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Seeding future businesses

By Timothy Wahl
Evans CAS 1986-2012
Belmont Service Center 2012

We learn by our mistakes, but we grow by our successes - Dale Carnegie

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2012 Timothy L. Wahl

Table of Contents
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . 4
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Importance of Entrepreneur Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
A Perspective on Existing State of Adult Ed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
The State of Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
The Teaching of Entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9
Overview of Existing LAUSD Entrepreneur Programs . . . . . . . 12
National Entrepreneurship Paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
State and Local Entrepreneurship Paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Proposed Entrepreneurship Incubation Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Annotated Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Disclaimer: This content in this prospectus is an independent, self-initiated study and has no affiliation with
the Los Angeles Unified School District Division of Adult Education, which has neither approved nor
endorsed the information contained herein.


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ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a hub in the Adult and Career Education division of the Los
Angeles Unified School District for students to grow their own businesses under the tutelage of
not only adult education faculty members but with the active participation of local businesses,
community-based organizations and government agencies that promote commerce. Needs,
market analysis and potential payoffs are examined, and a sketch of how the system of
entrepreneurship incubation would operate is discussed.


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ot many would disagree that entrepreneurship is a robust force for economic
growth. Entrepreneurship drives innovation, creates wealth and jobs, transforms
communities and generates greater competitiveness on a global scale, according to
a report issued jointly by the Immigration Policy Center and U.S. Chamber of Commerce (Hohn
2012). In these times that test a persons soul with higher prices, reduced public services and job
losses, which create an even bigger burden on public resources, it is imperative a plan is hatched
and indeed implementednot just talked aboutto tackle these problems. And that plan, like
the old adage that charity begins at home, floats a concept that Los Angeles has a solution right
here in our local community. A program in entrepreneur studies in the Division of Adult and
Career Education, which includes an entrepreneurship incubation center, could well provide a
stimulus package far exceeding any bailout.
Importance of Entrepreneur Instruction
Congruent with the Districts Strategic Plan 2012-2015, dedication to nurturing
entrepreneurship in adult education strikes a key theme in All Students Achieving. Just as the
Plan notes the involvement of families in the success of education for their young in LAUSD

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schools, CBET and CASAS competencies, current measures of adult student learning and
achievement, support the raising of the skills levels of pupils in the K-12 system. Both CBET
and CASA promote literacy among adults, most of whom are non-native English-speaking
immigrants or offspring of immigrants and acknowledged in many corners as the group most
likely to start new businesses (Building a 21st century immigration system 2011; DeBord 2011;
Esquivel 2012; Fairly and Woodruff 2007). They in turn are able to help their sons and daughters
succeed at school, making their integration in their childrens learning integral fare in preparing
them for college and career-readiness called for in the Plan. The Plans call for parents to be
involved in the success of K-12 pupils is also Sanctioned by State Ed Codes 315, 315.5, 316, 317
(Appendix VI).
Federally-funded CASAS, in its assessments of reading, writing, listening, math, critical
thinking and citizenship, delivers adult learnersi.e. parentsto the doorstep of assimilation in
the American workplace. Parents who have job skills, from the intangible such as language to do
the job to the tangible such as actual performance at work, clearly, transmit a favorable familial
ambiance conducive to their childrens higher achievement at school. This incidence of superior
attainment exponentially increases for children whose parents are entrepreneurs (Wong,
Watanabe, Liu 2011), who explain that students in families whose parents own their own
business not only have a propensity to learn survival and social skills more readily but develop a
strong work ethic and, quite remarkably, a deep-seated desire to give back to the communities.
Children from these homes, the authors suggest, also have an elevated inclination for learning
things independently.


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A perspective on Existing State of Adult Ed
Adult school demographics at LAUSD represent diverse cultures, ethnicities and
languages. Many in adult schools are either foreign-born or first generation Americans who do
not claim English as the primary language. Adult education prepares learners in language skills,
mostly as related to day-to-day life skills, and the ability to perform at work, how to get and
retain a job (the crux of CASAS). Not that filling out a resume, writing a cover letter and how to
perform in an interview are not important, but virtually few if any competencies are on the ways
to begin and operate a business as a business owner, such as, but obviously not limited to,
understanding different kinds of business structures (i.e. sole proprietorship, partnership, limited
liability, etc). Currently, students are given CASAS instruction, where testing caters to
deciphering food labels, or preparing personal income tax forms, for instance, but nary a sheet of
information about what steps need to be taken with regard to getting a health permit so that food
may be purveyed legally.
Such is the irony in preparing DACEs students to work for someone
else, when evidence underscores that much could be gained in terms of serving the students and
their families if the focus was on them taking the bull by the horns, as it were, and making their
own job and creating jobs for others.
Nationally, statewide and locally, more businesses are begun each year by immigrants
such as the students who make up the majority of the DACE consistency. Fairly and Woodruff
(2007, p28) note, [L]anguage barriers notwithstanding, minus legal barriers, then [immigrant]
entrepreneurship exceeds that of native born, English speaking population. Take away these
factors and immigrants no matter the nation of origin are more likely to own a business than are
native-born Americans.

CASAS is put out by U.S. Department of Labor; how might the test be slanted if done as joint venture with U.S.
Department of Commerce?

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Statistics indicate that about 33% of new businesses in the state of California are
immigrant endeavors, which goes up to 44% in Los Angeles (Esquivel 2012). Roberto Barrigan,
president of the Van Nuys-based Valley Economic Development Center (Strong nd), believes
that those figures are too low. Eighty percent of Los Angeles County new businesses, by his
estimate, are immigrant-owned.
The State of Entrepreneurship
The phenomenon of immigrants as entrepreneurs did not emerge overnight. Immigrants
starting their own businesses date back to as long as there have been immigrants. Data suggest
(DeBord 2011, Hsu 2012) that this trend of immigrants beginning businesses has surged upward
in recent years partly because there are more immigrants than in the past and also because
immigrants are often at a disadvantage to find a real job due to language insufficiency or other
reasons such as being in a new system, marked by a maze litigiousness (Hsu 2012), Esquivel
2012). Not unaccustomed to taking risks, immigrants opt for the path to success as an
entrepreneur often by becoming a vendor of products or services in their own ethnic
communities (Esquivel 2012). Though the path to business ownership is not any easier than
being an employer, it affords the freedom of doing something ones own way. In spite of long
hours and insecurity in self-employment, this way is preferable (DeBord 2011).
Statistics for the ratio of higher immigrant new businesses could be driven by the
likelihood that native-born Americans are complacent with a nine-to-five routine and the security
of a steady paycheck without the worries of business ownership. The picture emerges that
immigrants from every stripe, really, take tremendous risks, pulling up roots and sometimes at
great peril to get to these shores (Fairley and Woodruff 2007).

