5 views

Original Title: Note - Chapter 15

Uploaded by CuongNgo

- Maxima Problem Solving
- Rock Blasting 17
- Waves & Oscillations
- waves
- 9th Preparatory Work Sheet - 9
- solucion al capitulo 16 del serway
- PHY_BK_ANS_3B
- CHSL Capsule
- CH 14 Waves and Sound
- Subject Tests Answer Explanations Math
- Add Maths 2000 Paper 2
- Quick User Guide for x Powder x
- 24129433 Solucionario Clayton R.paul Eletromagnetismo Para Engenheiros
- Fourier Sine Serie Example
- 4E Maths P2 Prelim_2012
- science notes wade
- file_39794
- 20 2 waves
- interferenceoriginal-120615044243-phpapp01
- 1

You are on page 1of 25

Chapter 15

Mechanical Waves

A wave is any disturbance from an equilibrium condition,

which travels or propagates with time from one region of

space to another.

A harmonic wave is a periodic wave in which each

particle in the medium undergoes simple harmonic

motion.

15.1 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal

A. Transverse Waves: The direction of motion of the

particles in the medium is perpendicular to the direction

of propagation of the wave. Examples include:

(1) waves on a rope

(2) electromagnetic waves

If one shakes a string up and down just once, the result is

a single transverse wave pulse that travels along the

length of the string.

2

If we shake the free end of a string in a repetitive, or

periodic motion, then each particle in the string also

undergoes periodic motion as the periodic transverse

wave propagates along the string.

B. Longitudinal Waves: The direction of motion of the

particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of

propagation of the wave. Examples include:

(1) sound

Consider a long tube filled with a fluid and a piston at the

left end. If we push the piston just once to the right and

then to the left, then a longitudinal wave pulse travels to

the right along the fluid as shown in the figure below.

3

If we now push the piston to the right and to the left in

simple harmonic motion along a line parallel to the length

of the tube, then a periodic longitudinal wave propagates

along the fluid parallel to the tube.

This motion forms regions in the fluid where the pressure

and density are higher or lower than the equilibrium

values. The regions in the fluid of increased pressure and

density are called compressions, and the regions of

reduced density and pressure are called rarefactions.

4

Some waves have both transverse and longitudinal

components as in the case of waves on the surface of a

liquid.

A periodic wave propagates a distance equal to the

wavelength ! in a time interval corresponding to its

period T. Thus the speed of wave propagation v equals

!

speed of wave propagation =

dis tance

time

=

"

T

= " f

5

15.3 Mathematical Description of a Wave

A sinusoidal wave has a waveform equal to that of a sine

(or cosine) wave.

The Traveling Wave

The disturbance of a traveling wave is always a function

of vt x .

(i) If x and vt have the same sign, then the wave travels in

the direction of decreasing x.

(ii) If x and vt have opposite signs, then the wave travels

in the direction of increasing x.

A. Consider a transverse sinusoidal waveform in a rope

of the kind shown in the figure above. The general

6

functional form of the displacement y(x,t) of a piece of

rope at position x and time t is

( ) ( ) t x k A t x y ! = m sin ,

where A is the amplitude, k is the wave number, and ! is

the angular frequency as described in chapter 14. Also,

remember from chapter 14 that

!

"

=

2

k

T

f

!

= ! = "

2

2

so that one may write the displacement y(x,t) as

( )

!

"

#

$

%

&

!

"

#

$

%

&

'

( =

T

t x

A t x y m 2 sin ,

To find the speed v of wave propagation, one can simply

say that the wave propagates a distance equal to one

wavelength ! in a time interval equal one period T.

Hence,

time

ce dis

v

tan

=

f

T

v ! =

!

=

7

so that one may also write

( )

!

"

#

$

%

&

!

"

#

$

%

&

'

'

(

=

T

t

x A t x y m

2

sin ,

( ) ( )

!

"

#

$

%

&

'

(

= vt x A t x y m

2

sin ,

Note that the disturbance y(x,t) is a function of vt x .

