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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009

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1
Structured Question:
No. 1
Item No. Suggested Answers: Marks

1 (a)

Organelle X : Chloroplast
Organelle Y : Mitocondrion

1
1

(b)

Organelle X : Absorbs sunlight for photosynthesis
Organelle Y : Site of aerobic cellular respiration

1
1

(c) i.


ii.

Organelle X : Mesophyll palisad/spongy/guard cells
Organelle Y : Sperm Cell / muscle cell

Organelle X - Photosynthesis cannot be carried out by the cells
Organelle Y Energy cannot be generated by the cells

1
1

1
1

(d)

Organelle X absorbs carbon dioxide and releases oxygen while
Organelle Y absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide
Oranelle X use energy to synthesise glucose while Organelle Y breaks
down glucose to produce energy
Organelle X carries out the synthesis/anabolic process whereas
Organelle Y carries out the break down/katabolic process
Organelle X forms organic compound while Organelle Y breaks down
organic compound
(Any two)
Maximum

1

1

1

1


2
(e) - Have cellulose cell wall
- often have a large central vacuole ( Any two )
- have fixed shape
- absence of centrioles
Maximum

TOTAL

1
1
1
1
2
12

Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
2
No. 2
Item No. Suggested Answers: Marks

2 (a)(i)




(ii)

P substrate/ sucrose 3- 2 marks
R enzyme / sucrase 2- 1 mark
S product / glucose / fructose 1- 0 mark
Maximum

1. act specifically
2. can be reused
3. do not destroyed after the reaction (any two)
Maximum




2

1
1
1
2

(b)(i)

(ii)

Lock and key hypothesis

- R/The enzyme/Sucrase will combine with P/substrate (at the
active site) to form a complex enzyme-substrate
- S/the products will leave the active site of R/the enzyme and
R/enzyme remain unchange

1


1

1

(c) i

Soften / tenderise the meat

1

(c)ii

- Rate of reaction decreases.
- This is because most enzyme protease have been denatured at
higher temperature /more than 60C

1

1

(d)

- The enzyme reaction is most effective at a temperature of
30C - 40C
- The low temperature /cold water makes the enzyme inactive.

TOTAL

1

1

12



Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
3
No. 3
Item No. Suggested answers Marks

3 (a) (i)

(ii)


Euthrophication.

- The waste disposal contains a lot of organic matter /
- Enrichment of nutrient in freshwater
- Very suitable for algae growth.
Maximum

1

1
1
1
2

(b)


- The algae layer prevents the penetration of sunlight to the
submerged plants in the pond.
- The algae uses a lot of oxygen for respiration and results in less
oxygen in the pond water. ( Any one )
Maximum

1

1

1

(c)


- The decomposers / microorganisms use more oxygen to decompose
the dead plants / organic materials (due to absence of sunlight)
- result in less oxygen / increasing in BOD level

1

1

(d)(i)

(ii)


(iii)


(iv)

To determine / compare the BOD value of water from sample P and Q.

Bacteria
Protozoa / Paramecium / Amoeba

Sample P is - more polluted
- contains less oxygen.

The higher the BOD value, the higher the degree of pollution.

TOTAL


1

1
1

1
1

1

12


Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
4
No. 4
Item No. Suggested answers Marks

4(a)



- Heart / Pump
- Blood vessels
- Blood / medium

1
1
1

(b)(i)






(ii)

P : Vena cava
Q : Pulmonary vein
R : Pulmonary artery
S : Aorta
# Accept any two correct vessels even though P, Q, R or S are not
mentioned.
Maximum
Q and S

1
1
1
1


2
2

(c)(i)


(ii)


(iii)

This is because blood flows through the heart twice in one complete
circulation

- Pulmonary circulation
- Systemic circulation

F 1- prevents the mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood.
E 1- blood of high concentration of oxygen is supplied to the targeted
organs
F 2- the blood pressure is generated by the strong contraction of the left
ventricle
E 2- ensures that blood is been supplied to all parts of the body at an
appropriate level.
F 1 + E 1 = 2
Or F 2 + E 2 = 2
Maximum
TOTAL


1


1
1

1

1

1

1


2
12
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
5
No. 5
Item No Suggested Answer Marks

5(a)



P : Arch
Q : Whorl
R : Loop
S : Composite
Maximum





2

(b)(i)

(ii)


