 ha, 33% (5,05,495 ha) of
the area is occupied by forests, 16% (2,40,392 ha) forms barren and
uncultivable waste, 11% (1,65,587 ha) forms land put to non-agricultural
purposes. The net area sown is 4,19,150 ha i.e., 27% of the total area. It is
highest in Peddamudium and Rajupalem mandals with 69% and 68%
respectively and lowest in Nandaluru, Vontimitta and B. Mattam with 6%, 6% and
9% respectively. The land use pattern and the percentage to total geographical
area of the district for the year 2004-2005 is given in Table-1.

Table-1: Land Utilisation (Area in Ha)
Sl.
No.
Category

Area in hectares
(2004-2005)
1 Total geographical area 1537847
2 Forest 105495
3 Barren and uncultivable land 240392
4 Land put to non-agricultural uses 165587
5 Permanent pastures and other grazing lands 15383
6 Land under miscellaneous trees, crops and
groves not included in net area sown
7968
7 Cultivable waste 69020
8 Other fallow lands 57431
9 Current fallows 54351
10 Net area sown 419150
11 Total cropped area 473959
12 Area sown more than once 54809
Source: Office of Chief Planning Officer, Kadapa
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1.3 Irrigation
Irrigation in the district is through major, medium and minor irrigation
projects. Thee are 4 major, 5 medium completed irrigation projects in the district.
The major irrigation projects are 1) Kurnool-Kadapa canal 2) TBP HLC Stage-I,
3) TBP HLC Stage-II (Mylavaram) and 4) Pulivendula Branch canal with a total
ayacut of 2,27,896 acres. The five completed medium irrigation projects are 1.
Lower Sagilru Project 2) Upper Sagileru Project 3) Pincha Project 4) Buggavanka
Project and 5) Annamayya Project with a total ayacut of 55,625 acres.

Under minor irrigation, there are 1836 tanks under Irrigation and
Command Area Development (I & CAD), and Panchayati Raj Department (PR
Dept.), with an ayacut of 1,09,050 acres and 25 lift irrigation schemes under
I&CA and APSIDC with an ayacut of 11,577 acres.

Under J ala Yagnam programme, during the year, the net and gross area
irrigated is 1,25,657 and 1,54,607 acres respectively. Ground water irrigates
86% of the total irrigation in the district and it plays a vital role in irrigation.
The source-wise irrigation is given in Table-2. Government of Andhra Pradesh
has taken up irrigation projects on large scale. There are five ongoing major
irrigation projects namely 1. Telugu Ganga Project 2. Chitravathi Balancing
Reservoir (Lingala canal) 3. Galeru-Nagari Project 4. Gandikota Lift Irrigation
Scheme and 5) Hundri Neeva Sujula Sravanti scheme with a total ayacut of
4,23,935 acres. In addition to this, a total of 1,52,000 acres will be stabilized
under various schemes.

In addition to the above, Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken up
one medium irrigation project (Veligallu project) with an ayacut of 24,000 acres.
Under minor irrigation, the Government has taken up 218 tanks under I&CAD
and PR Departments with an ayacut of 12,635 acres and 8 Lift Irrigation
Schemes with an ayacut of 1394 acres.

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The irrigation by ground water accounts for 86% of the total area irrigated
in the district, out of which 81% account for bore well and filter point wells and
remaining 5% for dug well irrigation. The total area irrigated by ground water is
1,32,871 ha. In all, there are 79,122 ground water abstraction structures in the
district. The area irrigated by different sources is presented in Table-2.

Further, the Government of AP has contemplated 24 tanks under I & CAD
Department with an ayacut of 5581 acres and 34 mini-lift irrigation schemes
under APSIDC with an ayacut of 12,246 acres.

Table-2: Area Irrigated by different sources
Area in Ha
Sl.
No.
Source of
Irrigation
2000-
01
2001-
02
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
1 Canals 21267 18284 9406 16756 799
2 Tanks 8099 15147 1174 3531 447
3 Tube wells &
Filter points
12307 131375 130472 124700 20976
4 Other wells 16865 13922 11358 8171 1778
5 Lift Irrigation 2052 332 1216 1337 0
6 Other sources 98 1570 376 113 0
7 Net area irrigated 137203 152071 124134 125657 128074
8 Gross area irrigated 171453 180630 154002 154607 157025
9 Area irrigated more
than once
34250 28559 29868 28950 28951

Source: Office of the Chief Planning Officer, Kadapa




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1.4 Geology
The oldest rocks of the area belong to Late Archaean or Early Proterozoic
era which are succeeded by rocks of Dharwarian Age and both are traversed by
dolerite dykes. The older rocks are overlain by rocks of Cuddapah Supergroup
and Kurnool Group belonging to Middle and Upper Proterozoic Age. The
Cuddapah Sedimentary Basin, which is a huge depression formed over the
denuded surfaces of older rocks extending into neighbouring districts occupies
the major part of the district.

The major rock types are quartzites, shales, limestones, phyllites,
granites, granodiorites and granite gneiss. The Archaean compises the
Peninsular Gneissic Complex, represented by granite, granodiorite, granite-
gneiss and the migmatite. These rock types occur in the southwestern part of
the district.

The rocks of Dharwar Supergroup range in Age from Archaean to Lower
Proterozoic and are represented by metabasalt and branded ferruginous chert.
The Dharwar Supergroup of rocks occur as minor brands trending NNW-SSE,
within the PGC country in the southwestern part of the district.

Both the Archaean and Dharwar are Traversed by dolerite dykes and
quartz reefs.

Alluvium consisting of gravel, sand, silt and clay occur along the river
coarses in the district.

