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To understand the total problem of Communism it is necessary that we trace the course of the

movement from its beginning down to the present. We must understand who its originators
were, and what they were, and we must gain some idea as to the forces which influenced and
shaped their philosophy.
Unfortunately, any deep-down discussion of Communism and Marism involves the !ewish
"uestion. We cannot honestly discuss the sub#ect without revealing$and commenting on$the
fact that the founders of %ussian Communism were !ewish. &either can we ignore the fact that
all but a few of the top leadership of the 'merican Communism party$including the recently
convicted spies$ are of the same race. These are facts of history over which we have no
control. (ut we are faced with the very serious problem of how to reveal these facts without
being labeled$and treated$as )anti-*emites.)
The main reason why so little is +nown concerning the true nature of Communism stems from
this problem. ,istorical writers have been understandably reluctant to hold forth on the sub#ect
for fear of mar+ing themselves as )race haters) and )bigots.) -or this reason the entire sub#ect
has been placed beyond the pale of discussion. .ne simply does not use the word )!ew) and
)Communism) together.
The result is, of course, censorship. /n this wor+ we have decided to breach the wall of silence at
whatever the cost, and to treat the sub#ect as fairly and as honestly as we +now how. &o attempt
is made to single out individuals because they happened to be born to a certain race0 neither
have we eempted anyone from criticism for that reason. /t was decided that since Communism
and !udaism are so irretrievably bound one to the other, a history of the !ewish people would
contribute substantially to an understanding of the present communist menace.
&.T1 2(3 -%'&4 (%/TT.&50
Encyclopedia Britannica is used as a reference source because of its ready availability to the
average reader. /t is not an )anti-*emitic) publication. /n fact, the 1ncyclopedia (ritannica
Corporation was purchased by the 6!ewish7 !ulius %osenwald interests in 89:;, and since then
all material pertaining to the !ewish "uestion his been re-written to conform to the !ewish
outloo+.
The Funk & Wagnall's Jewish Encyclopedia is uniformly referred to throughout this wor+ as the
"Jewish Encyclopedia." Consisting of 8: volumes, it is available in all ma#or libraries. /t should
not be confused with the 8; volume "Universal Jewish Encyclopedia," published by Universal
!ewish 1ncyclopedia, /nc., &ew 3or+, 89<9. (oth, however, are authoritative !ewish
publications, compiled by and for !ews.
alentine's Jewish Encyclopedia, *hapiro =alentine Co., >ondon - 89<?. 1ngland.
!utline o" #istory, third edition, by ,. @. Wells.
THE PERSECUTION MYTH
With Shrill Insistence
We cannot underta+e even this brief history of the modern !ew without ta+ing note of a
phenomenon which has confounded gentile societies for twenty centuries. This is the ability of
the !ewish people to collectively retain their identity despite centuries of eposure to Christian
civiliAation. To any student of !udaism, or to the !ews themselves, this phenomenon is partly
eplained by the fact that !udaism is neither mainly a religion nor mainly a racial matter, nor yet
is it simply a matter of nationality. %ather it is all threeB it is a +ind of trinity. !udaism is best
described as a nationality built on the twin pillars of race and religion.
'll this is closely related to another aspect of !udaism, namely, the persecution myth. *ince first
appearing in history we find the !ews propagating the idea that they are an abused and
persecuted people, and this idea is, and has always been, central in !ewish thin+ing. The myth of
persecution is the adhesive and cement of !udaismB without it !ews would have long since
ceased to eist, their racial-religious nationality notwithstanding.
!ews do not always agree among themselves, and it is only in the presence of their enemies$
real or imagined$that !ewish thin+ing crystalliAes into unanimity. /n this respect they differ not
at all from other peoples0 'dolph ,itler solidified @erman opinion around the idea that
@ermany was wronged at =ersailles, that the @erman people were abused and victimiAed by the
'llies, and that only by holding together could they prevail against the overwhelming might of
their enemies ...
-or twenty-five centuries the !ewish mind has been conditioned by the same appeal. Through all
!ewish thin+ing and all !ewish history the refrain of persecution has sounded with shrill
insistence. Thus we find every accident of fortune being chronicled, enhanced, and passed on to
succeeding generations as another eample of gentile cruelty to the chosen race. 'nd almost
inevitably we find opposition to !ewish aspirations and ambitions being translated into these
same terms of persecution, and all !ewish shortcomings being ecused on the same basis.
&ow it is a fact that the !ewish people have suffered numerous hardships in the course of their
history, but this is true of other peoples too. The chief difference is that the !ews have +ept score
$they have made a tradition of persecution. ' casual slaughter of Christians is remembered by
no one in C; years, but a disability visited upon a few !ews is preserved forever in !ewish
histories. 'nd they tell their woes not only to themselves, but to a sympathetic world as well ...
THE JEW IN EUROPE
Even The Coins Were Jewish
We find the first !ews filtering into 1urope some time before the Christian era, particularly in
the region of @reece. The ancient @ree+s spo+e of these 'siatic invaders with considerable
bitterness. =ery "uic+ly they spread throughout the %oman 1mpire and into 1urope proper. The
!ewish merchant, artisan, and slave trader appear on the %oman scene with increasing fre"uency
after the second century '.D. and there can be no doubt that their position in the %oman world
was one of growing importance even as the 1mpire drifted to destruction. Under !ustinian, says
the Jewish Encyclopedia,
"$hey en%oyed "ull religious li&erty, in return "or which they assu'ed all a citi(en's
duty toward the state) 'inor o""ices were also open to the'. !nly the synagogues
were e*e'pt "ro' the duty o" +uartering soldiers. $he trade in slaves constituted the
'ain source o" livelihood "or the ,o'an Jews, and decrees against this tra""ic were
issued in --., --/, --0, -12, etc."
2-un+ E WagnallFs Jewish Encyclopedia, page GH;, vol. 8;5
*eneca, in his writings, bitterly assailed the %omans of his day for aping the !ews, and some
historians 6notably @ibbon in his monumental 3ecline and Fall o" the ,o'an E'pire7 have
ascribed the downfall of %ome to their corrupting influence. &eroFs wife, Ioppaea, was a
converted !ewess. 's %ome reeled into decline and final collapse, and as the Dar+ 'ges
descended over Western civiliAation, we find the !ew ta+ing a strangle-hold over what remained
of 1uropean commerce. *ays Encyclopedia Britannica0
". . . there was an inevita&le tendency "or hi' to speciali(e in co''erce, "or which
his acu'en and u&i+uity gave hi' special +uali"ications. 4n the dark ages the
co''erce o" western Europe was largely in his hands, in particular the slave trade,
and in 5arolingian cartularies Jew and 'erchant are used as al'ost
interchangea&le ter's."
2Encyclopedia Britannica, page CJ, vol. 8<$89GJ.5
This hold over 1uropean commerce finally became so utterly complete that few gentiles
engaged in trade at allB it had become almost entirely a !ewish monopoly. /n Ioland and
,ungary, the coins bore !ewish inscriptions ...
Throughout the Medieval period, 2)Dar+ 'ges,) )Medieval Ieriod,) and )Middle 'ges) are
synonymous terms used to describe the period of decline which characteriAed western
civiliAation between C;;-8<;; '.D.5 which lasted from C;; '.D. to 8<;; '.D., the !ew
merchant was dominant all over 1urope 6ecept *candinavia, where he was never permitted to
enter7 and this dominance included control over the eastern trade routes to the >evant. There
was to be no relief from this situation until the !ews were evicted from 1urope in the century
directly preceding the %enaissance.
/n 8:8C the Catholic Church, at the -ourth >ateran Council, bro+e the bac+ of 1uropean !ewry
with a set of restrictions designed to curb their commercial monopoly. These decrees restricted
!ews to residence in their own communities, prohibited absolutely their hiring of Christian
employees and prohibited them from engaging in many types of commercial activity.
Expelled
The -ourth >ateran Council restricted !ewish commercial advantage but it did not end the
!ewish problem. (eginning in the latter part of the 8<th century, one 1uropean country after
another epelled its !ewish population as the only final solution to the problem. -irst to ta+e the
step was 1ngland which banned them in 8:9;. -ifteen years later in 8<;H the -rench followed
suit. /n steady succession the various states of 1urope emulated this eample with *pain being
one of the last to enforce the ban in 8G9:. The situation in *pain is worth noting. *ays
Encyclopedia Britannica0 2page CJ, vol. 8< - 89GJ50
"... $he 62th century was the golden age o" their history in 7pain. 4n 6-06 the
preaching o" a priest o" 7eville, Fernando 8artene(, led to the "irst general
'assacre o" the Jews who were envied "or their prosperity and hated &ecause they
were the king's ta* collectors."
-erdinand and /sabella, after uniting *pain and driving out the Moors turned their attention to
the !ewish problem, with the result that they were evicted completely in 8G9:. /n 8G9? Iortugal
evicted its !ewish population also.
The Exploiters
' great deal has been said about the )persecution) of the !ews in 1urope and elsewhere, and
they have pretty well convinced the world 6or at least 'mericans7 that these hardships were
inflicted on an innocent people. (ut these rich *panish !ews we see being evicted in 8G9: were
not down-trodden fol+. They were the wealthy, the privileged, the eploiters0 they were the well-
fed merchants and the gouging ta collectors ...
*o it was in IortugalB in that country we find that the deportation of the !ews ... "deprived
9ortugal o" its 'iddle class and its 'ost scienti"ic traders and "inanciers."
2Encyclopedia Britannica, page :J9, vol. 8? - 89GJ.5
Undeniably this class of traders and financiers was put to hardship by this banishment, but it
does not follow that they were victims of discrimination in the accepted sense, nor were they
underprivileged in any way. %ather we see a wealthy merchant group being ousted from its seat
of vested privilege by a thoroughly outraged, and a thoroughly eploited Christian society ...
The situation in 1ngland was similar. The !ews had come to 1ngland in the wa+e of the &orman
con"uest and had "uic+ly gained a position of wealth and prosperity. *ays alentine's Jewish
Encyclopedia of this period0
"$heir nu'&ers and prosperity increased, :aron o" ;incoln &eing the wealthiest
'an in England in his ti'e ... his "inancial transactions covering the whole country
and concerning 'any o" the leading no&les and church'en ... !n his death his
property passed to the crown and a special &ranch o" the e*che+uer had to &e
created to deal with it."
Enl!nd
1ngland, ironically enough, was the last country to be invaded by the !ews and the first to evict
them. 'fter the -ourth >ateran Council the !ews had become increasingly difficult to deal with
and there were a number of anti-!ewish riots. Ierpleed by the problem posed by this alien
minority which seemed well on its way to corralling the +ingdomFs wealth, and failing in an
attempt to force its assimilation. 1dward / confiscated all !ewish wealth and evicted them
permanently in 8:9;. &ot until 8HCC was a !ew legally permitted to re-enter 1ngland. (ritain
thus established the precedent for the later eviction which soon followed on the continent.
"r!nce
/n -rance too the !ews were dominant in trade and finance and had been since before
CharlemagneFs time. Under Ihilip the -air 68:?C-8<8G7 one of the last, and certainly one of the
greatest of the Capetian line, -rance had become the greatest power in 1urope. /t was IhilipFs
need for money which led him to seiAe !ewish wealth and drive them from the country. ,e had
already before 8<;H ta+en desperate measures to raise money, which was in short supply, by
forbidding the eport of gold and silver from -rance. The same need for money brought him
into conflict with the Templars, whose wealth he also seiAed. (ut it was the !ews who controlled
the greatest supply of floating wealth. /n 8<;H Ihilip solved his financial problem$and -ranceFs
!ewish problem$by epropriating their wealth and evicting them. Thus ended the centuries-
long commercial dominance of the !ew in -rance. >ater a few were permitted to return and these
were in turn e#ected in 8<9G.
RETURN TO THE E#ST
The Evictions
*pace does not permit a detailed discussion of the other evictions which followed and which
resulted in the banishment of the !ews from virtually every country in Western 1urope in the
succeeding centuries but here in chronological order is a list of the evictions0
1&@>'&D0 !ews epelled in 8:9; by 1dward /. &ot permitted to re-enter till 8HCC.
-%'&C10 1pelled in 8<;H by Ihilip the -air. ' few were permitted to return but were
again evicted in 8<9G. !ewish settlements remained in (ordeau, 'vignon,
Marseilles, 6from where they were evicted in 8H?:7 and in the northern
province of 'lsace.
*'K.&30 1pelled in 8<G9.
,U&@'%30 (y 8;9: the !ews were in control of ,ungaryFs ta collections. /n 8<H; they
were epelled but later returned. /n 8C?: they were again epelled from the
Christian part of ,ungary.
(1>@/UM0 1pelled in 8<J;. ' few settled there again in 8GC;, but no large numbers
came till 8J;;.
*>.='4/'0 .usted from Irague in 8<?;. Many settled there again after 8CH:. /n 8JGG
Marie Theresa epelled them again.
'U*T%/'0 1pelled in 8G:; by 'lbrecht =.
&1T,1%>'&D*
0
1pelled from Utrecht in 8GGG.
*I'/&0 1pelled in 8G9:.
>/T,U'&/'0 1pelled in 8G9C by @rand Du+e 'leander. They later returned.
I.%TU@'>0 1pelled in 8G9?.
I%U**/'0 1pelled in 8C8;.
/T'>30 1pelled from 4ingdom of &aples and *ardinia in 8CG;.
('='%/'0 (anned permanently in 8CC8.
!ews were not permitted to enter *weden until 8J?:. &one were permitted to enter Denmar+
before the 8Jth century and they were not allowed in &orway after 8?8G. Today only a handful
reside in all *candinavia.
$!c% to Pol!nd
(y 8C;; all of Western 1urope ecept northern /taly, parts of @ermany, and the Iapal
possessions around 'vignon, had been rid of the !ewish invasion. -or a while, at least, 1urope
was free of the !ewsB not until 8HC; did they return in any numbers. *ays Encyclopedia
Britannica0 2page CJ-C?, vol. 8< - 89GJ.5
"$he great 'ass o" the Jewish people were thus to &e "ound once 'ore in the East, in
the 9olish and $urkish e'pires . . $he "ew co''unities su""ered to re'ain in
western Europe were 'eanwhile su&%ected at last to all the restrictions which
earlier ages had usually allowed to re'ain as an ideal) so that in a sense, the
Jewish dark ages 'ay &e said to &egin with the ,enaissance."
THE REN#ISS#NCE
#s the Jew &ep!rted '''
The period mar+ed by the evictions$8<;; to 8HC;$also mar+s the period of the %enaissance
which bro+e over 1urope as the !ews departed. *tarting at first in the trading cities of northern
/taly in about 8<;;, there began a great rebirth of culture and learning which at first was based
almost entirely on the writings of the ancient @ree+s and %omans. =ery "uic+ly this renascent
culture spread over 1urope and when the age had ended, in about 8HC;, 1urope was by
comparison with her former status, enlightened and civiliAed. Luite obviously all this could not
have ta+en place had it not been for a great upsurge of commercial activity which occurred
simultaneously with, and as an ad#unct of, the %enaissance. &ot until the nations of 1urope had
wrested commercial control from the ghetto did this rebirth of western civiliAation occur.
The (hettos
"Wherever Jews have settled, since the &eginning o" the 3iaspora, they have
proceeded to create their own co''unal organi(ations. arious "actors o" an
internal character<religious, cultural, social, and econo'ic<as well as e*ternal
"actors, have contri&uted to this "actor"
6Iage :;8, The !ewish Ieople, Iast and Iresent, by the Central 3iddish Culture
.rganiAation 6C3C.7, &ew 3or+7.
/t is virtually impossible to comprehend the character of !udaism without some +nowledge of
the nature of the Medieval !ewish community. 64ahalB @hetto7. Irobably one of the commonest
fallacies etant today concerns the true origin of the ghetto. Most history boo+s defer to !ewish
sensibilities by giving the !ewish version, namely that the !ewish people were for centuries
forced to reside in a special "uarter of the city as a result of the bigotry and intolerance of the
Christian ma#ority. This is not true, and no scholar of !udaism believes it to be.
alentine's Jewish Encyclopedia describes the origin of the ghetto as follows0
":t any rate the word &eca'e general "or a Jew's +uarter. :lready in anti+uity the
Jews voluntarily occupied special +uarters) 4n the 8iddle :ges, Jew's streets or
Jewries were to &e "ound "ro' the end o" the 66th century, &ut the 'otive o" their
concentration was no longer religious or social= trade caused the' to settle near the
'arket, or danger 'ade the' seek the protection o" the reigning prince, the
protector also wishing to have the' together "or the easier collection o" ta*es. 4t was
not until the 6-th century that the Jew's +uarter was turned into a co'pulsory
>hetto. ... $he concentration o" Jews in >hettos, although unintended, had its good
result. 4t preserved the co''unal "eeling and the traditional Jewish culture."
's a point of fact these ghetto-communities eisted only because the !ews wanted them to eist
$they represented a desire on the part of !ewry to remain aloof and eclusive of Christian
*ociety. *ays alentine's Jewish Encyclopedia 2p C?950
"$here were as a rule o""icially recogni(ed authorities in the Jewish co''unities in
Europe during the 8iddle :ges to regulate their own a""airs and to treat as a &ody
with the civil govern'ent. Even with no other incentive &ut that o" living up to the
re+uire'ents o" Judais' the Jews o" a locality were co'pelled to organi(e
the'selves into a co''unity ?@ahal) @ehillaA, in order to regulate ritual,
educational and charita&le institutions. 5ourts o" law were also a necessity, since
Jewish litigants were e*pected to o&ey the civil code o" the $al'ud."
The ghetto was not merely a place of residenceB it was in the fullest sense a community within a
community. ,ere the !ews maintained their culture, their religion, and their tradition of
solidarity. ,ere they nursed their age-long hatred for Christian civiliAation. *ays Encyclopedia
Britannica 2p C9, vol. 8< - 89GJ.50
":ll these activities necessitated a great deal o" legislation and in this the
autono'ous Jewish co''unity was granted the widest latitude. !rdinances were
enacted &y Jews governing every phase o" li"e= &usiness, synagogue attendance,
social 'orals, policing, prescriptions "or dress, and a detailed regi'entation o"
a'use'ents ... $he characteristic co''on to the 'edieval Jewish co''unity were=
sel" i'posed discipline, the considering o" all religious, philanthropic, educational,
and sel" de"ense pro&le's as co''on concerns, and a strong sense o" solidarity
"orti"ied &y a uni"or' way o" li"e."
-or ten centuries preceding the great evictions, in virtually every Christian nation of 1urope
6and in Mohammedan *pain, 'frica, and 'sia Minor7 these !ews settled into these parasitic
ghetto-communities and here they nurtured and maintained a culture which was "uite a thing
apart from the culture of the 1uropean. When finally they were driven from Western 1urope in
the centuries preceding the %enaissance, we find them settling and establishing ghetto-
communities in Ioland and %ussia which have lasted down to the present day. The Medieval
ghetto did not disappear with the ending of the Dar+ 'ges$it was transferred, unimpaired, to
1astern 1urope, where the ma#ority of the worldFs !ews settled.
The institution of the ghetto has enabled two basically different cultures and peoples to remain
side by side$one 'siatic and !udaic, the other 1uropean and Christian$without becoming
integrated. /t is primarily for this reason that the !ew has remained an alien in spite of centuries
of eposure to Christian civiliAation. 'nd that is why the *panish !ew remained a !ew first and a
*paniard second, and why the Iolish !ew, the %ussian !ew, and the @erman !ew, have given
their first allegiance to !udah and rendered a sort of second-hand loyalty to the country of their
abode.
The Ch!)!rs
The modern !ew is descended from a miture of 'siatic peoples, largely *emitic in
origin, but not ,ebraic. This map is based on (rittonFs reproduction from -un+ E
Wagnall, itself based on :tlas de >Bographie #istori+ue by *chrader. *hading
showed %oman Catholics, @ree+ Catholics, Mohammedans, !ews, and Iagans. /Fve
indicated the boundaries, on the same map, of the 4haAars, the Iale, and %ussiaB and
emphasiAed where U+raine is. The rectangle corresponds to the maps of Ioland,
below.