B. Transverse Velocity and Acceleration of particle on

the rope

Consider the waveform on a rope described by

( ) ( ) t x k A t x y ! " = sin ,

What are the transverse velocity v

y

and acceleration a

y

of

a piece of rope at point x down the rope and time t ? Well,

dt

dy

v

y

= (holding x constant)

( ) t kx A v

y

! " ! " = cos ) (

8

note carefully that the maximum value of the transverse

speed of a piece of rope equals (setting the cosine term

equal to one)

A v

y

! =

max ,

which is the same result obtained in chapter 14 where we

said after using conservation of mechanical energy that

A A

m

k

v kA mv ! = = " =

max

2 2

max

2

1

2

1

same result!

We know that a piece of rope will attain its maximum

speed when it is moving through the equilibrium position.

That is, a piece of rope that has a transverse wave

propagating through it undergoes simple harmonic

motion!

Be very careful here!!! Do not confuse the speed of

propagation of the wave f v ! = with the transverse speed

v

y

of a piece of rope!!!

As for the acceleration of a piece of rope at position x and

time t, then

dt

v d

a

y

y

) (

= (holding x constant)

( )( ) ( )} sin { t kx A a

y

! " " ! " ! " =

9

( ) t kx A a

y

! " ! " = sin

2

y a

y

2

! " =

This result is identical to the result obtained in chapter 14.

Note in addition that the maximum value of the

magnitude of the acceleration of a piece of rope occurs at

the amplitudes, i.e.,

A a

y

2

max ,

! =

By the way, the wave function ( ) ( ) t x k A t x y ! " = sin ,

satisfies an equation called a wave equation, given by

2

2

2 2

2

1

t

y

v x

y

!

!

=

!

!

Any function of the form ( ) vt x f m satisfies the wave

equation. We will learn in chapter 32 that when an

electromagnetic wave propagates through vacuum, both

the electric field E

r

and the magnetic field B

r

obey a wave

equation quite similar to the last equation above.

10

15.4 Speed of a Transverse Wave on a String

The speed v with which a wave propagates in a rope of

mass per unit length and under tension F is given by

!

v =

Tension

Derivation:

Consider a small segment

!

"x and mass

!

"m of a very long

string under tension F. The tension (force) at each end of

the string is tangent to the string at the point of

application.

11

The string to the right of the small segment exerts a force

F

2

on the segment. The string to the left of the small

segment exerts a force F

1

on the segment. There is a net

vertical force on the segment of string, but not a net

horizontal force since the motion of the string is vertical

only.

Apply Newtons Second Law of motion:

!

F

y

"

= #m

( )

$

2

y

$t

2

but

!

F

y

"

= F

2y

# F

1y

= Ftan$

2

# Ftan$

1

where !

2

is the angle that F

2

makes with the horizontal,

and !

1

is the angle that F

1

makes with the horizontal. But

the tan(!) = slope of the tangent line to the string (curve)

and this is also equal to

!

"y

"x

. Hence

!

F

y

"

= Ftan#

2

$ Ftan#

1

= F

%y

%x

&

'

(

)

*

+

x+,x

$ F

%y

%x

&

'

(

)

*

+

x

note that in the limit as

!

"x #0,

12

so that

!

F

y

"

= F

#

2

y

#x

2

$

%

&

'

(

)

*x

( )

Therefore,

!

F

y

"

= #m

( )

$

2

y

$t

2

= F

$

2

y

$x

2

%

&

'

(

)

*

#x

( )

use

!

"m= "x , where is defined as the mass per unit

length of the string, to obtain

!

"x

( )

#

2

y

#t

2

= F

#

2

y

#x

2

$

%

&

'

(

)

"x

( )

!

"

2

y

"x

2

=

F

"

2

y

"t

2

Finally, comparing this last expression with the general

expression for a wave equation,

2

2

2 2

2

1

t

y

v x

y

!

!

=

!

!

yields,

!