1.5 Previous works by CGWB
Central Ground Water Board has completed systematic hydrogeological
studies by 1990. Ground Water Management Studies were carried out at regular
intervals in order to reappraise ground water conditions in the district. Ground
Water Exploration was carried out down to a depth of 200 m from the year 1992
12

to 1998. Ground Water regime monitoring is a continuous activity of Central
Ground Water Board and is being carried out 4 times in a year.

2.0 RAINFALL
The annual rainfall of the district is 703 mm, which ranges from 501 to
1064 mm. The annual rainfall data of 51 mandals for the period 2000-05, along
with its departure from normal is given in Table-3. The mean district rainfall was
732 mm in 2000-01, 862 mm in 2001-02, 416 mm in 2002-03, 822 mm in 2003-
04 and 490 mm in 2004-05. The district mean indicates that the annual rainfall
was below normal by 24%, 41% and 30% during 1999-00, 2002-03, and 2004-05
respectively (Fig.2). The rainfall was above normal by 4%, 23% and 17% in
2000-01, 2001-02 and 2003-04 respectively.

The cumulative departure of annual rainfall from normal indicates that for
the last five years the extent of drought at a place. In the district, the cumulative
departure of annual rainfall was scanty (more than 60% below normal) in 16
mandals and deficit (below normal by 20% to 50%) in 6 mandals. In the
remaining 29 mandals the rainfall was above normal. On an average, the district
rainfall condition was deficient by 27% from normal (Table-3).

3.0 GROUND WATER SCENARIO
Ground water occurs in all the geological formations in the district. The
occurrence and behaviour of ground water is controlled by geological, structural
and climatological factors, which together form dynamic system. There are two
main groups of rocks from ground water point of view, in the district. They are (i)
Consolidated Rocks comprising quartizes, shales, limestones, granites, granite
gneisses and (ii) Unconsolidated formations consisting of alluvium. The aquifer
system in consolidated rocks is highly disconnected and varies widely.



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Table 3.
MANDAL-WISE ANNUAL RAINFALL AND ITS DEPARTURE FROM NORMAL
KADAPA DISTRICT

RAINFALL(mm) DEPARTURE FROM NORMAL
S NO
MANDAL NAME
NORMAL 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
CUMMULATIVE
DEPARTURE
REMARK
1 ATLOOR 696 724 835 376 1036 493 4% 20% -46% 49% -29% -2% Normal
2 B.KODUR 687 439 530 317 658 298 -36% -23% -54% -4% -57% -174% Scanty
3 B.MATTAM 755 734 853 395 799 -3% 13% -48% 6% -100% -132% Scanty
4 BADVEL 868 700 854 561 932 626 -19% -2% -35% 7% -28% -77% Scanty
5 C.K.DINNE 589 678 682 365 1096 673 15% 16% -38% 86% 14% 93% Surplus
6 CHAKRAYAPET 627 566 821 459 784 485 -10% 31% -27% 25% -23% -3% Normal
7 CHAPADU 682 1104 937 663 1111 479 62% 37% -3% 63% -30% 130% Surplus
8 CHENNUR 691 893 925 431 973 545 29% 34% -38% 41% -21% 45% Excess
9 CHINNAMANDAM 653 620 827 309 885 603 -5% 27% -53% 36% -8% -3% Normal
10 CHITVEL 924 711 1226 509 859 554 -23% 33% -45% -7% -40% -82% Scanty
14

11 CUDDAPAH 725 886 990 362 1042 686 22% 36% -50% 44% -5% 47% Excess
12 DUVVUR 706 1035 857 527 1107 538 47% 21% -25% 57% -24% 76% Surplus
13 GALIVEEDU 730 606 707 249 573 363 -17% -3% -66% -22% -50% -158% Scanty
14 GOPAVARAM 826 679 1055 603 841 562 -18% 28% -27% 2% -32% -47% Deficit
15 J AMMALAMADUGU 668 797 726 407 544 425 19% 9% -39% -19% -36% -66% Scanty
16 KALASAPADU 890 694 756 488 817 352 -22% -15% -45% -8% -60% -151% Scanty
17 KAMALAPURAM 665 923 701 423 954 413 39% 5% -36% 43% -38% 13% Normal
18 KHAJ IPET 734 963 1027 562 1175 536 31% 40% -23% 60% -27% 81% Surplus
19 KODUR 926 790 1154 599 1014 670 -15% 25% -35% 10% -28% -43% Deficit
20 KONDAPURAM 574 739 593 385 543 561 29% 3% -33% -5% -2% -9% Normal
21 L.R.PALLI 660 968 360 795 -100% 47% -45% 20% -100% -178% Scanty
22 LINGALA 607 482 387 209 791 332 -21% -36% -66% 30% -45% -137% Scanty
23 MUDDANUR 547 541 722 339 472 262 -1% 32% -38% -14% -52% -73% Scanty
24 MYDUKUR 719 666 290 1119 -100% -7% -60% 56% -100% -211% Scanty
25 MYLAVARAM 625 897 653 466 475 516 44% 4% -25% -24% -17% -19% Normal
15

