Prepared by: Altaf Ahmed Sheikh
CSS - 2011
Study Area – I: Sociological Theorists and Their Theories
2010 - Discuss critically the theories of Social Action and Bureaucracy presented by Max Weber.
How thetheory of bureaucracy is relevant to situation in Pakistan? Discuss with logic and evidence.
2009 – Karl Max “Theory of Labour” discuss in detail.
2009 – Discuss the major contributions of Max Weber in understanding the society theoretically.
2008 – Karl Marx has discussed labour theory of value in detail. What do you understand by that
theory? Write your answer in detail.
2007 - In the light of theoretical perspectives (Hegel, Marx, Coser, Mills) explain the true nature of
conflict. Discuss the various forms of pervasive conflict in Pakistani Society.
2007 - What major contributions were made by Emile Durkheim and Max Weber to the understanding
of society theoretically? How far the two theorists can be taken relevant today?
2006 - What is the role of C.W Mills in the development of Frankfurt school of conflict society?
Where and how he differs from his contemporaries? Discuss with evidence.
2005 - What are different theories about origin of society? Discuss them in detail.
2004 - What major contributions did Karl Marx and Ibn-i-Khaldun make to our understanding of the
social experience?
2003 - Durkheim wrote extensively on suicide. Critically examine his views about suicide.
2003 - Describe the idea philosophy of money as presented by George Simmel. How and in what ways
other scholars have presented their views to describe the idea of philosophy of money.
2002 - Max Weber is a strong advocate of bureaucratic form of government. Explain in detail what
lead Max Weber to write in favour of bureaucracy.
2002 - Division of labour has been discussed by various sociological theorists. Discuss in detail the
point of view taken about division of labour by Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim.
2001 - Ibne-Khaldoon is known as “Father of Sociology”. Briefly discuss his contributions to
Area of Focus
Ibne-Khaldoon’s contribution in Sociology
Max Weber’s Contribution in Sociology especially ‘Theory of Labour’ & ‘Bureaucracy’.
Emile Durkheim’s Contribution in Sociology, especially ‘Theory of Suicide’.
Prepared by: Altaf Ahmed Sheikh
Study Area – II: Research Methodology/Sociological Investigation/Research Design
2010 - What is internal validity that influences social science research design? What are different threats
to internal validity? Discuss with examples.
2009 – Define the term Sociological Research and explainthe important steps of conducting the Social
2008 – What type of survey research do you use to study young criminals? Defend the logic of your
choice in detail.
2007 - A research design is a roadmap for investigation. Discuss the major decisions a researcher
makes in designing a study. While discussing decision, identify a research problem with reference to
which the designing has been envisaged.
2006 - What is a research design? What type of research design can be used for studying the problems
of drug addiction/HIV/AIDS in Pakistani Society? Discuss with examples.
2005 - Discuss the importance of Social research for the study of Sociology. Explain the steps to be
taken in social Research Process.
2004 - Why isresearch essential to the scientific enterprise and what are the principal theoretical
methods available to Sociologists in the study of social life? What are the advantages and
disadvantages of each?
2003 - When is survey research appropriate? What typeof survey research would you use to study
heroin users? Define the logic of your choice.
2002 - What do you understand by experimental method used in data collection? Explain why some
researchers preferred it over other data collection methods in social sciences and for kind of studies
experimental method is used by researchers.
2001 - Discuss briefly the method of sociological research. Formulate three hypothesis indicating
variables of each.
Area of Focus
What is Social Research?
 Methods of Social Research.
 Steps in conducting Social Research.
 Importance of Social Research.
 Advantages and Disadvantages.
What is Research Design? Its types.
What is Research Survey?
Prepared by: Altaf Ahmed Sheikh
Study Area – III: Culture, Sub-culture, Socialization, Cultural Change
2007 - Individual is product of society and culture. Different methods of socialization lead to a variety of
building norms and values in the personality of individuals. Discuss:
a) the relationship of individual, society and culture
b) different methods of socialization
c) the variation exemplified due to different methods of socialization in norms and values.