The modern !ew with his 3iddish culture and rapacious financial traditions should not be
confused with the biblical ,ebrews, who were mainly a pastoral people. The international !ew
of modern times is indeed the bastardiAed product of a bastardiAed past. ,e does not truly
worship the (ible, but the TalmudB he does not spea+ ,ebrew, but 3iddishB he is not descended
from /srael, but from the scum of the eastern Mediterranean. This is vividly illustrated by ,. @.
Wells in his great !utline o" #istory0
"$he Jewish idea was and is a curious co'&ination o" theological &readth and an
intense racial patriotis'. $he Jews looked "or a special saviour, a 8essiah, who was
to redee' 'ankind &y the agreea&le process o" restoring the "a&ulous glories o"
3avid and 7olo'on, and &ringing the whole world it last under the &enevolent &ut
"ir' Jewish heel. :s the political power o" the peoples declined as 5arthage
"ollowed $yre into the darkness and 7pain &eca'e a ,o'an province, this drea'
grew and spread. $here can &e little dou&t that the scattered 9hoenicians in 7pain
and :"rica and throughout the 8editerranean, speaking as they did a language
closely akin to #e&rew and &eing deprived o" their authentic political rights,
&eca'e proselytes to Judais'. For phases o" vigorous proselytis' alternated with
phases o" e*clusive %ealousy in Jewish history. !n one occasion the 4du'eans, &eing
con+uered, were all "orci&ly 'ade Jews. ?JosephusA. $here were :ra& tri&es who
were Jews in the ti'e o" 8uha''ad, and a $urkish people who were 'ainly Jews in
7outh ,ussia in the ninth century. Judais' is indeed the reconstructed political ideal
o" 'any shattered peoples<'ainly 7e'itic. 4t is to the 9hoenician contingent and to
:ra'ean accessions in Ba&ylon that the "inancial and co''ercial tradition o" the
Jews is to &e ascri&ed. But as a result o" these coalescences and assi'ilations,
al'ost everywhere in the towns throughout the ,o'an E'pire, and "ar &eyond it in
the east, Jewish co''unities traded and "lourished, and were kept in touch through
the Bi&le, and through a religious and educational organi(ation. $he 'ain part o"
Jewry never was in Judea and had never co'e out o" Judea."
2!utline o" #istory page G9<-G9G, third edition, by ,. @. Wells. *ection FChristianity
and /slamF, with a footnote recommending the 5a'&ridge 8edieval #istory.5
The )Tur+ish) people whom Wells mentions were the ChaAars 2ChaAarM4haAar5,
who built an empire in south %ussia in the 9th century '. D. This ChaAar empire was
infiltrated by large numbers of (yAantine !ews. (y process of intermarriage and
conversion these ChaAars became identified as !ews and in all !ewish histories and
encyclopedias the words )ChaAar) and )!ew) are used interchangeably. /n the tenth
century a succession of invasions destroyed the ChaAar empire and large numbers of
these ChaAar-!ews settled in the area of what is now Ioland. .thers found their way
to western 1urope and *pain, where they mingled with the already bastardiAed
conglomeration of 1uropean !ewry.
Pol!nd*s "!te
These !ews we find settling in Ioland in the early 8Gth century came there at the invitation of
Casimir /, who seems to have been under strong !ewish influence. 's early as the 8;th century
the !ews 6chiefly of 4haAar origin7 were influential in Ioland, and by the 8:th century they were
well enough entrenched to monopoliAe the coinage of IolandFs money. *ays the Jewish
Encyclopedia0 2Funk & Wagnall's Jewish Encyclopedia, page CH, vol. 8;5 "5oins unearthed in
616C in the >reat 9olish village o" >len&ok show conclusively that in the reigns o" 8iec(yslauw
444 ?66D-E6CF0A, 5asi'ir, and ;eshek ?6602E6CF.A, the Jews were, as stated a&ove, in charge o"
the coinage o" >reat and ;ittle 9oland."
/t is interesting to note that these coins bore !ewish as well as Iolish inscriptions.
The history of Ioland for the net < centuries revolves around the struggle for supremacy
between the native Iolish people and the !ews. During the greater part of that time Ioland was
more or less dominated by the !ews$a situation most beneficial to all, according to !ewish
history boo+s. (ut when, as occasionally happened, there was a lapse in !ewish fortunes, these
same histories are replete with accounts of gentile cruelty and bestiality to the chosen race. 'nd
because these laments have been repeated often enough and loudly enough there is a widely held
belief that Ioland has been a land of oppression for !ewry N
/t has been the unhappy fate of Ioland to be saddled for the greater part of its history with a
large proportion of the worldFs !ewish population. This, more than anything else, accounts for
the tragic disunity which has +ept Ioland from ta+ing its place among the great nations of the
earth.
/n 8J9< 6third partition7 Ioland was divided between Irussia and %ussia and thus ceased to eist
as a nation. %ussia thus fell heir to a full fledged !ewish problem.
R+ssi!
The third partition of Ioland was an event of paramount significance in %ussian history because
as a by-product of the partition she ac"uired the worldFs largest !ewish population. -rom this
moment on %ussiaFs history became hopelessly intertwined with the !ewish problem, and
eventually, as we shall relate, the !ews brought about the downfall of /mperial %ussia.
&o one can possibly understand the nature of present day communism, nor of Oionism, without
some +nowledge of the situation eisting in %ussia in the century preceding the .ctober
revolution of 898J. We have already noted the presence of 4haAar !ews in Ioland in the 8;th
century, and these same 4haAar !ews are to be found in %ussia from that time on. (ut whereas
Ioland had invited the evicted !ews of western 1urope to settle in vast numbers within its
boundaries in the 8<th, 8Gth, and 8Cth centuries, the /mperial %ussian government had permitted
no such immigrations, and had in fact sealed its borders to them. 's would be epected,
therefore, the /mperial government was something less than enthusiastic over this sudden
ac"uisition of IolandFs teeming masses of !ews.
P!le o, Settle-ent
The Iale of *ettlement etended from the Crimea to the (altic *ea, encompassing an
area half as great as western 1urope. (y 898J, seven million !ews resided there,
comprising perhaps half the worldFs total !ewish population. /t was within the Iale of
*ettlement that the twin philosophies of Communism and Oionism flourished. (oth
movements grew out of !ewish hatred of Christian civiliAation 6persecutor of the
)chosen race)7, and both movements have spread wherever !ews have emigrated.
The Iale of *ettlement has been the reservoir from which the world-wide forces of
communism have flowed. /t is worth noting that half of the worldFs !ewish population
now resides in the U.*., and that all but a handful of these are from the Iale, or are
descendants of emigrants from the Iale.
-rom the very beginning the Tsarist government imposed a set of restrictions designed to protect
%ussiaFs economy and culture from the inroads of the !ew. /t was decreed 6in 8JJ:7 that !ews
could settle in @reater %ussia, but only in certain areas. Within this )Iale of *ettlement) !ews
were more or less free to conduct their affairs as they pleased. (ut travel or residence beyond the
Iale was rigidly restricted, so that in 8?9J 6date of %ussiaFs 8st census7 9<.9P of %ussiaFs !ewish
population lived within its boundaries, and only HP of the total resided in other parts of the
1mpire. To prevent smuggling, no !ew was permitted to reside within C; versts of the border.
-rom the standpoint of !ewish history, the Iale of *ettlement ran+s as one of the most
significant factors of modern times. ,ere within. a single and contiguous area the greater part of
!ewry had gathered, and was to remain, for something li+e 8:C years. -or the first time !ewry
was sub#ected to a common environment and a common ground of eperience. .ut of this
common eperience and environment there evolved the 3iddish spea+ing !ew of the :;th
century. ,ere too were born the great movements of Oionism and Communism.
The .!h!l
We have already remar+ed upon the habit of !ewry from ancient times of establishing and
maintaining their own tribal community 6+ahal7 within the framewor+ of Christian society. We
have noted also that as the !ew was driven from Western 1urope, he brought with him to Ioland
this ancient custom. The 4ahal was an established institution in Ioland, and as the !ews settled
within the Iale they set up these autonomous communities here too.
't first the /mperial government recogniAed the autonomous 4ahal organiAation permitting
them to raise taes and set up courts of law, where only !ewish litigants were concerned. /n
addition to the individual communities, there were district 4ahal organiAations which at first
were permitted to assess local !ewish communities with taes. /n 8J?H these privileges were
drastically curtailed and !ews were there after obliged to appear before ordinary courts of law
and the 4ahal organiAation was restricted to matters of religious and social nature. 'lthough
!ewish propagandists have complained long and loudly of being oppressed by the /mperial
government, it is a fact that up until 8??8 they prospered beyond all epectation. !ewry settled
in the %ussian economy li+e a swarm of locusts in a field of new corn. =ery "uic+ly they
achieved a monopoly over %ussiaFs li"uor, tobacco, and retail industries. >ater they dominated
the professions as well. Under the reign of 'leander / many of the restrictions against residence
beyond the Iale of *ettlement were relaed, especially for the artisan and professional classes. '
determined effort was made to establish !ews in agriculture and the government encouraged at
every opportunity the assimilation of !ews into %ussian national life.
Nichol!s I
'leanderFs successor, &icholas /, was less inclined to favor !ewry, and in fact viewed their
inroads into the %ussian economy with alarm. ,e was much hated by the !ews. Irior to his
reign, 'leander / had allowed any male !ew the privilege of escaping compulsory military duty
by paying a special draft-eemption ta. /n 8?:J &icholas abolished the custom, with the result
that !ews were for the first time ta+en into the /mperial armies ...
/n 8?GG &icholas / further antagoniAed !ewry by abolishing the institution of the 4ahal, and in
that same year he prohibited by law the traditional !ewish garb, specifying that all !ews should,
ecept on ceremonial occasions, dress in conformity with %ussian standards. These measures,
and many others li+e them, were aimed at facilitating the assimilation of !ewry into %ussian life.
The Tsarist government was much concerned by the !ewFs failure to become %ussianiAed, and
viewed with etreme hostility the ancient !ewish custom of maintaining a separate culture,
language, mode of dress, etc.$all of which contributed to +eep the !ew an alien in the land of
his residence. /t is to this determination to )%ussianiAe) and )civiliAe) the !ew that we can
ascribe the unusual efforts made by the /mperial government to provide free education to its
!ews. /n 8?;G all schools were thrown open to !ews and attendance for !ewish children was
made compulsory. Compulsory education was not only a novelty in %ussia, but in any country in
the early 89th century. /n %ussia education was generally reserved for a privileged few, and even
as late as 898G only CCP of her gentile population had been inside a school. The net result of the
/mperial governmentFs assimilation program was that %ussian !ewry became the best educated
segment in %ussia. This eventually wor+ed to the destruction of the Tsarist government ...
The reign of 'leander // mar+ed the ape of !ewish fortunes in Tsarist %ussia. (y 8??; they
were becoming dominant in the professions, in many trades and industries, and were beginning
to filter into government in increasing numbers. 's early as 8?H8 'leander // had permitted
!ewish university graduates to settle and hold governmental positions in greater %ussia, and by
8?J9 apothecaries, nurses, midwives dentists, distillers, and s+illed craftsmen were permitted to
wor+ and reside throughout the empire.
&evertheless %ussiaFs !ews were increasingly rebellious over the remaining restraints which still
bound the greater part of %ussian !ewry to the Iale of *ettlement, and which, to some etent at
least, restricted their commercial activities. ,erein lay the dilemmaB the /mperial government
could retain certain of the restrictions against the !ews, and by doing so incur their undying
hostility, or it could remove all restraints and thus pave the way for !ewish domination over
every phase of %ussian life. Certainly 'leander viewed this problem with increasing concern as
time went on. 'ctually it was a problem capable of being solved. 2sic5
'leander // lost a considerable amount of his enthusiasm for liberal causes after an attempt was
made to assassinate him in 8?HH. ,e dismissed his )liberal) advisers and from that time on
displayed an inclination toward conservatism. This is not to say he became anti-!ewish, but he
did show more firmness in dealing with them. /n 8?J9 there was another attempt on his life, and
another in the following year when his winter palace was blown up. /n 8??8 a plot hatched in
the home of the !ewess, ,esia ,elfman, was successful. 'leander // was blown up and so
ended an era.
The New Polic/
The reaction to the assassination of 'leander // was instantaneous and far reaching. There was
a widespread belief in and out of the government, that if the !ews were dissatisfied with the rule
of 'leander //$whom the crypto-!ew, DF/sraeli, had described as )the most benevolent prince
that ever ruled %ussia)$then they would be satisfied with nothing less than outright domination
of %ussia.
Up to 8??8 %ussian policy had consistently been directed in an attempt to )%ussianiAe) the !ew,
preparatory to accepting him into full citiAenship. /n line with this policy, free and compulsory
education for !ews had been introduced, repeated attempts had been made to encourage them to
settle on farms, and special efforts had been made to encourage them to engage in the crafts.
&ow %ussian policy was reversed. ,ereafter it became the policy of the /mperial government to
prevent the further eploitation of the %ussian people by the !ews. Thus began the death struggle
between Tsar and !ew.
'll through 8??8 there was widespread anti-!ewish rioting all over the empire. >arge numbers
of !ews who had been permitted to settle beyond the Iale of *ettlement were evicted. /n May of
8??: the May >aws 6Irovisional %ules of May <, 8??:7 were imposed, thus implementing the
new governmental policy.
The May >aws shoo+ the empire to its foundations. The following passage is ta+en from
Encyclopedia Britannica 2page JH, volume :, 89GJ50
"$he ,ussian 8ay ;aws were the 'ost conspicuous legislative 'onu'ent achieved
&y 'odern antiE7e'itis' ... $heir i''ediate results was a ruinous co''ercial
depression which was "elt all over the e'pire and which pro"oundly a""ected the
national credit. $he ,ussian 'inister was at his wit's end "or 'oney. Gegotiations
"or a large loan were entered upon with the house o" ,othschild and a preli'inary
contract was signed, when ... the "inance 'inister was in"or'ed that unless the
persecutions o" the Jews were stopped the great &anking house would &e co'pelled
to withdraw "ro' the operation ... 4n this way antiE7e'itis', which had already so
pro"oundly in"luenced the do'estic policies o" Europe, set its 'ark on the
international relations o" the powers, "or it was the urgent need o" the ,ussian
treasury +uite as 'uch as the ter'ination o" 9rince Bis'arck's secret treaty o"
'utual neutrality which &rought a&out the FrancoE,ussian alliance."
Thus, within a period of 9: years 6from the <rd partition to 8??:7 the !ews, although constituting
only G.:P of the population, had been able to entrench themselves so well in the %ussian
economy that the nation was almost ban+rupted in the attempt to dislodge them. 'nd, as we
have seen, the nationFs international credit was also affected.
'fter 8??8 events served increasingly to sharpen the enmity of !ewry toward Tsarism. The May
>aws had not only restricted !ewish economic activity, but had attempted$unsuccessfully, as
we shall see$to preserve %ussiaFs cultural integrity. ,ereafter !ews were permitted to attend
state-supported schools and universities, but only in ratio to their population. This was not
unreasonable since %ussiaFs schools were flooded with !ewish students while large numbers of
her gentile population were illiterate, but to the !ews this represented another bitter
)persecution,) and all the world was ac"uainted with the enormity of this new crime against
!ewry ...
.n May :<rd a delegation of !ews headed by (aron @unAberg called on the new Tsar
6'leander ///7 to protest the May >aws and the alleged discrimination against !ewry. 's a
result of the investigation which followed, Tsar 'leander issued an edict the following *ept.
<rd, a part of which is given here0
"For so'e ti'e the govern'ent has given its attention to the Jews and to their
relations to the rest o" the inha&itants o" the e'pire, with a view o" ascertaining the
sad condition o" the 5hristian inha&itants &rought a&out &y the conduct o" the Jews
in &usiness 'atters ...
3uring the last twenty years the Jews have gradually possessed the'selves o" not
only every trade and &usiness in all its &ranches, &ut also o" a great part o" the land
&y &uying or "ar'ing it. With "ew e*ceptions, they have as a &ody devoted their
attention, not to enriching or &ene"iting the country, &ut to de"rauding &y their wiles
its inha&itants, and particularly its poor inha&itants. $his conduct o" theirs has
called "orth protests on the part o" the people, as 'ani"ested in acts o" violence and
ro&&ery. $he govern'ent, while on the one hand doing its &est to put down the
distur&ances, and to deliver the Jews "ro' oppression and slaughter, have also, on
the other hand, thought it a 'atter o" urgency and %ustice to adopt stringent
'easures in order to put an end to the oppression practiced &y the Jews on the
inha&itants, and to "ree the country "ro' their 'alpractices, which were, as is
known, the cause o" the agitations."
2,ussia and $urkey in the 60th 5entury by 1. W. >atimer, page <<:. '. C. McClury
E Co., 8?9C.5
/t was in this atmosphere that the twin movements of Marism and Oionism began to ta+e hold
and dominate the mass of %ussian !ewry. /ronically, both Oionism and Marism were first
promulgated by westerniAed @erman !ews. Oionism, whose chief advocate was Theodore ,erAl,
too+ root in %ussia in the 8??;s in competition with Marism, whose high priest was 4arl Mar,
grandson of a rabbi ... 1ventually every %ussian !ew came to identify himself with either one or
the other of these movements.
THE TERROR SECTION
Six #ss!ssin!ted
's an outgrowth of this political fermentation, there appeared at the beginning of the century
one of the most remar+able terroristic organiAations ever recorded in the annals of history. This
was the !ewish dominated Soci!l Revol+tion!r/ P!rt/, which between 89;8 and 89;H was
responsible for the assassination of no less than si first ran+ing leaders of the /mperial
government, including Minister of 1ducation (ogolepov 689;87B Minister of /nterior *ipyagin
689;:7B @overnor of Ufa, (ogdanovich 689;<7B Iremier =iachelav von Ilehve 689;G7B @rand
Du+e *ergei, uncle of the Tsar 689;C7B and @eneral Dubrassov, who had suppressed the Moscow
insurrection 689;H7.
Chief architect of these terroristic activities was the !ew, @ershuni, who headed the )terror
section) of the *ocial %evolutionary Iarty. /n charge of the )fighting section) was 3evno 'Aev,
son of a !ewish tailor, and one of the principal founders of the party.
'Aev later plotted, but was unable to carry out, the assassination of Tsar &icholas //. ,e was
eecuted in 89;9 and @ershuni was sentenced to life imprisonment. This mar+ed the end of the
terroristic activities of the party, but the effect of these political murders was far reaching. &ever
again was the royal family, or its ministers free from the fear of assassination. *oon another
prime minister would be shot down$this time in the very presence of the Tsar. This was the
bac+drop for the revolution of 89;C.
$0OO&Y SUN&#Y
The revolution of 89;C, li+e that of 898J, occurred in an atmosphere of war. .n !an. :nd, 89;C,
the !apanese captured Iort 'rthur, and thereby won the decisive victory of the 2%usso-!apanese
- %W5 war. >ater in !anuary there occurred a tragic incident which was the immediate cause of
the 89;C revolution, and which was to affect the attitude of %ussiaFs industrial population toward
the Tsar for all time. This was the )(loody *unday) affair.
The /mperial government, in its attempts to gain the favor of the industrial population, and in its
search for a way to combat !ewish revolutionary activity, had adopted the tactic of encouraging
the formation of legal trade unions, to which professional agitators were denied membership.
These trade unions received official recognition and were protected by law.
"!ther (!pon
.ne of the most outstanding trade union leaders$and certainly the most unusual$was -ather
@apon, a priest in the %ussian .rthodo Church. .n the day Iort 'rthur fell a number of clashes
occurred in IetersbergFs giant Iutilov wor+s between members of -ather @aponFs labor
organiAation and company officials. ' few days later the Iutilov wor+ers went on stri+e.