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Twenty-Seven percent of the population of California is immigrant, and the figure is
substantially higher in Los Angeles County, which can also boast as home to nationally-known
companies founded by immigrants. Forever 21, El Pollo Loco, Curacao (ne la Curacao) and
Panda Express are only a few (Esquivel 2012). It would be hard to imagine any other city
having so many immigrant success stories as Los Angeles., where, according to Strong (nd),
twenty-two of the top fastest growing companies were founded by immigrants. Immigrants have
provided one of America's greatest competitive advantages. Their hunger to share in the
American Dream, their entrepreneurial drive, and hundreds of thousands of jobs created as a
result all have fueled growth in the American economy (Wadhwa, Saxenian, Rissing, & Gereffi
The Teaching of Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship is not something that can be taught, per se, but can teach what to do in
order to increase the chances of success (Gray 2006). For example, how can risk-taking be
taught? Entrepreneurship study can teach calculated risk and how to minimize failure based on
the study of market realities and anecdotal evidence of others mistakes. This includes planning
and running companies through innovative classes that emphasize experience over study and
teaching designed to help students acquire the tools, which include language development, and
cultivate the mindset central to organizing, launching and managing new ventures (Intercambio
2012). Entrepreneurship education is less about teaching creativity in coming up with ideas than
it is the nuts and bolts from whence to build a business and give ideas an actionable platform
(Gray 2006).
Taking an entrepreneurship class isn't likely to turn a student with no business smarts
into an opportunity-spotting, moneymaking genius, notes Gray (2006 22). Yet plenty of

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anecdotal evidence suggests that the classes can speed the learning curve for those with the right
stuff. On the most fundamental level, the programs can teach students basic skills, such as
managing financials or writing a business plan, forcing them to impose a structure and deadlines
on dreams that they might never achieve otherwise.
One famous proponent of entrepreneur training is Mark Cuban, who sold his startup,, to Yahoo! for $6 billion in 1999. He now owns the Dallas Mavericks and co-
owns the high-definition-TV network HDNet. Mr. Cuban notes that one of the best classes he
ever took was one in entrepreneurship at Indiana University, which he claims motivated him to
start a business and understand the necessary fundamentals of finance, accounting, and
marketing (Gray 2006). It is people with success storiesbig and smalllike Mr. Cuban that
the Entrepreneurship Incubation Center expects to bring not only inspiration though sharing
anecdotal experiences but by offering roll-up-the-sleeves guidance to aspiring entrepreneurs in
the program. Teaching what has worked with startup companies and tips from experts could
really make a difference, as Mr. Cuban said it did for him (Gray 2006).
The greatest factor in success or failure of a participant in entrepreneurship is the comfort
in an atmosphere of uncertainty. No one can predict the success of a venture, but imaginably the
risk and the feeling of apprehension associated with taking risks would be lessened in something
like an entrepreneur incubation center by knowing first what the risks are and exploring ways of
solving a particular problem without shooting into the dark "Some people can't be taught to be
comfortable in an environment of uncertainty and risk. We have to expose people to that
environment and have them make that decision." (Gray 2006)
Lack of knowledge on the rules of law and commerce can buttonhole a start-up venture,
making an on-the-seat-of-the pants system of operation. Such a trial and error way might be

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similar to on-the-job training if not for lack of a mentor, or experienced business person, to help
the would-be business person navigate the vast ocean of possibilities and whirlpools. In the
absence of schooling, the new venture is left to the mercy of a learning curve that could take
years before the operator gets a sense of doing things right, having figured out business protocol
and nuances, what works and what does not (Esquivel 2012, Hsu 2012).
Instruction in entrepreneurship reduces the learning curve by presenting the would-be
entrepreneur with the structured environment to learn and not only maximize chances of success
but shorten the span from start up to a successful outcome, however this is measured. An
entrepreneurship incubation center takes entrepreneurship education a step farther in presenting
real-world opportunity, in partnership with thriving businesses, to engage future entrepreneurs in
planning, organizing, marketing and growing his or her business. An entrepreneurship program
would attract participants who might have started their own business and started contributing to
the community long ago if only they had the tools, from language to starting and running their
own businesses within the strictures of American law and business protocol (Hsu 2012).
Shortening the span from concept to business implementation can thus hasten the economic
recovery by providing services to the community, creating jobs and, not least of all, an additional
revenue base for the funding of public programs and services cut or reduced in recent times.
From the White House to Los Angeles City Hall, political mouthpieces cite evidence of
how immigrants strengthen and enrich the economy through their historical contributions to the
American Dream by starting their own business. Like every generation that came before them,
todays immigrants bring an entrepreneurial spirit and have unique and important skills that can
provide significant benefits to the U.S. economy (Building a 21
Century Immigration System
2011, p 11) . In order to maximize the growth of immigrants starting businesses, several things

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might be considered for an entrepreneurship education program: First, language development is
essential to help non-native speakers of English to understand not only the written and spoken
forms of English but the nuances and culture associated with the language, which can play into
future business dealings whether at a bank for financing or in negotiations with another
company. Second, entrepreneurship education can develop confidence, strengthen the
entrepreneurial mindset, foster a desire to achieve and inspire action (Gray 2006). It can also
provide training in social skills, networking, creative problem solving, opportunity seeking,
selling, interviewing, presentations, and group leadership (Gray 2006).
Overview of Existing LAUSD Entrepreneur Programs
Currently there are CDE-approved courses in entrepreneurship in DACEs CTE/ROP.
Such programs include Administrative Assistant/Business English (90 hours); Small Business
Ownership and Management (90 hours); Business Economic: Entrepreneurship (180 hours) and
Virtual Enterprise (180 hours). The programs appear to lay dormantjust on the books
remindful of Ralph Waldo Emersons words about a weed, a plant whose virtue is yet to be
discovered. A reasonable guess for the shelving of this program in adult education is due to
budget and presumptive lack of demand.
The mission of California's Career Technical Education system is to provide industry-
linked programs and services that enable all individuals to reach their career goals in order to
achieve a high quality lifestyle, to be competitive in the global market place, and to sustain
California's economic dominance (from CTE website: LAUSD
receives federal Perkins funding to build CTE programs. Inherent in the stated mission of
CTE is to promote the state's economic development by providing students with the world-class
knowledge and skill necessary to become successful and contributing members of society.