2005 - In your opinion what are the advantages of socialization? Is socialization process applicable to
the adults? Discuss it.
2004 - Why is culture indispensable to human society and what part do norms and values play in
social life?
2001 - What is the role of culture in socialization of an individual to become a useful member of
society? Discuss with examples.
2001 - What factors are related to social and cultural change? Give examples of Pakistan.
Area of Focus
What is Culture?
 Role of culture in life
 Cultural Values/Norms
 Cultural Change
 Sub-Cultures
What is Socialization?
 Differentiate b/w Successful (Complete) Socialization and Failed (Incomplete)
 Method of Socialization
 Advantages & Disadvantages of Socialization
Study Area – IV: Social Stratification, Feuds, Labours, Social Problem
2009 – Define the term ‘Social Problem’. Discuss smuggling as a social problem in a society.
2007 - Discuss the class structure of Pakistan society with special reference to:
a) the influence of the class structure at the time of independence
b) the determinants of social mobility
c) the feudal system
2004 - How can you define poverty and what strategies the Government of Pakistan has adopted to
alleviate poverty and also discuss the role of NGOs to address the issue of poverty.
2001 - What are the systems of forms of Social Classes? Discuss the impact of Feudal System in
Prepared by: Altaf Ahmed Sheikh
Area of Focus
Social Stratification (Class System) in Pakistan
 Impacts of class system
 Problems arising from class system and their solutions
What is Social Problem?
 Some Prominent Social Problems (Evils)
 Poverty, Illiteracy, Child Labour, Women Harassment, Honour Killing, etc.
Study Area – V: Social Interaction, Groups, Institutions, Mobility and Mobilization
2010 - How do you perceive the future of family institution/system in Pakistan? Discuss with examples
especially keeping in view marriage, elderly and youth problems in the families.
2008 – What do you understand by Social Mobility? Do transfer of payments aid or discourage social
2008 – Why does dissatisfaction with Bureaucracy arises? What is the major obstacle in eliminating
bureaucratic features which cause resentment? Discuss in detail.
2006 - Define Social Institution. What is significance of family, religion, and education as institutions
in the process of socialization? Explain your answer with examples from Pakistani society.
2005 - Differentiate between primary and secondary groups, and discuss the character of primary
2004 - Define social institution and how can religion hold in check the explosive social tensions
produced by inequality and injustice?
2002 - Discuss in detail how social institutions/organizations have been helpful in social and
economic development of society?
Area of Focus
What is Social Interaction?
 Types of Interaction
 Frequency, Duration, Intensity (FDIF)
What are Social Groups?
 Types of Social Groups
 Differences & Similarities between various types of Social Groups
What are Social Institutions?
 Role of Social Institutions in Social & Economic Development.
 Role of Social Institutions in Ending Social Evils.
Prepared by: Altaf Ahmed Sheikh
Study Area – VI: Social Change, Social Control, Social Deviance, Social Order, Social Status
2010 - Discuss the role of media in social and cultural change in Pakistan. What type of social
planning/policy is needed to direct this change in the context of our own social and cultural values?
Discuss with examples.
2009 – Define the term “Social Change”. How it occurs in a traditional society? Discuss it in detail.
2004 - Define ‘Status’. Discuss the factors which decide status of an individual in society.
2004 - What are the social effects of deviance and doCrime-fighting programmes including
imprisonment work in Pakistan?
2003 - What to you understand by diffusion of innovation? Taking Pakistani situation, are we in a
position to reach the stage of taking off economically?
2001 - What factors are related to social and cultural change? Give examples of Pakistan.
2001 - Discuss briefly the internal and external means of Social control with reference to Pakistani
Area of Focus
What is Social Change?
 Difference between Social Change & Social Deviance
 Factors of Social Change/Deviance
 Types of Social Deviance/Deviance
What is Social Status?
 Types of Status
 Deciding Factors of Social Status
What is Social Control?
