You are on page 1of 34

P

a
g
e
1


KENYA COAST DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (KCDP)
COMPONENT 3: ALTERNATIVE LIVELYHOODS
SPATIAL PLANNING COMPONENT



PONGWE KIKONENI LAND USE PLAN







Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development







P
a
g
e
2


FOREWARD
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

P
a
g
e
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 5
1.1 Project Description .............................................................................................................................. 5
1.2 Objective ....................................................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Purpose of the land use plan .............................................................................................................. 5
1.4 Selection of Planning Area .................................................................................................................. 5
1.5 Methodology ....................................................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Geographical Location ........................................................................................................................ 8
2.1 Historical Background ............................................................................................................................. 9
3.0 Situational Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 9
3.1 The People .................................................................................................................................... 9
3.2 Physiographic Profile....................................................................................................................... 12
3.2.1 Climate ....................................................................................................................................... 12
3.2.2 Relief and Drainage .................................................................................................................... 13
3.2.3 Drainage Patterns ...................................................................................................................... 13
3.2.4 Soils and Geology ....................................................................................................................... 13
3.2.5 Vegetation ...................................................................................................................................... 14
3.2.6 Wildlife ....................................................................................................................................... 15
3.3 Economic Base .................................................................................................................................. 17
3.3.1 Fishing ........................................................................................................................................ 17
3.3.2 Tourism ...................................................................................................................................... 17
3.3.3 Trade and commerce ................................................................................................................. 18
3.3.4 Industry ...................................................................................................................................... 18
3.3.5 Agriculture both livestock and crop farming ............................................................................. 18
3.4 Infrastructure .................................................................................................................................... 19
3.4.1 Public Works .............................................................................................................................. 19
3.4.2 Public Utilities ............................................................................................................................ 22
Telecommunication .................................................................................................................... 22
2.7.3 Social Infrastructure ................................................................................................................... 23
3.5 Human settlements ........................................................................................................................... 24
3.6 Land Tenure ...................................................................................................................................... 25

P
a
g
e
4

4.0 Capability Assessments ............................................................................................................... 26
4.1 Agriculture Capability ........................................................................................................................ 27
4.1.1 Crop C apability4.1.2 Dairy Farming Capability.......................................................................... 27
4.1.3 Ranching Capability .................................................................................................................... 29
4.1.4 Aggregate Agriculture Capability ............................................................................................... 30
4.2 Agroforestry Capability ..................................................................................................................... 31
4.3 Fish farming Capability ...................................................................................................................... 32
5.0 Proposed Land Use Plan.................................................................................................................. 33

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: KCDP Project Sites .......................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2: Administrative Boundaries of Planning Area ................................................................................. 8
Figure 3: Poverty Distribution ..................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 4: Education levels by gender .......................................................................................................... 12
Figure 5: Land Cover Map of the Planning Area ......................................................................................... 16
Figure 6: Livestock farming in Msambweni Sub-County ............................................................................ 18
Figure 7: Hierarchy of Roads within the Planning Area .............................................................................. 20
Figure 8: Connectivity of Trade Centers ..................................................................................................... 24
Figure 9: Levels of land Capability Mapping ............................................................................................... 26
Figure 10: Pongwe KIkoneni Land Use Proposals ....................................................................................... 34

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Population Analysis of Pongwe Kikoneni ward ............................................................................. 10
Table 2: Population Trends ......................................................................................................................... 10
Table 3: Kwale County Age Pyramid ........................................................................................................... 11