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Career Technical Education states on its web site that it endeavors to engage every student in
high-quality educational programs, developed in partnership with business and industry [and to]
promote creativity and innovation and allow all students to turn their passion into a paycheck.
This issue of a paycheck leaves open controversy. In the context of entrepreneurship, students
become issuers of paychecks. In view of the segment of a population that promises greater
prosperity for their communities, namely immigrants who do not speak English as a native
language, if properly equipped, such a vision must include entrepreneurship education.
Presently, in adult education there are entrepreneur segments embedded in CTE/ROP
programs such as but not limited to Buildings, Trades and Construction, Health Science and
Medical Technology and Education, Child Development and Family (http://adulted-lausd- These programs entrepreneur studies contain business English, which
includes writing customer correspondence, sales flyers and job descriptions. Such additional
courses with embedded entrepreneurship components include Floral Design (60-25-55), which
describes employability and entrepreneurial skills, Groundskeeping 2 (60-25-65), Computer
Animation (60-55-55), and many other vocational courses from flooring, carpentry, upholstery,
manicuring, auto body repair, electronics repair, all approved CDE courses that have a symbolic
existence but many if not most are not offered by the adult division if they ever were.
Business Economics: Entrepreneurship . (61-30-70 ) is a competence-based module
earning students 15 units of credit after 180 hours of study developing an awareness, according
to the catalogue, of the key concepts of business ownership (CTE web site). Others are Small
Business Ownership and Management (61-30-50), Virtual Enterprise (61-30-90). Despite the
pertinence of such skills, this coursework falls short of real-life details the student needs to
function in the real world of business like starting and running a business, something an

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entrepreneurship program would start and an Entrepreneurship Incubation Center would propel
into fruition.
National Entrepreneurship Paradigms
The Latino Entrepreneurial Network, Inc.(Exito Directory, 2010), of Southern Wisconsin,
offers services and education for small business operators from starting or acquiring a new
business to bossiness planning and marketing. The organization centers on youth programs and
English as Second Language (ESL) entrepreneurial programs, educating low income and
underserved individuals on numerous business topics. In a
special relationship with a Wisconsin organization calling itself Wisconsin Multicultural
Entrepreneurial Institute, LENs members receive a full bilingual entrepreneurial program which
includes workshops in estimating and bidding for Contractors, accounting for small businesses
and business writing for Individuals with English as a second language. LEN partners with the
US Hispanic Chamber of Commerce and receives additional funding from alliances with scores
of sources such as financial institutions, foundations, NGOs and individuals. Even the display
ads in the directory are revenue-generating to provide services.
Students at Prince Georges Community College, in Maryland, can earn a certificate in
entrepreneurship management. The certificate provides information that will help students
assess entrepreneurial opportunities. All coursework can be completed online. Students must
meet a minimum of ESL Advanced reading, through a placement test, before beginning
coursework. To obtain a certificate, students must take courses in accounting, introduction to
business, small business management, strategic planning, entrepreneurship management and one
required course in an area where command of English is essential. This one course can be in

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Business Law, composition: writing for business, negotiations, introduction to marketing, or
introduction to speech communications.
Universities are investing heavily, offering moguls in the making everything from
residence halls outfitted as business incubators to startup money to access to business networks
(Gray 2006). Many acclaimed business builders say success depends as much on temperament as
on teaching (Gray 2006). Entrepreneurship is about having gutssomething professors cannot
teach, says Paul Fleming, who founded P.F. Chang's China Bistro, a Scottsdale, Arizona-based
restaurant chain. "The steps you have to take, the risks you have to take--I don't think in a million
years you can teach it in a classroom" (Gray 2006, 11). Ultimately, building a successful
business is about passion (Gray 2006).
Noting that language may be a barrier for many students, Intercambio (2011) of Boulder,
CO., recommends that the student who joins their entrepreneur program be at least Intermediate
High ESL. Wholly dedicated to ESL and business training, Intercambio suggests students to
have reached advanced ESL before admission to its entrepreneur program (which, partners with
local and national businesses and organizations for training and funding).
The following is a sample list of components in the Intercambio model of interactive
classes using English in the context of building and running a business.
Introducing yourself and your business. Students are able to articulate the
type of business and business objectives
Building a business that connects with the community and the market.
Putting business ideas into actionable plans.
Developing a marketing plan.
Using common financial terms and principles, doing basic accounting and

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Selecting a good name, location and legal business type.
Exploring long-term as well as short-term goals.
Presenting your business enthusiastically to engage others.
State and Local Entrepreneurship Paradigms
Most programs in Southern California and indeed statewide appear centered on high
school, community college and university levels (Entrepreneurship Everywhere 2012).
Appendix I lists entrepreneurship programs in California. Most are in secondary schools but
adult education is included in the shuffle. Commonly, it appears that adult education is taken up
by community colleges. Glendale College offers an associates degree in business
administration with an entrepreneurship emphasis (see Appendix V). Noncredit, extended
learning at Pasadena City College offers tire-kicker classes such as web-site design and how to
start an import-export business for a students self-edification or hobby pursuit. About the same
scenario exists with Santa Monica College with its retinue of pre-packaged Ed2Go courses.
Aside from Glendales degree program, a serious effort at entrepreneurship appears at
first glance to reside at Los Angeles City College, which hosts an Entrepreneurship Academy.
Maintaining partnership with the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship
(NACCE), Startup America, and the Obama Administration, the mission of the academy is to
encourage economic growth through entrepreneurship (see Appendix V). The word
encourage is telling, for it appears that entrepreneurs learn in an academic context, under one
roof, in one class. A quick look makes it appear to be more of a discover the entrepreneur
within one-horse program than a staid venture on the part of the educational institution to
engage real businesses from the real world and deliver the student entrepreneur as a stimulus

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package to the community the way the proposed Entrepreneurship Incubation Center within
DACE would.
A call toward Entrepreneurship with an eye on an entrepreneurship incubation center, in
partnership with businesses, government agencies and NGOs, foundations and individuals as
potential funding sources and as subject-area experts providing hands-on guidance and
mentoring to entrepreneurship program participants, can help students in the adult division
prosper as new business owners, and in turn bring prosperity to the communities in Los Angeles
through job creation and a continuum of tax payers who contribute to public resources. And, as
mentioned, since the bulk of the LAUSD business is K-12 education, the implicit result can be
improved test scores for children, but more importantly, them having successful lives, prepared
for college and career-ready. Clearly, this involves a major effort on the part of the school
district to attract partnerships and identify funding opportunities and actually procure funding.
Considering the fact that the district is operating on a bare-bones budget for the 2012-2013
school year, and adult education barely escaped closure, capturing the interest of outside
organizations for the purpose of funding and liaising with for training seems to be the only viable
option. A list of possible affiliates for the proposed entrepreneurship incubation center is listed
in Appendix VII
Proposed Entrepreneurship Incubation Center
A veritable spectrum of courses in an entrepreneurship program would include, in
addition to preliminary coursework in business English, business planning, market analysis,
capitalization, S.W.O. T. (a summary of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats),
negotiations, and more, through an active vis--vis symbolic affiliation with businesses, ones
unique to the local community to national ones with a local presence, government agencies