26 NANDALUR 742 669 928 393 854 628 -10% 25% -47% 15% -15% -32% Deficit
27 OBULAVARIPALI 847 963 502 840 -100% 14% -41% -1% -100% -228% Scanty
28 PEDDAMUDIUM 583 870 1035 524 777 547 49% 78% -10% 33% -6% 144% Surplus
29 PENDLIMARRI 677 650 635 342 766 443 -4% -6% -49% 13% -35% -81% Scanty
30 PENEGALUR 784 545 1045 459 749 -30% 33% -42% -5% -100% -143% Scanty
31 PORMAMILLA 911 789 1062 524 1022 406 -13% 17% -43% 12% -55% -83% Scanty
32 PRODDATUR 643 949 743 428 820 462 48% 16% -33% 28% -28% 29% Excess
33 PULIVENDULA 620 497 519 261 653 363 -20% -16% -58% 5% -41% -130% Scanty
34 PULLAMPET 761 654 939 589 952 592 -14% 23% -23% 25% -22% -10% Normal
35 RAJ AMPET 797 530 747 483 869 598 -34% -6% -39% 9% -25% -95% Scanty
36 RAJ UPALEM 700 1232 761 410 945 522 76% 9% -41% 35% -25% 53% Excess
37 RAMAPURAM 606 622 994 477 850 594 3% 64% -21% 40% -2% 84% Surplus
38 RAYACHOTY 605 563 830 224 708 656 -7% 37% -63% 17% 8% -7% Normal
39 S.A.K.N. MANDAL 1064 964 858 454 689 336 -9% -19% -57% -35% -68% -190% Scanty
40 SAMBEPALLI 628 542 902 238 838 553 -14% 44% -62% 34% -12% 15% Normal
16

41 SIDHOUT 749 900 1134 582 1137 562 20% 51% -22% 52% -25% 76% Surplus
42 SIMHADRIPURAM 644 608 206 477 -100% -6% -68% -26% -100% -300% Scanty
43 THONDUR 626 836 790 313 414 289 34% 26% -50% -34% -54% -78% Scanty
44 TSUNDUPALLI 778 386 1042 358 931 513 -50% 34% -54% 20% -34% -85% Scanty
45 V.N.PALLI 579 551 1354 402 706 344 -5% 134% -31% 22% -41% 80% Surplus
46 VALLUR 709 946 795 417 911 417 33% 12% -41% 28% -41% -8% Normal
47 VEERABALLI 615 719 1076 401 789 452 17% 75% -35% 28% -27% 59% Excess
48 VEMPALLI 675 787 1395 421 772 465 17% 107% -38% 14% -31% 69% Surplus
49 VEMULA 501 568 747 355 553 362 13% 49% -29% 10% -28% 16% Normal
50 VONTIMITTA 573 564 754 355 747 485 -2% 32% -38% 30% -15% 7% Normal
51 YERRAGUNTLA 648 857 870 423 772 467 32% 34% -35% 19% -28% 23% Excess
MEAN 703 732 862 416 822 490 4% 23% -41% 17% -30% -27% Deficit
Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Andhra Pradesh




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Fig.:-2



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3.1 Hydrogeology
Grouind water conditions in different geological formations in the district
are discussed in the following paragraphs. Hydrogeology of the district is
depicted in Fig.3.

3.1.1 Consolidated Formations

Aquifers in Archaean formations
These rocks consists mostly granite gneisses, migmatites and generally
lack primary porosity. However, development of secondary porosity through
weathering and fracturing gives scope for occurrence of ground water. Ground
water occurs under unconfined conditions in weathered portion and under semi-
confined conditions in joints and fractures.

The ground water in weathered zone is developed by large diameter (6 m)
dug wells and dug-cum-bore wells. The thickness of the weathered zone is
generally upto 10 m in most of the area. During the rainy season, these wells
sustain pumping around 4 hrs. in a day in two spells and yields 20 to 60 cu.m/day
in rainy season. However, during the Rabi season, most of the wells are likely to
yield less i.e., 5 to 20 cu.m/day and in drought years, likely to be dried up.

The ground water in fractured portion is developed through construction of
shallow/deep bore wells. The exploration carried out by Central Ground Water
Board indicated that the most of the aquifers in Archaeans are restricted to 100
m depth only. The bore well yields vary from 0.1 to 10 lps.

Aquifer in Kadapa/Kurnool formations
Kadapa/Kurnool formations consist of mostly shales, quartzites,
limestones/dolomites. Ground water occurs under water table conditions in
weathered portion of the formation and the thickness of the weathered portion is
19

around 10 m bgl. Ground water is developed in weathered potion through large
diameter dug wells (6m). As the pressure on ground water increases, the water





20




levels were lowered and the yields from dug wells decreased and occasionally
dried up in the drought years.

Presently, the farmers are constructing deep bore wells with 162 mm dia
down to a depth of 300 m. Exploration by Central Ground Water Board revealed
that the potential aquifers occur down to 191 m at Venkat Rajampet, 185 m at
Vattaluru, 147 m at Gopalmambapuram, 143 m at Mannur, 147 m at Iskapalle,
120 m at Gundlur, 114 m at Bestapalle villages in Cheyyeru basin and at 168 m
and 175 m at Pulivendula, 128 m at Kanamakinda kottalu in Papagni basin. The
yields vary from 0.5 lps to 20 lps in these formations.

3.1.2. Unconsolidated Formations
Aquifers in Alluvium

Alluvium occurs along the river courses in the district. The thickness of
the alluvium varies from 1 m to 20 m bgl. Ground water development in alluvium
is through filter point wells upto 15 m depths and are of 10 to 15 cm in diameter.
The yields vary from 2 to 17 lps, depending upon the thickness of the alluvium.
Infiltration wells are also constructed at suitable locations for village water supply
and lift irrigation schemes in these formations.

3.1.3. Aquifer parameters
Central Ground Water Board has carried out pumping tests in shallow
wells (dug wells) and bore wells to know the aquifer parameters in shallow
aquifers. In Archaean formations, the dug wells sustain pumping for 3 to 7 hrs.
per day and capable of yielding of 101 to 217 cu.m/day. The Kadapa/Kurnool
formations sustain intermittent pumping for 5 to 6 hrs./day and capable of
yielding 198 to 290 cu.m/day. The wells in alluvium sustain pumping for 5 to 7
21

hrs./day and can yield 136 to 237 cu.m/day. The recovery of water levels are
very rapid in alluvium.