P
a
g
e
5

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Project Description
The Kenya Coast Development (KCDP) Project is a multi-sectoral development project being
implemented by government institutions based in the Coastal Region of Kenya, with the main objective
being to promote environmentally sustainable management of Kenyas coastal and marine resources.
The vision of the project is TO: Promote social and economic well-being, improve standard of living,
and create wealth for and by coastal zone communities; BY: Diversifying coastal economy, creating
viable jobs, and empowering youth and women; THRO: Environmentally and socially sustainable
utilization of coastal and marine natural resources.
The Physical Planning Department is in charge of the execution of the spatial planning component of the
programme with the main objective being to promote sustainable and best economic use of the coastal
natural resources through development and implementation of land capability plans.The role of Spatial
Planning is in the provision of overall spatial framework for integration and coordination of component
and sub-component activities within the project, for synergy, maximum impact and sustainable
development.
1.2 Objective
The overall objectives to be met by the land use plan is to formulate a spatial plan to regulate the
exploitation of natural resource for the sustainable development of Pongwe Kikoneni Ward
1.3 Purpose of the land use plan
The Pongwe Kikoneni Ward Land Use Plan is a short term Action area plan geared towards guiding
livelihood activities within the ward. It is also developed as a tool for guiding the KCDP implementing
agencies in carring out their activities within the Ward. The planning period is 5 years and covers an area
of approximately 341.76 km
2
.
1.4 Selection of Planning Area
The selection of Pongwe-Kikoneni as an action area was based mainly on the weighting system as
indicated by the Project Implementation Manual (PIM) under this Project . The selection criteria
involved an evaluation of critical criterion:
1. Presence of biodiversity hotspots
2. Emerging development
3. Levels of resource exploitation /degradation
4. Existing projects
5. Poverty levels
6. Potential for market linkages
7. Existing social capital
8. Availability of baseline data
9. Accessibility
10. Security
11. Sustainability of interventions (land tenure, entrepreneurship

P
a
g
e
6


The selection of Pongwe Kikoneni as an action area for planning was also selected based on consultation
from the other components on immediate action area sites, in order to offer spatial guidance, to the
other components in the execution of immediate projects. The site was also selected based on existence
of an approved Physical Development Plan for the Kwale County.
Figure 1: KCDP Project Sites
Source: (Physical Planning Department , 2012)



P
a
g
e
7


1.5 Methodology

P
a
g
e
8

2.0 The Planning Area
2.1 Geographical Location
The Planning area is located in Pongwe Kikoneni ward in Kwale County. The ward includes two locations,
namely Kikoneni Location and Pongwe Kidimu Location. It is located between (533723.138U,
9513485.566) UTM and (5446682.367, 9483754.221) UTM 30 km southwest of Mombasa and extends
15 km inland. Pongwe-Kikoneni Ward area measures approximately 285.76km square. It borders
Mombasa and Indian Ocean to the East and Republic of Tanzania to the South.
Figure 2: Administrative Boundaries of Planning Area



















P
a
g
e
9

2.1 Historical Background
Pongwe drives its name from original occupants Nchipongwe and mwachi pongwe who were both a
brother and sister from Pongwe family. From 15
th
Centuary Pongwe area was in habited by locals from
wasirizi tribe, arabs and white settlers. White settlers were exclusively allowed to occupy areas around
Shimoni and beach fronts by local community as a strategy for security and safeguard of locals from
Arabs slave trade activities. In 1940, Pongwe was divided into Pongwe kidimu and Pongwe kikoneni. In
early 1980s, notice of completion of adjudication register of Kidimu, Majoreni ,Mangawani, shimoni and
Wasini Island in Pongwe was published according to the Land adjudication act CAP 284 Laws of Kenya.
Kikoneni word as currently called is made up of Pongwe kidimu and Pongwe kikoneni locations in
Msambweni Division, Msambweni district, Kwale County. Pongwe kikoneni ward a total population of
41,098 people (2009 population census). The residents of Kikoneni location are predominantly of the
Digo tribe, which are one of the nine Mijikenda communities. Apart from the Digo, parts of the location,
especially the villages of Mwandeo, Mabafweni and Masimbani are habited by members of the Kamba
tribe who moved into the area in the 1960s and 70s. They bought land and settled permanently and
have now established themselves as a recognized farming community. Following the collapse of the
former Ramisi Sugar Company in 1978, sections of land which used to form part of sugar cane nucleus
estate were occupied by squatters from the Duruma tribe who moved in to produce short term crops
like maize and cassava and later benefited from allocations in the Bwiti settlement scheme. The
settlement scheme also brought in more descendants of Kamba community to Bwiti, Chigombero and
Vwivwini villages. Bwiti is the settlement area and the other two villages through private land acquisition
arrangement
Pongwe/Kidimu is largerly habited by Digos except Wasini Island which has pockets of the Vumba sub
group of the Swahili. Notable is also the Wachifundi of Mkwiro, shimoni and Parts of Kiwambale which is
a sub-dialect of the Digo but with language accent mixing Digo and Kiswahili. There is also the Tswaka
sub group of Digo tribe which occupies the villages of Chiromo, Mtimbwani, Fikirini and Mwambao
villages which forms one of the original inhabitants of the area unlike other Digos who migrated there
from Kinondo and parts of southern Tanzania. Except for Shimoni area with approved Physical
Development Plan and registered sections in Pongwe ward, most trading centres in the planning area
dont have approved plans. Land around trading centres such as Kanana and public institutions fall
under public land which is under the custody of the county government of Kwale and relevant public
institutions respectively.
3.0 Situational Analysis
3.1 The People
Pongwe Kikoneni Ward is in Lunga Lunga constituency, Kwale County. The ward comprises of Majoreni,
Mzizima, Shimoni, Wasini/ Mkwiro and Bumbani sub- Location of Kwale County. Pongwe Kikoneni Ward
has a total population of 41,098 people which is 16% of the total population of Kwale County which is at
649,931 people. Below is a table on the analysis of the population in the ward. Pongwe kikoneni Ward

