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Weldability of High Performance

Rolled H-sections
Georges Axmann, Arcelor, China
Modern production of H-sections
Pump house Pump house
Break down Break down
Rolling mill Rolling mill
Intermediate mill Intermediate mill
Saw Saw
EAF EAF
Scrap supply Scrap supply
Reheating furnace Reheating furnace
Ladle furnace Ladle furnace
CC CC
Casting Casting
Saw Saw
Finishing mill Finishing mill
QST QST
Selective cooling Selective cooling
A modern production process
Production: Melting, Casting, Rolling
Electric Arc Furnace Continuous Caster
Scrap
Beam blank
Rolling Mills
Beam Blanks
Beam Blanks
ELECTRIC ARC
FURNACE
CONTINUOUS
CASTER
BEAM BLANKS STOCK
WALKING BEAM
FURNACE
SHEAR
BLOOMING
Saw
Saw
QST
Oxycutting
ROUGHING
INTERMEDIATE
FINISHING
ROLLING MILL
Ladle stand
Ladle furnace
Cooling bed
Tundish
Ladle
turntable
Slag
evacuation
SCRAP BUCKET
STEEL LADLE
Slag
evacuation
Production flow in Differdange
Modern production of H-sections
Beam blanks produced in Differdange
BEAM BLANK 0 BEAM BLANK 1 BEAM BLANK 3 and 4
500
690
1118.8
4
0
0
4
5
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
1
3
0
1
3
2
HEA 200 - 340
HEB 200 - 340
HEL 200 - 340
HEM 200 - 300
IPE 400 - 450
HD 260 - 320
UC 10100- 14142
WF 10100 - 14142
WTM 12120
HEA 260 - 600
HEB 260 - 600
HEL 260 - 600
HEM 260 - 600
IPE 450 - 600
HD 260 - 400
HEJ 500 - 600
HTM 400 - 550
PTM 356 - 400
UB 21081 - 24120
UC 10100 - 14160
WF 10100 - 24090
WTM 12120
HEA 600 - 1000
HEB 300 - 1000
HEL 300 - 1000
HEM 300 - 1000
IPE 500 - 750
HEJ 600 - 900
HTM 600 - 1000
HZ 575 - 975
HL 1000 - 1100
UB 24090 - 36162
UC 14160
WF 14160 - 36162
WTM 24123 - 36162
Rolling of Beams :Universal and Edging Stands
Universal stand
Edging stand
Finishing
stand
QST Bank entry
850C
Self Tempering
600C
Quenching
HISTAR beam
QST Bank
High Performance H-Sections - Production
High Performance H-Sections - Production
Inline QST teatment
600
800
1000
1200
Temperature
(C)
Recristallised
austenite
Ferrite +
Austenite
Ferrite + Perlite
Bainite
Martensite
Hot rolling Thermomechani-
cal rolling
QST-treatment
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
i
n
s
i
d
e
Quenching
Grain
Deformation
time
HISTAR
austenite
Non-recristallised
time time
Ar1
Ar3
Hot rolling - thermomechanical rolling - QST
F//RECH/AXMA20P/P9
High Performance H-Sections - Production
Improved Yield Strength for large thickness
Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm)
0
0
Yield Strength
Yield Strength
(
(
MPa
MPa
)
)
500
500
450
450
400
400
350
350
300
300
250
250
20
20
40
40
60
60
80
80
100
100
120
120
140
140
Usual Steel Gr.345
Usual Steel Gr.345
Usual Steel Gr.450
Usual Steel Gr.450
HISTAR ASTM A913 Gr.450
HISTAR ASTM A913 Gr.450
HISTAR ASTM A913 Gr.345
HISTAR ASTM A913 Gr.345
Stress Strain curve
Fy=63.0 ksi [435 MPa]
Fu= 82.0 ksi [565 MPa]
A200=19.6%, (A5d=24.5%)
Gr. 50 ksi (345 MPa)
flange thickness = 1 [26 mm]
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
P
a
]

Strain (%)
Stress Strain curve
A913 Grade 65(450 MPa)
flange thickness = 0.88 [22.5 mm]
Fy=68.5 ksi [473 MPa]
Fu= 86.4 ksi [596 MPa]
A200=22.0%, (A5d=25.9%)
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
P
a
]

Strain (%)
Charpy V Notch
impact test
(CVN)

CVN down to
CVN down to
-
-
50
50
C, upon request
C, upon request

A913 steels always guaranteed min. CVN 54 J at +21 A913 steels always guaranteed min. CVN 54 J at +21C C

Standard Flange Location of CVN Specimens:
1/6 flange width, flange thickness
Ductility and Toughness of HISTAR

Excellent ductility compared to usual steels gives


Excellent ductility compared to usual steels gives
HISTAR (ASTM A913) steels a superior performance
HISTAR (ASTM A913) steels a superior performance
in extreme overloading situations: earthquake, fire,
in extreme overloading situations: earthquake, fire,
blast (column removal).
blast (column removal).