-ather @apon resolved to ta+e the matter directly to the Tsar. .n the following *unday
thousands of IetersbergFs wor+men and their families turned out to participate in this appeal to
the )little father). The procession was entirely orderly and peaceful and the petitioners carried
patriotic banners epressing loyalty to the crown. 't the palace gate the procession was met by a
flaming volley of rifle fire. ,undreds of wor+men and members of their families were
slaughtered. This was )(loody *unday), certainly one of the blac+est days in Tsarist history.
Was Tsar &icholas // responsible for (loody *unday, as Marist propagandists have claimedQ
,e couldnFt have been because he was out of the city at the time. -ather @apon had marched on
an empty palace. (ut the harm had been done. ...
Revol+tion o, 1234
(loody *unday mar+ed the beginning of the 89;C revolution. -or the first time the !ewish-
Marists were #oined by large numbers of the wor+ing class. (loody *unday delivered %ussiaFs
industrial population into the hands of the !ew-dominated revolutionary movement.
' stri+e bro+e out in >odA in late !anuary, and by !une ::nd this developed into an armed
insurrection in which :;;; were +illed. The Tsar acted at once to recover the situation. /n early
-ebruary he ordered an investigation 6by the *hidlovs+y Commission7 into the causes of unrest
among the Ietersberg wor+ers, and later in the year 6'ugust7 he announced provisions for
establishing a legislature which later came to be the Duma. &ot only that but he offered amnesty
to political offenders, under which, incidentally, >enin returned to %ussia. (ut these attempts
failed.
.n .ctober :;th the !ewish Menshevi+-led 'll-%ussian %ailway union went on stri+e. .n the
:8st a general stri+e was called in Ietersberg, and on the :Cth there were general stri+es in
Moscow, *molens+, 4urs+, and other cities.
PETERS$ER( SO5IET
Trot)%/ in Power
.n .ctober :Hth the revolutionary Ietersberg *oviet was founded. This Ietersberg *oviet
assumed the functions of a national government. /t issued decrees, proclaimed an eight hour day,
freedom of the press, and otherwise eercised the prerogatives of a government.
-rom the very beginning the *oviet was dominated by the Menshevi+ faction of the R+ssi!n
Soci!l6&e-ocr!tic 0!7or P!rt/, although the Soci!l Revol+tion!r/ P!rt/ was also
represented. /ts first president was the Menshevi+, Oborovs+i, who was succeeded by @eorgii
&osar. ,e in turn was succeeded by >ev TrotA+y, who chiefly as a result of the prestige gained
in 89;C, became one of the guiding spirits of the .ctober revolution in 898J.
TrotA+y became president of the Ietersberg *oviet on Dec. 9th, and a wee+ later some <;;
members of the *oviet, including TrotA+y, were arrested. The revolution was almost, but not
"uite over.
P!rv+s
.n Dec. :;th the !ew, Iarvus, assumed control of a new eecutive committee of the *oviet and
organiAed a general stri+e in Ietersberg which involved 9;,;;; wor+ers. The net day 8C;,;;;
wor+ers went on stri+e in Moscow, and there were insurrections in Chita, 4ans+, and %ostov.
(ut within a wee+ the government had gained the upper hand and by the <;th of December the
revolution was over.
#,ter 1234
's an outcome of the 89;C revolution, Tsar &icholas // set about remedying the shortcomings of
his regime in a most commendable manner. 't his decree, %ussia was given representative
government and a constitution. 'n elective legislative$the Duma$was established, and free
elections were held. (y these measures and others which followed, %ussia seemed well on the
way to becoming a constitutional monarchy patterned after the western 1uropean model, and as
a point of fact it was only the outbrea+ of World War / which prevented this from becoming a
reality.
's would be epected, the !ewish revolutionary parties bitterly opposed these reforms, loo+ing
on them as merely a device by which the forces of revolution would be dissipated. 'ctually
these measures did succeed in pacifying the %ussian masses, and the years between 89;C and
898G were ones of comparative "uiet and progress. &o man deserves more credit for this state of
affairs than Iremier Ieter 'r+adyevich *tolypin, who in the year following the 89;C revolt
emerged as the most impressive figure in /mperial %ussia.
-rom 89;H to 8988 it is no eaggeration to say that he dominated %ussian politics. /t was he
who gave %ussia the famed )*tolypin Constitution,) which among other things undertoo+ to
guarantee the civil rights of the peasantry, which constituted ?CP of %ussiaFs population. ,is
land reforms, for which he is most famous, not only gave the peasant the right to own land, but
actually financed the purchase with government loans. *tolypin was determined to give the
peasant a sta+e in capitalism, believing that )the natural counterweight of the communal
principal is individual ownership.)
Were the *tolypin land reforms effectiveQ (ertram Wolfe, who is on all points anti-Tsarist and
pro-revolutionary, has this to say 2$hree Who 8ade a ,evolution, page <H;, by (ertram Wolfe,
Dial Iress, &ew 3or+, 89G?5
"Between 60FD and 6062, under the 7tolypin land re"or' laws, C,FFF,FFF peasant
"a'ilies seceded "ro' the village 'ir and &eca'e individual proprietors. :ll through
the war the 'ove'ent continued, so that &y Jan. 6, 606/, /,CFF,FFF peasant
"a'ilies, out o" appro*i'ately 6/,FFF,FFF eligi&le, had 'ade application "or
separation. ;enin saw the 'atter as a race with ti'e &etween 7tolypin's re"or's and
the ne*t upheaval. 7hould an upheaval &e postponed "or a couple o" decades, the
new land 'easures would so trans"or' the countryside that it would no longer &e a
revolutionary "orce. #ow near ;enin ca'e to losing the race is proved &y the "act
that in 606D, when he called on the peasants to "take the land," they already owned
'ore than threeE"ourths o" it."
%ussian !ewry wanted revolution, not reform. 's early as 89;H an attempt had been made to
assassinate Iremier *tolypin when his country house was destroyed by a bomb. -inally in *ept.
of 8988 the best premier %ussia ever had was shot down in cold blood while attending a gala
affair at the 4iev theatre. The assassin was a !ewish lawyer named Mordecai (ogrov. Thus it
was that %ussia had since 89;: lost two premiers to !ewish assassins.
Many of *tolypinFs reforms were carried out after his death. /n 898: an industrial insurance law
was inaugurated which gave all industrial wor+men sic+ness and accident compensation to the
etent of two-thirds and three-fourths of their regular pay. -or the first time the newspapers of
the revolutionary parties were given legal status. Iublic schools were epanded and the election
laws were revised. /n 898< a general amnesty for all political prisoners was given. &ot even the
severest critic of Tsarism can deny that these measures represented a sincere attempt on the part
of the /mperial government to bring about reform. Why in spite of all this, was the Tsar
overthrownQ
World W!r I
.ne of the chief factors contributing to the destruction of the /mperial government was the onset
of World War /. (efore the war the /mperial military establishment had contained perhaps
8,C;;,;;; professional troops, well trained and loyal to the crown, ...
"&ut &y 606D the regular ar'y was gone. 4ts losses "or the "irst ten 'onths o" the
war were reckoned as -,1FF,FFF, or, to take the reckoning o" the Huarter'asterE
>eneral, 3anilov, -FF,FFF a 'onth and the o""icers, who went into action standing,
while co''anding their 'en to crawl, were "alling at twice the rate o" the 'en."
'ltogether 8? million men were called to the colors, most of whom were conscripted from the
peasantry. 'lthough courageous in battle they proved politically unreliable and were easily
incited by agitators.
>arge numbers of the industrial population were also drafted into the armies, and their places
were ta+en by peasants, fresh out of the country. 's a result, %ussiaFs principal cities came to be
populated by a wor+ing class which was peasant in origin and habit of thin+ing, but which
lac+ed the conservatism and stability which seems to go with tenure of the land. This new
proletariat was in reality an uprooted and landless peasantry, poorly ad#usted to city life, and
easily stirred up by propagandists.
&ow$/t should be remembered that the %ussian revolution was carried out by a handful of
revolutionaries operating mainly in the larger cities. While something li+e ?CP of %ussiaFs
gentile population was rural, these country people too+ virtually no part in the revolt.
Conversely only :.GP of the !ewish population was actually situated on the farmsB the great
ma#ority of the !ews were congregated in the cities. *ays the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia0
2page :?C, vol. 9, Universal !ewish 1ncyclopedia, /nc., &ew 3or+, 89<95
"... it 'ust &e noted that the Jews lived al'ost e*clusively in the cities and towns) in
,ussia's ur&an population the Jews constituted 66I. $wo additional "actors are
taken into consideration. !n the one hand the rural population took practically no
part in political activities, and on the other there was virtually no illiteracy a'ong
the ,ussian Jews."
's a matter of fact, the !ews represented a substantial portion of %ussiaFs educated class. &ot
only that, but the overwhelming ma#ority of %ussiaFs professional class were !ews. *o complete
was the !ewish domination of the professions that only one out of eight of %ussiaFs professional
people were gentile. /n other words, the !ews, who constituted G.:P of %ussiaFs pre-war
population comprised something li+e ?JP of its professional class.
The Ev!c+!tions
'lso significant was the fact that the theatre of war was situated in those areas most heavily
populated by !ews. (y 898G, it should be remembered, %ussiaFs !ewish population was nearing
the seven million mar+. 6The eact figure given in the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia is
H,9GH,;;;7. ' substantial number of these resided in %ussian-Ioland, which was a war Aone. The
ma#ority of these !ews, out of hatred for the Tsarist regime, were inclined to favor a @erman
victory. 's a result, the /mperial high command was compelled to remove all !ews from the war
area in the early part of 898C. /n May of 898C, for eample, the supreme command epelled all
!ewish residents from the provinces of Courland and @rodno. 'ltogether, nearly a half million
!ews were forced to leave their homes in the military Aone. These epellees were at first
re"uired to remain within the Iale of *ettlement, but in 'ugust of 898C they were permitted to
settle in all cities in the empire. Thus it was that as the war progressed a flood of Tsar-hating
!ews began infiltrating the cities beyond the Iale ...
RE5O0UTION
The revolution occurred in March of 898J, in *t. Ietersberg, capital city of the %omanovs. -rom
beginning to end the revolt involved an amaAingly small number of people when we consider
that the fate of 8C; million %ussians was at sta+e. The revolt came, as we have tried to indicate,
because of !ewish unrest, because of !ewryFs dissatisfaction, and above all, because of !ewryFs
determination to destroy Tsarism. (y the *pring of 898J %ussiaFs unstable urban population had
been thoroughly poisoned by this dissatisfaction. ' food shortage in Ietersberg fanned this
dissatisfaction into the flame of revolution.
*t. Ietersberg in the third year of World War / was %ussiaFs chief armaments production center,
and by reason of this possessed the largest industrial population of any city in %ussia. /t also had
the largest !ewish population of any city outside the Iale of *ettlement. (y March, 898J, a
brea+down in the %ussian transportation system resulted in a severe food shortage in the city. 't
the same time, many of the cityFs factories began shutting down due to material shortages. (oth
of these factors were etremely important in the days immediately ahead.
The desperate food shortage affected virtually every family in the city. -urthermore, the
enforced idleness of the wor+ing population$due to factory shutdowns$threw vast numbers of
wor+men onto the streets. @iven here is a day by day account of the events which resulted in the
overthrow of the Tsar and the establishment of the Irovisional @overnment0
M!rch 4th8 /t was evident by this time$even to foreign visitors$that trouble was brewing.
(read lines were growing day by day, and factory wor+men began to appear on the streets in
large numbers. During the day the police began mounting machine guns in strategic places
throughout the city.
M!rch 9th8 The government brought a large number of Cossac+ troops into the city in
anticipation of trouble. %evolution was now freely predicted, and many of the shops in
epectation of this began boarding up windows. The few remaining factories were closed by
stri+es and the police mounted more machine guns. The Tsar, who was visiting the troops at the
front, still had not returned to the city. The Duma remained in session.
M!rch :th8 Crowds of women began a series of street demonstrations in protest over the bread
shortage. 'gitators, many of whom were veterans of the 89;C revolution, began to ta+e charge
and organiAe diversionary demonstrations. ,ere and there the crowds sang the )Marseillaise)$
regarded in %ussia as a revolutionary song. ' number of red flags appeared. 't the corner of
&evs+y Irospe+t and the Catherine Canal mounted police, aided by Cossac+ cavalry, dispersed
the crowds. There were no casualties. *ignificantly, however, the crowds had raised the red flag
of revolution without being fired on.
M!rch 2th8 The &evs+y from Catherine Canal to &icolai *tation was #ammed from early
morning with crowds, which were larger and bolder than on the preceding day. *treetcars were
no longer running. The Cossac+ cavalry, under orders to +eep the &evs+y clear of
demonstrators, repeatedly charged the mobs, and a few people were trampled. (ut it was
observed that the cavalrymen used only the flats of their sabers, and at no time used fire arms.
This encouraged the mob, which held the Cossac+s in dread. Meanwhile, agitators were
constantly at wor+.
M!rch 13th8 During the afternoon huge crowds collected around &icholai 2sic5 *tation. 'n
'merican photographer, Donald Thompson, has described in vivid fashion the scene there
23onald $ho'pson in ,ussia, page CG, by Donald Thompson, Century Co.. &ew 3or+, 898?50
":&out two o'clock a 'an richly dressed in "urs ca'e up to the s+uare in a sleigh
and ordered his driver to go through the crowd, which &y this ti'e was in a very
ugly 'ood, although it see'ed to &e inclined to 'ake way "or hi'. #e was i'patient
and pro&a&ly cold and started an argu'ent. :ll ,ussians 'ust have their argu'ent.
Well, he 'is%udged this crowd, and also 'is%udged the condition in 9etrograd. 4 was
within 6.F "eet o" this scene. #e was dragged out o" his sleigh and &eaten. #e took
re"uge in a stalled street car where he was "ollowed &y the working'en. !ne o" the'
took a s'all iron &ar and &eat his head to a pulp. $his see'ed to give the 'o& a
taste "or &lood. 4''ediately 4 was pushed along in "ront o" the crowd which surged
down the Gevsky and &egan s'ashing windows and creating general disorder. 8any
o" the 'en carried red "lags on sticks. $he shops along the Gevsky, or 'ost o" the',
are protected &y heavy iron shutters. $hose that were not had their windows
s'ashed. 4 noticed a&out this ti'e that a'&ulances were co'ing and going on the
side streets. $here were usually three or "our people lying in each one."
The disorder now became general. The mobs turned their fury on the police, who barricaded
themselves for a desperate last stand in the police stations. There they were slaughtered almost
to the last man, and the prisons were emptied of their entire populations, including desperate
criminals of every category.
M!rch 11th8 Widespread rioting continued on the 88th. 'dded to the terror of revolution were
the degradations of the recently liberated criminal population. During the day the Duma sent the
following urgent message to the Tsar, now entrained for Ietersberg0
"$he situation is serious. $here is anarchy in the capital. $he govern'ent is
paraly(ed. $he situation as regards transportation, and supplies, and "uel has
reached a state o" co'plete disorgani(ation. 9olice dissatis"action is growing.
3isorderly shooting is taking place in the streets. 3i""erent sections o" the troops are
shooting at each other. 4t is necessary i''ediately to entrust a person who has the
con"idence o" the country with the creation o" a new govern'ent."
The TsarFs reaction was tragically out of +eeping with the reality of the situation. /t is doubtful
that he even had an in+ling of what was really transpiring. ,is reaction was to command the
dissolution of the Duma. The overwhelming ma#ority of the DumaFs membership,$loyal to the
Tsar$obeyed his command, with the result that the last vestige of governmental authority
ceased to eist in the capital.
M!rch 1;th8 The president of the dissolved Duma sent this last despairing message to the Tsar0
)The situation is becoming worse. /mmediate means must be ta+en, for tomorrow it will be too
late. The last hour has struc+ and the fate of the fatherland and the dynasty is being decided.)
Tsar &icholas // may never have received the message0 in any event he did not reply. 'nd
indeed, the hour was late. . .
't 80;; '.M. on the morning of the 8:th one of the regiments 6the =olyns+i7 revolted, +illing its
officers. (y 88 '.M. si regiments had revolted. 't 880<; '.M. the garrison of the Ieter and
Iaul fortress surrendered and #oined the revolution. The only section of the city which now
remained under governmental control was the War .ffice, the 'dmiralty (uilding, and *t.
/saacFs Cathedral. The revolution was now an accomplished fact. -our days later, on the 8Hth,
the Tsar, whose train never reached Ietersberg, abdicated. The closing words of his written
abdication announcement were0 )May @od have mercy on %ussia). 'nd before a year had
passed, these words had been echoed many, many times ...
The 8:th of March mar+ed the formation of two governing bodies which were to #ointly rule
%ussia for the net ? months. The first of these was the Irovisional Committee of the Duma,
consisting of 8: members headed by Irince >vow. This group served as the Irovisional
@overnment until overthrown in .ctober by the (olshevi+s. 't all times, however, it governed
by the sufferance of the Ietersberg *oviet, which was the second body organiAed on the 8:th.
This Ietersberg *oviet was in reality dominated by the Menshevi+ and (olshevi+ factions of the
%ussian *ocial Democratic >abor Iarty, of whom the Menshevi+s were by far the most
powerful. ' second party, the *ocial %evolutionary Iarty, was a minority party. 1ventually, as
we shall see, the (olshevi+ faction gained control over the Ietersberg *oviet, and having done
so, at once precipitated the .ctober %evolution and established the regime which is still in
power. To better understand these events, it is necessary that we trace the history of these
Menshevi+s and (olshevi+s and their %ussian *ocial Democratic >abor Iarty.
HISTORY O" $O0SHE5ISM
We must for the moment turn our attention to a group of revolutionary eiles who are important
to this story because they and their disciples eventually became the rulers of Communist %ussia.
,ead of this group, and the man who is generally recogniAed as >eninFs teacher, was @eorge
Ile+hanov, a gentile.
Ile+hanov had fled %ussia in the 8??;s and settled in *witAerland. There with the aid of =era
Oasulich, >eo Deutch, and I. 'elrod$all !ews$he had formed the Marist )@roup for the
1mancipation of >abor), and until 89;8 was recogniAed as the leader of the group.
'lthough Ile+anov was himself a gentile, those around him were, with a few eceptions,
!ewish. .ne of the eceptions was >enin, who first became a disciple of Ile+anov, and later a
competitor.
0enin
>enin 6real name =ladimir /lyich Ulyanov7 was born on the ban+s of the =olga in the provincial
city of *imbirs+, in 8?J;. ,e was born to a station of comparative privilege, being the son of a
government official whose title of )'ctual *tate Counselor) carried with it the privilege of
hereditary nobility. >eninFs father did not himself inherit the title, but ac"uired it as a reward of
service as a school supervisor.
(y every rule, )>enin) should have become a respected member of %ussian society. ,e was of
middle class bac+ground, was university educated, and was admitted to the practice of law. That
he did not do so can be ascribed in part to the fate of his older brother, 'leander, who in 8??J
was eecuted for participating in an attempt on the life of Tsar 'leander //. This is said to have
influenced >enin to ta+e up the career of a professional revolutionary.
/n any event the year of 8?9C finds young >enin$then :C$meeting in *witAerland with the
leaders of the )@roup for the 1mancipation of >abor). *hortly thereafter he returned to %ussia in
the company of young !ulius Martov 6Tsederbaum7, a !ew who had already become prominent
as an agitator in the Iale of *ettlement, and who was one day to become the leader of the
Menshevi+ faction. Their purpose was to raise funds for revolutionary activity.
/n Ietersberg they became involved in a series of stri+es which swept the city in 8?9C, and in the
autumn of the same year >enin, Martov, and a number of others were convicted and sent to
prison for revolutionary activity.