P
a
g
e
1
0

Population 1989 Population 1999 Population 2009
Majoreni 3577 4322 7657
Mzizima 3048 4575 8177
Shimoni 8457 2537 4069
Wasini 942 1157 1637
Bumbani 11749 14647 19558
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
T
o
t
a
l

P
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

Population Trends
has a total household size of 7,774 within an area of 223.5 sq kms. This translates to a population
density of 184. Apparently the population of females is more than that of men. This trend is bound to
impact on the socio cultural development of the ward.
Table 1: Population Analysis of Pongwe Kikoneni ward
Source: Population and Housing census of 2009

Table 2: Population Trends
Source: Population and Housing census of 2009, 1999 and 1989


















DISTRICT DIVISION LOCATION SUB LOC MALES FEMALES TOTAL H/H AREA DENSITY H/H
SIZE
MSAMBWENI MSAMBWENI PONGWE/KIDIMO MAJORENI
3,679

3,978

7,657

1,404

58.2

132

5.5
MSAMBWENI MSAMBWENI PONGWE/KIDIMO MZIZIMA
3,999

4,178

8,177

1,598

72.5

113

5.1
MSAMBWENI MSAMBWENI PONGWE/KIDIMO SHIMONI
2,077

1,992

4,069

965

19.6

208

4.2
MSAMBWENI MSAMBWENI PONGWE/KIDIMO WASINI/MKWIRO
794

843

1,637

295

4.8

341

5.5

MSAMBWENI

LUNGA
LUNGA
KIKONENI BUMBANI 9519 10039 19558 3512 129.7 151 5.6
TOTAL 20,068 21,030 41,098 7,774 223.5 184 5.3

P
a
g
e
1
1


Table 3: Kwale County Age Pyramid
Source: Population and Housing Census 2009
The population of kwale County is
youthful as can be illustrated on the
table below. The bulk of the
population is between the age of 0-
44 which is defined as the youthful
age. It is therefore paramount that in
doing this landuse planning, the
youth particularly should be given
much emphasis because of their
populations.

Poverty Dynamics
Figure 3: Poverty Distribution
Source: Population and Housing Census 1999

According to the 1999
Population and Housing census
data, the total Population
considered as poor at the
location level was:
Pongwe Kidimu Location-5658
(44% of the total Population)

Kikoneni Location -8756 (59% of
the Total Population)






P
a
g
e
1
2


In terms of educational standards of the planning area, the figure 4 below demonstrates that there is a
large population of men who never went to school at all as compared to their female counterparts. Also
in the analysis, it can be seen that majority of the population only attained primary education as the
highest level while the population that attained tertiary education being small. This clearly shows that
after the primary education there is a big drop out students who proceed to secondary and finally to
tertiary colleges which include University, Polytechnics and other tertiary colleges.the low levels of
skilled labour coupled with low literacy levels might be a considerable influence to the high poverty
levels within the county.
Figure 4: Education levels by gender
Source: Population and housing census 2009










3.2 Physiographic Profile
3.2.1 Climate
Pongwe-kikoneni has monsoon type of climate; hot and dry from January April, while June to August is
the coolest period of the year. Being in the coastal region, its climate is mainly influenced by large-scale
pressure systems (Intertropical Convergence ZoneITCZ) of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and is
generally hot and humid. The monsoon winds blow from the northeast (October-March) and southeast
(April-September). Transition periods of change of direction of flow of the winds occur in the months of
March-April and September-October. These two distinct monsoon seasons result in an annual bimodal
rainfall pattern that characterizes the Kenyan coast with the long rains peaking between April and July
and October to November for the short rains