Outstanding toughness compared to usual steels


Outstanding toughness compared to usual steels
improves HISTAR (ASTM A913) steels
improves HISTAR (ASTM A913) steels

resistance to
resistance to
brittle failure
brittle failure
(material separation
(material separation
with no/little
with no/little
plastic deformation) / and improved crack arresting
plastic deformation) / and improved crack arresting
properties.
properties.
0.7
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0
0
235 235 355 355 460 460
500 500
CE (%)
CE (%)
Re (
Re (
MPa
MPa
)
)
130
130
70
70
50
50
> 0
> 0
140 (mm)
140 (mm)
10
10
c
o
n
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
a
l

g
r
a
d
e
s
c
o
n
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
a
l

g
r
a
d
e
s
Preheating
Preheating

C
C
40
40
80
80
10
10
140
140
T
M

Q
S
T
T
M

Q
S
T
Weldability
Effect of Chemical Composition on Yield Strength
CE (%) = C (%) + + CE (%) = C (%) + + + +
Mn Mn (%) (%)
6 6
(Cr + Mo + V) (%) (Cr + Mo + V) (%)
5 5
(Cu + Ni) (%) (Cu + Ni) (%)
15 15
Preheating Temperature before Welding
Structural Welding Code AWS D1.1 (Table 3.2)
Thickness A913/65 & 50(S450 & S345) A992/A572 (S345)
3-20 mm (1/8 - 3/4) 0C (32F) 0C (32F)
21-38 mm (3/4 - 1 1/2) 0C (32F) 10C (50F)
39-65 mm (1 1/2 - 2 1/2) 0C (32F) 65C (150F)
> 66mm (over 2 1/2) 0C (32F) 110C (225F)
Applicable for low hydrogen weld metal (H8)
Welding
of 125 mm thick
shape HD400x1086 kg
(W14x730 lbs)
A913/Gr.450 HISTAR
without preheating
No Preheat!
No Preheat!
125 mm (5)
125 mm (5 125 mm (5 ) )
Bend test after welding: A913 Gr.450
SMAW FCAW SAW
E= 12kJ /cm E= 8 kJ /cm E= 35 kJ /cm
SMAW FCAW SAW SAW
E= 12kJ /cm E= 8 kJ /cm E= 35 kJ /cm E= 50 kJ /cm
A913/gr. 450
CEV: 0.34 %
No preheating
Position 1/4 thickness [t = 57 mm]
Position 1/4 thickness [t = 57 mm]
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 20 40 60
FL FL
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 20 40 60
FL FL
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 20 40 60
Distance (mm)
Hardness HV10
FL FL
Distance (mm)
Hardness HV10
Distance (mm)
Hardness HV10
FCAW 8 kJ/cm SAW 30 kJ/cm SAW 50 kJ/cm
Hardness
FCAW : 8 kJ/cm
SAW : 30 kJ/cm
SAW : 50 kJ/cm
Tensile test across welded joint
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
200
300
Re (MPa)
400
500
600
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
Mal
de base
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
Rm (MPa)
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
Mal
de base
630 MPa max EN 10025-4
700
300
400
500
600
700
Limite d'asticit Ristance ? la rupture
470 MPa min EN 10025-4
345 MPa min EN 10025-4
2 1
200
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
HISTAR 355
Yield Strength Tensile strength
Impact tests on welded joints
100
200
300
0
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
S 355 M / EN 10025-4
100
200
300
0
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
100
200
300
0
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
C
h
a
r
p
y

V

(
J
)
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
Sous-peau Racine
Mi-aisseur
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
356
S 355 M / EN 10025-4
S 355 M / EN 10025-4
C
h
a
r
p
y

V

(
J
)
C
h
a
r
p
y

V

(
J
)
Mal
de base
Mal
de base
Mal
de base
Nuance
Localisation
S
LF
: HISTAR 355
: longitudinal - 1/6 aile
: soudure, mal d'apport
: ligne de fusion
LF+5mmLF+2mm LF S
Sous-peau
Mi-aisseur
Racine
Ep.
2mm
2mm
Sens de laminage
Y-grove weld cracking test