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dedicated to commerce mentioned below. ESL students would be ready to enter this program
upon completion of Intermediate High B or a placement test score of Advanced Low. Prior to
his or her entry, more vocabulary and terms of commerce would be encouraged to have been
incorporated into ESL classes.
The proposed Entrepreneurship Incubation Center, which could operate at centrally-
located Evans, or at Regional Occupational Centers (AFOC) in the West Valley (West Valley
OC), South and East Los Angeles (ELAOC), utilizes classroom instruction, one-on-one
counseling and mentorship to guide participants through the steps of starting a business and
address specific issues relative to each proposed business. In partnership with area businesses,
government agencies, foundations and even individuals, counseling and mentorship are provided
the novice entrepreneur free of charge. For example, the Service Corps of Retired Executives
(SCORE), a service of the Small Business Administration, is one avenue for counseling and
mentorship. Its service is free, and though normal protocol has the client approaching them, it is
feasible an alliance could be formed in which a counselor holds court at the Incubation Center.
Also Pacific Asian Consortium in Employment Small Business Development Center (PACE), on
Wilshire Boulevard., Downtown Los Angeles, will come to the Incubation Center and provide
specialized services such as workshops in business planning, market analysis, tax preparation,
Web marketing and legal services, to name a few. (Presently, PACE offers its own classes and
workshops for nominal fees and legal services are freeSee Appendix V for link to PACE).
The Entrepreneur Incubation Center would take a page out of Stanford University
Business School (2012), whose Entrepreneurship Studies program is indeed entrepreneurial,
ending each semester with a mock trade show. A trade show at one of DACEs schools, such as
in the cafeteria at Evans, provides a venue for student entrepreneurs to showcase their new

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businesses to invited as well as walk-in guests from the local business community. Businesses
would be largely those that have joined in sponsorship of the program as well as others brought
in due to publicity. This eventin a light vein akin to Professor Higgins rolling out Eliza
Doolittle to royaltywould put the students presentational skills to a test, obviously, providing
a rear-view mirror to see if the concept or plan for a business holds merit, for instance, when
presenting to an SBA officer for funding purposes.
That connections count as much in the entrepreneurial world as they do on Wall Street is
a fact that should not be lost on educators in the Entrepreneurship Incubation Center. Bragging
rights a successful start up at the Center might bring would be expedited with the teacher in the
role of matchmaker for students seeking management teams, advisors and investors. For
example, a faculty member might know of a real estate developer and a student in the Center
whose start up is renovating dilapidated apartments. A simple exchange of business cards or an
introduction could be the extent of the matchmaking or it could be an introduction such as at the
year-end trade show.
This capstone event permits both the student exhibitor and attendee to gain from each
other. The exhibitor clearly gets to see the strengths and weakness of his business through the
eyes of the business people, who comb through the details of the exhibitors proposed business
while also forming business-related bonds; the business attendee can assess the value of each
exhibit for future considerations. For example, a food chain might see a product in development
and may offer a proposal to help with marketing or packaging; or a service firm could see the
promise in an entrepreneurial venture at the exhibit with promise of a niche market and propose
ways of blending or piggybacking services. This affair would be as convenient a place as any to
raise capital, form or tweak strategy, or just talk the talk and walk the walk of business with

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potential partners. The event might even resemble a bazaar, as psyched up investors wander the
aisles of the Entrepreneurship Incubation Center trade show sniffing the air for that one thing
that picks their fancy. Of course theres always the possibility that an exhibitor has a product or
service so hot that there is an immediate buy out! Mostly, what could be expected is that the
exhibit is like an exhibition football game. After the game is over, fledging entrepreneurs are
back at the drawing board, reshaping, improving, making stronger, better, and in some cases
For some the end of the trade show will mean yet more time in the Entrepreneurship
Incubation Center, while for others it is, like the character Grasshopper in the old TV series Kung
Fu, time to go. The real world is in wait, but wait, there is a catch: All students who complete
the Entrepreneurship Incubation Center will have upon entry to the Center signed an agreement,
a pledge, to make himself or herself available for mentorship at the center for one year (or
longer) from the date of formally ending ties. Furthermore, all students who enter the program
will have signed a symbolic pledge to return some aspect of their training to the community
throughout their lifetimes. Giving back is crucial to the long-term success of the
Entrepreneurship Incubation Center as indeed it is to the communities to which the entrepreneurs
take their businesses. Just as the Kauffman foundation considers its grants to be investments
because the recipients in one form or the other give it back, the Entrepreneurship Incubation
Center can expect similar payouts.
It is important not to lose sight of the fact that a high percentage of entrepreneurs, as
noted, are expected to continue to be non-native born Americans (Esquivel 2012) whose learning
curve could be lessened by practical hands-on guidance by associates in the real business world,

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not just cerebral, classroom lessons. An Entrepreneurship Incubation Center provides the learner
a unique opportunity to do what is widely believed is needed to give this stagnate economy a
short in the arm. By setting up an Entrepreneurship Incubation Center, DACE not only fulfills its
mission to boost the educational achievement and socioeconomic well-being of its students by
preparing them to exercise control over their destinies but it also plays a role in job creation and
the overall economic recovery. DACE, ever-more pressed to make itself relevant in this hard-
pressed day and age, gets to triumph in areas where community colleges and other entities have
fallen short with a program like none other. Among the biggest challenges, aside from setting up
and administering the program, is procuring funding and partnerships. This might mean the
creation of a position in public relations or grant-writing. Participants in the program get to
experience the value of team work and the integral concept of what goes around comes around.
Indeed Entrepreneurs are very much a part of the work force. They will be better trained and
motivated, as a result of the Entrepreneurship Program, to pay back to the community. DACEs
role to the mission of All Students Achieving will have been upgraded. In fact, such a program,
the Entrepreneur Incubation Center, could be the very thing that saves adult education.