P
a
g
e
1
3

3.2.2.1 Rainfall
Rainfall comes in two seasons with the short rains experienced from October to December while the
long rains run from March- June/July. The ward has an average rainfall ranging from 400- 1200mm.
The average rainfall amount for the windward side of the ecosystem is 1150mm decreasing to less than
500mm. The highest rainfall amount recorded is 1500mm.(trends in rainfall distribution)
3.2.2.2 Altitude
The coastal plain is narrow belt and varies in width from 3km to 20km. The coastal plain lies below 30m
above sea level and extends 10kms inland. The extent of this feature is the coastline. The Foot Plateau,
which is behind the Coastal Plain, lies at an altitude of between 60 and 135 metres above sea level.
3.2.2.3 Temperature
The average temperature value is 24C within a range of 19-36C. The coolest months are July and
August while the highest temperatures are recorded during the month of February. Relative humidity
peaks at 80% except during the warm months.
3.2.2 Relief and Drainage
The upper part of the ward Kikoneni location is characterized by hills and valleys while the lower part of
the ward towards Pongwe Kidimu location is characterized by flat terrain to the ocean
The general contour lines show a gradual rise from the shoreline to the interior. On a smaller scale,
however, there are some morphological features which greatly influence the potentiality of a particular
zone to a particular land use.
The Coastal strip is a narrow belt along the ward fronting the ocean, with a maximum altitude of about
4-10 metres and is characterised by a relatively flat surface. The western extension has an altitude of
between 10 to 18 metres and is also characterized by a relatively flat surface, ultimate with a number of
hills, and hill complexes such as the Mrima Hills that immediately fall outside the planning. This zone has
good rainfall and fertile soils, with a fairly high potential for agriculture.
At other points smaller streams have cut long narrow inlets through the older coral formations and
these were drowned by the post glacial rise in sea level (mashimoni). Some limestone areas provide very
distinctive scenery and contain a maze of cave systems.
3.2.3 Drainage Patterns
Ramisi River forms the main drainage spine in the ward. There are also other seasonal rivers and
streams such as River Mwazare, Mwakadembe and River Mwena Below is a map of the drainage system
in Pongwe Kikoneni
3.2.4 Soils and Geology
Pongwe Kikoneni ward show considerable variety of soil types which mostly developed on coastal sands
and coral limestone and are generally well drained with varying structure and depth. The porous parent
rocks of sedimentary origin towards the South (Wasini and Shimoni area) give rise to soils of moderate
to low fertility.

P
a
g
e
1
4

Highly productive areas characterized by loamy and clay soils are located towards Mrima hills and
Msambweni. These are areas of relatively high fertility. Coastal sands are predominant in Wasini Island
and along the coastline of Shimoni
The general contour lines show a gradual rise from the shoreline to the interior. On a smaller scale,
however, there are some morphological features which greatly influence the potentiality of a particular
zone to a particular land use.
Soils developed in Tidal Swamps and flood plains also occur in Wasini Island, Majoreni, Shirazi/Bodo,
Gazi and along Umba River flood plain.
In order to improve on crop yields, measures should be undertaken to raise fertility of the soils
especially around Shimoni area. Applications of fertilizer should far most consider nitrogen and
phosphorus as the most important nutrients.
Rocks: The geology of the area is composed of the residual coral limestones and columns of sand. Rocky
outcrops occur in Wasini island .The other key geology feature comprises of quaternary deposits which
range from estuarine deposits to sands, clays and coral limestones.
The upper part of Kikoneni location is characterized by hills and valleys while the lower part of the ward
towards Pongwe Kidimu location is characterized by flat terrain as one approaches the ocean.
3.2.5 Vegetation
Distribution of vegetation and wildlife in Pongwe-Kikoneni Ward is controlled by interrelated factors
such as climate, geological formation (soil), mans activities i.e. tree cutting, clearing, burning and over
grazing. Vegetation in the region can be grouped into two, terrestrial and marine vegetation.
The planning area contains a wide variety of vegetation including indigenous tree plantations, thickets
and shrubs, riverine trees, cashew-nuts and sugarcane plantations, mangroves and palm domes. This
can be broadly classified into terrestrial and marine.
3.2.5.1 Terrestrial Vegetation
The total forest cover in the ward is approximately 3.37% (435 Ha). Majority of forest types are planted
with casuarinas and melia being the popular exotic species. Part of Marenje forest which is a dry land
forest falls within the planning area.
Other dry land forests in the area include Kayas which have a cultural significance to the Giriama
community. Patches of bushes and grassland cover uncultivated land within Pongwe Kikoneni ward.
These are cleared to give way for cultivation and charcoal burning.
(Insert map of bushes, grassland & mangroves)
Farmland vegetation includes crops such as cashew nuts, mango trees, citrus, maize and horticultural
crops. This vegetation exists mainly along the coastline of Pongwe Kikoneni due to abundance of rainfall.