"y

"x

#

$

%

&

'

(

x+)x

*

"y

"x

#

$

%

&

'

(

x

=

"

2

y

"x

2

)x

( )

13

!

v =

F

15.6 Wave Interference, and the Superposition

Principle

If two or more waves are traveling in a medium and

interfere, the resultant wave is found by adding the

displacements of the individual waves.

Interference of Waves

Use transparencies to discuss concept of phase difference.

A. Constructive Interference of 2 waves of the same

frequency:

14

Constructive interference will result if the phase

difference ! between the 2 interfering waves is

,... 6 , 4 , 2 , 0 ! ! ! = "

B. Destructive Interference of 2 waves of the same

frequency:

Destructive interference will result if the phase difference

! between the 2 interfering waves is ,... 5 , 3 , ! ! ! = "

15

15.8 Normal Modes of a String

The string has various natural patterns of vibration, called

normal modes, and each normal mode has a characteristic

frequency.

What are the allowed frequencies of vibration?

!

L =1

"

2

, n = 1

!

L = 2

"

2

#

$

%

&

'

( , n = 2

!

L = 3

"

2

#

$

%

&

'

( , n = 3

!

L = 4

"

2

#

$

%

&

'

( , n = 4

16

In general,

!

L = n

"

2

#

$

%

&

'

( where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . , and so

!

" =

2L

n

and the allowed frequencies of vibration

!

f =

v

"

are equal

to

!

f

n

= n

v

2 L

"

#

$

%

&

'

( ) ,... 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = n

Because

=

Tension

v , one can express the natural

frequencies of vibration of a stretched string as

=

Tension

L

n

f

n

2

( ) ,... 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = n

The lowest allowed natural frequency of vibration is

called the fundamental frequency. Any integer multiple of

the fundamental frequency is called a harmonic. Thus,

17

!

1

f fundamental frequency

= !

tension

L

f

2

1

1

! =

1 2

2 f f second harmonic (or first overtone)

! =

1 3

3 f f third harmonic (or second overtone)

and so on. All the even and odd harmonics are present.

15.7 Mathematical Representation of Standing Waves

Consider two waves of the same frequency ! and same

amplitude A traveling in opposite directions.

wave 1: wave 2:

( ) t x k A y ! " = sin

1

( ) t x k A y ! + = sin

2

Note that wave 1 travels to the right, while wave 2 travels

to the left.

What will the resultant wave be? The resultant wave will

be a standing wave or blinking wave as I like to call

them. Applying the superposition principle yields

2 1

y y y + =

( ) ( ) t kx A t kx A y ! + + ! " = sin sin

18

( ) ( ) [ ] t kx t kx A y ! + + ! " = sin sin

one learns in trigonometry that

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) kx t t kx t kx cos sin cos sin sin ! " ! = ! "

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) kx t t kx t kx cos sin cos sin sin ! + ! = ! +

so that the resultant wave is

( ) ( ) t kx A y ! = cos sin 2 a standing wave

Note carefully that this is NOT a traveling wave because

y is not a function of vt x .

The sine term in the standing wave describes the spatial

dependence, while the cosine term describes the time

dependence of the standing wave.

Questions:

1. At positions or values of x will the disturbance be zero

at all times? These positions are called nodes.

( ) 0 sin = x k

! ! ! ! = n x k ,..., 3 , 2 , , 0 where ( ) ,... 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 = n

19

! =

"

!

n x

2

2

!

= n x (nodes)

that is, when ,... 2 ,

2

3

, ,

2

1

, 0 ! ! ! ! = x

2. At what points x will the disturbance be a maximum at

all times? These positions are called antinodes.

( ) 1 sin = kx

2

,...,

2

5

,

2

3

,

2

! ! ! !

=

n

x k where ( ) ,... 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 = n

2

2 !

=

"

! n

x

4

!

= n x (antinodes)

20

3. At what times t will the disturbance be zero for all

values of x?

( ) 0 cos = !t

2

,...,

2

5

,

2

3

,

2

! ! ! !

= "

n

t where ( ) ,... 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 = n

2

2 !