/n -ebruary of 8?9J >enin completed his prison term and began his period of eile in *iberia.
,e was permitted to travel to *iberia at his own epense and he too+ with him his !ewish wife,
4rups+aya and her 3iddish spea+ing mother.
/t should be eplained that, contrary to popular belief, political eiles$unless convicted of a
criminal act$were not imprisoned in *iberiaB rather they were paroled there. /n eile the
government provided a pension, sufficient usually to maintain an eistence. To supplement this,
the eile sometimes sought local employment 6TrotA+y wor+ed as a boo++eeper7 or they got
funds from friends and family. >enin received a government allowance of J rubles G; +ope+s
monthly, )Fenough to pay for room, board and laundry.) 2;enin 6abridgement by Donald I.
@eddes7, page :H, by David *hub, &ew 'merican >ibrary, 89C; 6Mentor (oo+s7.5
While in *iberian eile >enin, Martov, and an accomplice Iotresov, formulated the idea of an
)'ll %ussian &ewspaper) which would serve to combine the thought and energies of the entire
revolutionary movement. The Marists in 89;;, as at all times in the future were divided and
subdivided into a great many factions. >eninFs idea was to weld these various factions into a
single organiAation.
Is%r!
/n -ebruary of 89;; >enin was released from eile and applied for, and got, permission to go to
*witAerland. /n @eneva he #oined the )@roup for the 1mancipation of >abor), and in December
the @roup began the publication of 4skra 6The *par+7. The establishment of 4skra mar+ed the
beginning of %ussian Marism as an organiAed movement, and the beginning of >eninFs role as
a party leader.
The editorial board consisted of the )oldsters), Ile+hanov, Oasulich, 'elrod, and their disciples,
>enin, Iotresov, and Martov. >eninFs !ewish wife, 4rupsa+aya, was the boardFs secretary. >ater,
in 89;:, young TrotA+y 6(ronstein7 #oined the editorial board, but without voting privileges.
-our of the above$Martov, 'elrod, Oasulich, and TrotA+y$were !ews, while Ile+hanov,
>enin, and Iotresov were gentile. The editorial board thus contained four !ews and three
gentiles, but since TrotA+y was without vote, and since Ile+hanov had retained two votes, the
voting strength was eactly reversed, with the !ews having < votes to the gentileFs four.
/t is interesting to note the editorial contributions of the first GC editions of 4skra. The largest
number of articles was written by Martov, who contributed <9. &et was >enin, who wrote <:
articles, followed by Ile+hanov with :G, Ietresov with ?, Oasulich with H, and 'elrod with G.
/n addition, articles were written by Iarvus, TrotA+y, and %osa >uemburg, all of whom were
!ewish. /t is worth recording that the only other revolutionary paper in eistence at this time was
)%abochee Delo) 6Wor+ers Cause7, organ of the )1conomist) faction, of whom the !ew,
Theodore Dan was the editor.
4skra was actually printed in Munich, @ermany. -or a time the editorial board met in >ondon,
but in 89;< it was moved bac+ to @eneva. -rom there copies of 4skra were smuggled into
%ussia by ship and courier. /n this way 4skra built up an underground organiAation of
professional revolutionaries, first +nown as )/s+rists), and later as (olshevi+s and Menshevi+s.
/n *witAerland 'elrod e+ed out an eistence by peddling yogurt, and Ile+hanov is said to have
addressed letters for an income. (ut the founders and leaders of communism were not
proletarians. 'lmost without eception they were highly educated !ewish intellectuals, few of
whom had ever performed a useful dayFs labor.
Uni,ic!tion Conress
/n 89;< a Unification Congress convened in (russels, (elgium. /ts purpose was to unite the
various Marists groups into the %ussian *ocial-Democratic >abor Iarty, which technically had
been formed in 8?9?, but which had failed to bring unity.
'ltogether, H; voting delegates attended, four of whom were, or had been, wor+ers. The rest
were mostly !ewish intellectuals. %epresented were the groups which had formed the party in
8?9?0 The !ewish (und, the @eorgian *ocial Democrats, %osa >uemburgFs Iolish *ocial
democrats, and the @roup for the 1mancipation of >abor, now identified as )/s+rists). The
MaimalistFs newspaper, )%abochee Delo) was also represented by < delegates. These groups,
their leaders, and their disciples, made the revolution of 898J. ,ere, Communism as we +now it,
was born.
/n early 'ugust the (elgium Iolice deported a number of delegates and the Unification
Congress moved en masse to 1ngland, where it convened from 'ugust 88th to the :<rd. .ne
very important outcome of the congress was the ideological split which divided the /s+rists into
two camps0 The (olshevi+s 6ma#ority faction7, headed by >enin and the Menshevi+s 6minority
faction7, headed by Martov.
The final act of the congress was to elect >enin, Ile+hanov, and Martov to the editorial board of
4skra. This new board of three never actually functioned, due to the hostility between Martov
and >enin. 'fter issue &o. C< >enin resigned leaving it in the hands of Martov, Ile+hanov,
'elrod, Oasulich and Ietresov, the latter three being admitted to the board following >eninFs
resignation.
'lthough >eninFs faction clung to the (olshevi+ label, they did not at any time command a real
ma#ority in the party. >enin had temporarily been able to dominate the Unification Congress
when the !ewish (undFs delegation had wal+ed out in a huff over party policy. (ecause >enin
had been temporarily able to martial 2sic5 a ma#ority of the remaining delegates to his support,
his faction had been identified as the (olshevi+, or ma#ority faction, and always thereafter >enin
and his followers were +nown as (olshevi+s. /t is important to note that this (olshevi+-
Menshevi+ split was among the /s+rists only. The two other ma#or factions of the party$%osa
>uemburgFs Iolish *ocial Democrats and the !ewish (und$were neither (olshevi+ nor
Menshevi+, although both factions usually teamed up with the Menshevi+s on party policy. 6/n
898J, however, both the Iolish party and the (und merged into the (olshevi+ faction.7
Revol+tion o, 1234
The 89;C revolution came unepectedly. !ewish agitators, seiAing upon the discontent
engendered by %ussiaFs defeat by the !apanese, and capitaliAing on the )(loody *unday)
incident$which we have already described$fanned the flames of insurrection into being in
what was to be a dress rehearsal of the 898J revolution.
The revolt, coming so "uic+ly on the heels of the (loody *unday incident, caught the party
leadership by surprise. >enin was in @eneva and he did not return to Ietersberg until .ctober$
shortly before the Peters7+r Soviet was organiAed. Martov the Menshevi+ leader, returned at
the same time. %osa >uemburg arrived in December, by which time the insurrection had ended.
'elrod got only as far as -inland, and Ile+hanov never returned at all. The 89;C revolution
was principally led by second-string leaders, virtually all of whom were identified with the
Menshevi+s.
TrotA+y alone of the top leadership had sensed the significance of )(loody *unday,) and at the
first word of revolution he and a !ewish compatriot, Iarvus, had struc+ out for Ietersberg.
Using the pseudonym 3anovs+y, he very "uic+ly became a leading member of the *oviet, and
by the end of .ctober was generally recogniAed as the most influential member of the 1ecutive
Committee. /n addition, he edited 6with Iarvus7 the Menshevi+ organ, &achato. >ater, under the
pseudonym, )Ieter Ietrovich) he edited the )%uss+yaya @aAeta.) .n Dec. 9, as we have
previously related, he was elected president of the Ietersberg *oviet, and following his arrest
Iarvus assumed leadership of the revolt.
'lthough >enin had been in *t. Ietersberg throughout the life of the Ietersberg *oviet, neither
he nor any member of his faction played a prominent part in its activities. When the <;;
members of the *oviet were finally arrested, not a single prominent (olshevi+ was among them.
The revolution of 89;C was strictly a Menshevi+ affair.
The 0ondon Conress
/n 89;J 6May 8< - !une 87 a fifth Congress of the %ussian *ocial Democratic >abor Iarty was
held, this time in >ondon. This was by all accounts the most impressive one of all, and it was the
last one held before the 898J revolution. %epresented at the Congress were0
The (olshevi+s, led by >enin$98 delegates.
The Menshevi+s, led by Martov and Dan$?9 delegates.
The Iolish *ocial Democrats, led by %osa >uemburg$GG delegates.
The !ewish (und, led by %afael 'bramovitch and M. /. >ieber$CC delegates.
The >ettish *ocial Democrats, led by )Comrade ,erman) 6Danishevs+y7.
'ltogether there were <8: delegates to the Congress, of whom 88H were, or had been, wor+ers.
Dominating the Congress were the great names of the party0 there were the founders of the
movement, Ile+hanov, 'elrod, Deutch, and Oasulich$who after 89;J played roles of
diminishing importance in party affairs$and their disciples, >enin, Martov, Dan 6@urvich7, and
TrotA+y. There were 'bramovich and >ieber 6@oldman7 of the (und, and %osa >uemburg, the
latter one day being destined to lead a revolution of her own in @ermany. Iresent also were
Oinoviev, 4amenev, and *talin, none of whom were important in 89;J, but who are listed here
because one day they would be the three most powerful men in %ussia. *ignificantly all of those
named were !ewish, ecepting >enin, Ile+hanov, and *talin.
Ierhaps one of the most important matters ta+en up by the 0ondon Conress was the bitterly
controversial "uestion of )epropriations.) /t should be eplained that >eninFs (olshevi+ faction
had to an increasing degree resorted to outlawry to replenish its finances. %obbery. +idnapping,
and theft became regular party activities. 'nd on one occasion a loyal (olshevi+ married a rich
widow to secure funds for the party treasury. These activities were referred to in party circles as
)epropriations.) The most famous epropriation was the Tiflis ban+ robbery, engineered by
young !osef *talin shortly after the >ondon Congress.
The Menshevi+s bitterly criticiAed these tactics, while >enin stoutly defended them as a
necessary means of raising capital. The )epropriation) "uestion bro+e out again and again as a
point of contention between the two factions. 'ctually a great deal of >eninFs strength came
from this source. With money thus raised he was able to pay the traveling epenses of delegates
to these various congresses, and this gave him a voting power which was probably out of
proportion to his following. >eninFs opposition on the epropriation "uestion came not only
from MartovFs Menshevi+ faction, but also from the !ewish (und and %osa >uemburgFs Iolish
*ocial Democrats. The !ewish (und and %osa >uemburgFs faction usually sided with the
Menshevi+s in these intra-party s"uabbles. and it was not until 898J, when they were actually
incorporated into the (olshevi+ faction, that >enin was able to actually control the entire party.
The Tiflis ban+ robbery has now become a part of the legend which surrounds *talin, and it is
perhaps worth while to give it some attention. 'lthough the robbery was engineered by *talin,
then a minor party wor+er, the actual hold-up was carried out by an 'rmenian by the name of
Ietroyan, who is +nown in %ussian history as )4amo.) 4amoFs method was crude but effective0
he tossed a dynamite bomb at a ban+ stage which was transporting :C;,;;; rubles in currency.
/n the resulting eplosion some <; people were +illed and 4amo escaped with the loot, which
consisted mainly of C;; ruble notes.
The (olshevi+s encountered considerable difficulty in converting these C;; ruble notes into
usable form. /t was decided that agents in various countries would simultaneously cash as many
as possible in a single day. The operation was not a complete success. The !ewess, .lga %avich,
who was one day to marry Oinoviev was apprehended by police authorities, as was one Meyer
Wallach, whose real name was -in+lestein, and who is better +nown as Maim >itvinov.
>itvinov later became Commissar of -oreign 'ffairs 689<;-<97.
The Ye!r 123:
/n the autumn of 89;? the (olshevi+s began publishing the 9roletariie, with >enin,
Dubrovins+y, Oinoviev, and 4amenev 6the latter two !ewish7 as editors. /n the same year the
Menshevi+ organ, >olos 7otsialE3e'okrata began publication, edited by Ile+hanov, 'elrod,
Martov, Dan, and Martynov 6Ii+el7, all of whom were !ewish with the eception of Ile+hanov.
/n .ct. of 89;? the ienna 9ravda was launched, with TrotA+y as editor.
The Troi%!
/n 89;9 the >enin-Oinoviev-4amenev <troi%!< was formed. /t was to endure until >eninFs death
in 89:G. Oinoviev and 4amenev were >eninFs inseparable companions. >ater, when the
(olshevi+s were in power, TrotA+y would become co-e"ual with >enin, and even something of a
competitor, but 4amenev and Oinoviev were never >eninFs e"uals nor his competitors$they
were his right and left hand. They would argue with him, and fight with him, and oppose him in
party councils, but the )troi+a) was bro+en only when >enin died.
J!n+!r/ Plen+-
/n !anuary of 898; the 89 top leaders of the Iarty met in what historians refer to as the
<J!n+!r/ Plen+- o, the Centr!l Co--ittee'< /ts purpose was, as always, to promote party
unity. .ne outcome was that >enin was compelled to burn the remainder of the C;; ruble notes
from the Tiflis epropriation, which he had been unable to cash anyway. 'nother outcome of the
!anuary Ilenum was the recognition of the newspaper, 7otsial 3e'okrata, as the general party
newspaper. /ts editors were the (olshevi+s, >enin and Oinoviev, and the Menshevi+s, Martov
and Dan. >enin was the only gentile. TrotA+yFs semi-independent )=ienna Iravda) was declared
to be an official party organ, and 4amenev was appointed to help edit it. Who could have
foretold in the year 898; that within seven short years this 3iddish crew would be the lords and
masters of all %ussiaQ
The 121= Revol+tion
The 898J revolution, li+e that of 89;C. caught the top leaders of the party unprepared. >enin and
Martov were in *witAerland, and TrotA+y was e+ing out an eistence in &ew 3or+Fs 1ast *ide.
*hortly after the March revolution the @erman government did a peculiar thing. /t arranged to
ship >enin, Martov, %ade+, and <: members of the party across @ermany to %ussia. The
@erman strategy seemed to be based on the assumption$which later proved correct$that the
communists would wor+ to sabotage the %ussian war effort, now being prosecuted by the
Irovisional @overnment. Ierhaps the >enin group had some such agreement with the @ermans,
no one +nows. (ut one thing is certain0 G? hours after the (olshevi+s came to power, TrotA+y
began negotiations for an armistice. (ut that story comes later.
.n 'pril <rd, #ust :< days after the provisional government had been formed, >enin and his
party arrived in Ietersberg. Within J months he and his faction would be the supreme dictators
of all %ussia.
MORE PETERS$ER( SO5IET
It Controlled the Mo7
We have already given a description of the March %evolution which overthrew the Tsar, and we
have told of the establishment of the two governing bodies which came into eistence on March
8:th, namely the Provision!l (overn-ent and the Peters7er Soviet.
The Ietersberg *oviet, although it controlled the mob, was reluctant to assume the responsibility
of governing$at least in the beginning. The *oviet was originally organiAed by second-string
leaders who were "uite capable of stirring up trouble, but who had little capacity for leading a
revolutionary government. -urthermore, it was not clear in the early days of the revolution as to
what the final outcome would be. Ietersberg was, after all, only one city in the empire, and the
attitude of the country as a whole, and of the soldiers at the front, was un+nown. -or this reason
the *oviet preferred that the Irovisional @overnment$which had some semblance of legitimacy
$should temporarily rule.
The Provision!l (overn-ent
The Irovisional @overnment was not a revolutionary body. .f its 8: members, only one,
4erens+y, was a )*ocialist.) The others were typical upper-middle class members of the Duma,
with possibly mild leanings to the left. ,ead of the Irovisional @overnment was Irince >vov,
whose reputation as a liberal may have "ualified him for that position more than some of the
others. This 8: man government had sprung into being simply because no other semblance of a
government eisted in Ietersberg on March l:th$it did not in any way participate in the
revolution. /n the months following the overthrow of the Tsar, however, its power grew
considerably, so that by !uly when an abortive (olshevi+ uprising occurred, the Irovisional
@overnment was able to "uell the affair and arrest or force into hiding the (olshevi+ leaders.
The Irovisional @overnment undertoo+ to continue the war against @ermany. The great mass of
people were, of course, patriotic %ussians, and @ermany was loo+ed on as a dangerous threat to
%ussian sovereignty. The Irovisional @overnment, during its entire tenure, was primarily
occupied with the prosecution of the war.
The Irovisional @overnment too+ two steps, however, which were to profoundly affect the
revolution. The first, and most fateful, was the decision to permit the return of all eiled political
prisoners from *iberia and abroad. (y doing so it sealed the fate of %ussia. ,ere is the way one
'merican writer, 1dward 'lsworth %oss, has described it 2,ussian Bolshevik ,evolution, page
C?, by 1dward 'lsworth %oss, Century Company. &ew 3or+. 89:850
"!ne o" the "irst acts o" the 9rovisional govern'ent, however, is to &ring &ack to
,ussia the political victi's o" the autocracy. Fro' 7i&eria a&out eighty thousand
are &rought out. Fro' 7wit(erland, France, 7candinavia, the United 7tates, even
"ro' :rgentina and other re'ote countries, co'e perhaps ten thousand who have
&een re"ugees "ro' the tsar's vengeance. 4n all ninety thousand at least, virtually all
o" the' o" socialist sy'pathies, strea' into European ,ussia in late :pril, 8ay,
June, and July. #onored &y a grate"ul people "or their voluntary sacri"ices and
su""erings they +uickly rise to a co''anding in"luence in the local soviets and carry
the' irresisti&ly toward the political le"t."
These ninety thousand eiles constituted the heart of the approaching (olshevi+ revolution.
They were almost to the last man professional revolutionaries, and with few eceptions they
were !ewish. *talin, *verdlov, and Oinoviev were among the eiles who returned from *iberia.
>enin, Martov, %ade+, and 4amenev$as we have seen$returned from *witAerland. TrotA+y
returned, with hundreds of his 3iddish brethren, from &ew 3or+Fs 1ast *ide. These were the
inheritors of the revolution. Until their return the revolution had been without leadership$
largely it had been conducted by second string leaders who happened to be on the spot. &ow the
elite were returning. >et us ta+e another "uotation from the starry-eyed 1dward 'lworth %oss,
whose prose is almost as poor as his #udgment0
"$he &ewildered leaderless ,ussian 'asses are thrilled and captivated &y these
ready, sel"Econ"ident 'en who tell the' %ust what they 'ust do in order to garner "or
the'selves the "ruits o" the revolution. $his is why re"ugees, o&scure to us although
not to ,ussians, who in e*ile had &een o&liged to work in our steel 'ills and tailor
shops "or a living, "or'er residents o" Gew Jork's "Eastside", who lived precariously
"ro' so'e ,ussian newspapers we :'ericans never heard o", will rise to &e the
heads o" soviets and, later, ca&inet 'inisters o" a govern'ent ruling a tenth o" the
hu'an race. 4n all 'odern history there is no ro'ance like it."
2,ussian Bolshevik ,evolution 6ibid p. GC7, page HJ5
*oon these hordes of returning !ews would eercise the power of life and death over 8C; million
Christian %ussians. *oon every factory, every government bureau every school district, and
every army unit would function under the gimlet eye of a !ewish Commissar. *oon the blood of
human beings would be ooAing from under the doors of communist eecution chambers as tens
of thousands of Christian men and women were butchered li+e cattle in a slaughterhouse. *oon
five million landowners would be deliberately starved to death as part of a premeditated plan.
*oon a move would be under way to eterminate the gentile leader class of the entire nation by
murdering every Christian factory owner, and lawyer, and government leader, and army officer,
and every other person who had been, or might be, a potential leader. *oon the standing
population of the slave labor camps would eceed 8C million. *oon every church and cathedral
would be gutted and every priest and preacher would become a criminal in his own community.
*oon %ussia would have a Aombie-proletariat docile, willing to wor+, easily controlled,
incapable of revolt ... *uch was the )romance) of the (olshevi+ revolution.