However, with the passage of time, there is more stress on ground water
and hence in most areas of the District, the shallow dug wells are yielding less
quantum of water. During drought areas, these areas are likely to be dried up.

3.1.4 Deep Aquifers
The deep fractured rocks from potential aquifers in the Archaean
crystallines. These are exploited by constructing bore wells. The depth of bore
wells generally ranges from 25 to 80 m with yields varying from 0.1 to 15 liters
per second (lps). The Central Ground Water Board and State Ground Water
Department (SGWD) and Andhra Pradesh State Irrigation Development
Corporation (APSIDC) drilled several borewells in Archaeans. The perusal of
data indicates that the total depth of the wells is shallow, ranging from 30 to 80
m. meters below ground level (m/bgl). With yields generally ranging from 0.5 to
10 lps.

The Central Ground Water Board has carried out the exploration from
1992 93 to 1997 98 and 43 exploratory wells and 32 observation wells down
to a depth of 200m. The drilling discharges are highly variable from meagre
0.01 lps to as high as 21 lps in meta sediments and from traces to 3 lps in
granites. The deepest fracture was encountered at 190 at Venkatarajupet where
cumulative discharge increased to 3.85 lps from 2.9 lps. The most of the
potential fractures were encountered between 20 and 100 m. However the
potential fractures also occur rarely between 100 and 150 m. It is revealed in
Cheyair basin 80% of the wells have yielded morethan 3 lps. and nearly at 50%
of the sites, fractures were encountered beyond 100 m. with varying discharges.

Highly cavenous limestones occur both in Cheyair and Papaghni basins.
The drilling at Akepadu could not be continued beyond 45 m. due to high
22

discharge encountered in cavernous limestones. The exploration has proved
that the occurrence of production fractures down to a depth of 100 m. and rarely
upto 200 m.
Pumping tests like preliminary yield tests, step draw down tests and
aquifer performance tests were conducted on high yielding bore wells in the
district. The specific capacity of the wells is variable from 60 to 1636 lpm/mdd.
The specific capacity will be more initially and decreases with the progressive
pumping.

The transmissivity determined from the aquifer performance tests is highly
variable from 45 to 912 sq.m/day. Higher values are noticed in Cheyyeru basin,
comparable to the Papagni basin. The storativity values of the aquifers range
from 1.3 x 10
6
to 5.19 x 10-
1
. The transmissivity low yielding wells range from
0.5 to 3.7 sq.m/day.

3.2 Water level:
The depth to water level in the district is being monitored four times in a
year by CGWB during J anuary, May, August and November months through a
network of observation wells. The data generated from these wells along with
the water level data of piezometers of State Ground Water Department, the water
level situations in the district is discussed below.

3.2.1 Pre-monsoon
Based on the water level data compiled for pre-monsoon of 2005, the
distribution of different ranges of water levels in the district are discussed below
and also shown in Fig.4.

The depth to water level between 5 m and 10 m bgl was observed at
Tondur, Peddamudium, Talamanchipatnam, Chennur and Maddimadugu
villages.

23

The depth to water level between 10 m and 20m was observed at Vemula,
Vempalle, Bhakarapet, Sambepalle, Rajampet and Proddutur areas.



24

The depth to water level between 20 m and 40 m was observed at C.K. Dinne,
Badvel, B. Mattam, Nulivedu, Balapanur, Payasampalle, Kamalapuram,
Vanipenta, Uppaluru, Yamavaram, C. Kothapalle, Porumamilla and Pulivendula
areas.

The depth to water level of more than 40mbgl was observed at
Venkatrajupalle, Chennareddipalle, Kondur, Peddamudium, Gurralachintalapalle,
Timmayyagaripalle, Puttanavaripalle and Chinnakudala areas.

The depth to water level of more than 60 m bgl was observed at
Timmayyagariaplle (87.25 m), Puttanavariplle (86.6 m) and Chinnakudala (73.5
m) areas.

3.2.2 Post-monsoon
Based on the water level data compiled for post-monsoon season of 2005,
the distribution of different ranges of water levels in the district are discussed
below and also shown in Fig.5.

The depth to water level of less than 5 m was observed mostly in canal
command areas and observed at Kanagudur, Talamanchipatnam, Tandur,
Chennur, Maddimadugu areas.

The depth to water level between 5 m and 10 m was observed at
Vempalle, Proddutur, Lavanur and Sambepalle areas.

The depth to water level between 10 and 20 m was observed at
J ammalamadugu, Yamavaram, Vanipenta, Pulivendula, Balapuram, Vemula and
T. Sundupalle areas.

The depth to water level of more than 40 m bgl was observed at
Gurrakaduntlapalle (43.16) and Puttanavaripalle (47.93) areas.
25






26

3.2.3 Water level fluctuation (May, 2005 Vs. November, 05)
Based on the water level of CGWB and State Ground Water Department,
the fluctuation of water level is analysed. During the month of May, 2005, the
average district water level is 24.85 m, whereas it is 11.53 m during November,
2005, indicating average water level rise of 13.32 m in the district. Distribution of
different ranges of water level fluctuation is presented in Fig.6.
3.2.4 Long-term water level trend
Based on the average monthly water level of the piezometers, a
composite hydrograph of Kadapa district from May, 1997 to J uly, 2006 is
prepared and shown as Fig.7.
It is noticed from the hydrograph that the water levels are showing the
declining trend in the district. There is a fall of around 9 m in the district over 9
years indicating that there is a fall of around 1 m each year in the district. Point
hydrograph some of the representative wells showing the pattern of the change
in water levels are presented in Fig.7.
3.3 Ground Water Resources
Based on the Ground Water Estimation Committee (GEC-97) norms
ground water assessment was done in 2004. The mandal wise details are
presented in Table 4. Ground water resource available is 199.01 MCM in
command area and 738.55 MCM in non-command area of the district. Ground
water utilization is 85.93 MCM and 606.61 MCM in command and non-command
areas respectively. The ground water balance is 113.07 MCM and 131.94 MCM
in command and non-command areas respectively. Based on the stage of
ground water development and water level trend the villages and ground water
assessment units are categorized. Over all, the district falls under Semi-critical
category with a stage of development at 73.9%. The stage of development in
command area is 43.2% and that in non-command is 82% showing that the non-
command area is falling in Semi-critical category (Table-4).