=

! n

t

T

where T = period

4

T

n t =

that is, zero disturbance for all positions of x at times

,...

4

5

,

4

3

,

4

T T T

t =

The figure below shows the shape of a string at 2 different

instants:

21

15.5 Energy in Wave Motion

Waves transport energy from one place to another. To

produce a wave, we have to exert a force on the wave

medium, thus doing work on the system. As the wave

propagates, each portion of the medium does work on the

adjoining portion. In this way, a wave transports energy

from one region of space to another.

A. Waves Propagating Through an Elastic Medium

Consider a transverse wave traveling from left to right on

a string. Now consider a specific point on the string. The

string to the left of this point exerts a force (in the y-

direction) to the right of it given by

!

F

y

= "Ftan# , where

!

tan" =

#y

#x

, so that

!

F

y

= "F

#y

#x

. This force does work on

the portion of string to the right of it and therefore

transfers energy to it. The corresponding power (rate of

doing work) at this point in the string is P = F

y

v

y

, that is,

the transverse force multiplied by the transverse velocity.

22

!

P(x, t) = F

y

(x,t) v

y

(x,t) = "F

#y

#x

$

%

&

'

(

)

#y

#t

$

%

&

'

(

)

using ( ) ( ) t x k A t x y ! " = sin , , then

!

v

y

=

"y

"t

= (#$) Acos kx #$t

( )

!

"y

"x

= (k) Acos kx #$t

( )

so that

!

P(x,t) = "FkAcos(kx "#t)

[ ]

"#Acos(kx "#t)

[ ]

!

P(x, t) = Fk" A

2

cos

2

(kx #"t)

using

!

" = k v and

!

v =

T

yields

!

P(x,t) = F"

2

A

2

cos

2

(kx #"t)

Comments:

1. Note that the instantaneous power is never negative. It

is either positive (corresponding to energy flow in the

positive x-direction) or it is zero (at points where there is

no energy transfer).

23

2. The energy transported by a wave is proportional to the

square of the frequency and to the square of its amplitude.

This is true of mechanical waves.

3. The maximum value of the instantaneous rate of energy

transfer is

!

P

maximum

= F"

2

A

2

4. The average power

!

P transported by the wave is the

rate of energy transferred. The average of the cosine

squared term over a whole cycle is always ! so that

!

P

average

=

1

2

F"

2

A

2

24

5. The intensity transported I is the average power

transported per unit cross sectional area so that

!

I =

P

average

Area

=

F "

2

A

2

2 Area

( )

If waves spread out equally in all directions from a

source, then the intensity I of the wave at a distance r

from the source is inversely proportional to r

2

, because

the cross sectional area is 4"r

2

. Thus

!

I =

P

average

Area

=

P

4 " r

2

so from conservation of energy, the power output P from

the source is equal at the surface with radius r

1

and at the

surface with radius r

2

if no energy is absorbed between

the two surfaces. Thus

!

Power = 4" r

1

2

I

1

= 4" r

2

2

I

2

25

B. Electromagnetic Waves Propagating through

Vacuum

We will learn in chapter 32 that the intensity transported

by an electromagnetic wave in vacuum is proportional to

the square of the electromagnetic field amplitude, but is

independent of the frequency of the wave.