Constit+ent #sse-7l/ Elections
' second important act of the Irovisional @overnment was to create the machinery for the
election of a Constituent 'ssembly. /t was provided that delegates from all of %ussia should be
chosen in free elections, and these were to meet in a Constituent 'ssembly for the purpose of
writing a constitution for %ussia. /t was to be, as one writer puts it 27talin= :n :ppraisal o" the
8an and #is 4n"luence, by >ev Trots+y 6translated by Charles Malamuth7, ,arper (ros., &ew
3or+ E >ondon, 89G85
"a &ody enco'passing the purposes o" &oth the 5ontinental 5ongress and the
5onstitutional 5onvention o" the :'erican ,evolution."
When the Constituent 'ssembly did meet, in !anuary of 898?, the (olshevi+s had already been
in power a month.
"4t 'et at the $auride 9alace in 9etrograd and lasted less than 6- hours) "ro' "our
in the a"ternoon o" Jan. 61, to 2F 'inutes past "our o" Jan. 60, when it was dispersed
&y Bolshevik troops, chie"ly soldiers o" ;ettish regi'ents."
.ne of the factors which precipitated the .ctober %evolution was the forthcoming elections for
the Constituent 'ssembly.
#ll6R+ssi!n Conress o, Soviets
.ne other event occurred which was to affect the outcome of the revolution. This was the
convening of the "irst #ll6R+ssi!n Conress o, Soviets in Ietersberg on !une <rd, 898J. /t
should be eplained that the word )soviet) means )council), or )committee). -ollowing the
March %evolution, literally hundreds of local revolutionary *oviets were organiAed all over
%ussia by the various Marists parties. /t was decided that a congress of these soviets should
meet for the purpose of unifying the forces of the revolution.
This first Congress of *oviets was dominated by the Menshevi+s and 1ssars. >Ess!rs ? Soci!l
Revol+tion!r/ P!rt/@' The (olshevi+s had fewer than G; delegates out of several hundred
attending.
(efore disbanding, the Congress of *oviets set .ctober :;th 6later changed to &ov. Jth7 as the
date for the convening of the net Congress. This date is etremely important because it mar+s
the date of the (olshevi+ %evolution. When the *econd Congress of *oviets did convene, on the
evening of &ovember Jth, the (olshevi+s had already gained control of the Ietersberg *oviet
and had overthrown the Irovisional @overnment a few hours earlier. The (olshevi+s were thus
able to present the Second #ll6R+ssi!n Conress o, Soviets with a )fait accompli). This
*econd Congress of *oviets became the official government of Communist %ussia on that same
evening of &ovember Jth, 898J.
0enin Ret+rns
(ut now we must turn our attention bac+ to >enin and his party at the time of their arrival from
abroad. When >enin arrived in Ietersberg in 'pril of 898J, he found the Ietersberg *oviet
dominated by the Menshevi+s, with the 1ssars 6*ocial %evolutionaries7 second in membership,
and the (olshevi+s in the minority. Iresident of the *oviet was the Menshevi+, TcheidAe, a
)defensist) who strongly supported the war effort. .f the two vice-presidents, one was *+obelev,
also a Menshevi+, and the other was 4erens+y, the only member of the 8: man Irovisional
@overnment who also belonged to the *oviet.
'lthough the Menshevi+s controlled the Ietersberg *oviet, they were badly divided among
themselves. The main body of the Menshevi+ faction$the defensists$was headed by Theodore
Dan 6@urvich7 and M. /. >ieber 6formerly of the !ewish (und7. The other group of Menshevi+s,
$the internationalists$was headed by Martov. >enin bitterly criticiAed this state of affairs. ,e
regarded the provisional government as an instrument of the )bourgeois) and he immediately
and violently advocated its overthrow. Throughout 'pril, May, and !une the (olshevi+s
preached the destruction of the Irovisional @overnment, and among the factory wor+ers and the
military garrisons around Ietersberg this propaganda began to ta+e effect. Under the slogan <!ll
power to the Soviets<, the (olshevi+s had succeeded by !uly in recruiting to their banners large
numbers of the cityFs more radical elements.
The returning influ of eiles also enhanced the position of the (olshevi+s. These eiles were
not all originally (olshevi+s, but they were almost without eception etremists, and they had
waited a long time for revolution to come0 they were hungry for power. 'nd they were inclined
to favor the (olshevi+s because they were the most radical advocates of direct action. TrotA+y,
who had in 89;C began a Menshevi+, and who had later been a )neutral), immediately #oined the
(olshevi+s on his return from &ew 3or+. *o it was with many others.
.n !uly 8Jth this anti-government agitation resulted in an unscheduled uprising by thousands of
the cityFs inflamed wor+er-soldier population. /n modern %ussian history these are +nown as the
<J+l/ &!/s<. 4erens+y, who by now had become the dominant figure in the Irovisional
@overnment dealt with the insurrection with considerable firmness. The mob was fired on, and
in the course of the net three days several hundred people were +illed.
's a result of the )!uly Days) uprising, the top (olshevi+ leadership was either arrested or
forced to flee. >enin and Oinoviev temporarily hid out in *estrorets+, outside of Ietersberg.
TrotA+y, 4amenev, and >unachars+y 6soon to become prominent7 were arrested. *talin, at that
time an editor of Iravda, was not molested.
.ne result of the )!uly Days) was the collapse of the Irovisional @overnment under the
premiership of Irince >vov. .n !uly :;th, 4erens+y 6'dler7 the !ewish &apoleon, became
Irime Minister of a Fsalvation of the revolutionF government. 4erens+y was "uite an orator, and
he applied himself to the tas+ of whipping up enthusiasm for an offensive against the @ermans.
'lthough he met with moderate success at first, the offensive failed and 4erens+yFs influence
declined steadily in the net three months.
SIATH P#RTY CON(RESS
/n 'ugust 6?-8H7 the %ussian *ocial-Democratic >abor Iarty held its *ith Congress. This was
the first one held since the >ondon Congress of 89;J, and it was the last one held before the
(olshevi+ %evolution, now only two months away. This *ith Congress was completely a
(olshevi+ affair. The other factions merged with the (olshevi+s and ceased to eistB from this
time on the %ussian *ocial Democratic >abor Iarty W'* the (olshevi+ Iarty. 6Within a year the
party officially changed its name to the Communist Iarty7.
The most important act of the *ith Congress was to elect the <Octo7er Centr!l Co--ittee<,
consisting of :H members. This Central Committee was to rule the (olshevi+ Iarty through the
critical days of the .ctober %evolution. Who were the principal members of the ).ctober
Central Committee)Q >et us ta+e the words of >ev TrotA+y as they appear in his boo+, 7talin0
"4n view o" the 9arty's se'iElegality the na'es o" persons elected &y secret &allot
were not announced at the 5ongress, with the e*ception o" the "our who had
received the largest nu'&er o" votes. ;enin<6-- out o" a possi&le 6-2, Kinoviev<
6-C, @a'enev<6-6, $rot(ky<6-6". 27talin 6ibid page G?7 pages ::;-::8.5
These four two months before the .ctober %evolution, were the top leaders of the (olshevi+
Iarty. Three were !ews and the fourth, >enin, was married to a !ewess.
TrotA+yFs writings are etremely enlightening from a historical viewpoint. ,e hated *talin and
he wrote his boo+, 7talin, to prove that *talin was a !ohnny-come-lately, an upstart, and an
usurper. ,e brings forth masses of evidence to show how unimportant *talin was in Iarty
councils during and immediately after the .ctober %evolution. /n doing so, TrotA+y again and
again emphasiAes who the really important leaders were. >et us ta+e another typical comment
from his boo+ on *talin as he describes the meetings of the .ctober Central Committee shortly
before the (olshevi+ %evolution0
"$he 2CC pages o" the "ourth volu'e, dealing with :ugust and 7epte'&er, record all
the happenings, occurrences, &rawls, resolutions, speeches, articles in any way
deserving o" notice. 7verdlov, then practically unknown, was 'entioned three ti'es
in that volu'e) @a'enev, 2/ ti'es) 4, who spent :ugust and the &eginning o"
7epte'&er in prison, -6 ti'es) ;enin, who was in the underground, 6/ ti'es)
Kinoviev, who shared ;enin's "ate, / ti'es. 7talin was not 'entioned even once.
7talin's na'e is not even in the inde* o" appro*i'ately .FF proper na'es."
27talin 6ibid page G?7 pages :::-::<5
Thus, TrotA+y again cites evidence to prove that *talin was not an important figure in the
(olshevi+ Iarty in 898J. (ut in doing so he names the real leaders, who as before are the !ews,
4amenev, Oinoviev, TrotA+y, and the up and coming *verdlov. >enin is the only gentile.
(ecause the top party leaders were either in prison or in hiding as a result of the abortive !uly
Days uprising, the *ith Iarty Congress was organiAed by the lesser lights of the party, of whom
*verdlov was the most active. >ev TrotA+y, ever anious to discredit *talin, gives us this
description0
"$he praesidiu' consisted o" 7verdlov, !l'insky, ;o'ov, Jurenev, and 7talin. Even
here, with the 'ost pro'inent "igures o" Bolshevis' a&sent, 7talin's na'e is listed in
last place. $he 5ongress resolved to send greetings to ';enin, $rot(ky, Kinoviev,
;unacharsky, @a'enev, @ollontai, and all the others arrested and persecuted
co'rades'. $hese were elected to the honorary praesidiu'."
27talin 6ibid page G?7 page :8J.5
,ere again, in the words of TrotA+y, we have named the <-ost pro-inent ,i+res o,
$olshevis-<0 >enin, TrotA+y, Oinoviev, 4amenev, 4ollontai and >unachars+y. 'nd we +now
these were the most important leaders because they were the ones 4erens+y had arrested or
driven underground following the !uly Days revolt. .f these, only >unachars+y and >enin were
gentileB the others were !ewish. These facts show why the !ewishness of communism is so
immediately and indisputably apparent to anyone who has the slightest +nowledge of (olshevi+
history.
TROTB.Y TO POWER
.n 'ugust 8Jth 4amenev was released from prison, and eactly a month later TrotA+y was also
freed by the 4erens+y regime. .n *ept. :Gth TrotA+y was elected president of the Ietersberg
*oviet, displacing CheidAe, the Menshevi+. -rom this moment on the (olshevi+s were in control
of the Ietersberg *oviet. .n .ctober :9th the Ietersberg *oviet voted to transfer all military
power to a <Milit!r/ Revol+tion!r/ Co--ittee<, headed by TrotA+y. %evolution was now
only days away.
Milit!r/ Revol+tion!r/ Co--ittee
The Military %evolutionary Committee, under the chairmanship of TrotA+y, was organiAed for
the epress purpose of preparing the revolution. Time was running out and it was a matter of
stri+ing soon or not at all. The Constituent 'ssembly elections were only a few wee+s off, and
when it convened, %ussia was to have a new government. There was another reason for stri+ing
soon. The *econd 'll-%ussian Congress of *oviets was to meet on &ov. Jth. The (olshevi+s
feared$and with reason$that the 4erens+y government would arrest or disband the entire
congress and thereby doom the revolt. -or these reasons it was felt essential to overthrow the
Irovisional @overnment by or before the *econd 'll-%ussian Congress of *oviets convened on
&ov. Jth.
.n &ovember Gth the Military %evolutionary Committee arranged huge mass meetings in
preparation for the forthcoming revolt. .n .the following day the garrison of the Ieter and Iaul
-ortress declared itself in alliance with the (olshevi+s. .n the Hth 4erens+y made one last
attempt to forestall revolution by ordering the arrest of the Military %evolution Committee,
banning all (olshevi+ publications, and ordering fresh troops to replace the Ietersberg garrison.
These measures were never carried out.
Revol+tion
.n the evening of &ovember Hth >enin came out of hiding and #oined the Military
%evolutionary Committee at *molny /nstitute which served as revolutionary head"uarters. 't
two '.M. the following morning the revolution began.
(y noon the city was largely in (olshevi+ hands. 't three I.M. >enin delivered a fiery speech to
the Ietersberg *oviet$his first since !uly. 't nine I.M. (olshevi+ troops began their two day
siege of the Winter Ialace, last stronghold of the Irovisional @overnment. 't eleven I. M. the
*econd 'll-%ussian Congress of *oviets convened with the (olshevi+s in a clear ma#ority. The
Congress was now the official government of %ussia. The !ew 4amenev, was elected its first
Iresident. >enin became Iremier. TrotA+y was made Commissar of -oreign 'ffairs. (efore
dawn it had elected a Central 1ecutive Committee under the chairmanship of 4amenev, who
thus had the distinction of being the first Iresident of the )*oviet %epublic).
Within a few days 6&ov. :87 the !ew, *verdlov, succeeded 4amenev, and thus became the
second !ewish president of the )*oviet %epublic). ' relatively minor figure in (olshevi+ circles
si months before the revolution, he very "uic+ly became one of the five top men in the party.
(efore his early death two years later he had become the partyFs chief trouble-shooter and had
assumed absolute control over %ussiaFs economic life.
CONSTITUENT #SSEM$0Y
.n &ovember :Cth, ? days after the (olshevi+ coup, free elections were held throughout %ussia
under machinery set up by the Irovisional @overnment. The (olshevi+s, not yet completely
organiAed, made no attempt to interfere with the elections, but when it became clear that the
(olshevi+s would command only a minority in the Constituent 'ssembly, they immediately laid
plans to undermine its authority.
The Irovisional @overnment had specified that the convocation of the 'ssembly should be in
the hands of a special commission. The (olshevi+s arrested this commission, and substituted for
it a )Commissary for the Constituent 'ssembly), headed by the !ew, UritA+y.
(y this tactic the (olshevi+s were able to eert their authority over the 'ssembly. When the
'ssembly did finally convene, the !ew, *verdlov, although not a delegate, too+ charge of the
proceedings, and actually called the meeting to order. Ten hours later the 'ssembly was thrown
into confusion when the (olshevi+s wal+ed out. *hortly thereafter (olshevi+ troops brutally
brought the Constituent 'ssembly to an end by e#ecting the delegates and loc+ing the doors to
the building.
This was the end of the Constituent 'ssembly. 'fter having convened for only 8< hours, it
disbanded, never to meet again. *o ended %ussiaFs hope for a constitution and a representative
government.
/n March, 898?, the *oviet @overnment moved its capital from Ietersberg to Moscow. /n the
same month the R+ssi!n Soci!l6&e-ocr!tic 0!7or P!rt/ o,,ici!ll/ st/led itsel, the
Co--+nist P!rt/ '''
W!r Co--iss!r
Meanwhile the enemies of the new regime were gathering strength. (efore the year was over the
*oviet @overnment was under attac+ on si war fronts. *ome of these anti-communist armies
were organiAed by pro-Tsarist sympathiAersB others were organiAed and financed by foreign
governments. These )White %ussian) forces constituted a dangerous threat to the new regime,
and in March TrotA+y relin"uished his post as Commissar of -oreign 'ffairs to become
Commissar of War, a position which gave him authority over the *oviet @overnmentFs entire
military resources. /t was he who organiAed and led the %ed 'rmy to victory &ot until 89:8
were the last of the anti-communist forces destroyed.
M+rder o, the Ro/!l "!-il/
*hortly after the March %evolution of 898J the Tsar had applied for permission for himself and
his family to leave the country. &icholas // was closely related to the royal families of 1ngland
and Denmar+, and he felt eile there was preferable to remaining a prisoner in his own land. The
Irovisional @overnment had been inclined to grant his re"uest, but the Ietersberg *oviet had
bloc+ed the move and the royal family had been transferred to 1+aterinburg, in south %ussia.
There, in 898?, they were housed in the home of a local merchant named /patiev. .n !uly 8Jth
anti-(olshevi+ troops advanced on 1+aterinburg and the local commissar, a !ew by the name of
3orovs+y, ordered the family$and their household servants$eecuted. 3orovs+y personally
dispatched &icholas with a pistol shot in the head. The rest of the family was eecuted by a
firing s"uad. Their bodies were then soa+ed in oil and burned ...
*hould the reader be moved to loo+ up the position of 1+aterinburg on a modern day map of
*oviet %ussia, he will find no trace of it. The former city and province of 1+aterinburg has been
renamed )*verdlovs+), in honor of the !ew, 3a+ov *verdlov, president of the )*oviet %epublic)
at the time of the eecution ...
THE RE& TERROR
.n 'ugust <;, 898?, the !ew, UritA+y$then head of the )Che+a)$was assassinated and >enin
was wounded. The assassins were both !ewish, and both members of the !ewish-led *ocial
%evolutionary Iarty. The (olshevi+s used this as an ecuse for instituting the %ed Terror, which
began the following day, and which in a sense has continued to the present.
*pace simply does not permit us to give an ade"uate description of what followed. The entire
membership of the Communist Iarty, which in 898? numbered perhaps no more than 8;;,;;;,
was turned into an instrument of murder. /ts aims were two-foldB to inspire dread and horror
among the %ussian masses, and to eterminate the middle and upper classes i.e., the
)bourgeois).
Men and women were eecuted or imprisoned not because of any offense, but simply because
they belonged to the )enemy class). 'nd this definition eventually included every merchant,
professional person and landowner. &ot only were these )class enemies) eterminated, but
members of their families fell victim as well. The (olshevi+s cleverly adopted the practice of
ma+ing hostages of the families of those who resisted the new order. David *hub in his slavishly
pro-Marist boo+, )>enin), gives the following description of the %ed Terror in Ietersberg0
2;enin, page 8CH 6ibid page <G7.5
";ittle ti'e was wasted si"ting evidence and classi"ying people rounded up in these
night raids. Woe to hi' who did not disar' all suspicion at once. $he prisoners
were generally hustled to the old police station not "ar "ro' the Winter 9alace.
#ere, with or without per"unctory interrogation, they were stood up against the
courtyard wall and shot. $he staccato sounds o" death were 'u""led &y the roar o"
truck 'otors kept going "or the purpose."
This was the %ed Terror in action.
The tragedy of all this cannot be measured by numbers aloneB these people were the best that
%ussia had. They were the leader class. They were the priests, and lawyers, and merchants, and
army officers, and university professors. They were the cream of %ussian civiliAation.
The total effect was much the same as it would be in any country. With its small middle and
upper class eterminated, %ussiaFs peasant and wor+er population accepted !ewish (olshevism
without protest. The %ussian masses, deprived of its spo+esmen and leaders was simply
incapable of counter-revolution. That was what the %ed Terror set out to accomplish ...
The Third Intern!tion!l
' basic tenet of Marist ideology was, and is, the promotion of world revolution. The (olshevi+
leadership undertoo+ in 8989 to further this aim by establishing the Third /nternational, which
convened in March of 8989. /ts presiding officer was >enin, and its first president was the !ew,
Oinoviev, who remained its head until 89:H.
The prime ob#ective of the Third /nternational was to establish communist parties in the various
countries of the world, and to lend them aid and assistance in overthrowing their respective
governments. Irospects of success were bright in the spring of 8989 ...
Ros! 0+xe-7+r*s Revol+tion
The first country to eperience a communist revolution outside of %ussia was @ermany. The
@erman government, which had abetted the (olshevi+ coup in 898J by facilitating >eninFs
return to %ussia via the sealed railway car, was in 898? faced with a revolution of its own.
/n many respects the @erman %evolution paralleled the one in %ussia. 's World War / reached
the climatic year of 898?, and as @erman manpower losses mounted, the !ew-dominated
@erman *ocial Democratic Iarty spread the seeds of defeatism among the @erman population
much as the (olshevi+s had done in %ussia. .n &ovember <rd a mutiny bro+e out in the navy at
4iel, followed by rioting by the *ocial Democrats. .n &ovember 9th the 4aiser renounced his
throne and the *ocial Democrats proclaimed a *ocialist %epublic. Two days later, on &ov. 88th,
they agreed to an 'rmistice with the 'llies. There now occurred an event which was to embitter
the @erman people against the !ews for all time, and which eventually resulted in the rise of
'dolph ,itler. This was the demobiliAation of the @erman armies. /t should be eplained that
@ermany did not surrender by the terms of the &ovember 88th 'rmisticeB the agreement was
that all @erman armies were to withdraw to the pre-war boundaries of @ermany as a preliminary
to a negotiated peace. (ut as the @erman armies retreated to @erman soil, the %evolutionary
government, fearful lest the %evolution be upset, ordered them demobiliAed. .n &ovember 88th
@ermany still possessed the mightiest military machine on earthB thirty days later it had nothing.