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2010-2011 eixito directory. (2010). In Latino Entrepreneurial Network. Retrieved August 15,
2012, from
This service and membership directory impressively outlines a bold mission to empower
its Latinos to strike out on their own and dare to become successful The directory seems
to present a winning combination of insights, members and organizations that can move
mountain. Although nothing is said of the kind, it is possible the organization is cognizant
that demographics in small business start ups among Latinos is low compared to other
immigrant groups.
(2012). In Prince George's Community College. Retrieved August 15, 2012, from
Building a 21st century immigration system. (2011, May). In White House Blueprint to
Immigration Job Creation. Retrieved August 13, 2012, from
DeBord, M. (2011, December 1). The future of wealth in LA: entrepreneurship is the name of the
game. In the DeBord Report. Retrieved August 15, 2012, from
This analyzes the current trends in business in LA in formulating a picture that LA is
immigrant-driven and as go the immigrants and their story so does the economy of LA
(and probably the rest of the nation. This interesting strory if not a read that shed much
new light strongly supports a need in LA to train immigrants to run their own
businessesand, though the article doesnt say this outrightbe tax paying citizens as
oppose to the underground economy (ie: selling fruits or flowers at freeway offramps).

English for entrepreneurs (2012). In Intercambio: Uniting communities. Retrieved August 12,
2012, from
Intercambio is a 501(c)(3) organization in Colorado that conducts training in life skills,
citizenship, financial and computer literacy, American culture and entrepreneurship.
Founded in 2000, Intercambio works with families to help them assimilate into the
American mainstream, noting that language is not the only barrier. The organization
hosts events and gatherings to build a sense of community, and structured environment
for participants to learn that business is not just about making money and supporting
ones livelihood but to give back to the community. Having formed an alliance with
hundreds of local businesses, foundations and private contributors
Intercambio facilitates a myriad of workshops on finances, cross-cultural understanding,

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laws, citizenship and more to bridge the old culture and customs with the new. Business
literacy, starting and running ones one business according to American system of law
and tradition are included.
Entrepreneurship everywhere. (2012). In Consortium for Entrepreneurship Education. Retrieved
August 12, 2012, from
Labeling itself the first link to entrepreneurship education, this website is at once
comprehensive in the information it presents about education programs across the
country, special events near and far related to entrepreneurial pursuits and the nuts and
bolts in everything a would-be entrepreneur would want to know to get going and keep
going. In an easy to navigate environment using multimedia devices and links to stored
information and databases, Entrepreneurship Everywhere sets out to answer the who-
what-where-why-and-how of entrepreneur education. All the many links can make the
click-happy, well, happy, with each click yielding a fruitful bounty of information,
which, at once, can be confusing if not overwhelming like the old caveat of telling a
person more than what he/she needs to know. Nonetheless, one can pick and choose
indeed (though leave a bread crumb to get back to from whence ye came).
Most significantly, this powerhouse website is packed with useful details about studies
such as schools, training seminars and workshops, professional conferences, trade shows
foundations and non-profit organizations that help entrepreneurs. There are plenty of
news items about successful entrepreneurs and their stories, and a section on awards and
contests for entrepreneurs.
Of particular interest was a state by state list of schools where entrepreneur studies are
taught: Even more so was the link to programs
of study in California. Each program was bundled into ROP or CTE domains or
facsimile as in the case with university programs. Programs covered a broad spectrum:
Sports marketing, youth entrepreneurship, secondary and post-secondary education.
Programs close to Los Angeles were Beverly Hills, Carson, Whittier and Pomona.

Esquivel, P. (2012, June 15). California leads U.S. in immigrant entrepreneurship, study finds.
Los Angeles Times, pp. B1, B4. Retrieved August 12, 2012, from
This article begins poignantly with the story of Gloria Suen, a Chinese immigrant starting
out years ago in LAs Chinatown. Though now a success story conducting business on a
national scale, then, her knowing so little English frustrated her ability to understand the
language of business rules and regulations. The article chronicles the contributions of a
few immigrants in Los Angeles through the businesses they have started. Based on this
reading, one could state the case that the task for non-native speakers of English to get set
up in business could be expedited through an education and training program centered on

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the English language in helping them understand the complexities of US business
practices and regulations.
Fairley, R., & Woodruff, C. (2007, December). Mexican-American entrepreneurship. In National
Poverty Center Working Paper Series. Retrieved August 15, 2012, from
This White Paper presented by researchers at University of California at Santa Cruz and
San Diego, and published by the University of Michigan, states has gathered data that
shows Mexican Americans, the nations largest immigrant group, along with African
Americans, have the lowest incidence of business start-ups in the United States. is yet
the least apt to start their own business. Possibly owning to lower rates of education and
less wealth than other immigrant groups is a possible reason, according to the report.
Limited English ability is another. Though the article examines the plight of the Mexican
American community, its conclusions that additional education and training in English
language is essential to getting Mexican-Americans to start their own business, the same
sentiment can be projected to other immigrant groups who are limited in English.
Gray, P. B. (2006, March 10). Can entrepreneurship be taught? Fortune Small Business.
Retrieved August 17, 2012, from
This article ponders if entrepreneurship is innate or if it can be learned. In addition to
tangible skills in running a business such as finance and accounting can any program in
the field of entrepreneurship teach the intangible of taking risks and being creative?
Through a collection of anecdotal evidence of programs at colleges across the country
and quotes from the gospel of entrepreneurship, the Marian Ewing Kauffman Foundation,
the reader is guided to a conclusion that in spite of celebrated drop outs like Steve Jobs,
Michael Dell and Bill Gates entrepreneurship studies is not just a cash cow on campuses
but that it has indeed helped countless to become, if not moguls in the making,
contributors by starting businesses with varying degrees of success beyond Mom and Pop
Hohn, Marcia D (2012, January 25) Immigrant Learning Center & U.S. Dept. of Commerce.
(2012, January 25). Immigrant entrepreneurs: Creating jobs and strengthening the
economy. Retrieved July 30, 2012, from
Examines Immmigrants role in job creation and in advocating changes in immigration
law, discusses how immigrants who start their own businesses bolster the U.S. Economy.

Hsu, T. (2012, June 15). Immigrant small-business ownership growing, nearly 1 in 5 in U.S. Los
Angeles Times, p. B1. Hard copy viewed and digitally retrieved June 15, 2012, from

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This short business-pages article announces the growing phenomenon of migr start-up
businesses. Citing the Fiscal Foreign Policy Report for its information, it delineates the
demographic statistics in new business owners, namely national origin, educational level
and gender, and it states the favored kinds of start-up enterprises by immigrants.