27








28

Fig 7.

29



30


























31

Table 4.
MANDAL WISE GROUND WATER RESOURCE 2004
KADAPA DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH
S.No. Mandal Name
Groundwater
availability
ha.m
Groundwater
utilisation
ha.m
Groundwater
balance
ha.m
Stage of development
%
Category
C NC Total C NC Total C NC Total C NC Total C NC Total
1 2 3 4 5 = ( 3-4 ) 6 = { ( 4/3) * 100)} 7
1 Atloor 0 1354 1354 0 1138 1138 0 216 216 0 84 84 Safe S.C S.C
2 B.Koduru 0 980 980 0 987 987 0 -7 -7 0 101 101 Safe O.E O.E
3 B.Mattam 0 1975 1975 0 1754 1754 0 221 221 0 89 89 Safe S.C S.C
4 Badvel 0 1353 1353 0 1258 1258 0 94 94 0 93 93 Safe Cri Cri
5 Chakrayapeta 0 2111 2111 0 1479 1479 0 632 632 0 70 70 Safe S.C S.C
6 Chapadu 2618 0 2618 1745 0 1745 872 0 872 67 0 67 Safe Safe Safe
7 Chennuru 3175 19 3194 612 39 651 2563 -20 2543 19 208 20 Safe O.E Safe
8 Chinnamandem 0 1268 1268 0 1463 1463 0 -195 -195 0 115 115 Safe O.E O.E
9 Chintakommadinne 0 3145 3145 0 2428 2428 0 717 717 0 77 77 Safe S.C S.C
10 Chitvel 0 1367 1367 0 1444 1444 0 -77 -77 0 106 106 Safe O.E O.E
11 Duvvur 3064 509 3572 1818 493 2311 1245 16 1261 59 97 65 Safe Cri Safe
12 Galiveedu 0 2672 2672 0 1927 1927 0 745 745 0 72 72 Safe S.C S.C
13 Gopavaram 0 865 865 0 350 350 0 515 515 0 40 40 Safe Safe Safe
14 J ammalamadugu 0 2086 2086 0 635 635 0 1451 1451 0 30 30 Safe Safe Safe
15 Kadapa 2284 219 2504 412 51 463 1872 169 2041 18 23 18 Safe Safe Safe
32

16 Kalasapadu 0 1604 1604 0 1422 1422 0 182 182 0 89 89 Safe S.C S.C
17 Kamalapuram 0 1450 1450 0 1366 1366 0 84 84 0 94 94 Safe Cri Cri
18 Kasinayana 0 1862 1862 0 1565 1565 0 297 297 0 84 84 Safe S.C S.C
19 Khajipet 3882 293 4175 1927 182 2109 1955 111 2066 50 62 51 Safe Safe Safe
20 Koduru 0 1522 1522 0 1749 1749 0 -227 -227 0 115 115 Safe O.E O.E
21 Kondapuram 0 2588 2588 0 1813 1813 0 775 775 0 70 70 Safe S.C S.C
22 Lakkireddipalli 0 1921 1921 0 1239 1239 0 682 682 0 65 65 Safe Safe Safe
23 Lingala 0 1361 1361 0 1502 1502 0 -141 -141 0 110 110 Safe O.E O.E
24 Muddanur 0 1557 1557 0 1358 1358 0 199 199 0 87 87 Safe S.C S.C
25 Mydukur 772 1639 2411 825 1541 2367 -54 98 44 107 94 98 O.E Cri Cri
26 Mylavaram 0 2249 2249 0 936 936 0 1313 1313 0 42 42 Safe Safe Safe
27 Nandaluru 0 928 928 0 709 709 0 219 219 0 76 76 Safe S.C S.C
28 Obulavaripalli 0 1393 1393 0 1437 1437 0 -44 -44 0 103 103 Safe O.E O.E
29 Peddamudium 0 1485 1485 0 648 648 0 837 837 0 44 44 Safe Safe Safe
30 Penagaluru 0 1730 1730 0 1408 1408 0 322 322 0 81 81 Safe S.C S.C
31 Pendlimarri 0 2133 2133 0 2384 2384 0 -251 -251 0 112 112 Safe O.E O.E
32 Porumamilla 0 2010 2010 0 2027 2027 0 -17 -17 0 101 101 Safe O.E O.E
33 Proddatur 968 685 1653 477 869 1345 492 -183 308 49 127 81 Safe O.E S.C
34 Pulivendula 0 821 821 0 951 951 0 -130 -130 0 116 116 Safe O.E O.E
35 Pullampeta 0 1373 1373 0 1551 1551 0 -178 -178 0 113 113 Safe O.E O.E
36 Rajampeta 0 1886 1886 0 1693 1693 0 193 193 0 90 90 Safe S.C S.C
37 Rajupalem 2719 313 3032 641 47 688 2078 266 2343 24 15 23 Safe Safe Safe
38 Ramapuram 0 1569 1569 0 1055 1055 0 515 515 0 67 67 Safe Safe Safe
39 Rayachoty 0 1655 1655 0 1067 1067 0 588 588 0 64 64 Safe Safe Safe
40 Sambepalli 0 2149 2149 0 1364 1364 0 785 785 0 63 63 Safe Safe Safe
33