P
a
g
e
1
5

Sugarcane plantations are extensive in Ramisi area where River Ramisi River is used for irrigation. This
makes it susceptible to over abstraction. Sugarcane plantation but at smaller scale is found towards the
North of Lunga-Lunga road around kikoneni, mwabandari and mwandeo areas.
Palm domes, coconut trees and grassland are common features across the planning area.
Photos of bushes & grassland, sugarcane?
3.2.5.2 Marine Vegetation
Mangroves
Dense Mangroves occur along the shoreline stretching from Majoreni to kidumu and Wasini Island. The
mangrove forests support a number of species which include both the sea and land species. Local
communities harvest the mangroves for timber leading to its gradual decline. Estimates under mangrove
cover have remained constant.
They serve as important habitat for many species and as sediment trap thus keeping the coastal beaches
pristine. Mangroves swamps cover approximately 8,000Ha with largest systems in Shimoni and Wasini
Island area. People have traditionally harvested mangrove posts for subsistence and commercial use as
building material. Despite this, estimates of area under mangrove cover have remained constant.
Sea Grass Beds
Sea grass beds occur along the regions coastline usually adjacent to or associated with coral reefs. They
are found along the shoreline in the South and Wasini Island serving as an important habitat for many
species and as sediment trap thus keeping coastal beaches pristine. (Insert photos of sea grasS)
3.2.6 Wildlife
These can be divided into two; terrestrial and marine wildlife communities.
3.2.6.1 Terrestrial Wildlife
The terrestrial wildlife found in this area include: eland, sable, antelopes, Angolan Columbus, sakes,
monkeys, Grimms and bush buck. A number of forest bird species have been recorded.
3.2.6.2 Marine Wildlife
The mangrove forests and sea grass beds perform vital functions in protection and enrichment of the
coastal ecosystem. They serve as habitat for many species of fish, octopi and olothurian that are
exploited commercially.
Mangrove forests are habitat for a variety terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. The terrestrial
fauna includes many species of birds, reptiles, mammals and insects. The aquatic fauna include prawns,
crabs and molluscs. Sea grass beds are also the feeding grounds of endangered species such as the
green turtle, the hawksbill turtle and the dugong. The Kisite Mpunguti Marine reserve has been
established to protect and conserve some of the endangered species and their breeding grounds.


P
a
g
e
1
6

Figure 5: Land Cover Map of the Planning Area
Source: Satellite Imagery (2009)


P
a
g
e
1
7

3.3 Economic Base
The main economic activities in this area are fishing, agriculture, tourism and trade. Income generating
opportunities are determined by the mentioned economic activities. The level of economic
development in this region depends on the resource base and the quality of infrastructure.
3.3.1 Fishing
Fishing is a main subsistence occupation. Fishery resources
are an important source of food, employment and foreign
exchange in Pongwe Kikoneni ward. Fishing is undertaken
along the Pemba channel and the high seas. The main
species of fish in the area include; king fish, jack fish and
rabbit fish. Fishing is mainly done within the areas of
Shimoni and Wasini Island. (kisite mpuguti).



3.3.2 Tourism
The tourist industry has direct economic benefits to the area through sale of fish, employment in tourist
hotels in Wasini Island and various tourist attraction sites within the ward. The sites include; Shimoni
caves, turtle breeding grounds, Kisite mpunguti marine reserve, coral rocks and Wasini Island .The
cultural conservation diversity and historical development dating to pre-historic period and colonial
times makes Kwale the ideal destination at the coast. Shimoni Caves are great historical indicators that
have a religious transformation and a historical monument of slavery and the ugly period of persecution
that the locals went through.