/nstead of being able to negotiate peace on the terms of WilsonFs -ourteen Ioints, a helpless and
prostrate @ermany got the =ersailles Treaty. ...
&o sooner had the @erman armies been demobiliAed than the more etreme elements of the
*ocial Democratic Iarty, led by %osa >uemburg, laid plans to seiAe control of the revolution as
the (olshevi+s had done in %ussia. 'ided by funds provided by the *oviet ambassador !offe,
%osa >uemburgFs )*partacus (und) in !anuary of 8989 attempted to overthrow the
revolutionary government. The revolt, following bloody street fighting, was "uelled and its
leaders, %osa >uemburg and 4arl >ieb+necht, were imprisoned and later eecuted by @erman
army officers. -ollowing the eecution of %osa >uemburg, the Third /nternational dispatched
the !ew, 4arl %ade+, to lead the party. >ater the !ewess, %uth -ischer, assumed control of the
@erman communist party, and remained at its head till 89:G.
$E0# .UN
-ollowing World War /, ,ungary also had a communist %evolution. in this case the instigator
was the !ew, (ela 4un 6Cohen7, who imposed a communist regime on the country in the spring
of 8989. (ela 4un had participated in the (olshevi+ %evolution in %ussia, and following the
'rmistice, he and a group of !ewish revolutionaries, using forged passports, moved into
,ungary and established the communist newspaper, oros Ursay 6%ed &ews7. Well supplied
with finances by the *oviet government, and aided by the pro-communist resident !ewish
population, 4un "uic+ly became the dictator of all ,ungary.
(ela 4un proceeded to follow the pattern of the (olshevi+ revolution. *ays Encyclopedia
Britannica0
"@un's progra''e was to 'ar' at once, and "orci&ly trans"er every industry and all
landed property without conservation into the hands o" the proletariat.' :t "irst he
colla&orated with the 7ocial 3e'ocrats LEncyclopedia Britannica, page .6D, vol.
6-E602/M &ut soon shouldered the' aside, nationali(ed all &anks, all concerns with
over CFF e'ployees, all landed property over 6FFF ac., every &uilding other than
work'en's dwellings. :ll %ewelry, all private property a&ove the 'ini'u' ?e.g. two
suits, 2 shirts, C pair o" &oots and 2 socksA was sei(ed) servants a&olished,
&athroo's 'ade pu&lic on 7aturday nights) priests, with the insane, cri'inals and
shopkeepers, e'ploying paid assistants were declared incapa&le o" the active or
passive su""rage."
The result of this program was, as in %ussia, economic and social chaos. The nationaliAation of
every private bathroom in a country cannot be accomplished without profoundly affecting the
social and moral tone of its society. &either can the land, buildings, and industries of a nation be
nationaliAed without creating havoc. 's in %ussia, such a program could only be enforced by
resorting to the %ed Terror. During (ela 4unFs three month reign of terror, tens of thousands of
people$priests, army officers, merchants, landowners, professional people$were butchered.
The communiAing of the countryFs industrial and agricultural resources produced a famine in the
cities, and this, combined with the peasantryFs antipathy for the !ews, resulted in 4unFs eventual
overthrow. /n an amaAingly fran+ report, the Gew 4nternational Jear Book of8989 6Dodd, Mead,
Co., page C?J7 has summariAed the situation0
"!ne o" the chie" weaknesses in the new regi'e was antipathy to the Jews. 4n the
country districts the "eeling was widespread that the revolution had &een a
'ove'ent on the part o" the Jews to sei(e the power "or the'selves, and the re'ark
was "re+uently heard that i" the Jews o" Budapest died o" starvation, so 'uch the
&etter "or the rest o" the country. $he govern'ent o" Bela @un was co'posed al'ost
e*clusively o" Jews who held also the ad'inistrative o""ices. $he co''unist had
united at "irst with the socialists who were not o" the e*tre'ely radical party, &ut
rese'&led so'ewhat the ;a&or parties or trade unionists groups in other countries.
Bela @un did not, however select his personnel "ro' a'ong the', &ut turned to the
Jews and constituted virtually a Jewish &ureaucracy."
'fter three months of blood, murder, and pillage, (ela 4un Was deposed and interned in a
lunatic asylum. >ater he was released and returned to %ussia, where he assumed control of the
%ed Terror organiAation the Che+a, in *outh %ussia.
The Tri+-vir!te
>enin died of a brain hemorrhage in !anuary of 89:G. (y this time the communists had become
firmly entrenched. The civil wars were over and every vestige of organiAed resistance to !ewish-
(olshevism had been destroyed. .n >eninFs death the party leadership fell to fighting among
itself.
>enin had, as early as May of 89:: suffered a paralytic stro+e which affected his speech and
motor reflees. /n December he suffered a second stro+e, and his place was ta+en by a
triumvirate composed of Oinoviev, 4amenev, and !oseph *talin. *hortly afterwards >enin
suffered another stro+e, and in 89:G he died.
Trot)%/ in &ecline
/n the early days of the new regime TrotA+y had en#oyed near e"uality with >enin in prestige
and power. .utside of %ussia, >enin-TrotA+y were regarded as a duality, and in current literature
of that period their names were often hyphenated. The outside world had therefore fully
epected TrotA+y to assume >eninFs mantle as party leader. (ut after 89:: TrotA+yFs prestige in
the Iolitburo had declined rapidly, as we shall see.
/n the year the triumvirate began to function the Iolitburo was composed of >enin, Oinoviev,
4amenev, TrotA+y, (u+harin, Toms+y, and *talin. The >enin-Oinoviev-4amenev )troi+a) had,
of course, been dominant so long as >enin was active, but now Oinoviev and 4amenev, as the
surviving members of the )troi+a,) regarded themselves as >eninFs rightful successors, and they
loo+ed on TrotA+y as a competitor. /nto this picture *talin insinuated himself. ,e allied himself
with 4amenev and Oinoviev, and the three were able to turn the Iolitburo against Trots+y. *talin
thus became the #unior member of the triumvirate. TrotA+y describes the situation this way
27talin 6ibid page G?7 page <<J5
"Used as a counterweight against 'e, he was &olstered and encouraged &y Kinoviev
and @a'enev, and to a lesser e*tent &y ,ykov, Bukharin and $o'sky. Go one
thought at the ti'e that 7talin would so'e day loo' away a&ove their heads. 4n the
"irst triu'virate Kinoviev treated 7talin in a circu'spectly patroni(ing 'anner)
@a'enev with a touch o" irony."
Oinoviev was considered to be the senior triumvir, and he gave the opening address at the 8:th
Iarty Congress, a function heretofore reserved to >enin. Oinoviev was not well received in this
capacity, and before the Congress had ad#ourned, *talinFs control over the party machine gave
him a dominant positionR in the triumvirate. This was the situation shortly after >eninFs death.
St!lin to Power
*talin now moved to consolidate his position. /n 'pril of 89:C he engineered TrotA+yFs removal
as War Commissar. /n the same month he bro+e with Oinoviev and 4amenev and allied himself
with politburo members (u+harin, %y+ov, and Toms+y, TrotA+y, Oinoviev, and 4amenev now
united their forces in opposition to *talin. (ut now it was too late. /n -ebruary of 89:H Oinoviev
was epelled from the Iolitburo then from the presidency of the Ietersberg 6>eningrad7 *oviet,
and finally as president of the Third /nternational. >ess than a month later 6.ctober :<7 TrotA+y
and 4amenev were also epelled from the Iolitburo.
This mar+ed the end of any effective resistance to *talin. The net year Oinoviev, 4amenev, and
TrotA+y were removed from the partyFs Central Committee, and shortly afterwards all three were
read out of the party. /n 89:9 TrotA+y was eiled abroad. /n !une of 89<; *talin became the
supreme dictator of %ussia.
/t is fre"uently argued that *talinFs rise to power mar+ed the end of the !ewish phase of
communism. /n support of this, it is pointed out that while such !ews as TrotA+y, Oinoviev,
4amenev, Martynov, Oasulich, Deutsch, Iarvus, 'elrod, %ade+, UritA+y, *verdlov, Dan,
>ieber, Martov, and others were prominent in the early history of the revolution, these have
almost without eception been eecuted or eiled. This on the surface is a convincing argument.
(ut it completely overloo+s the fact that *talin has both a !ewish wife and a !ewish son-in-law.
(oth *talin and his daughter, *vetlana, have married into the powerful !ewish 4aganovich
family.
ST#0IN*S P#ST
*ome authors have suggested that *talin is himself a !ew. 4nown facts do not bear this out.
*talin 6born !oseph =issarionovich D#ugashvili7 was born in the mountain village of @ori,
situated in the province of @eorgia, in 8?J9. ,is father, =issarion D#ugashvili, was a peasant
from the neighboring town of Dido->ilo$his mother was 1+aterina @eladAe, whose forebears
were serfs in the village of @ambareuli.
&ot too much is +nown about *talinFs father. ,e was for a time a cobbler, and he seems to have
wor+ed as a day laborer in a shoe factory in 'del+hanov. ,e is said to have been a heavy
drin+er.
*talinFs mother was a devoutly religious woman who too+ in washing to feed her family, and her
lifeFs ambition was to see her son become a priest. 3oung )*talin) attended the elementary
school in @ori$a four year course$and in 8?9G he obtained a free scholarship to the Tiflis
Theological *eminary which provided free clothing, boo+s, and food in addition to his tuition.
-our years later he was epelled, after which he applied himself to revolutionary activity.
*talinFs first wife was 1+aterina *vanidAe, who bore him one son 63asha !acob7 Dugashvili.
!acob was a dullard who, even after his father became dictator, wor+ed as an electrician and a
railway mechanic.
*talinFs second wife was &adya 'lliluyeva, who bore him a son, =asili, and a daughter, *vetlana.
=asili is now a ma#or-general in the %ed 'ir -orce. *vetlana *talin has been married twice.
&othing is +nown of her first husband$we do not even +now when the marriage occurred. or
where, or who the groom was. /t is an official government secret.
Svetl!n! St!lin M!rries .!!novich
The fate, as well as the identity of *vetlanaFs first husband remains un+nown. (ut of her second
husband there is no doubt whatever0 he is Mihail 4aganovich, son of Iolitburo minister >aAar
4aganovich and he is a !ew.
This leads one to speculate as to the true position of >aAar 4aganovich in %ussia today. With a
daughter married to *talin, and a son married to *talinFs only daughter, he is to say the least, in a
uni"ue position. !ust where *talinFs power leaves off and 4aganovichFs begins is difficult to
determine. ...
.#(#NO5ICH
.ne of the most fre"uent arguments used to disprove the !ewishness of %ussiaFs present day
leadership, strangely enough, revolves around >aAar 4aganovich. Iropagandists are fond of
pointing him out as )the only !ewish member of the Iolitburo,) the suggestion being that since
the Iolitburo contains only one !ew, it is plainly not !ewish controlled. (ut this argument will
not stand the light of day it completely ignores the fact that both Iremier *talin and vice-premier
Molotov have !ewish wives. 'nd it conveniently overloo+s the fact that the solitary !ew,
4aganovich, is doubly related to *talin by marriage. 4aganovich is not #ust another member of
the Iolitbureau he is *talinFs brother-in-law, and his chief adviser and trouble-shooter.
The *talin-Molotov-4aganovich combination which rules %ussia today is #ust as
solidly !ewish as was the original >enin-Oinoviev-4amenev-TrotA+y
government. The ecerpt is ta+en from ;i"e magaAine 6!uly 8G, 89G87. /t
identifies >aAar 4aganovich as
IRON CURT#IN &ICT#TORS
/n the communist satellite nations, as in %ussia, the !ews occupy virtually every +ey position of
power. Ierhaps no better proof of this can be found than in !ohn @untherFs boo+, Behind the
4ron 5urtain. 2Behind the 4ron 5urtain - page G; by !ohn @unther, ,arper E (rothers, &ew
3or+.5 @unther, a !ew->oving )liberal) of the most sic+ening type, reveals that Ioland,
,ungary, %oumania, and CAechoslova+ia all have !ewish Dictators 6see cut7. @iven here is a
brief description of these )/ron Curtain Dictators.)
HUN(#RY8 The three )moscovites) mentioned by @unther 6above7, are the !ews, Matyas
%a+osi 6%osencranA7, 1rno @ero 6*inger7, and Ooltan =as. ,ungary has en#oyed the uni"ue
privilege of undergoing two bloody communist dictatorships, both !ewish-led. The first was that
of (ela 4un. When 4unFs regime collapsed in 8989, hundreds of his !ewish compatriots fled
with him to %ussia, among whom were Matyas %a+osi and 1rna @era. /n 89GC, when the
communists too+ over the country, Matyas %a+osi was installed as the supreme dictator of
,ungary, with 1rno @era and Ooltan =as occupying positions number two and three.
%a+osi is an intimate of *talin, +new >enin personally, and was Commissar of *ocial Iroduction
under (ela 4un. ,e is a typical member of the !ewish bureaucracy which controls communism.
'lthough every foreign correspondent and every news service +nows the identity of these )/ron
Curtain) dictators, they are seldom in the press, and never are they identified as !ews. 'ny
newspaperman daring to identify the communist leadership as !ewish would instantly be
threatened with loss of advertising, and would be accused of )bigotry) and )anti-*emitism.)
PO0#N&8 Ioland has shared the tragic fate of ,ungary. )The men who dominate Ioland)
6*ee @untherFs cut, preceding page7 are the !ews, Minc, *+ryesAews+i, ModAelews+i, and
(erman. The first three are of cabinet ran+, while !acob (ermanFs official position is that of
Under-*ecretary of *tate$a minor office. 3et it is this !acob (erman who is the undisputed
boss of Ioland. (erman, a product of the Warsaw ghetto, has lived in %ussia, and was installed
as dictator over Ioland when the %ussian armies too+ over the country. ,e prefers to wor+
behind the scenes as much as possible$a device fre"uently used to hide the !ewishness of
communism. IolandFs !ewish bureaucracy is perhaps the largest of my /ron Curtain country
outside of %ussia proper. 'lthough !ews comprise less than <P of the total population behind
the /ron Curtain, they occupy virtually every position of authority. These facts should convince
even the most doubtful that communism is !ewish$that behind international communism stands
the international !ew. !ews and communists will never bother to deny this, but they will
viciously attac+ those who epose the truth.
ROUM#NI# 2%omania58 'nna Iau+er, well +nown as the boss of %oumania, is so
obviously !ewish, and so well recogniAed as such, that documentation is unnecessary.
'nna was born in (ucharest of orthodo !ewish parents. ,er father 6who was a 4osher butcher7
and a brother now live in /srael. 'nna earned a living for a time teaching ,ebrew, and for a
while she lived in the U.*. ,er husband became identified as a )Trots+yite,) and was eecuted
in one of *talinFs purges. Today 'nna Iau+er is one of the most powerful figures in the
communist world.
YU(OS0#5I#8 The only non-!ewish dictator behind the /ron Curtain is Tito of
3ugoslavia, which fact probably eplains his revolt against the 4remlin. (ut Tito was tutored by
the !ew, Mosa Ii#ade. *ays !ohn @unther of Ii#ade0 ),e is TitoFs mentor ... Whatever ideological
structure Tito may have, he got from this shrewd old man.) 2Behind the 4ron 5urtain, by !ohn
@unther, ,arper (rothers, &ew 3or+.5
CBECHOS0O5#.I#8 The secretary-general of the communist party in CAechoslova+ia,
whom !ohn @unther identifies as a !ew dictator, is %udolph *lans+y. >i+e the other satellite
dictators, he was placed in command of things when the communists too+ over. *lans+y,
incidentally, has been purged by the party, and is at this writing under arrest.
The ecerpt to the left 2about C; words, under headline ' CAech Iurge5 is ta+en from page 8; of
the Dec. 8;th LU/C4 magaAine. &otice that although *lans+y is identified as the )former %ed
(oss) of CAechoslova+ia, he is not identified is a !ew.
JEWS IN #MERIC#
!ewish historians divide !ewish immigration into the U. *. into three phases0 the *ephardic or
*panish Ieriod, the @erman Ieriod and the %ussian-Iolish Ieriod.
Seph!rdic Period
*ince colonial 'merica was still a pioneer country, there were almost no !ews here before the
'merican %evolution. /n 8JJH there were certainly no more than a few score of *ephardic !ews
in the entire country. Modern !ewish historians have tried to prove the eistence of two !ewish
privates in WashingtonFs armies, but the "uestion is of no conse"uence either way. (y 8?<;$
C;years after the Declaration of /ndependence, and ::; years after the founding of !amestown$
there were an estimated 8;,;;; !ews in the U.*., comprising perhaps 8SCth of 8P of the total
population.
(er-!n Period
During this period a fairly steady tric+le of @erman !ews came to the U.*. mainly from
@ermany, so that by 8??; they numbered about :C;,;;;, out of a total population of C; million
$about 8S: of 8P.
R+ssi!n6Polish Period
-ollowing the assassination of Tsar 'leander // in 8??8, vast numbers of %ussian !ews
inundated our port citiesB between 8??8 and 898J our !ewish population increased by 8:;;P$
to more than three millionsR
World War / and the %ussian %evolution added to this influ. Many !ews left Ioland when as a
result of the =ersailles Treaty, it was made independent of *oviet %ussiaB others fled %ussia
during the counter-revolution and civil war which raged in 898?-8989-89:;. The White %ussian
'rmies, regarding (olshevism as a !ewish movement, showed little mercy to those !ewish
communities falling into their hands. Many !ews, fleeing these anti-communist armies,
eventually made their way to the U.*.
This flood of immigration continued until 89:G, when the !ohnson->odge bill temporarily
brought it to a halt. ,owever, when the %oosevelt administration came to power in 89<:, the
barriers were once again lowered, so that in the calendar years of 89<9, C:.<P of all immigrants
admitted to the U.*. were !ewish. *ince World War // this influ has continued under so-called
DI legislation, with the result that approimately half of the worldFs !ewish population has now
congregated here. Today, official !ewish sources estimate 'mericaFs !ewish population to be
689G97 C,8?C,;;;. The actual figure is almost certainly higher, and may eceed J million ...
NEW YOR.8 Jew C!pit!l o, the World
"$he newly arrived Jews settled in the 'etropolitan centers, Gew Jork alone
a&sor&ing appro*i'ately hal" o" the total Jewish i''igration. But the
"ghettoi(ation" o" the EastEEuropean Jews in the United 7tates was the result not o"
o&%ective "orces only= it was as 'uch the result o" the i''igrant's desire to retain all
they could o" their old way o" li"e"
$Iage :8?, The !ewish Ieople, Iast and Iresent, Central 3iddish Culture
.rganiAation 6C3C.7 &ew 3or+.
&ew 3or+ City, with its more than two million !ews, has been the staging ground for the !ewish
invasion of the U.*. ,ere the !ewish immigrant has found a ghetto-li+e environment similar to
the one he left in east-1urope. ,ere he learns the language and customs of the country. ,ere he
gathers +now-how and capital before faring forth into the hinterland of 'merica *oon he will be
buying up a business on the Main *treet of >os 'ngeles, or Dallas, or Chicago. Many lower
class !ews, being unable to learn the language or raise the capital, or being otherwise
une"uipped to go into business or the professions, have settled in &ew 3or+ to become wor+ers
and craftsmen. Thus we find (en @oldFs communistic fur wor+ers union, and David Dubins+yFs
)socialistic) garment wor+ers union, consisting almost entirely of !ews. 's would be epected
therefore &ew 3or+ City has been the seed-bed for communism in the United *tates.