 Types of Social Control
 Method of Social Control
 Advantages & Disadvantages of Social Control
Study Area – VII: Rural-Urban Transition, Migration, Development, Poverty, Effects
2010 - Urbanization in Pakistan is increasing day by day. How do you look into the future of major
cities in Pakistan? Discuss in light of terror and security situation in these cities.
2009 – Define the term “Community” and discuss the important characteristics of a rural and urban
2009 – Discuss migration as a Social Phenomenon.
2008 – Migration from rural to urban area is on the rise in Pakistan. Discuss all the positive and negative
points at the origin and destination keeping theory of migration into consideration.
Prepared by: Altaf Ahmed Sheikh
2006 - Rural-Urban migration is causing labour-drain from rural communities. What problems this
situation is creating in the labour market of rural communities. As a subject scholar, what solutions do
you suggest to minimize these problems? Discuss with examples.
2006 - There is a thesis that “the development programmes/strategies to change the fate of poor farming
community in rural Pakistan are not based upon the evidence-based policy. Therefore, a failure, in this
regard, is being faced for the last several decades.” How do you support this thesis? Make an evidence-
based argument in the light of different evaluation/assessments made for rural development in Pakistan.
2000 - What do you understand by the term Modernization? Discuss the important factors associated
with modernization of a society with special reference to Pakistani society.
Area of Focus
What is Community?
 Urban & Rural Communities
 Rural-Urban Transition
What is Migration?
 Pros & Cons of Migration
 Problems arising due to Migration
What is Modernization?
 Factors of Modernization
 Modernization in Pakistan
Study Area – VIII: Miscellaneous Questions
2010 - What is role of biradri/castes in political system of Pakistan? Support your answer with data and
evidence from previous general election results in Pakistani society.
2008 – In what respects are your values similar to those of your parents? In what respects do they
differ? How do you explain these differences?
2007 - Political thinkers in Pakistan lament that man in the street is alienated. Do you agree to the
statement and if you agree give reasons. Discuss:
d) nature of alienation
e) integration
c) integrative patterns in Pakistan
2006 - What role biradri/caste system is playing in decision making on political issues especially local
bodies election in rural areas of Pakistan? How this biradri-based political organization influences the
community development process? Discuss in the light of issues/conflicts arising from the situation and
their impact on the individual, family, and society.
2005 - Define the terms ‘Race and Racism’. Discuss the causes responsible for Race Prejudices, and
how these can be eradicated?
2003 - What do you understand by scales and indexes used in sciences? When is it necessary to shift the
base of an index and how is this process carried out?
Prepared by: Altaf Ahmed Sheikh
2003 - The young criminals have been on the increase in Pakistan for the last many years in jail. Write
down critically the main factors associated with Juvenile delinquency.
2002 - Explain social, environmental and psychological factors associated with young criminals.
Answer the question with special reference to Pakistani society.
Area of Focus
Juvenile Delinquency
Racism & Its Factors
Social Solidarity
Disintegrating Social Fabric & its Causes.
Study Area – IX: Short Notes:
2010 – 1. Poverty in Pakistan 2. Drug Abuse in Pakistan
2009 – No Short Notes.
2008 – 1. Effects of Population Policy 2002 2. Internal Migration
2007 - 1. Incentives and inhibitions to social and cultural change in Pakistan
2. Rural-Urban convergence of the future of cities in Pakistan
3. The nature and genesis of social institutions with special reference to political institution
4. Demographic Transition identifying the stage in Pakistan
2006 - 1. Drug Abuse 2. Social Conflicts
2005 - 1. Factions and Feuds 2. Parole system in Pakistan
2004 – 1. Future of Cities in Pakistan 2. Implication of population growth
3. Ethnocentrism 4. Probability and Non-probability Sampling
2003 – 1. Aging of Population 2. Factors influencing high divorce rate in Pakistan
2002 – 1. Child and Women Abuse in Pakistan 2. Poverty issue in Pakistan.
2001 - 1. Drug Abuse2. Theory of differential association 3. International Migration.

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