P
a
g
e
1
8

3.3.3 Trade and commerce
Trade patterns in the ward are influenced by proximity to Ukunda, quality of service roads serving the
market centres, security, the economic viability of the hinterland and accessibility and proximity to the
Likoni Lunga Lunga road.
These factors determine the distribution and pattern of trade in the area. They also determine the type
of trade in various centres across the ward.
The main market centers within the ward are, Shimoni, Kikoneni and Majoreni. The other lower level
centers include; Kanana, Kidimu, Fikirini, Kibuyuni, Chigombero, Kivuleni, Mabwafweni, Mwandeo and
Kiruku. The most popular types of businesses are shops, kiosks and transport.
3.3.4 Industry
Agro-Industry: Ramisi Sugar Factory
Oil exploration prospecting in Majoreni
Coral Stone Mining- Panama , Shimoni
3.3.5 Agriculture both livestock and crop farming
Agriculture plays a major role in the economic growth and development by employment generation,
foreign exchange earnings and overall contribution to gross domestic product within the ward. It is
evident that the area is dependent on agriculture and it contributes highly to the economic power of the
residents. Growth in agriculture can result in improved rural income, which has a significant and direct
impact in reducing overall poverty. The area has a great potential for agriculture based on the soils types
and the rainfall that is averaged at 700 mm per annum and is considered a medium potential zone.
The main crops that are found in the area include: Maize, Cassava, Rice, Bixa, Sugarcane, Mangoes,
Coconuts, Passion fruits and bananas. Cassava, bananas, coconuts, mangoes, bixa, paws, avocadoes,
water melons and cucumber can be grown throughout the year.
Production of crops such as cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, millet, coconuts, sugarcane and cashew nuts
in large quantities can also support agro-based industries and thus enhance the economic power of the
people. It is important to note that livestock keeping also has a fair share of the economy of not only the
Msambweni Sub County but pongwe Kikoneni. Over 80% of the livestock are cattle, goats and donkeys.
Below is a chart showing various types of livestock.
Figure 6: Livestock farming in Msambweni Sub-County
Source:





P
a
g
e
1
9

3.4 Infrastructure
Infrastructure is the social overhead capital that supports the economy of a locality. Infrastructure
facilitates efficient and effective resource utilization and distribution of goods and services and has a
direct relationship to economic growth, poverty reduction and the environment. Good infrastructure
increases productivity and, therefore, improves standards of living of people, alleviates poverty and
improves environmental conditions within human settlements, provides linkages between people,
resources and activities that provide opportunity for sustainable development.
In this report infrastructure was classified as:
i. Public Works (roads, bridges, parking terminals and other transport service, jetties. Also
included in this category are facilities such as educational, health and security institutions
ii. Public Utilities (electricity, telecommunication, water reticulation system and sanitation).
3.4.1 Public Works
Roads
Pongwe-Kidimu area is relatively well covered by road network. However, much of the roads in this
locality consist of gravel, earth and murram roads. The only tarmacked road in this area is the Likoni-
LungaLunga class A road which traverses the ward. The rest are basically rural access and/or feeder
roads and include Msambweni-Kikoneni road, Msambweni-Chigombero-Kikoneni, Kanana-Shimoni,
Kidimu-Majoreni.
Many of these roads require improvement in form of either tarmacking or murraming. One such road
that requires tarmacking is the Kanana-Shimoni road.
Picture 1: Kanana-Mkuyuni Road
Source: Reconnaissance Survey


P
a
g
e
2
0

Figure 7: Hierarchy of Roads within the Planning Area
Source: Reconnaissance Survey















Bridges
There are a number of minor road bridges in the ward mainly along Ramisi and Mwena rivers. Some of
the bridges include Ramisi, Mwachande, Mwabafueni.
Road Class
Kanana-Mkuyuni D543
Kidimu-Majoreni E970
Likoni-Lungalunga A 14
Mkuyuni - Shimoni E0971
Mkuyuni-Fikirini R4B
Msambweni-
Chigombero-Kikoneni
R1B, 2B