U'S' Co--+nist P!rt/
The 'merican Communist Iarty has never been very large in 89G; it had an estimated ?;,;;;
membersB it has perhaps half that many now. .n first appearances this would seem to rule it out
as a significant force in 'merican politics. (ut appearances can be deceptive. Unli+e the mass-
recruited communist parties of -rance and /taly, the 'merican communist party is small,
carefully chosen, well disciplined, and fanatical. -ew$perhaps no one$of its membership has
been recruited from the sweaty-shirt strata. its members are college professors and union
leaders, physicists and government wor+ers, reporters, playwrights and business eecutives,
actors and newspaper reporters. *ome of its members are wealthyB almost all are well educated.
/ts chief asset is its ability to mobiliAe the combined forces of 'merican !ewry to its use.
THE TRE#SON TRI#0S
*ince early 89GC the communist party has been involved, in a series of highly publiciAed treason
and conspiracy trials utterly without precedent in 'merican history These included
the )'merasia Case,)
the )@erhart 1isler Case,)
the )!udith Coplin Case,)
the )'lger ,iss Case,)
the ),ollywood Ten Case,)
the )-uchs-@old 'tom *py Case,)
the )%osenberg-*obell Case,)
and the case of )1ugene Dennis and the Convicted 1leven.)
/t was impossible, of course, to conceal altogether the !ewishness of the overwhelming ma#ority
of the defendants. (ut !ewish propagandists ehausted every tric+ in trying. .ne !ewish
publication$;ook magaAine$ran a picture story on the spy trials in which the defendants were
variously described as )typical 'mericans) ... )'merican born) . . and )as 'merican as apple
pie.) *o there will be no further doubt regarding the racial identity of the 'merican communist
party, we have accumulated photographs and data on virtually every communist indicted or tried
for communistic activity since 89GC. The reader may #udge for himself.
#MER#SI# C#SE
/n early 89GC the -(/ arrested si individuals, three of whom are +nown !ews, for stealing 8J;;
highly confidential documents from *tate Department files. This was the 'merasia Case. Those
arrested were0
PHI0IP J#""E, a %ussian !ew who came to the U.*. in 89;C. ,e was editor of the
magaAine, )'merasia,) and was the former editor of the communist paper, )>abor
Defense.) ,e was convicted and fined.
#N&REW ROTH, a (roo+lyn born !ew with a lieutenantFs commission in &aval
/ntelligence.
M#R. (#YN, a writer, born in Manchuria of %ussian-!ewish parents. ,is !ew name is
!ulius @insberg.
JOHN STEW#RT SER5ICE, a high *tate Department official who gave !affe much of
the stolen material ,e is believed to be a gentile.
'>*. '%%1*T1D were 1mmanuel >arsen and 4ate Mitchel, nationality un+nown.
.nly two of those arrested were actually brought to trial, although the !ustice DepartmentFs case
was considered airtight. The trial of the ringleader, Ihilip !affe, was one of the strangest on
record. >ate one -riday afternoon he was rushed into court without any previous notice or
publicity, and before anyone +new what was going on he pleaded guilty, and was sentenced and
fined. (y paying the comparatively insignificant sum of T8,C;;.;; he was relieved from the
danger of any future prosecution. %oth paid a TC;;.;; fine.
!ohn *tewart *ervice was not prosecuted, nor was he discharged from his high *tate Department
position. The *tate Department, despite the constant prodding of *enator McCarthy of
Wisconsin, refused to accept the evidence against him. -our times he was called before the *tate
DepartmentFs )loyalty board,) and four times he was cleared.
This in spite of an -(/ wire recording of his transactions with !affeR &ot until the fifth loyalty
hearing was it decided that there were )reasonable) grounds for suspecting his loyalty. This
came si years after the original arrests. *omewhere, hidden hands were pulling wires ...
#0(ER HISS C#SE
The second treason case also involved the *tate Department. This was the trial of 'lger ,iss,
protUgU of *upreme Court !ustice -eli -ran+furter. ,iss, li+e 'cheson, was a student under
-ran+furter at ,arvard.
,iss was one of the most influential men in the *tate Department. 't 3alta he had been a
%oosevelt adviserB at *an -rancisco he helped draw up the United &ations charter. 'nd he was
an intimate friend of the secretary-of-state.
,iss, although a communist, was not convicted for being one. ,e per#ured himself by denying
his communist activities, however, and it was on this charge that he was tried and convicted.
The 'lger ,iss trial was also a uni"ue one. Dean 'chesonFs wife campaigned to raise funds for
his defense. 'cheson himself declared0 )/Fll not turn my bac+ on 'lger ,iss.) -eli -ran+furter
actually too+ the witness stand to testify as a character witness for his protUgU. /n spite of all
this, ,iss was convicted and sent to the penitentiary.-ran+furterFs role in this treasonable drama
is worth commenting on. 'n immigrant !ew from 'ustria, he has a life-long affinity for pro-
Marist causes. ,e first attained prominence as one of the defenders of *acco and =anAetti.
-ran+furter, along with >ehman and ,enry Morgenthau, is one of the most influential !ews in
'merica today. /n addition to 'cheson and ,iss, he has been responsible for the placing of an
estimated :;; of his )protUgUs) in high places. These include0
8. &athan Witt, former general secretary of the &ational >abor %elations (oardB
:. >ee Iressman, chief legal counsel for the C/.B
<. !ohn 'bt, +ey attorney for the *1C, ''', and WI'.
'll are Marist !ewsB Iressman has admitted being a card carrying party member.
-ran+furter may or may not be a communist, but an amaAing number of his protUgUs, including
'lger ,iss, have turned out to be. That was the bac+ground of the 'lger ,iss Case.
J+dith Coplin
.ne of the most publiciAed treason trials was that of !ewish !udith Coplin in !une of 89G9. *he
was caught red-handed passing classified documents from !ustice Department files to a %ussian
agent, who happened to be employed by the United &ations. *he was convicted of espionage
and sentenced to 8C years in prison. >ater the conviction was set aside by the *upreme Court on
the grounds that the -(/ had arrested her improperly and with out a warrant. /t pays to have a
friend on the *upreme Court, or so it would seem ...
(erh!rt Eisler
The highest ran+ing communist ever brought to trial in the U.*. was @erhart 1isler. (etween
89<C and -ebruary of 89GJ he was the secret boss of the Communist Iarty in the U.*. /n those
years he commuted regularly between the U.*. and %ussia, using the aliases (erger, (rown,
1dwards, and others. ,is right hand man, and the second ran+ing cominform 6Communist
/nformation (ureau7 agent in the U.*. was !. Ieters, author of the )IetersF Manual.) ,is real
name was @oldberger, and li+e 1isler he is !ewish.*everal of 1islerFs family have also been
prominent in the Iarty. ' brother, ,ans, has built an outstanding reputation as a writer of
revolutionary songs. ,e is presently employed as a songwriter in ,ollywood. ' sister, %uth
-ischer, was a communist agent for a number of years.
/n May of 89C;, while free on bail, 1isler fled the U.*. on the Iolish ship (atory and is now
propaganda chief of %ussian-occupied 1astern @ermany.
The Holl/wood Ten
/n 89C; the ten leading film writers of the ,ollywood -ilm Colony, nine of whom are +nown
!ews, were convicted for contempt of Congress and sentenced to prison. 'll had appeared before
the ,ouse Committee on Un-'merican 'ctivities in 89G?, and all had refused to testify.
The -ilm Colony went all-out in its support. ' group of film notables, including >auren (acall
and ,umphrey (ogart, chartered a special plane to Washington. !ewish publications everywhere
raised the cry that the Un-'merican 'ctivities Committee was victimiAing a group of artists
who, at the worst, were liberally inclined.
's events proved, the committee +new eactly what it was doing. *i of the ),ollywood Ten)
were communist party members. The other four had flagrantly pro-communist records.
-urthermore, as screen writers they were in a particularly advantageous position to insert subtle
bits of red propaganda into pictures. @iven here is a roll-call of the ,ollywood Ten0
8. #lv!h $essie, a screen-writer. ' communist party member, he wrote for the party
publication, &ew Masses.
:. Her7ert $i7er-!n, received a si month sentence and a T8,;;;.;; fine. ' party
member, he is the 3iddish husband of academy award winning actress @ale *ondergaard.
<. 0ester Cole, also a party member.
G. Edw!rd &-/tr/%, who belongs to 8C fronts. -ined and sentenced.
C. Rin 0!rdnerC Jr', a script writer and party member.
H. John How!rd 0!wson, a (roadway playwright and screen writer. Wrote )Irofessional,)
)*uccess *tory.) ' party member.
J. #l7ert M!lt), wrote )Merry-go-%ound,) )*na+e Iit.) ' party member.
?. S!- Ornit), a screen writer.
9. #dri!n Scott, nationality not verified.
8;.&!lton Tr+-7o, a party member.
The #-eric!n Polit7+ro
.ne of the top news stories of 89G9 was the trial of 1ugene Dennis and the Convicted 1leven.
Collectively, this group comprised the &ational *ecretariat of the 'merican Communist IartyB in
other words, the 'merican Iolitburo.
The much publiciAed trial was held in the court of !udge ,arold Medina. Ierhaps no other single
event has served better to demonstrate the !ewishness of the 'merican communist party. ,ere
were the top party eecutives driven out into the open for everybody to see. ,ow many were
!ewishQ 't least si. They are0
8. J!co7 St!chel, a %ussian-born !ew and still an alien.
:. John (!tes 6!ew name /srael %egenstreif7, editor-in-chief of the Daily Wor+er and a
former officer in the Communist (rigade in *pain.
<. (il7ert (reen 6@reenberg7.
G. (+s H!ll 6!ew name, 'rvo Mi+e ,aeberg7, son of >ithuanian-!ewish parents.
C. Irvin Pot!sh, a %ussian-born !ew.
H. C!rl Winter 6!ew name Ihilip Carl Weissberg7.
The racial identity of 1ugene Dennis 6Waldron7, %obert Thompson, and !ohn Williamson has
not been determined. Ten of the eleven were sentenced to C years in federal prison and fined
T8,;;;,;;; each. Thompson received a three year sentence.
The "+chs6(old Sp/ Rin
.n -ebruary <rd, 89G9, (ritish intelligence agents arrested a diminutive @erman-born atomic
scientist by the name of 4laus -uchs. ,e was accused, and subse"uently convicted, of passing
atomic secrets to the %ussians. 't the beginning of World War // -uchs had been interned by the
(ritish as an enemy alien. ,e was subse"uently released from (ritish custody and admitted to
the U.*. at the personal instigation of 'lbert 1instein. 's a scientist for the Manhattan Iro#ect,
he had access to our innermost atomic secrets between 89G: and 89GC, and he is said to be one
of the few men familiar with the overall construction of the '-bomb. ,e is now serving a
penitentiary term in 1ngland for espionage.
'cting on information obtained from -uchs, the -(/ began a series of investigations which
resulted in the eventual arrest of nine other members of the ring. .f these nine, all of whom
were later convicted, eight were !ewish. ,ere is a brief description of the entire ring0
H!rr/ (old 6!ew name @oldodnits+y7. ' chemist, he was born in *witAerland of
%ussian-!ewish parents. ,e studied at Dreel University, University of Iennsylvania,
and Kavier University ,e was a courier for the *oviet espionage chief, *. M. *emenov,
who used the 'mtorg Trading Corporation as a base of operations. @old traveled all over
the country collecting information from ring members strategically placed in defense and
atomic energy installations. 'rrested in May of 89C;, he pleaded guilty of espionage and
received <; years in prison.
&!vid (reenl!ss, the son of a %ussian-!ewish father and a Iolish-!ewish mother, was
one of those who passed atomic information to @old. (etween 89G< and 89GH he was
employed at the vital atomic installation at >os 'lamos, &ew Meico. ,e also gave
!ulius %osenberg vital information concerning the )fuse) used to detonate the '-bomb.
*ignificantly, the chief of the >os 'lamos pro#ect at this time was the !ew, %obt.
.ppenheimer. 4laus -uchs was also passing '-bomb information to ,arry @old from
>os 'lamos during this period.
#7r!h!- $roth-!n was another member of the ring. ,e headed the engineering firm
of '. (rothman and 'ssociates, >ong /sland, &. 3. ,e supplied @old with secret data on
aviation gasoline, turbo aircraft engines, and synthetic rubber. *o valuable was his
contribution that a %ussian official allegedly told him his efforts were worth two
brigades to *oviet %ussia. ,e was arrested on !uly :Jth, 89C;, for conspiracy against the
U.*. and was convicted.
Miri!- Mos%owit) was also caught in the spy net. ' graduate of the City College of
&3C, she was arrested 'ugust 8J, 89C; as part of the same apparatus. *he was
employed by the War Manpower Commission between 89G:-GG, and was later associated
with the (rothman firm. Miriam is 3iddish. *he was convicted.
Sidne/ Wein7!+-, a product of %ussiaFs )Char+off) /nstitute of Technology, came to
the U.*. in 89::. ,is real name is /srael Weinbaum. ,e was connected with the radiation
laboratory at CalTech for four years, during which time he furnished the *oviet
government with atomic secrets. ,e was convicted on a per#ury charge.
#l,red &e!n Sl!c%, was the only gentile besides -uchs to be apprehended. While
employed at the .a+ %idge establishment he gave atomic information to ,arry @old. ,e
is also believed to have given @old intelligence about a new secret eplosive while
employed at the ,oltson .rdnance Wor+s at 4ingsport, Tenn. ,is alma mater is
*yracuse University.
The Rosen7ers
Three other members of the -uchs-@old ring were also arrested. ,owever, unli+e the first seven
$who pleaded guilty$they chose to plead )not guilty.) 's a result two of them$!ulius and
1thel %osenberg$received the death penalty and the third, Morton *obell, received <; years in
prison.
J+li+s Rosen7er was born of %ussian-!ewish parents. 'n electrical engineer and a
graduate of the City College of &ew 3or+ City, he was instrumental in recruiting
@reenglass into the spy ring. While employed at the 1merson 1lectric Company he stole
the plans for the highly secret proimity fuse which is now being used against 'merican
planes in 4orea. ,e also aided in the theft of atomic secrets0 ,is #ob was to digest
information from @reenglass, and then pass it on to *oviet agents. ,e was sentenced to
death.
Ethel Rosen7er, wife of !ulius, was convicted of the same charges at the same time.
*he is a sister of David @reenglass. David @reenglassFs wife acted as a courier between
@reenglass and the %osenbergs, but for some reason was not put on trial.
Morton So7ell was also a graduate of the City College of &ew 3or+ City. ,e and
%osenberg were classmates together. *obell passed electronic data to %osenberg,
including radar secrets. ,e fled to Meico to escape arrest, was returned by Meican
authorities. ,e was convicted for conspiracy to commit espionage and was sentenced to
<; years in prison.
$ehind the #to- Tre!son
The "uestion which instantly comes to mind is0 how were communist agents able to ferret out
our valuable atom secrets when so much secrecy surrounded the entire pro#ectQ Why was it that
%ussia had the full secret of atom-bomb manufacture before the 'merican people even +new of
the eistence of atomic weaponsQ These "uestions are especially puAAling when we consider the
fantastic security measures ta+en to safeguard the secret. (ob Considine once described a fire
which burned down a large building housing an atomic installation. 'lthough firemen could
have easily saved the building, plant guards would not permit them to enter the restricted area
because they didnFt have authoriAed passesR &ot even members of the U.*. Congress were let in
on the secret. 3et the *oviet agents were able to penetrate this security wall as though it werenFt
there. ,ow did they do itQ
-irst it should be remembered that a central figure in the atomic program was 'lbert 1instein, a
foreign-born !ew with a record of 8H red fronts to his credit. /t has never been proven that
1instein is an actual party member, but there can be absolutely no doubt as to where his
sympathies lie. &or can there be any doubt regarding the red tint of his friends. ' list of those
around 1instein reads li+e a WhoFs Who of Communism. /t was 1instein who was instrumental
in having -uchs brought to the United *tates. -urthermore, it should be remembered that the
chief of the >os 'lamos installation between 89G<-GC, when most of the secrets were stolen, was
the !ew, %obert .ppenheimer. %obert .ppenheimer has a brother, -ran+, who is also an atomic
scientist and who is, or was, a card carrying communist. -ran+ .ppenheimer belonged to
)Irofessional Unit &o. 8:: of the Communist Iarty,) while on the staff at Cal-Tech. -inally, it
should be noted that shortly after =-! day ,arry Truman turned 'mericaFs atomic energy
program over to a board consisting of five men, three of whom were !ews. &ot only that, but the
!ewish chairman, David >ilienthal, had belonged to at least two communist fronts previous to
his appointment. This was the bac+ground to the atom treason.
Scientist A
There have been other instances of !ewish treason in our atomic energy program. Witness the
case of the much publiciAed )*cientist K) who from 89G< on passed vital atomic information to
*teve &elson.
)*cientist K) proved to be a !ew by the name of !oseph W. Weinberg of the University of
Minnesota. *teve &elsonQ ,is real name is Mesarosh and his birthplace is (elgrade. )&elson)
studied at the >enin /nstitute in Moscow and resided in %ussia from *eptember of 89<8 to !uly
89G<. %ecently cited for contempt of Congress, he was originally arrested for deportation in
89:: when it was found that he had fraudulently entered this country by using the passport of
one !oseph -leishinger, a cousin ...
C!n!di!n Sp/ Rin
Canada has also had spy trouble. There as in the U.*. the *oviet 1mbassy served as head"uarters
for espionage activity. There, as in the U.*. the principal characters in the plot were !ews.
/n early 89GC an employee of the %ussian embassy in .ttawa pac+ed hundreds of secret %ussian
documents into a suitcase and turned himself over to Canadian authorities. 's a result, a spy ring
was uncovered which included$among others$a member of the Canadian Iarliament and a
professor at Mc@ill university. >eader of the ring, and by far its most important member, was
"red Rose 6%osenberg7 the only communist in the Canadian Iarliament. %ose, a Iolish-!ew.
was the ringleader, the recruiter, and the courier for the ring.
.n !une 8H, 89GH, he was sentenced to prison for his activities. The following year 6Dec. H.
89GJ7 &r' R!/-ond $o/er, a professor at Mc@ill university was sentenced to two years in
prison for having given %ose information concerning the secret eplosive, %DK. (oyer was
married to the !ewess, 'nita Cohen. 'rraigned with %ose were S!-+el (erson 6of %ussian-
!ewish parentage7, and &!vid Sh+!r, believed to be !ewish. .ther !ews implicated in the -red
%ose spy ring included0 J' Isidor (ottheilC Isr!el H!lperinC !nd S!- C!rr >Cohen@. 6&.T10
This is not a complete listing of the -red %ose spy ring.7
Second6Strin Polit7+ro
*oon after the conviction of the 1ugene Dennis crew, a second-string politburo was scheduled to
assume control of the party apparatus. This new politburo consisted of :8 members, 8G of whom
are !ewish. .n !une :8, 89C8, the !ustice Department indicted the entire group for conspiracy
against the United *tates government. 't the present writing they are free on bail pending trial.
,ere is the roll-call0
8. Isr!el #-ter, J;, a long-time party stalwart. ,e organiAed the )-riends of the *oviet
Union in the U.*.), a front organiAation which numbers 'lbert 1instein among its
prominent members.
:. M!ri!n M!xwell #7t, C:, public relations director and secretary of the partyFs )Defense
Commission.) *he is a Chicago !ewess.
<. Isidore $e+n, GJ, a %ussian-!ew who formerly taught in &ew 3or+ CityFs public
schools. ,e is a party writer and lecturer.
G. #lex!nder $ittel-!n, H8, a %ussian-!ew, and reputed to be )one of the foremost
theoreticians and dialecticians of the party.)
C. (eore $' Ch!rne/, GH, a %ussian-!ew. ,e is the trade union secretary of the &. 3. state
communist party.