Genetic factor

- The exchange of genetic materials between chromatids during the
crossing over
- Independent assortment of chromosomes (Any two)
- Random fertilisation
- Mutation

Maximum

1

1

1
1
1

2

(c)(i)



(ii)


- Continuous variation, examples height/weight
- Discontinuous variation, examples - ear lobe/blood group.
Maximum

- Continuous variation influence by genetic factor and environmental
factor while Discontinuous variation influence by genetic factor
- The differences in continuous variation are not distinctive / with
intermediate characters where as the differences in discontinuous
variation in a characters are distinctive / no intermediate characters
- Any acceptable answer
Maximum





2
2
4


1


1

1
All 4 - 2 marks
3 or 2 - 1 mark
1 - 0 mark
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
6


















(d)




- 2 axes correctly labelled
- correct chart ( bar chart )


TOTAL

















1
1

12





# Able to represent
the variation shown
in the form of bar
chart
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
7







Essay Questions :
No. 6

6 (a) i.


Open burning produces smoke, dirt and fine particles in the air.
Haze will form when these substances combine with the water
vapour in the atmosphere.
Total

1

1
2

ii.











iii.







Irritates the lungs, nose and eyes.
Damages the respiratory tracts and lungs.
Causes conjunctivitis, sore throats, influenza, asthma and
bronchitis.
Reduces the light intensity which may cause the decrease in the
rate of photosynthesis
subsequently reduce the yield from the crops.
Fine particles deposit on the leaves and block the gaseous
exchange which may also lower the rate of photosynthesis of the
crops.
Total

Stop open burning
Use well- designed furnaces for the complete burning of fossil fuel.
Total


1
1

1

1
1


1
6

1
1
2

Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
8








6 (b)

F1-The flow of insecticides into the rivers, ponds and lakes may
poison the aquatic organisms and subsequently kill them.
E1-Residents that depend on the river, pond or lakes lost their food /
income sources
E2-Residents that depend on the river, pond or lakes as their water
supply will face with polluted water sources and suffer a lot of
diseases
E3-This will distrupt the food web of the ecosystem.

F2-Deforestation is carried out to develop the new residential area
and improve the infrastructures
E1- this activity may result in :
-soil erosion causes water pollution /
-flash floods cause the damages of properties /
crops and animals (any 3
-landslides cause the damages of properties / answers)
crops and animals
-severe climate changes cause decreasing in crop yield
-loss of biodiversity cause distruption of food chains / food webs
-disruption of carbon cycle leads to global warming and green
house effect

F3-Combustion of fossil fuels from the factories and vehicles releases
sulphur dioxide , nitrogen oxide , carbon dioxide, lead and fine
particles which make a large portion of the air pollutants.
E1-Sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen dissolve in the rain to form


1

1


1
1


1



3









1

Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
9
acid rain.
E2-Smoke, dirt and fine particles lead to haze formation,
subsequently cause the diseases of eyes, nose and lungs
E3-It also reduces the light intensity which will lower down the rate of
photosynthesis and the yields of crops.
Maximum

1

1

1
10
No. 7

7 (a)

Fact 1 : Oogenesis is the process of ovum formation in the ovary.
Explanation 1: It begins in the ovary of a female foetus.
E2: The primordial germ cells divide repeatedly through mitosis to form
diploid oogonia (2n).
E3: Each oogonium grows and develops into a primary oocyte (2n).
E4: - The primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I and completes meiosis I
at puberty and
- forms two haploid cells;- a secondary oocyte and polar body.
F2: During ovulation, the secondary oocyte is released from ovary.
F3: When fertilisation occurs, the secondary oocyte undergoes meiosis
II and forms an ovum (n) and a polar body (n).
E5: - The first polar body also undergoes meiosis II
- to form another two haploid polar bodies.
F4: All three polar bodies will eventually degenerate.
Maximum

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1
10

7 (b) i.






ii.