- Maxima Problem SolvingUploaded byluciange
- Rock Blasting 17Uploaded byAlvaro Andres Bustamante Montenegro
- Waves & OscillationsUploaded byashish1981
- wavesUploaded byapi-19505025
- 9th Preparatory Work Sheet - 9Uploaded byAkash Pandey
- solucion al capitulo 16 del serwayUploaded byDiego Perez
- PHY_BK_ANS_3BUploaded byCoco Lam
- CHSL CapsuleUploaded byDuvva Venkatesh
- CH 14 Waves and SoundUploaded byMelinda
- Subject Tests Answer Explanations MathUploaded byCisum Erup
- Add Maths 2000 Paper 2Uploaded byapi-26423290
- Quick User Guide for x Powder xUploaded byLitarmj
- 24129433 Solucionario Clayton R.paul Eletromagnetismo Para EngenheirosUploaded byAlex Rocha
- Fourier Sine Serie ExampleUploaded byHuy Dinh
- 4E Maths P2 Prelim_2012Uploaded byjan12th2004
- science notes wadeUploaded byapi-319223842
- file_39794Uploaded byThomas Cheah
- 20 2 wavesUploaded byapi-276003030
- interferenceoriginal-120615044243-phpapp01Uploaded bySachin Petle
- 1Uploaded byHemanta Bhattarai
- 9 5wavereviewUploaded byapi-368883407
- DefinitionsUploaded bynasreen
- Teaching Mechanics Using Kinesthetic Learning Activities.pdfUploaded byNandy Kris Tiantz
- The Propagation of a Periodically Excited Continuos Transverse WaveUploaded byDelfinManuel
- FE-Jan11Uploaded byVinot Esan
- 21_LectureOutlineUploaded byTom Flynn
- ce121f-2.docxUploaded byHillary Canlas
- indeterminismcausalism.pdfUploaded byjuannaviap
- 2010 Green Homework SolutionsUploaded bymoka0687
- qplectUploaded byShootingStarPhotons

- SyllabusUploaded byCuongNgo
- Extra Example - Chapter 16Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Extra Example - Chapter 14Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Extra Example - Chapter 08Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Extra Example - Chapter 05Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Extra Example - Chapter 03Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Extra Example - Chapter 02Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Extra Example - Chapter 01Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Lab - GuideUploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 16Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 13Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 12Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 11Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 10Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 16Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 09Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 08Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 15Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 14Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 13Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 04Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 12Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 03Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 11Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 02Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 10Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Note - Chapter 01Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 09Uploaded byCuongNgo
- Solution - Chapter 08Uploaded byCuongNgo

- Pulsar_UGUploaded bygusfaj
- Experiment 3 ThermowellUploaded byJitender Yadav
- SENR6910SENR6910_01_SIS[1] 2.pdfUploaded byJarly Paucar
- Vaporsens Technical SummaryUploaded byBen Rollins
- Ch_2_Measurement of Length, Volume, Time and Mass.pdfUploaded byNcnagesh Prasad
- SC-MotorUploaded byMehdi_Mashayekhi_172
- sqm format inspection.pdfUploaded byTahrulla Ahmed
- My Entries ResultsUploaded byIgor Bogdanoff
- Cam Design Chap 01Uploaded byzinmgoo
- Chapter 7 Light Colour and Sight Student CopyUploaded byWinnie Lim Li Sze
- Plywood Design SpecificationUploaded bybmndevelop
- Reynold NumbersUploaded byNasir Iqbal
- Evaluation of High Power Energy Storage Devices for Use in Compact Pulsed Power SystemsUploaded bybijushresth
- gen 2Uploaded byasad phatan
- Roadway Lighting Tech ReportUploaded byhoangpalestine
- McWAneCv predict.pdfUploaded byshan07011984
- Questions & Answer of Gas TurbineUploaded bybalajisamatham
- image processing using matlab practicalsUploaded byrb229
- 219_ftp.pdfUploaded byGary Kiel Palacios Espinoza
- bach1Uploaded byFrancisco Lara Gallardo
- DissertationUploaded byNura Lailatussoimah
- CFD ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER IN A HELICAL COIL HEAT EXCHANGER USING FLUENTUploaded byAttique Javaid
- Kcet Chemistry 2015Uploaded byanaghesh
- Investigation of the Factors Influencing Skid Resistance and TheUploaded byharish babu aluru
- Effect of Electrospinning Parameters on the Nanofiber Diameter and LengthUploaded byanotherstupidregistr
- Stray Current Control in DC Mass Transit SystemsUploaded byAkshay Wahal
- Recommended weld reference materials.pdfUploaded byraykoni
- 4 EyeBolts-HoistRings-LiftingSlings - US PricingUploaded byJohn Mueller
- Fm CompleteUploaded bynini jasni
- beam slide.pdfUploaded bylannz zandre