P
a
g
e
2
1

Jetties
There is only one jetty at Shimoni. This jetty serves mainly the tourists and locals people to the islands,
fishermen and as an entry point to Pongwe Kikoneni. It also serves as a boat repair yard. This is a major
infrastructure in water transport at Pongwe Kikoneni. Below are pictures showing the jetty itself and
boats.
Picture 2: Shimoni Jetty
Source: Reconnaissance Survey














Picture 3: Water Transportation between Mainland and Wasini Island
Source: Reconnaissance Survey










P
a
g
e
2
2

3.4.2 Public Utilities

Water and Sanitation
Water sources in Pongwe-Kikoneni consist mainly of wells and boreholes. There is a Bore hole at
Sangalato near Kikoneni and a few wells in the villages. It is worth noting that majority of the population
have no access to safe water because the methods of waste disposal. For instance in the population
and housing census of 2009, it was analysed that in the whole Msambweni Sub county where Pongwe
Kikoneni Ward is situated 58% of the population use boreholes and wells as earlier stated but the
remaining 42% of the population use water from ponds, streams, small lakes, jabia and piped water. Of
more importance are the people who use open source of water because the water is prone to
contamination due to poor methods of waste disposal. A high population of the rural people goes to the
bush. Below are charts showing the analysis of water sources and methods of waste disposal.

Airstrips
The ward is served by one airstrip at Wasini. The airstrip promotes tourism activities along the South
Coastal region. The airstrip is, however, constrained by the problem of poor road network.
Telecommunication
This service is sporadically available in Pongwe-Kidimu ward. All the major telecommunication service
providers are available in the locality. These cover almost the entire ward but with a weak signal in many
areas particularly the lower parts towards Shimoni. Shimomi is also covered by automatic exchange
services.
Postal Services
Postal services are available at Kikoneni and Shimoni.
Electric Power
Electricity is sourced mainly from the National Grid. However Pongwe-Kikoneni area has a skewed
electricity supply. A large part of the ward is without electricity supply except areas along Kikoneni-
Mrima, Kana-Shimoni and Mwangwei-Majoreni corridors. From our analysis, Pongwe Kikoneni being at

P
a
g
e
2
3

the rural has not been well supplied with electricity. A negligible number of the population use
electricity while the majority uses tin lamps and lanterns as their source of lighting. Below is a chart
showing the various sources of lighting

2.7.3 Social Infrastructure
i. Education: primary and secondary, tertiary (village polytechnics, adult education)
ii. Administration offices and police posts- shimoni, majoreni, kikoneni, chigomero
iii. Health centers- shimoni, majoreni, Kikoneni

[Insert a combined map with the above features]

P
a
g
e
2
4


3.5 Human settlements

Human settlement is a concentration of people and activities, whether sparse homesteads, large tracts
of property holdings, the smallest village, or the largest metropolis.
Human settlement in Pongwe Kikoneni ward in Kwale County which is the planning area can further be
classified broadly into urban and Rural settlements.
Figure 8: Connectivity of Trade Centers
Source: Field Survey





















P
a
g
e
2
5


3.6 Land Tenure
Land Tenure in Pongwe Kikoneni Ward is categorized into Public, Private and Community land.
There are several settlement schemes which include-Ramisi, Majoreni, Shimoni, kidimu,
magawani and wasini. The map below shows the land tenure in the planning area
Insert map of land tenure

P
a
g
e
2
6


4.0 Capability Assessments
Land capability classification is an internationally recognized means of land classification, used to
evaluate the capability of land to support a range of land uses, on a long-term sustainable basis (Grose,
1999).
Land capability assessment takes into account the physical nature of the land (eg. geology, soils, slope,
altitude) plus other factors (eg. climate including rainfall and temperatures, land management practices)
which determine how that land can be used without destroying its long-term potential for sustainable
production. It also takes into account limitations that might affect maximum use, eg. drainage, tsetse fly
distribution, landform or flooding. Land capability assessment is therefore based on the permanent
biophysical features of the land (including climate), and does not take into account other factors eg
poverty; infrastructure distribution, the economics of agricultural production, distance from markets,
social or political factors.