41 Sidhout 0 1434 1434 0 1118 1118 0 315 315 0 78 78 Safe S.C S.C
42 Simhadripuram 0 1431 1431 0 1596 1596 0 -165 -165 0 112 112 Safe O.E O.E
43 T.Sundupalli 0 2086 2086 0 1843 1843 0 243 243 0 88 88 Safe S.C S.C
44 Thondur 0 1367 1367 0 929 929 0 438 438 0 68 68 Safe Safe Safe
45 Vallur 419 998 1418 135 743 878 284 256 540 32 74 62 Safe S.C Safe
46 Veeraballi 0 1398 1398 0 1400 1400 0 -2 -2 0 100 100 Safe O.E O.E
47 Vempalli 0 1459 1459 0 1043 1043 0 416 416 0 71 71 Safe S.C S.C
48 Vemula 0 1068 1068 0 1460 1460 0 -391 -391 0 137 137 Safe O.E O.E
49 Vnpalli 0 1548 1548 0 1232 1232 0 316 316 0 80 80 Safe S.C S.C
50 Vontimitta 0 1482 1482 0 1166 1166 0 316 316 0 79 79 Safe S.C S.C
51 Yerraguntla 0 1482 1482 0 802 802 0 680 680 0 54 54 Safe Safe Safe
Total 19901 73855 93756 8593 60661 69254 11307 13194 24501 43 82 74 Safe S.C S.C
Note: OE =Over exploited; SC =Semi critical;C=Critical; C =Command; NC =Non command; NA =Not applicable










34

Based on the stage of development, 13 mandals are categorized as Safe,
18 Semi-critical 4 critical and 15 Over-Exploited (Fig.8). The minimum stage of
development is 20% in Chennuru mandal and the maximum stage of
development of 137% is in Vemula mandal. On classification, it is seen that the
entire command area falls under Safe category and in non-command area only
14 mandals are falling in Safe category, 17 in semi-critical, 5 critical and 15
mandals fall in over-exploited category.

3.4 Ground Water Quality
The ground water in the district is in general suitable for both domestic
and irrigation purpose. The electrical conductivity ranges from 320 to 5570 micro
Siemens/cm at 25° C. A total of 13 villages are affected by high fluoride problem
and 131 villages are having brackish water problem in the district. Electrical
conductivity of ground water ranges from 900 to 2700 micro siemens/cm at 25°C.

3.5 Status of Ground Water Development
In the olden days, the ground water development is through dug wells.
Over a period of time, due to increase in population, the stress on ground water
has increased. Consequently, the water levels were lowered and the dug wells
are replaced by dug-cum-bore wells, shallow bore wells and presently by deep
bore wells. The dug wells are generally circular or rectangular in shape and
generally down to 10 m depth. The shallow bore wells for hand pumps are 100
mm diameter and generally down to 60 m. Presently, the bore wells with 162
mm diameter were drilled down to 300 m in non-command areas and down to
100 m in command areas. The dug wells are fitted with centrifugal pumps of 5 to
7.5 HP whereas the shallow bore wells where water levels are shallow one fitted
with hand pumps for drinking and domestic purposes. The irrigation bore wells
are fitted with submersible pumps with horse power ranging from 5 to 20
depending upon the water level and yield.

35

There are 908 villages in the district. The drinking water for these villages
are met through 1243 P.W.S. schemes, 5443 bore wells and 210 open wells.
Most of the open wells are in Atloor, Chapadu, B. Mattanur, Kalespadu, Tandur
and Srihardipuram mandals, where the water levels are comparatively shallow.
(Table-5).

Most of the irrigation is through ground water in the district. Around 86%
of the total irrigation is through ground water of which 81% is through bore wells
and filter points and 5% through dug wells indicating the role of bore wells and
filter points in the district.

However, the farmers are not following any scientific criteria for selection
of sites for construction of bore wells since the holding of the small and marginal
farmers is small. The farmers are resorting to construction of second bore well, if
the first bore well is a failure. This has increased the financial burden on the
farmer.

As per he minor irrigation census for the year 2000-2001, there are 41,783
dug wells, 17,059 shallow bore wells and 20,280 deep bore wells in the district.
It indicates that the deep bore wells are dominating in the district when compared
to dug wells and shallow bore wells.

4. INFORMATION ON BORE WELL FAILURE-SUCCESS
In the non-command areas, the farmers are constructing bore wells down
to 300 m in the district. If the farmer has a perennial crops like Lemon-citrus, the
demand of water is more during summer for the crop. If the monsoon fails in one
year, its maximum effect i.e., reduction in yield of bore wells will be observed in
next summer. Since the crops needs more water during summer, the farmer
resorts for construction of additional bore well in his small area. No scientific
study of the area will be done by the farmer. Hence more often these bore wells
become a failure. This leads to a situation that the crop does not yield due to
36

Table 5.






























37


inadequate supply of water and his financial burden may increase. There are
instances that the farmers have constructed around 5 bore wells in 10 acres of
land and all the 5 bore wells have failed. This type of situation has thrown the
farmers into high distress and he looses his hope of living and commits suicide.
The reasons for failure of bore wells are

1. Scanty and increased rainfall
2. Ground water draft is more than recharge
3. Indiscriminate drilling of bore wells without following spacing norms
4. Drilling of bore wells without scientific advice.
5. Cultivation of wetland crops should be avoided.
6. Following old irrigation methods.

5. GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
In Kadapa district, about 86% of total irrigation is through ground water out
of which 81% is through bore wells and filter point wells and 5% is through dug
wells. The district being frequent drought-affected and frequent failure of
monsoon, farmers have resorted for deep bore wells on the presumption that
  more deep more water . This has lead to depletion of ground water in the district.
In order to arrest the grave situation an effective ground water management
strategy shall be evolved in such a way that there is an optimal utilization of
ground water resources, maintaining the well spacing norms. In an average, as
per the specifications of the NABARD, the spacing should be 250 m, which is not
being observed anywhere. There are instances where a farmer has sunk five
bore wells in 10 acres of and all the wells have failed. The density of the wells is
very high in some Mandals. The ground water exploration by CGWB upto 200 m
revealed that the potential zones exist upto 100 m, occasionally upto 150 m and
rarely upto 200 m. In hard rock areas, wells of 150 m depth can be drilled after
scientifically locating the sites. However, the farmers are drilling bore wells upto
300 m in some areas of the District.
38


There are as many as 4 major and 5 medium irrigation projects in the
district with a total ayacut of 2,27,996 and 55,625 acres, respectively. There are
5 ongoing projects with a total ayacut of 4,23,935 acres. In addition to this,
1,52,000 acres will be stabilized under various Schemes. This indicates that
there is a plenty of scope for conjunctive use of surface and ground water to
enhance irrigation potential and reduce the water logging conditions. Due to the
conjunctive use practices in the upper reaches, the tail end irrigation problem will
also be addressed. This will satisfy the equity distribution of water resources in
the total command area. The farmers should be encouraged for ground water
development through suitable incentives in command areas. As such, the
ground water development in command area is 43% only.

In non-command area, the stage of ground water development is 82% and
as such, the north western and western part of the district is covered by either
over-exploited or critical mandals. There are as many as 358 villages in 43
mandals declared as over-exploited villages. In these villages/mandals, the
discreet trend of sinking bore wells need to be arrested through administrative
measures or even by strict legal measures, where the provision already exist in
WALTA Act. Area should be prioritized for rain water harvesting and artificial
recharge in critical and over-exploited villages/mandals as immediate measures
on scientific guidelines through designated departments.

5.1 Ground Water Development:
Further ground water development in the district should be restricted to
the command areas by constructing 10 to 15 m depth wells with radius of about 5
m or shallow bore wells of 165 mm dia down to a depth of 50 to 60 m in areas
having water levels of less than 5 m bgl. The selection of the sites for bore wells
should be made cautiously, based on geophysical and hydrogeological surveys.
The unit cost of the wells/bore wells in different formations etc. are presented in
Table-6 and the spacing of wells should be adhered to, strictly (Table-7).
39



Table:6 Unit cost of different type of wells
Dimensions Dimensions of
bore well
Sl.
No.
Geological
formation
Type of
MI Struc-
ture Dia
(m)
Depth
(m)
Stainin
g
Depth
(m)
Dia (m) Depth
(m)
Unit
Cost
(Rs.)
1. Granite
Related
Rocks
(a) DW
(b) DW
(c) DW
(d) DW
(e) DCB
(f) DCB
6
6
5
5
6
4
10
12
14
16
10
14
4
4
4
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
100
100
-
-
-
-
30
30
25000
32500
34400
44500
31000
39400
2. Lime Stones (a) DW
(b) DW
(c) DCB
4
6
4
12
12
12
4
4
4
-
-
100
-
-
35/30
17300
32500
23300
3. Sand Stones (a) DW
(b) DCB
3
3
12
12
4
4
-
100
-
30
11300
17300
4. Shale
Formation
(a) DW
(b) DCB
6
6
12
12
4
4
-
100
35000
40000
5. (i) Bore well
in Hard
Rocks
(ii) do
(iii) do
BW


BW
BW
-


-
-
-


-
-
-


-
-
150


150
160
150
160
40


60
80#
12500


16000
20600
6. In well bores
in all
geological
formation
IWB
- - - 100 30 5000
7. Alluvium FP - - - 100 15 4500
8. Develop-
ment of old
well
DOW (Deepening 2 m from 10 to 12 m) 5000
Table-7: Spacing norms for different ground water abstraction
structures
Sl.
No
Situation Spacing between any two wells (m)

Piccota
wells
Dug wells Filter point
or shallow wells
Bore wells
1 Non-Ayacut 60 160 120 250-300
2 Ayacut 40 100 160 150-200
3 Near perennial source
lke river of tank
(within 200m)
40 100 160 200-300
40

4 Non-perennial streams 50 150 180 200-500
Source: NABARD
5.2 Water Conservation and Artificial Recharge
Water conservation and artificial recharge to ground water is the order of
the day. With a view to conserve water and soil, the Government of Andhra
Pradesh has adopted integrated watershed development approach. The basic
philosophy of the water conservation mission is If the water is running,
make it walk, if it is walking, make it stop and harvest where it
falls”. The watershed development is taken up basically from ridge to valley.
The rainwater, which is retained in upper reaches to improve the soil moisture,
prolong water movement and increase recharge to ground water. Retention of
rainwater can be carried through vegetative stoppers. Contour ploughing and
furrowing, stone packing, minor fencing, farm ponding, water checks, bund and
boundary cultivation are some of the approaches. The depth to water levels
steadily improves in the area. Only soil free water should flow out from the
watershed.

The criterion for selection of watersheds is based on number of indicators,
which signify backwardness. They include shortage of drinking water, low
rainfall, deep water levels, high evapotranspiration, declining of water levels, etc.
in the area.

It is necessary to coordinate all the works relating to the development of
land and water on a holistic and micro watershed basis. With an investment of
20 lakhs in 4 years, peoples participation in execution is very important. A
supervisory team called multi-disciplinary team with six members from
Agriculture, Engineering, Forests etc. will monitor the watersheds.