Stanford University Graduate School of Business. (2012). In Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.
Retrieved August 12, 2012, from
The Center for Entrepreneurial Studies at Stanford University is dedicated to the study of
entrepreneurship, providing an objective means to develop greater understanding of
current and future entrepreneurial companies. The Center acts as a hub for the interests
and pursuits of the entrepreneurial playersfaculty, students, and practitioners. It
promotes and supports research in entrepreneurship, developing and teaching courses to
be taught within the MBA curriculum. Among its objectives is to graduate not only well-
trained, entrepreneurial thinkers but also doers. Founded in 1996 to address the need for
greater understanding of the issues faced by entrepreneurial individuals and companies.,
the entrepreneur programs include internships and topical panels and speakers. Some of
their programs are open to the community at large.
Strong, D, ed. (nd). 10 questionson the power of immigrant entrepreneurs for Jonathan
Bowles. In Cal State University Domiguez Hills (CSUDH) The Report: Newsletter of the
College of Business Administration and Public Policy. Retrieved August 15, 2012, from
Wadhwa, V., Saxenian, A., Rissing, B., & Gereffi, G. (2007, January 4). Immigration and the
American economy. In Kauffman Foundation. Retrieved August 14, 2012, from
This PDF document promulgates a consensus that immigrants have provided one of
America's greatest competitive advantages. Their quest to achieve an education for
themselves and their children propel them to share in the American Dream. Their
seeming ability to take risks and first-hand knowledge help them create and push the
economy forward. However, as this document purports, the contributions of their efforts
are under-valued. The paper is a scholarly analysis of the economic and intellectual
contributions of immigrants. It primarily looks at ones who were middle class and above
and were fairly well-educated in their countries. Though the content may not pertain to
the typical profile of an adult ESL students at LAUSD, for example, the message is clear
that Immigrants drive the economic in all sectors through their drive and willingness to
take risks, which ultimately all lead to job creation and economic growth.

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Wong, N. A., Watanabe, P. Y., & Liu, M. (2011, November). Adult children of immigrant
entrepreneurs: Memories and influences. Retrieved August 11, 2012, from
This research document commissioned by the Immigrant Learning Center, Inc., in
Malden, Massachusetts, assembles a cross-section of the U.S. immigrant population and
their offspring for a look at the diverse educational and career choices of immigrant-
entrepreneur children. The study focuses on small businesses from 2 to 10 employees.
Children in such families understood, respected and were often deeply affected by the
struggles and accomplishments of their parents. The consensus among the students was a
deep importance of education rooted in their homes. Whether communicated directly
from parents to children or recognized more indirectly through the example set by
parents, the students in this study understood that in the long run the need to pursue
advanced studies. Many parents, according to their children, viewed education as a
vehicle for respect and stability as well as advancement. In some cases, parents perceived
advanced education as a vital factor in their childrens own pursuit of an entrepreneurial
path that would result in the independence accompanying business ownership.
While not comparing case studies of children of immigrants who were not entrepreneurs,
the study did elaborate greater consensus among immigrant-entrepreneur children to
pursue high level careers such as in medicine or law and to have instilled in them a sense
of filial and community responsibility. Whether this is so among the children of
immigrants who did not have their own businesses is not part of the discussion. The
thrust is that immigrants who owned their own businesses and their children were highly
motivated and felt an attraction to the greater world. This paper makes a strong case that
the offspring of immigrants in business for themselves are determined to be givers rather
than takers. The information in this article makes a strong case, inferentially, that
entrepreneur studies are supportive of the intended outcomes in LAUSDs CBET


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Sample Entrepreneurship Programs in California (for a complete state by state listing:
Steve Rappaport, Coordinator
The Management Institute
Beverly Hills High School
241 Moreno Drive
Beverly Hills, CA 90212
Fax: 310-286-7446
Focus: Senior high school
Abstract: Sports are a wonderful way to teach marketing to the high school student. Find out
what it takes to create a sports marketing curriculum and introduce your students to this exciting
career for the twenty-first century. Licensed products alone account for over $60 billion in
annual revenue.
Steve Rappaport has found a way to effectively involve students in sports licensing and
merchandising, endorsements, and event management and sponsorships. See what it takes to
operate a sports-marketing school-based enterprise. Rappaport uses a variety of instructional
activities that can add excitement to your classroom.
Steve has been employed at Beverly Hills High School since 1988 and is an ROP instructor and
soccer coach. Working in conjunction with the Los Angeles County Regional Occupational
Program, he has developed and implemented a successful sports marketing curriculum. In
addition, Steve teaches hotel management, entrepreneurship, and a community internship
course, and coordinates a Carl Perkins vocational grant.
Lorenzo Tony Ortega, Ph.D., Director
Business Development Academy
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
3801 West Temple Avenue
Pomona, CA 91768;

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Jackirae Sagouspe, Partner
International Diversified Technologies
2201 East Winston Road, Suite K
Anaheim, CA 92806
Focus: The area of program emphasis is a university economic development program in
partnership with community-based and private-sector organizations.
Abstract: The Small Business Mentor Program is an alliance with university affiliations and
community-based and private-sector organizations. This combination of contributing entities
brings about a rare blend of practical experience, institutional research, and community
economic development, all focused on the revitalization of entrepreneurial businesses.
The target communities are low- and moderate-income, directly affected by small businesses in
or immediately adjacent to them. Many of these businesses can be categorized as "low risk"
due to a high level of compentency in a trade or service; however, they are "high risk" often due
to a lack of business and financial management knowledge. These businesses often fail to
grow, and some collapse. Business failures resulting from a lack of business and financial skills
contribute to neighborhood economic blight, impeding community development.
A unique feature of the Small Business Mentor Program is that it provides personal and
consistent guidance through mentors and integrated educational materials built on the
fundamentals of small-business management. The content and structure of the program use the
theory of multiple intelligences. This is not a "return" to the classroom program; rather, the Small
Business Mentor Program is an "incubator without walls." Due to the one-on-one working
relationship with the business owners, it is critical that the mentors, instructors, and service
providers are sensitive to the fact that each individual learns differently; therefore, the multiple
intelligences approach has been implemented.
The philosophy, as well as the organization, of the Small Business Mentor Program becomes
more important when working in communities with a dominant ethnic population. Presently the
target areas served by the Small Business Mentor Program have a substantial number of
Hispanic business owners who qualify for the benefits of the program. Bilingual mentoring is
provided, and business educational materials are available in Spanish.
The program provides each participating small-business owner with a financial management
advisor (Financial Management Mentor) who provides continuing intensive guidance to the
owner with regard to financial management of the business. This guidance includes business
plan preparation and revision; assistance with the selection of, and applications for, public and
private programs available to help such owners; loan, permit, and other application preparation;
ongoing cash flow analysis; and all other aspects of financial management.
The Small Business Mentor Program's goal is to create a partnership with struggling small
businesses, community economic development agencies, and financial institutions. A team
approach is taken to find solutions, make changes, and revitalize each entrepreneurial venture
for future growth.