Three thematic areas were selected for the initial preparation of land capability maps, including
aquaculture, agriculture (crop and livestock) and forestry. This forms among the largest contributors to
the livelihoods of the coastal people.
The land capability mapping has been done in three levels , coast region level, that informs the regional
level ie at the county level and finally stepped down to the ward scale. The land capability maps are
decision making tools that can be used in defining land use proposal at various planning levels.
Figure 9: Levels of land Capability Mapping
Source: Physical Planning

Coast Region land
Capability Assessment
County Land Capability
Assessments
Action Area/ward level Capability
Assessments

P
a
g
e
2
7

High Moderate
Not
capable
Available acreage
without parks (Ha) in
Kwale County
347,447 13,840 423,528
Available acreage
without parks (Ha) in
Pongwe Kikoneni Ward
24310 0 2265
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
450,000
A
r
e
a

i
n

H
a
.

Crop Capability Acreage (Ha)

4.1 Agriculture Capability
4.1.1 Crop C apability
Class Area(Ha) Remarks crops
High 24,310 ha Deep soils, well drained Amaranthus(Mchicha), Banana, capsicum(pilipili
hoho), Cashenut, Cassava, Caster, Coconut, cotton,
Cucumber, green grams, Maize, okra, highland rice,
Sisal, Spider plant(Saga), (shimoni, Kikoneni), Tomato
Low 2,265ha Constrained by Poorly
drained, prone to
flooding, steep and flat
Acacia Melife, bixa, Cashew nut, Citrus, oil palm, okra,
pawpaw, pineapple(near shimoni), simsim, Sunflower,
Water melon

P
a
g
e
2
8

0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000
High
Moderate
Low
Not capable
High Moderate Low Not capable
Available acreage
without parks (Ha) in
Pongwe Kikoneni Ward
112 24,198 1,099 0
Available acreage
without parks (Ha) in
Kwale County
154,110 129,417 100,747 412,069
Dairy Farming Capability Acreages (Ha)
4.1.2 Dairy Farming Capability








Class Area(Ha) crops
High 112 Ha Dolichos, Napier grass, Rhodes grass
Moderate 24,198 Ha Acacia Melife Critoria, digitarimilani, Micuna
Low 1,099 Ha Acaciaxantho, cenchruscilli


P
a
g
e
2
9

0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000
Available acreage without
parks (Ha) in Kwale County
Available acreage without
parks (Ha) in Pongwe Kikoneni
Ward
Available acreage without parks
(Ha) in Kwale County
Available acreage without parks
(Ha) in Pongwe Kikoneni Ward
Moderate 198,110 2151
High 588,233 24424
Beef Farming Capability Acreage (Ha)
4.1.3 Ranching Capability










Class Area(Ha) crops
High 24424 Acacia Melife
Moderate 2151 Acacia Melife Micuna





P
a
g
e
3
0

4.1.4 Aggregate Agriculture Capability

























Coast
Region
land
Capabil
ity
Assess
ment
County
Land
Capabili
ty
Assessm
ents
Action
Area/w
ard
level
Capabil
ity
Assess
ments

P
a
g
e
3
1

4.2 Agroforestry Capability





















Class Area(Ha) crops
High 15203 Afzelia
Moderate 10282 Afzelia(between Fikirini and Shimoni, Wasini Island)
Low 407 Afzelia(Majoreni, between Kigombero and Fikirini)
Not Capable 22 Acaciapoly

P
a
g
e
3
2

4.3 Fish farming Capability














Capability Class Area(Ha)
aquaculture High Capability 1323
Moderate 809

P
a
g
e
3
3

5.0 Proposed Land Use Plan

Proposal ClassValue
The are has high potential for gariculture but consevation measures are needed to protect this zone 30
Water Areas 70
current Use in harmony with land Capabilty, can be good for pasture production 40
current Use out of Land Capabilty, use of fertlizer and manure needed 50
current Use out of Land Capabilty, use of fertlizer and manure needed, and proper soil management 60
current Use within Land Capability, crops can be grown and agroforesty, Dairy farming require measures to reduce tsetse fly
should be applied, 12 acres can be sufficient, soil mgt due to flooding
20
current Use within Land Capabilty, Majority crops can be grown and agroforesty, Dairy farming will not do better, measures to
reduce tsetse fly should be applied, 10 acres can be sufficient
10








































P
a
g
e
3
4

Figure 10: Pongwe KIkoneni Land Use Proposals
Source : Physical Planning