Watershed activity has taken up in the districts under DPAP, EAS, IWDP,
RIDF schemes. Various structures like check dams, percolation tanks,
41

continuous contour trenches, dug out ponds, diversion drains, contour bunds,
S.Ts, RFDs, Gabion strucutres were constructed in the district.

An amount of Rs. 46.68 crores was incurred towards watershed activity
and 62,25,028 mandays were generated under watershed activity in the district.

The artificial recharge structures must be taken up in non-command
areas, particularly in the critical and over-exploited villages/mandals on the sound
scientific techniques already in vogue. The structures should be taken up based
on the available run off in the watershed, after the meeting the need of existing
structures, so as not to deprive the down stream watershed. Roof top rainwater
harvesting in rural and urban areas should be made mandatory. Area
recommended for artificial recharge is presented in Fig.8.

Central Ground Water Board has proposed to construct demonstrative
artificial structures at 31 sites at a cost of Rs.190 lakhs in over exploited areas of
lingala, vemula, pulivendla and vempalli mandals in order to artificially recharge
the ground water system. The scheme is expected to be completed by March
2006. Impact on these ground water system will be studied by Central Ground
Water Board for a period of 3 years.

6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
The Kadapa district receives highly erratic and scanty rainfall. During the
year 2004-2005, the total annual rainfall recorded is as low as 262 mm at
Mudanur, 305 mm at Tandur, 298 mm at B. Kodur and 332 mm at Lingala, 307
mm at B. Mattam. If rainfall is scanty, large-scale watershed activity does not go
a long way. The crop water requirement of an I.D. crop is around 500 mm during
100 days of its life. If rainfall is very scanty, large-scale watershed activity does
not give positive results since the rainfall serves only to meet the soil water
component, etc.

42






Fig 8.






43


The distress deaths are mostly happened on the western and northern side of
the district, both in command and non-command areas, irrespective of stage of
ground water development. However, more deaths are noticed in over-exploited
mandals. The reasons for farmers suicides are many. Among them the
important are failure of the monsoon, absence of crop insurance, construction
of deep bore wells to meet the water demand and their failures, lack of sufficient
institutional credit, high interest loans from moneylenders and others. In addition
to this, lack of supplementary income from other sources from livestock viz., dairy
and poultry industry, high input cost of seeds and often their low quality, fertilizers
low market price for the farm produce put the farmers in distress, which has led
ultimately to their suicides.

The following recommendations are made for ground water management
plan for the sustainable management of ground water:-
1. To arrest further fall of ground water levels in district, which have gone
down to around 80 m in Timmayyagaripalle village of Chitvel mandal,
Chinnakuudala of Ringala mandal, Puttanavaripalle of Pullampet mandal
and other places, the watershed activity does not sustain the falling water
level trend because of scanty rainfall. This necessitates transfer of water
from other basins to the district. Among this, the link between Krishna
(Almatti) to Pennar should be taken up on priority basis.
2. In critical and over-exploited areas, large-scale artificial recharge to
ground water structures has to be taken up, after assessing the source
water availability. Site selection should be done on scientific lines. The
maintenance of these structures should be made mandatory by the user
agency.
3. Water intensive crops like paddy, banana, betel leaves etc. should be
discouraged under ground water irrigation.
4. To avoid distress among the farmers, institutional credit facility at lower
interest rate may be provided to all the farmers for package of selection of
44

borewell sites on a scientific basis, drilling down to required depth, suitable
pumping system (probably solar powered), modern irrigation equipment
like drip and sprinkler systems.
5. Borewells are to be drilled as per spacing norms and down to the required
depth suggested by the scientific investigations. Spacing of 250 to 300 m.
is to be observed strictly between to adjacent bore wells. Bore wells down
to a depth of 150 200 m. may be drilled in areas occupied by the
sedimentary formations whereas in hard rock areas like granites, gneisses
it may be drilled upto 100 150 m.
6. Steps may be taken for the formation of Bore Well Insurance
Corporation of India by Government of India in co-ordination with State
Governments, whereupon the payment of the premium by the farmer will
get complete reimbursement of construction charges of the bore well, if it
becomes a failure well.
7. There should be a complete institutional credit cover to the small and
marginal farmers for the drilling deep borewells in the scientifically
identified ground water potential zones, for procuring water saving
equipment like drip and sprinkler systems, etc. Insurance facility should
be provided to cover the health of formers and their families, damaged
crops due to severe drought conditions, unforeseen loss, market rates for
the agriculture produce, etc.
8. Since Kadapa district being the perennially drought prone, agriculture
alone cannot give the sustenance to the farmers.. To minimize the
dependence solely on agriculture the government should provide loan
facility with enhanced subsidy to the farmers to initiate dairy and poultry
for supplementary income for his subsistence.
9. In order to impart education to the farmers, regarding the cropping pattern,
hybrid varieties, pesticides, irrigation techniques, etc.,   Agri-Clinics may
be established in rural areas for every five villages in non-command areas.
10. Mass awareness programmes must widely be conducted on regular basis
in the   rural areas to educate the farmers regarding the water
45

management to update their knowledge. Training for local government
functionaries, NGOs, voluntary organizations engaged in watershed
development activity are to be trained in scientific techniques in the
selection of sties, design of structures, etc. for construction of rainwater
harvesting and artificial recharge structures.

Acknowledgements: The data provided by the State Ground Water
Department, Panchayat Raj Department, Agriculture Department, Irrigation
Department, District Water Management Agency and Directorate of Economics &
Stastistics, Govt.of Andhra Pradesh, for preparation of the report, is gratefully
acknowledged.