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Genelle Taylor
Lyles Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Scholarships in Entrepreneurship
California State University, Fresno
2743 E. Shaw Avenue, Suite 120
Fresno, CA 93710
Web site:
Focus: $10,000 scholarship for high school and community college students that have started a
business or are interested in starting a business and attending California State University,
Geographic Area: Recruiting nationally to attend CSU, Fresno
Age Level: High school and seniors and community college students
Key Partners: Lyles Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship at California State University,
Fresno and The Coleman Foundation.
Abstract: The Scholarships in Entrepreneurship program provides high school and community
college students, who have an existing business and enroll at Fresno State, the opportunity to
showcase their entrepreneurial spirit. Three students will receive $10,000 each for supporting
their education and expanding their business while in school. Students enrolling in Spring 2005
and Fall 2006 are eligible.
Selected students can use the funds toward tuition, student housing and books. Incorporated
into the scholarships, students will be provided with office space in the new Lyles Center for
Innovation and Entrepreneurship's "Hatchery," an area where students receive mentoring,
access to resources, a complete office, and access to facilities at the Lyles Center such as a
board room and classrooms. The deadline for spring 2006 were to be submitted by December
15, 2005. Applications for fall 2006 must be submitted by May 1, 2006.
Executive Director
The Rotary Club of San Diego, CA
Abstract: Since 1976, the San Diego Rotary Club has sponsored Camp Enterprise in an effort
to educate San Diego youths about the free-enterprise system and the world of business.
Students learn from some of San Diego's top business leaders in a fun and educational
environment at Camp Cedar Glen in Julian. Volunteer Rotarians and prominent San Diego
business leaders serve as presenters, discussion group leaders, and team facilitators.

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During the two to seven days of camp, the students work in teams to develop a business plan
outline for the business they select. This year's industry topic is "Business in Cyberspace,"
which requires students to work together to create a business using the Internet, or supplying
those companies that do business on the Internet. The participating students come from over 20
different schools in San Diego, both public and private.
Through panel discussions and presentations, Camp Enterprise teaches the participants:
An understanding of the free-enterprise system, management, and labor;
How to start, organize, and run their own business;
How to use teamwork and creativity to prepare business and marketing plans;
How to accomplish a task, and how to prepare and deliver a presentation within a given
time frame;
Business ethics; and
Maintaining charity and community involvement as a business person and leader.
Teresa Tennant, Enterprise Director
Global Education Partnership
624 Ninth Street, NW - Suite 222,
Washington DC 20001
202-390-6824; Fax. 202-347-4471 Email:
Web site:
Focus: Youth entrepreneurship and employment skills training program that encourages self-
reliance and social responsibility.
Geographic Area: U.S., Kenya, Guatemala, Tanzania, and Indonesia
Age Level: 14 to 22 years old
Key Partners: Middle schools, high schools, and community-based organizations
Abstract: From Vision to Action consists of 5 modules. Modules 1, 2, and 5 focus on
entrepreneurship and the skills needed to develop a solid business from the ground up.
Students plan and implement one-day business projects and develop long-term business plans.
Marketing, sales, operations, social responsibility, and financial analysis are some of the major
topics covered. Modules 3 and 4 emphasize life competency skills such as teamwork and
interpersonal skills, as well as proactive character traits that enable students to acquire and
retain well-paying, meaningful jobs. Conducting job searches, resum writing, interviewing, time
management, and personal financial planning skills are included in these modules as well.
"Global Connection" lessons on subjects ranging from world trade to cross-cultural
communication complete each chapter. Students gain exposure to a variety of global

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marketplace issues from an international point of view. "Real World Exchanges" are conducted
via email with peers from one of Global Education Partnership's (GEP) foreign divisions.
Program: This versatile program, which meets SCANS skills and competencies objectives, is
designed to suit multiple needs. It can be used as the core curriculum in a business or career
education program, or as an elective course. It can also be used as a supplement to a math,
language arts, or social studies class. The hands-on experience in technology skills such as
using Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and conducting Internet research, prepares students
for success in today's business world. Customized training and support, provided by
experienced GEP staff, is available as needed for successful program implementation. For the
full table of contents and additional information, please visit our Web site at:


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Sample Courses in Continuing Education at the
Entrepreneurial Center at Arizona Western College
AWC Entrepreneurial Center:
1351 South Redondo Center Drive
Yuma, Arizona 85365
(928) 317-6150
(928) 317-6183: fax
Customer Service Course
AWC Entrepreneurial Center offers a wide range of customer service courses for business
clients looking to empower their employees with a review of various skills and
strategies. Employees that wish to increase their confidence level as well as knowledge base
for career advancement are welcome to attend these courses.
Exceptional Customer Service through Effective Communication, Part 1 & 2
Part 1: Discover fundamental skills necessary to offer exceptional customer service.
Identify, recognize and acknowledge your customers
Demonstrate active listening skills
Describe the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication
Explore strategies to reduce conflict and miscommunication
Target key points for customer satisfaction

Part 2: Discuss the following effects on customer service:
7 Deadly sins
Moments of truth
Personal customer service style
Exceed the customers expectations
Impacts of email and worldwide web
E-mail and telephone etiquette

How to Deal with Difficult Customers

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This training will minimize the anxiety and frustration customer service representatives experience when
dealing with problematic customers. Employees within your organization will benefit greatly by learning
how to tactfully address service issues and conflict resolution.

Internal Customer Service
What is your attitude toward complaints? Teach your employees to respect internal customers as if they
were paying clients. By asking questions, listening and keeping their word, your employees can create a
positive and productive work environment, which will inevitably reflect on your external customers.

Telephone Skills
Participants will:
List several ways to prepare for a caller
Describe the three elements of a greeting
Describe the best method for placing a customer on hold
List examples of listening noises
State and explain the four elements of a responsive approach to meeting a customers needs

Email Etiquette
Learn proper e-mail etiquette
Avoid top 12 e-mail mistakes
Discover the importance of e-mail etiquette
Get tips to be concise and professional
Use proper spelling, grammar, manners and tone
Learn rules for attachments

Email and Telephone Etiquette
Learn proper e-mail & telephone etiquette
List several ways to prepare for a caller
Avoid top 12 e-mail mistakes
Get helpful hints on how to create a good first impression
Describe the three elements of a greeting
Discover the importance of e-mail etiquette

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Get tips to be concise and professional
Describe the best method for placing a customer on hold
Use proper spelling, grammar, manners and tone
Learn rules for attachments

Time Management
Learn the latest time management techniques that will raise your efficiency level on and off the job. Get
yourself organized. Control things instead of letting them control you. Tackle tasks in order of importance.
These techniques and dozens of others will show you how to make better use of your time.