F1-After ovulation, if the ovum is not fertilised, the ovum will break
followed by the thick endometrium
E1-The excess blood and the endometrium tissue together with the
unfertilised ovum will leave the uterus through the vagina
E2-This process is called menstruation
E3-It usually last from three to seven days.
Maximum
F1-After ovulation, if the ovum is fertilised, the endometrium continues
to thicken
E1-due to the increasing progesterone level produced by the corpus
luteum.
E2-The zygote continues to develop until it is implanted into the
thickened endometrium.
E3-It then develops into an embryo, then foetus and born as baby.
Maximum


1

1
1
1
3

1

1

1
1

3
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
10





















7(c)

Functions of placenta:
Allows dissolved food substances (glucose, amino acid, mineral
salts) and oxygen to diffuse from the mothers blood into foetal
blood.
Allows metabolic waste products (urea, and carbon dioxide) to
diffuse from the foetal blood into the mothers blood.
Allows antibodies from the mothers blood to diffuse into the foetal
blood to protect the foetus from diseases.
Produces progesterone and oestrogen to maintain the thickness of
the endometrium so that the embryo is allowed to attach firmly in
the uterus.
Maximum




1

1

1


1
4
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
11
No. 8

8 (a) i.





Maximum




1




4

(a) ii.













Less enzyme erepsin / peptidase /maltase / sucrase / lactase /
lipase is produced.
The rate of food digestion is slow.
Glucose/ galactose/ fructose /amino acids / glycerol and fatty
acid / vitamin / mineral ions are less / slow to absorb from the villi
into the blood capillary.
The rate of absorption of digestive food is slow.
The patient becomes tired easily because less glucose is
absorbed into the blood / body.
Patient faces the problem of late healing of wound.
Because less new cells are formed due to less absorption of
amino acid / fatty acids and glycerol.
Maximum

1

1


1
1

1
1

1
6







Drawing neat and tidy
Label - 4-5 - 3 marks
- 2-3 - 2 marks
- 1 - 1 mark
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
12

8(b)

Cow and rabbit are herbivores while humans are omnivores.
The main food source for the cow and the rabbit is plant while the
food sources for human are plants and animals.
In the digestive systems of the cow and rabbit, there are
symbiotic bacteria or protozoa whereas there is none in the
human digestive system.
Cellulase is produced by the symbiotic bacteria or protozoa in the
digestive system of cow and rabbit, no enzyme cellulase is
produced in human.
Thus cellulose is hydrolysed or broken down by the enzyme
cellulase in the digestive system of the cow and the rabbit while
this form of hydrolysis does not occur in the human digestive
tract.
Glucose is produced from cellulose in the digestive system of the
cow and the rabbit. In human, fibre, an equivalent of cellulose is
not digested but taken to prevent constipation.
Cow has 4 stomach chambers while human and rabbit have only
1 stomach chamber each.
Only the cow regurgitates the foods that have entered the
reticulum / stomach into the mouth to be rechewed and then into
the other stomach chambers to be hydrolysed.
Rabbit has a large caecum which both human and cow do not.
The rabbit eats again its soft faeces to be redigested, while
human and cow do not.
Maximum

1

1


1


1



1


1

1


1

1

1
10
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
13
No. 9

9(a)

The parents genotypes are RR and rr in which RR represents
homozygous for round seed and rr represents homozygous for
wrinkled seed.
Through meiosis , gametes produced are R from parent RR and r
from parent rr.
Fertilisation produces offspring with genotype Rr.
All offsprings have round seeds due to the presence of the
dominant allele R.
Maximum



1

1
1

1
4

9 (b)






















Let R represents allele for red flowers / r represents allele for
white flowers. T represents allele for tall plant / t represents allele
for short plant.
Parents :
Phenotype: Tall plant Short plant
red flower X white flower

Genotype: TTRR ttrr


Gametes TR tr



Offspring TtRr
Genotype



Phenotype: Tall plant red flowers




1


1

1


1



1




1


6
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
www.spm.via.my
14
Maximum

9(c)


Diagram 9.2 is a cross between a homozygous dominant for
purple flower plant and a homozygous recessive plants for white
flower plant.
Let P represents the allele for purple flowers / p represents the
allele for white flowers

Parents :
Phenotype: Purple flowers White flowers
Genotype PP pp


Gametes:


Offspring
Genotype:

Phenotype:

( any 5 )
Maximum














1
1


1
1


1



1

1



5











P p
Pp
Purple flowers
Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009
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15



Diagram 9.3 is a cross between a heterozygous purple flower
plant and a homozygous recessive white flower plant.
Let P represents the allele for purple flowers / p represent the
allele for white flowers

Parents :
Phenotype: Purple flowers x White flowers

Genotype: Pp pp


Gametes:


Offspring:
Genotype:
Pp pp

Phenotype: Purple flowers White flowers


Maximum

Total (Maximum)






1
1


1

1


1




1

1

5

10
p
p P