Results of Y-groove weld cracking test (=125mm)
No. Wire
Current
A
Voltage
V
Weld
Time
s
Crack
size (mm)
Crack position Remarks
11 J M60 278-300 33-33.7 14 no / No preheat (20 C)
12 J M60 278-300 33-33.7 15 8 root in centerline No preheat (20 C)
13 J M60 278-300 33-33.7 15 no / No preheat (20 C)
21 J M60 278-300 33-33.7 15 15 root in centerline Preheat 100
22 J M60 278-300 33-33.7 15 no Preheat 100
23 J M60 278-300 33-33.7 15 17
root centerline
weld end
Preheat 100


Result of Y- groove weld cracking test (=78mm)
No. Wire
Current
A
Voltage
V
Weld
Time
s
Crack
size (mm)
Crack position Remarks
21 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / No preheat (20 C)
33 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / No preheat (20 C)
22 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / Preheat 70
23 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / Preheat 70
31 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 10
Fusion Line
weld end
Preheat 100
32 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / Preheat 100

Structural Applications

Buildings
Buildings

Offshore platforms
Offshore platforms

Plants
Plants

Parking garages
Parking garages

Bridges
Bridges

Trusses
Trusses
Columns in
High-Rise
New York loves steel
World Financial C.
60&75 Wall Street
WTC 7 Reconstr.
NYU Palladium
Shearson Lehman
St. Lukes Hospital
Citicorp
Mt. Sinai Hosp.
Time Warner
Lipstick
599 Lex.
Worldwide
Plaza
750 Seventh Ave
Swiss Bank - Saks
1585 Broadway
Morgan Stanley
New York Times
Loews Theater, 42
nd
St.
Hilton, 42
nd
St.
Times Square 4 (Conde Nast)
300 Madison (CIBC)
Times Sq. 5 (Ernst & Young)
420 Fifth Ave
Hutton Plaza
450 Lexington
383 Madison (Bear S.)
Buildings built with Arcelors Steel Shapes
Hudson River View
Hearst
Sloan Kettering Hosp.
731 Lexington
1745 Bway (Random H.)
Baruch College
Weight Saving in Column Applications
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

l
e
n
g
t
h

:

3
.
5

m
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

l
e
n
g
t
h

:

3
.
5

m
Gr. 245
Gr. 245
Gr. 345
Gr. 345
A913/ 450
A913/ 450
160 %
160 %
156 %
156 %
100 %
100 %
70 %
70 %
68 %
68 %
weight
weight
cost
cost
HD 400x1086
HD 400x1086
HD 400 x 677
HD 400 x 677
HD 400 x 463
HD 400 x 463
Column applications and economical aspects
77 Hudson, Jersey City, USA
Columns in Gr.450 (65ksi) instead of Gr.345 (50ksi)
32 storeys
102 000 m
2
area (1.1 million ft.
2
)
4.37 m floor to floor height (14-4 )
5 kPa live load (100 lbs/ft.
2
)
Columns spacing:
9.14 x 9.14m and 9.14 x 14.94m
(30 x 30 and 30 x 49- 3 )
Column conversion table (77 Hudson, Jersey City, USA)
15%Weight saving in columns
due to Grade 450 i/o Grade 345
Grade 345 Grade 450 Size
Difference
W 14 x 730 W 14 x 665 1
W 14 x 665 W 14 x 605 1
W 14 x 605 W 14 x 500 2
W 14 x 550 W 14 x 426 3
W 14 x 500 W 14 x 398 3
W 14 x 455 W 14 x 398 2
W 14 x 426 W 14 x 370 2
W 14 x 398 W 14 x 342 1
W 14 x 370 W 14 x 342 1
W 14 x 342 W 14 x 283 2
W 14 x 311 W 14 x 257 2
W 14 x 283 W 14 x 233 2
W 14 x 257 W 14 x 211 1
W 14 x 233 W 14 x 193 2
W 14 x 211 W 14 x 176 2
W 14 x 193 W 14 x 159 2
W 14 x 176 W 14 x 145 2
W 14 x 159 W 14 x 132 2
W 14 x 145 W 14 x 120 2
W 14 x 132 W 14 x 109 2
W 14 x 120 W 14 x 99 2
W 14 x 109 - -
3463
2970
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
Grade 50 Grade 65
Total column weight [MT]:
High-rise applications and economical aspects
Gr.345 Gr.450
199 Fremont, San Francisco
RBS
Strong Column - Weak Beam Concept
enhanced by Reduced Beam Section (RBS)
SEISMIC DESIGN
Column: A913 Gr.450 (65ksi)
Beam: Grade 345 (50ksi)
New Poly Plaza Building Beijing
1st reference with ASTM A913 steel in China
New Poly Plaza Building Beijing
1st reference with HISTAR steel in China
30 floors 101,300 m2 170m $
Lobby 90 m high without
columns
Suspended structure
Quantity : 3653 mt
Columns, A913-60: 2681 mt
Beams, A913-50: 972 mt
Architect Designer: SOM San
Francisco
scale model
Poly Building Beijing with Histar 355 & 420
Mori building : Shanghai World Financial Center
Firsts for Arcelor:
First time a Non Japanese Steel producer
succeeded in concluding a direct business
with one of the TOP Japanese companies:
Total tonnage :
- 34,500 mtons of plates
- 16,740 mtons of beams
First High-rise building in Shanghai in
HISTAR 345 beams and DI-MC460 plates
from Dillingen
Mori building : Shanghai World Financial Center
Second tallest building :
492 m 101 floors
377,300 m
2
Hotel : 79
th
to 87
th
floors
Architect : Kohn
Pedersen Fox Associates,
NY
Engineer : Leslie E.
Robertson Associates,
NY
SWFC Shanghai with Histar 355 and DI-MC460
Applications
Buildings
Offshore platforms
Plants
Parking garages
Bridges
Trusses
Applications