Additional Sample courses (from course catalogue)

ENT-100-001 The Entrepreneurial Venture
3.00 Richard Jahna 3/4 TTH12:15PM01:30PMLECLA107 ENT-100-001 50260 9/20 - 12/13,
Web-enhanced - meets face-to-face; requires internet access
ENT-131-001 Capitalizing a Small Business 2.00 Glen Hoogendoorn 16/25
TH05:55PM08:35PMLECBA201 ENT-131-001 50261
Web-enhanced - meets face-to-face; requires internet access
ENT-220-001 Marketing/Entrepren. Venture 3.00 Douglas Pearson 15/24
TH05:55PM08:35PMLECBA119 ENT-220-001 50262
Web-based - 100% online, $25 fee, ORI 102 is recommended for all new online students
ENT-240-001 Business Plan Development 3.00 Carlos Figari 18/25
Web-based - 100% online, $25 fee, ORI 102 is recommended for all new online students


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Websites of importance related to entrepreneurship and training

The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation:

The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, considered to be the largest foundation in
the United States dedicated to entrepreneurship, is marked by a philosophy that a
society of economically independent individuals who are engaged citizens, contribute to
the improvement of their communities. In obtaining its mission to help individuals attain
economic independence by advancing educational achievement and entrepreneurial
success, the Kauffman Foundation identifies, develops innovative, research-based
programs leading to practical, self-sustain solutions. The website lists a myriad of grant
opportunities for entrepreneurs and educational programs offering entrepreneurship

2010-2011 Catalog of Catalog of Authorized Regional Occupational programs (ROP) Courses:
search string: course descriptions entrepreneurship dace lauds)

Lists ROP courses and programs, which either have an entrepreneurship component
built into the course description or are in themselves about entrepreneurship, such as
under the program Sale, Marketing and many of which have an entrepreneurship
module built in or are in themselves, under the program of Marketing, Sales and Service
Industry Sector.

Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs:


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Erasmus is a business start-up incubation system, based in Cyprus, that helps aspiring
European entrepreneurs with the skills necessary to start and/or successfully run a small
business in Europe. New entrepreneurs gather and exchange knowledge and business
ideas with an experienced entrepreneurs. With limitless opportunities for networking,
participants can discover new European markets or business partners, and different
ways of doing business.

PACELABusiness Development Center & Womens Business Development Center
PDF (brochure general info & schedule of classes/workshops):


PACE BDC & WDC offers programs and services in the way of classes, workshops and
counseling for aspiring entrepreneurs to start, grow or strengthen their business.
Additionally, the center, just a few blocks from LAUSDs Beaudry Street headquarters,
PACE also provides opportunities to connect with one another and find resources that
will illuminate the path to success. Services are either free or at a nominal cost. PACE
receives funding from a myriad of sources, both public and private, corporate and

Prince Georges College Certificate Program in Entrepreneur Management

From website: This certificate provides students with the basic skills to be successful as
entrepreneurs. All courses can be applied towards an associate degree in Business
Glendale Community College
Associatess degree in Small Business Administration with Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship Academy at Los Angeles City College


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A one-course program to let interested parties see if they have what it takes to be an
entrepreneur. Students get the basics, ideas about naming a business, location, type of
organization, planning, marketing, financing etc., all in one course spread over a

EDUCATION CODE (abbreviated)
SECTION 315-317

315. In furtherance of its constitutional and legal requirement to
offer special language assistance to children coming from backgrounds
of limited English proficiency, the state shall encourage family
members and others to provide personal English language tutoring to
such children, and support these efforts by raising the general level
of English language knowledge in the community. Commencing with the
fiscal year in which this initiative is enacted and for each of the
nine fiscal years following thereafter, a sum of fifty million
dollars ($50,000,000) per year is hereby appropriated from the
General Fund for the purpose of providing additional funding for free
or subsidized programs of adult English language instruction to
parents or other members of the community who pledge to provide
personal English language tutoring to California school children with
limited English proficiency.

315.5. (a) In furtherance of its constitutional and legal
requirement to offer special language assistance to children coming
from backgrounds of limited English proficiency, the state shall
encourage family members and others to provide personal English

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language tutoring to those children, and support these efforts by
raising the general level of English language knowledge in the

Partners with PACELA Small Business Development Center
PACE BDC is a part of the Pacific Asian Consortium in Employment (PACE) and we are very grateful to
receive the financial support and in-kind gifts from our supporters that allow us to continue to offer our
programs and services and little to no cost to our clients. Over the years, PACE BDC has received
funding from several different government and private sources and each and every one of them has been
crucial for our growth and development and the advancement of the entrepreneurs and small business
owners that we serve.
Our recent supporters include:
City of Los Angeles, Community Development Department (CDD)
U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Womens Business Ownership (OWBO)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services - Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR)
U.S. Small Business Administration, Project for Investment in Entrepreneurship (PRIME)
U.S. Small Business Administration - Micro Loan Fund
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services - Office of Community Services
City of Los Angeles, Community Reinvestment Authority (CRA/LA)
Bank of America
Comerica Bank
Northern Trust
Southwest Airlines
Union Bank of California
US Bank
Wells Fargo Bank (Wachovia)
Bank of America Foundation
Joseph Drown Foundation
United Way of Greater Los Angeles
At PACE BDC we understand the importance of collaboration within the non-profit community in order to
inspire individuals, and therefore our communities, to reach their fullest potential. To reach that goal, we
maintain active working relationships with agencies and community-based organizations throughout Los
Angeles in order to collaborate on programs and provide referrals to each others programs, offering
holistic solutions to the challenges that our clients face.

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Partnerships include
Public Counsel Law Center
Episcopal Housing Alliance Los Angeles (EHALA)
Westlake Worksource Center
Childrens Bureau
United Way of Los Angeles
Mamas Hot Tamales Caf
Centro Latino for Literacy
South Bay Center for Counseling (SBCC)
Helpline Youth Counseling
Alma Family Services
Central American Resource Center (CARECEN)
Salvadoran American Legal and Education Fund (SALEF)
U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA)
Los Angeles Business Assistance Program (LABAP)
National Association of Women Business Owners (NAWBO-LA)
Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce
FAME Assistance Corporation
Community Financial Resource Center (CFRC)
Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
Housing & Urban Development Department (HUD)
State of California Employment Development Department (EDD)
State of California Board of Equalization (BOE)
United Way of Greater Los Angeles

Swann Do, Director, SBA Womens Business Center PACE Los Angeles Business Service Center
Brenda Vargas, Los Angeles Office of Xavier Becerra, Member of Congress
Arturo Bencosme, co-founder Intercambio, Boulder, CO

Special thanks to Dr. Phil Dwyer, Assistant Principal Operations, Evans Service Center.