H. Eli)!7eth (+rle/ "l/nn, H;, chairman of the partyFs )WomenFs Commission.) ' gentile,
she was born in Concord, &. ,.
J. $ett/ (!nnett, GG, national education director for the party. *he is a Iolish-!ewess, and
still an alien.
?. Si-on W' (erson, G8, chairman of the partyFs )&. 3. *tate >egislative (ureau.) ,e is
believed to be !ewish.
9. 5ictor/ 2sic5 Jere-/ Jero-e, CG, chairman of the partyFs cultural commission. ,e is a
Iolish-!ew.
8;.#rnold S!-+el Johnson, temporary chairman of District C Western Iennsylvania. (orn
in *eattle, he is a gentile.
88.Cl!+di! Jones, <H, secretary of the partyFs )&ational WomenFs Commission.)
8:.#l7ert "r!ncis 0!nnon, G<, partyFs )&ational Maritime Coordinator) and president of
the )Communist Iolitical 'ssociation of Maryland and Washington, D. C.) &ationality
un+nown.
8<.J!co7 Mindel, H9, an old-time party wheel horse. ,e is a %ussian !ew.
8G.Pett/ Perres, CG, national secretary of the partyFs &egro Commission.
8C.#lex!nder Tr!chten7er, head of /nternational Iublishers, inc.
8H.0o+is Weinstoc%, G?, member of the partyFs )&ational %eview Commission.) ,e is a
,ungarian !ew.
8J.W-' Wold Weinstone, C<, a charter member of the party and a former secretary of its
Michigan branch. ' %ussian-!ew.
8?."red "ine, <J, secretary of the partyFs )Iublic 'ffairs Commission.) ,e is a Chicago
!ew.
89.J!-es Edw!rd J!c%son, <H, the partyFs )*outhern %egional Director.)
:;.W-' Nor-!n M!rron, G9, eecutive secretary of the &. 3. *tate Communist Iarty. ,e
is a %ussian-!ew.
:8.Sidne/ Stein7er, the partyFs )'ssistant &ational >abor *ecretary.) ,e is a >ithuanian
!ew.
THE Ro+nd+p On !uly :Hth, 89C8, the -(/ arrested the 8C leading communist party
officials on the West Coast 6see preceding page7. They were all identified by the -(/ as
second-string leaders, the top leadership being already under detention. ' few days later,
on 'ugust Jth, five second-string leaders were also arrested in the east. 'll were charged
with conspiracy to overthrow the U.*. government. .f the 8C arrested on the West
Coast,si have been identified as !ews. They are0
8. Henr/ Stein7er, a Iolish-!ewB
:. Rose Chernin >.+snit)@, a %ussian-!ewessB
<. "r!n% C!rlson, a %ussian !ewB
G. $en &o77s, a &ew 3or+ !ewB
C. "r!n% Spector, a %ussian-!ewB
H. #l Rich-ond, a %ussian !ew.
.f the remaining nine, Dorothy ,ealey, Ihilip Connelly, and .tto -o are gentileB Carl %ude
>ambert is believed to be !ewish, and the identity of the others has not been determined.
.f the five arrested in the east, four are !ewish. They are0
8. Ro/ Wood, <H, a gentile and chairman of the Washington D.C., Communist IartyB
:. Rein! "r!n%,eld, G8, a party organiAer in ClevelandB
<. (eore Me/ers, <?, a party organiAerB
G. Philip "r!n%,ield, GG, an organiAerB
C. Rose $I+-7er, of (roo+lyn.
'll ecept Wood are 3iddish.
THREE (ENTI0ES
Ierhaps some attention should be devoted to three gentiles who have figured prominently in
several of the treason trials, and whose names have constantly appeared in the press for several
years. The three are0 Whitta+er Chambers, 1liAabeth (entley, and =anderbilt -ield.
&one of the three has been indicted nor convicted of a crime, and none at the present time are
party members. /n fact, two have become enemies of Communism. &evertheless they deserve a
place in any description of the 'merican communist party.
5!nder7ilt "ield
(ecause he is a gentile and because he has a famous name, =anderbilt -ield is perhaps better
+nown to the 'merican public than any other member of the communist conspiracy. This
prominence is not accidental. !ewish propagandists, whether communist or not, invariably see+
to conceal the !ewish nature of Communism by giving lavish publicity to gentiles such as -ield.
's a point of fact, -ield does not belong to party, nor was he among those arrested when the top
leadership was being rounded up. -ield is secretary of the )Civil %ights Congress (ail -und,)
which is entrusted with raising bail for party members in trouble. ,e is married to the !ewess,
'nita Cohen, former wife of the convicted spy, %aymond (oyer.
Whitt!%er Ch!-7ers
.ne of the principal witnesses against 'lger ,iss at his trial was Whitta+er Chambers, who li+e
,iss is a gentile. Chambers$of pump+in letter fame$was formerly an editor of the 3aily
Worker and later an associate editor of $i'e magaAine. ' product of Columbia university
Chambers began his underground wor+ for the party in 89<:. ,e has since renounced
communism and has #oined the Catholic Church. >i+e 1liAabeth (entley, he has given
invaluable aid to the -(/ and the un-'merican activities committee in their efforts to trac+ down
+ey members of the communist party. Chambers is married to a !ewess.
Eli)!7eth $entle/
1liAabeth (entley, a product of =assar, is another former communist who has done much to
epose the communist underground. -or several years she served as a courier for a communist
espionage networ+. *he was the mistress of the !ew, !acob @olos, a trusted *oviet agent and her
immediate superior. ,e died of a heart attac+ on Than+sgiving day, 89G<. /t was after his death
that 1liAabeth (entley turned against the party. *ince then she has co-operated with the -(/ and
the un-'merican 'ctivities Committee.
COMMUNISM IN HO00YWOO&
&o discussion of communism would be complete without giving some attention to the
,ollywood scene. Within the past few years a number of investigations by the ,ouse Committee
on Un-'merican 'ctivities, and by CaliforniaFs )Tenney Committee,) have unearthed a veritable
hotbed of Communism in the movie colony. We have already made some mention of the
convicted ),ollywood Ten) who received sentences for contempt of congress. There are literally
hundreds of other high placed !ews with pro-communist records in the film colony, including
millionaire actors, directors, producers, writers, and eecutives.
The "uestion immediately arises as to why so many of these wealthy and privileged !ews
embrace Communism. The answer is, of course, that communism is not an economic movement,
but a racial movement. Communism cannot be understood, or dealt with, on any other basis.
#n E!s/ T!ret
There is a "uestion in the minds of many as to how and why the Communists too+ over
,ollywood. To begin with, the ,ollywood motion picture industry is the most important vehicle
of propaganda in the 1nglish spea+ing world today. /n the long run ,ollywood eerts a greater
influence over the 1nglish spea+ing peoples than all other propaganda mediums combined. /t
has therefore become a prime target for communist infiltration. 'nd since the film industry is
overwhelmingly !ewish, communist agents encountered a minimum of difficulty in setting up
shop. To give the reader some idea as to the etent of the !ewish control over ,ollywood, we
have prepared the following survey of the motion picture industry
Jews Own the "il- Ind+str/
The ,ollywood film industry is almost eclusively a !ewish enterprise. /n the entire industry
there are two, and only two, ma#or ,ollywood film producers operated by gentiles. 'll the rest
are !ew-owned.
The two gentile firms are Twentieth-Century -o, and %4. Iictures. (oth companies, it should
be noted, were originally formed by !ews, and were !ew owned and operated until recently. /n
89G? ,oward ,ughes bought an eight million dollar bloc of %4. stoc+ 6assets of the firm are
T88<,H<?,;;;.;;7 and since then has been prominent in directing its affairs. The other gentile
firm is :;th Century -o, whose president is *pyros *+ouras, a @ree+.
The $i Three
The three largest motion picture firms in ,ollywood are completely !ewish, and in a very real
sense they dominate the industry. The )(ig Three) are0
0OEWSC INC', the giant of the industry, with assets listed at T::<,8G8,C?C.G<. /ts
founder was Marcus >oew, a !ew, and its current president is &icholas *chenc+, a
%ussian-!ew from the Iale of *ettlement. >oews, /nc. owns Metro-@oldwyn-Mayer
6M@M7, whose president was >ouis (. Mayer for many years. Dore *chary, a !ew with
four communist fronts to his credit, now heads M@M.
P#R#MOUNT PICTURESC INC', with assets listed at T8?C,C??,C;C.;;, is the second
largest film producer in ,ollywood. /ts president is the !ew, (arney (alaban. Iaramount
also owns the 'merican (roadcasting Company 6'(C7.
W#RNER $ROTHERS PICTURESC INC', is the third largest picture company in
,ollywood, with assets of T8JH,:?G,JH8.;;. /ts president is ,arry Warner, a Iolish !ew.
There were originally four Warner brothers0 *amuel, ,arry, 'lbert, and !ac+. /n addition
to their ,ollywood holdings, the brothers at one time owned C<; theatres in the U.*., and
<C film echanges throughout the world. Iositions number four and five go to :;th
Century -o and %4. Iictures, described above.
UNI5ERS#0 PICTURESC INC', with assets of TGJ,9?G,;<G.;; is the sith largest film
company in ,ollywood. /ts president is the !ew, &ate !. (lumberg.
CO0UM$I# PICTURESC INC', with assets of T<9,C:8,:G;.;;, is number seven in
,ollywood. /ts president is the &ew 3or+ !ew, ,arry Cohn.
This completes the roster of ,ollywood picture producers with assets of twenty million dollars
or more. .f the seven firms listed above, five are totally !ewish owned and operated, and the
other two were formerly !ewish owned, and may still be in part. There are several smaller firms
which we have not listed, and they too are overwhelmingly !ewish. 6&ote0 'bove names and
figures apply to the year 89C;7
<.osher 5!lle/<
,ollywood has become a !ew town. The -airfa area, which is the heart of the ,ollywood
residential district, is slightly more than H;P !ewish, according to !ewish statistics 6published in
the California !ewish =oice7. =irtually every shop and store in ,ollywood is !ew-owned. The
!ews operate the theatres, restaurants, drug stores, clothing stores$even the cigarette machines.
' visit to the neighborhood theatres and eating places will indicate even to the s+eptic that
,ollywood is predominately inhabited by east-1uropean !ews. /n nearby >os 'ngeles,
,ollywood is sometimes referred to as )4osher =alley) ...
(ecause the ,ollywood stars are the industryFs stoc+-in-trade$its merchandise, so to spea+$
they are mostly gentile. ' given picture may have a !ew producer, a !ew director, and !ew
writer, but generally all the public sees is the prettied-up gentile actor. (ut even this
generaliAation is brea+ing down to an surprising degree. 'n amaAing number of actors 6and
almost all the bit players and etras7 are either !ewish, or married to !ews. /n ,ollywood many a
blond Christian girl has found her way to stardom by marrying 6or going to bed with7 a hoo+-
nosed 4haAar !ew. ,ere is a partial list of ,ollywood stars who are, or have been, married to
!ews0
Doris Day 6Melcher7, >ili Ialmer 6Ieiser7, !anet >eigh 6Curtis-*chwartA7, Claudette
Colbert 6Iressman7, 'nita >ouise 6'dler7, Madge 1vans 64ingsley7, !ennifer !ones
6*elAnic+7, !oan (ennett 6Wanger7, 'lan >add 6Carol->ederer7, Merle .beron
64orda7, !oyce Matthews 6(erle7, 1leanor Iar+er 6-riedlob7, &orma *hearer
6Thalberg7, %uth %oman 6,all-*chiff7, &ancy .lson 6>erner7, 1leanor ,olms
6%ose7, @ig 3oung 6%osenstein7, Miriam ,op+ins 6>itva+7, Myrna Dell 6(uchtel7,
Wendy (arrie 6Meyer7, !ean ,oward 6-eldman7, !oan (lair 6Coplin7, Dic+ Iowell
6(londell7, @ary Merrill 6!olson7, !ohn >oder 6>amar7, @ale *ondergaard
6(iberman7, &orma Talmadge 6*chenc+7. There are many, many others.
,ollywood is in more ways than one the land of ma+e-believe. The film industry can ta+e a
poc+-mar+ed, flat-chested little !ewess out of the ghettoes of Ioland and ma+e her into a
glamour girl, envied and aped by millions. They straighten her nose, pull her teeth, bleach her
hair, give her a new compleion with ma+e-up putty, paint on new lips, pad her bust and hips,
and ad#ust the microphones to give her a pleasing voice. ' million dollar publicity campaign
does the rest. -re"uently that is the formula by which a !ew-star is born. ,ere is a partial list of
,ollywoodFs !ew-stars 6Vindicates communist front affiliation.70
1ddie CantorV, (innie (arnes 6@ittel7, !oan (londell, Charlie ChaplinV 6Thonstein7,
Tony Curtis 6*chwartA7, (ette DavisV, Marlene Dietrich, Melvyn DouglasV
6,esselberg7, Deanna Durbin, !ohn @arfieldV 6@arfin+le7, -ran+ie >aine, ,edy
>amarr 64eisler7, Iaulette @oddardV, Douglas -airban+sV 6Ullman7, !udy @arland
6@umm7, !udy ,olidayV 6Tuvim7, Iaul Muni 6Weisenfreund7, Danny 4ayeV
64amins+y7, >arry Iar+sV, @roucho MarV, Martha %aye, 1dward @. %obinsonV
6@oldenberg7, 4ennan WynnV 6>eopold7, 1d Wynn, -arley @ranger, *ylvia *idneyV
64os+ow7, %obert Merrill, The %itA (rothers, The 'ndrews *isters, ,enry MorganV,
(obby (reen, (enny (a+erV 6Oif+in7, !ac+ (enny 64ubels+y7, Mary >ivingston
6Mar+s7, @eorge (urns 6(irnbaum7, @racie 'llen, Theda (ari 6@oodman7, ! 1dward
(rombergV 6(romberger7, 4itty Carlisle, *ue Carol 6>ederer7, %icardo CorteA,
Milton (erle, *ally 1ilers, Mary 1llis, 'l !olson, (ert >ahr, -rancis >ederer, >ew
>ehr, !erry >ewis, Ieter >orre, 'lice McMahon, Iola &egri, Iar+ya+ar+as 6,arry
1instein7, >uise %anier, @regory %atoff, =ictor (orge, Iin+ey >ee, 'dolph Men#ou,
and Mischa 'uer. 6/n fairness, the last two names are violently anti-Communist.
Men#ou is married to a Christian woman, 'uer is converted to Christianity. (oth
have had difficulty in finding wor+ because of their anti-Communistic stand7.
.ther !ew stars include0 *ammy 4aye, *tella 'dler, Morrie 'msterdam, 'lbert
(asserman, Iolly (ergen, 1liAabeth (ergner, Morris Carnovs+y, Mary 1llis, *ydney
-o, *am !affe, *am >evine, &oel Madison, Carmel Meyer, Maurice Mosovitch,
-lorence %eed, !oseph *child+raut, *id *ilvers, @eorge *tone, Conrad =eidt, >ous
Wolheim. There are, of course, hundreds of others.
Prop!!nd! in the Movies
-or many years ,ollywood limited its activities to the more subtle types of propaganda, but in
recent years this has changed. ,ollywood has now committed itself to producing at least four
)race) pictures annually. Most of these pictures are destined beforehand to lose money, and are
made for purely propaganda purposes. *ome are so inflammatory they cannot be shown in
certain sections of the United *tates.
Typical eamples of this type of picture are0 )/ntruder in the Dust,) )Iin+y,) )Crossfire,)
)@entlemanFs 'greement,) )&o Way .ut,) and ),ome of the (rave.) /nvariably these pictures
see+ to inflame minority groups by portraying them as being abused and persecuted by white
)bigots.) *uch propaganda is fran+ly designed to arouse race hatred among &egroes, Meicans,
!ews, and other so-called minority groups.
These people are being systematically taught to thin+ and act in terms of race$they are being
taught a hate philosophy. (ut there is another aspect to this +ind of propaganda. While
minorities are being taught race consciousness the white ma#ority is instilled with a sense of
guilt for these )wrongs) committed against minority groups. We are taught that consciousness of
race is )un-'merican) and a manifestation of bigotry. We are told that all races are the same, and
that we should discard the concept of race.
/n this respect, all !ewish propaganda s"uares eactly with the communist line. There is a
popular misconception to the effect that communism strives to set one race against another. This
is a half-truth, which means it is more dangerous than a lie. The one thing communists fear more
than anything else is a rebirth of race consciousness among the great white ma#ority of the
Christian world The communists remember that the very instant the @erman people became
race-conscious, they turned with deadly fury against !ewish-communism. They +now the same
thing could happen in this country. Therefore, all communist$and !ewish$propaganda is
directed in an effort to destroy every vestige of race consciousness among the white people. That
is what red propagandists see+ to achieve with their propaganda movies and their )tolerance
campaigns.)
Co--+nis- vs' Bionis-
.ne other "uestion must be discussed briefly. This concerns whether or not all !ews are
communists. The answer is no. The reader will remember the earlier description of Communism
and Oionism ta+ing hold among the !ews of the Iale of *ettlement as competitive movements
after 8??;. When the (olshevi+s too+ over %ussia in 898J, they sought to impose their way of
thin+ing on the entire !ewish population. 's !ews, the (olshevi+s adhered to the belief that
!ewish nationalism should be preserved, but they believed it should be orientated toward
communism. The Communists regarded Oionism as an impractical scheme, wedded to (ritish
imperialism, and impossible of achievement. The Oionists, consisting of the more religious and
orthodo !ews, stubbornly resisted this concept. 's a result, the Communist Iarty established a
special !ewish section to deal with the Oionists. They attempted, with only partial success to win
over the children of the Oionists by prohibiting the teaching of Oionism to children under
twenty. &ow before labeling this as )anti-*emitism,) it should be remembered that these were
measures imposed by one section of !ewry upon other !ews, and it should be remembered that
Christians received no such preferential treatment.
This fight between Communists and Oionists has lasted right down to the present day. When the
state of /srael was formed, tens of thousands of Oionists were permitted to emigrate from %ussia
and satellite territory to Ialestine, in a move which still continues at this writing. 6We should
note that non-!ews are &1=1% permitted to emigrate from Communist %ussia7. (ut communist
authorities have been eceedingly reluctant to permit young !ews to emigrate, and in many cases
permission has been denied. Thus the fight continues. (ut the reader should remember that this
is a fight between !ews. Whether Communists or Oionists, they still retain their !ewishness, and
they stand united against all non-!ews. 'nd although they travel different paths, both
Communism and Oionism have the same common goal$domination of the world. (oth wor+
and plan for the day when the )chosen race) shall )inherit the earth.)(End of book)

Reprod+ction Note8 Where pictures are omitted, also omitted are their captions7. (rittonFs 9H-
page boo+let is undated, but, #udging by internal evidence$4orean War, but *talin still alive$
was published about 89C:, in the U*' 6The 'mericaniAed 1nglish spelling has been left
unchanged7. (ritton gives no autobiographical information, and we +now nothing about him, not
even whether (ritton was his actual name. 6Could he have been a -ran+ (ritonQ7 ,is boo+let is
not very well produced, with spelling errors, slightly inept typography, and badly-reproduced
monochrome illustrations. There are 8:; or so of these, including a few maps and pictures
relating to pre-:;th century times, some photos from the %evolution, and many Fmug shotsF of
contemporary 'merican !ews. 'll are unaccredited, but appear to be from encyclopedias and
newspapers. !ust a few of these pictures are scanned in, and two have been added from other
sources. This boo+let deals mostly with %ussia and the %ussian %evolution, then the U*' of
about 89C;B thereFs a huge gap, missing the entire period of the 89<;s and *econd World War.
Iossibly (ritton had the main part of his tet ready before the 89<;s, and tac+ed on the final
part, on /ron Curtain dictators, atomic spies and ,ollywood, later.