Buildings
Buildings

Offshore platforms
Offshore platforms

Plants
Plants

Parking garages
Parking garages

Bridges
Bridges

Trusses
Trusses
Lanxi Power Plant - China
Conversion from
built-up sections
to rolled sections
Optimization of the
spans for heaviest
Jumbo in steel
A913/gr.65
Optimization of Jumbos
Cruciform-column
not connected
Optimization of Jumbos
Optimization of Jumbos
OPTIMIZATION OF JUMBOS
W360x818kg/m in composite columns, Macau
Applications

Buildings
Buildings

Offshore platforms
Offshore platforms

Plants
Plants

Parking garages
Parking garages

Bridges
Bridges

Trusses
Trusses
Applications
Trusses
Trusses
Weight Savings in Truss Applications
Relative Weight
Relative Weight
HD400 x 1086
HD400 x 1086
x 900
x 900
x 677
x 677
Relative Cost
Relative Cost
Weld volume
Weld volume
Gr.235
Gr.235
Gr.345
Gr.345 A913/gr. 450
A913/gr. 450
142% 142%
133% 133%
119% 119%
87% 87%
77% 77%
59% 59%
100 % 100 %
Truss in Gr. 450 typically
over 20% lighter than Gr. 345
108 m
3000 tons A913/gr. 450
35 % lighter than 345 MPa
Boeing assembly hall, Seattle
BANK ONE BALLPARK, Phoenix - AZ
Bank One Baseball
Stadium, Phoenix Arizona
2200 T W14 jumbos and
W36 heavies HISTAR
Baseball Stadium, Seattle - Washington
Retractable Roof of Mariner
Stadium in Seattle
Football Stadium, Houston - Texas
A913 Gr. 450 (65ksi) COMPRESSION MEMBERS
(Reliant Stadium in Houston - Texas)
Truss applications and economical aspects
HISTAR and the Codes
Hong Kong, BS4360-55C (1990)
German Approval (DIBT) (1991)
ASTM A913 (1993)
AISC - ASD / LRFD and Unified Code (1996)
AISC - Seismic provisions (1997)
UBC (1997)
IBC (2000)
FEMA 350, FEMA 353 - Seismic (2000)
AWS D1.1 - Welding Code (1996)
NYC - Building Code (2001)
Acceptance in China (2004)
1990: HISTAR per BS4360-55C approved in Hong Kong
2004: 1
st
reference in China: New Poly Building in Beijing
Mori Building / Shanghai World Financial Center (+10,000 to) by
acceptance of the Shanghai City Construction Committee
ASTM A913-65 HISTAR in Powerplants: Lanxi, Diandong, etc.
ASTM A913 modified to satisfy mandatory requirements of
Chinese Seismic Design Code: Elongation, Yield ratio, Through-
thickness property
ASTM A913-65 HISTAR steel successfully passed welding
evaluation tests in China (CWA) -- without preheating as per code
AWS D1.1
HISTAR
HISTAR

s
s
acceptance in Hong Kong and China
acceptance in Hong Kong and China
COST SAVINGS Gr. 450 same price than our Gr. 345
LESS WEIGHT Thinner, lighter but STRONGER
Easier fabrication No preheating before welding
Less welding Thinner steel
Cheaper connections Simpler moment connections
Less trucking, lighter handling,etc
Worldwide acceptance PERFECTION over decades
WIDEST RANGE of sizes and grades
TECHNICAL SUPPORT from design through fabrication
Steel is 100% RECYCLABLE
USE ARCELORS ROLLED SHAPES
IN HISTAR STEEL BECAUSE: