This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Impact of digital Era on Fashion Industry:
There is a severe competition in the digital markets in terms of Fashion industry. The emergence
of branding channels and new sales like M-commerce, social commerce, gaming and market
places have trampled traditional web shops. This is all due to the maturity and streaming of e-
commerce. Multi channel Retailing and Sales have become the focus of sales and branding
instead of technology centric perspective. (Rina & Torben, 2011).
According to Vietnamese customers, website with needed and necessary information, clear
demonstration of colors on website, strong assurance of quality by the supplier, guaranteed
safety and truth worthiness regarding the use of products by sellers are the core five elements
that are considered to be the powerful value adding factors in the apparel industry. Apparel
customers also consider other different elements as value adding components but they vary
across demographics and usage of internet by the people. Also E-commerce has changed the
traditional way of doing business to more efficient and fast and new tool for conducting business.
(Long, Nga & Ha, 2011).
Global reporting initiative is found to be the useful framework by the sellers or retailers of
online apparel selling for sustainability in the apparel industry. Global reporting initiative
basically deals with the aspects of social and environmental factors to achieve sustainability in
the apparel industry. (Fulton, 2013)
With the introduction of Information Technology, Supply chain management has changed its
traditional focus to cost effective, agile, and prompt and real time information integrated through
an integrated process to fulfill the expectations of customers in an efficient manner. Through
warehouse which has integrated information has made the system of supply chain an efficient
process for fast logistics management. Attitudes of consumers is increasingly shifting to online
rather offline usage with the globalized era. The set up of business is changing and more focused
to E-logistics and E-SCM, E-procurement and E-distribution. (Bhuyian, 2013).
Firm efficiency in the fashion industry is affected by process and product innovation based on
web technology. Web based product innovation affects the efficiency in a positive way and is
monotonic. Whereas process innovation in term of web technology negatively affects the
technology implementation at the first stage and then it positively affects when the
implementation process gets more advanced. (González, Hurtado, & Chacón, 2014).
E-commerce is a source of distinctive competence and competitive differentiation as it enhances
the communication in supply chain and service offering. Because manufacturers do not like to
compete on the basis of prices normally and find some powerful competitive advantage which
gives them long term success and reputation with image. (Bruce, Margaret & Daly, 2010).
With advancements in technology and rapid developments in networks, patterns of E-commerce
have highly revolutionalized. This has especially proved for Apparel industry which is a first
kind of fashion industry. Fashion industry has adopted and embraced the manifestations of E-
commerce at the highest level. Apparel industry has realized the need of E-commerce in every
aspect of its operations and exploring different patterns to inculcate it everywhere in its
procedures and working. (Quan-ming, Li, & Yi, 2011).
Use of Technological tools by Retailers for the Promotion of Products:
Suppliers are using internet as a low cost network for E-commerce business transactions. This
helps them to get advantage from cost benefits and enhancement in productivity in online
purchasing. Suppliers are playing critical role in enhancing technological innovation for online
shopping. Suppliers are shifting towards online purchasing from traditional activities and are
taking effective and competitive strategies. (Deeter‐Schmelz et al, 2001).
Radio frequency distribution is a technology used by retailers in their businesses and supply chin
to identify, track and trace information they need in supply chain. This helps in lower labor cost,
increased supply chain efficiency and simple businesses processes. It also helps in increasing the
inventory turnover; avoid stock outs and accuracy of inventory information. (Zhu, Xiaowei &
Shift in Female buying behavior with the advent of E-Commerce & Effective strategies to
tap Female market:
For Ecommerce women lack the motivation and the reason behind this is their perceived
emotional benefits. The framework will explain why women are less satisfied with ecommerce
with the experience of online shopping. Practicality and trust which are skepticism and
convenience in other words are additional concepts in the framework. Dissatisfaction and
satisfaction of women are predicted by these three attributes of trust, convenience and emotion.
Gender has been the focus in this research and ideas for creating strong emotional bonds with
online shoppers especially females. (Alder & Nancy, 1996).
In case of women there is no effect of personal awareness of security. On the other hand,
perceived ease of purchasing highly affects the intentions of online purchase with attitudes in
case of females and this influence is much stronger than males. This has also been revealed that
attitudes and intentions of online purchase in females are equally affected by personal
innovativeness and perceived usefulness. Personal innovativeness, perceived ease of purchasing,
personal awareness of security and perceived usefulness are the four exogenous constructs that
directly influence online buying intentions and attitudes of both males and females whereas
indirect influence on buying intentions is through mediation of attitudes. This study will help
advertisers and e-tailors in targeting right customers and encouraging and fostering positive
buying intentions and attitudes by learning these gender differences. (Samiee, Saeed & Kendell,
Although huge levels of products are being offered on the web with increasing number of online
users, very less number of studies or work has been conducted to analyze the education level that
have their affects on the attitudes of online users in the context of Singapore. Majority of the
Singaporeans are in favor of this fact that internet is the best and convenient medium to purchase
online and information seeking. This opinion lies mostly with males. Males say that shopping on
internet is cost saving and prices are better whereas females show dislike for shopping online in
Singapore. According to them online shopping cannot match their satisfaction level they have
when they buy physically or physically experience the things with all their features and qualities.
Also educated people are less conscious about the security issues than uneducated people.
(Dawar, Niraj & Frost, 1992).
Shoppers’ especially female shoppers are more enthusiastic about shopping as they need to
socialize and enjoy more than their male counter parts. Growth in retail shopping in the form of
e-retailing has deteriorated their chances of socializing and enjoying. Mature females cannot
socialize and moves to physically check the stuff of the goods themselves to meet their
satisfaction level. Although women shop lot in the high street but males are still very dominant
in online shopping or e-shopping. The purpose of this study is to discover why people shop so
that a new concept of combing e-shopping with social networking and create something more
easy and favorable for shoppers. The findings have cleared the fact that young female buyers are
more curious and fond of socially shopping online. Proposition of the research was also that
online female buyers prefer to shop online than traditional way of buying. The reason behind
this is there is a growing trend of social networking and it is popular much in females. E-
shopping has been found exciting, useful and enjoyable by utilitarian and hedonic young adult
females. Youngsters are more attracted to internet usage and they find it easier than traditional
shopping. They get new ideas, designs and trends going on which gives them information and
fashion sense enhancement. On the other, many respondents said that it is too difficult to shop
online but the response was positive by majority respondents. This study has practical
implications for e-retailers as they can create and make stronger their competitive edge by using
e-shopping as a valuable strategy and increase the intentions of online buying of females
positively. (Ives, Blake, & Jarvenpaa, 1991).
Word of mouth also plays a major role when it comes to buying online. Web links suggested by
friends and relatives play an immense role in making the purchase intention especially of
females. The trust level of females increased together with their easiness and comfort. Some
females also prefer to purchase with one click rather than going outside and the majority of them
are working women. As they do not get normally much time and are tired enough so they feel
better to stay at home and get their work done. Some females are eager to surf and play on
websites. Their favorite hobby is to spend time on internet. And their major time is consumed
while sitting on internet. (Kaul et.al, 2003).
Most of the females like and love to buy clothes. In order to be aware of the latest trends and
fashions they on and off check the new sites of new brands and aware of every new launch.
Sometimes they like it so that they order online at that moment. This depends upon the attraction
and colors available to them or patterns that match their choice and ideas. After all it depends
upon the creativity of retailer to get the best on the internet display that catches or captures the
attention of buyer. Due to huge competition it has become crucial to the success of very retailer
to sell itself the best possible he can on internet. (Hannon & Jaw, 1995).
There is a high level of risk perceived by women when buying online even when differences in
internet usage are controlled. But also this perceived risk especially in women is reduced and
willingness to buy online gets stronger when there is a recommendation from a friend about the
use of a particular website for online shopping. Females feel more reliable when it is
recommended by any friend as they trust them. They get the kind of security that it is safe and
protective to shop online on this particular website. The reason behind conduction of this study is
to check women in the form of their perceptions about risk associated with online shopping and
recommendations by friends for particular website usage for online buying. In the first study it
has been proposed that how the perceptions of the negative outcomes are influenced due to five
different risks associated with online buying that includes loss of privacy, shipping problems,
fraudulent sites, product failure and credit card risks. The proposition of the second study was
how much purchase intentions and perceptions of both the genders are affected when there is a
recommendation from a friend. In the third study there is an experimental testation that whether
women are more likely to purchase online if they are recommended by a friend or not. (Rodgers,
Shelly & Harris, 2003).
Women as compared to men are more positive towards shopping in general or traditionally.
Their attitudes and behavioral intentions are favoring more traditional buying. While comparing
ratings for catalogues and store shopping, females were more feasible and positive towards it
than men. Women are more satisfied with shopping physically and they get much motivated
when something is enhanced in their shopping experience. This study is based on the survey of
300 men and 300 women to check their attitudes and perceptions towards online shopping.
Catalogues and store shopping on the basis of 12 positive and 12 negative adjectives. (Rodgers,
Shelly & Harris, 2003).
Buying attitudes of women are more strongly affected by online environment. In the shift to
online buying from conventional buying, the functional concerns in case of females are enhanced
than changed. In this shift the motivational priorities of women are reversed and there shopping
craze and involvement has been reduced. Women are more excited by the traditional shopping as
going out and searching out is the best opportunity they get after working at home or office.
Having fun and searching things of their choice is their favorite hobby. In the attitudes of
females there are certain concerns grounded towards conventional or traditional buying. These
concerns are creating barriers and they include identity related problems, efficiency and socio-
experiential factors. This study is conducted in the context to check the differences in relation
with conventional and online buying. This study is important in the perspective that it suggests
concerned people the strategies to market by keeping in view the attitudes of women towards the
accelerating shift towards computer and online based shopping. By keeping in view the moods
and minds of females towards online shopping retailers can take the effective strategies and
choose paths that lead to their success. (Hannon & Jaw, 1995).
Transaction security which is a major concern today has not been proved that important in this
study and the perceptions of both men and women do not differ in this context. However major
and significant differences have been observed in website design and satisfaction level of both
the genders but not in case of e-loyalty. A very few researchers are conducted in order to know
the difference in perceptions of males and females with the exponential increase in the online
shopping in recent years. So this study is helpful in the context as it sheds light upon the
difference of perceptions in genders regarding website design elements, website trust and e-
loyality. Further researchers should also be conducted in order to get the best idea of what
females’ further need and what is their in-depth need that can help them buy online. After all
customer delightment is the primary factor in determining the huge sales and delightment comes
when expectations are met beyond the limits. Online purchase is a new concept and should be
researched enough to make effective strategies for huge purchase. (Alder & Nancy, 1996).
For online shopping females perceive the high level of risk for online shopping and that is the
reason they are always hesitated when asked to choose online buying. This has become the major
reason of less frequency of female online purchasing. The major rationale behind the conduction
of this study is to check the impact of online consumer reviews on the purchase intentions of
online buyers. The bottom line is that the affect of online consumer reviews has stronger effect
on purchase intentions of females. The negative online consumer reviews are more attracted and
influence females to positive online consumer review in the form of negativity effect. Females
observe and think more about the things when there is a negative word of mouth and so their
purchase intention is affected by it accordingly. This study wants to check the existence of this
gap in the present time and it has vast implications for online sellers as how they can utilize
online consumer reviews to attract females or capture their intentions towards online buying.
Females always go for reviews so that may purchase carefully and get the perfect product for
themselves. (Dennis & Charles, 2010).
A sample of 365 college students has been studied to compare the predictors of purchasing
online for men and women. The only predictor of purchasing online is the number of hours
spend online in shopping. In females, there are additional predictors including anxiety about
using computers and attitude towards money usage of money besides number of hours spent
shopping online. Females are reluctant to use computers much and they do not like sitting on
computers a lot and searching for hours and hours. They like moving, checking and going out to
physically check the goods themselves. The study has its recommendations for online sellers to
make the buying easier for females online. The trust in the website is determined through website
cognitive and experiential goals, firm reputation, consumer satisfaction, bricks and mortar
experience whereas it is moderated by the perceived risk of consumers while shopping online.
Retailers can make their websites easy to use and user friendly for women so that their nature of
getting things easily and their needs are accordingly fulfilled. Also security issues like credit card
usage should be secured enough so that they may have the satisfaction that money is spent at the
right place. (Hannon & Jaw, 1995).
Females as compared to their male counterparts prefer significantly return labels. The study is
important from different perspectives. There is a demonstration that these significant differences
are only shown when features are individually compared but not on the construct level. This
study helps lot businesses to create something better by enhancing their online purchasing
platform to help consider the needs of males and females buying in a better way. With growing
use of internet and automation, it is better to make everything attractive online so that sales
increase and so the profits. (Rodgers, Shelly & Harris, 2003).
Attitudes towards online shopping and ecommerce are influenced by three critical determinants
that include emotional expectations, trust and self efficacy regardless of gender. But these
emotional attributes like trust and self efficacy are significantly lower in females towards online
buying and ecommerce and their attitudes are more favorable. This study is important for e-
retailers to better learn and make better platform for online purchasing. Females are more
emotional than males and they are more excited with colors and enchantment. So websites
should be user friendly and lively so that females should not leave it without buying anything.
(Chiu, Lin & Tang, 2005).
Online shopping behavior is affected by gender and attitude but this shopping attitude is always a
poor construct in the field of study. This research also serves as a guideline for future researches
and paves the way for them to have a solid base to find and invent new things. This study is
going to extend the hot topic of three attitudinal components of cognitive, affective and
behavioral components in which attitude is used as a multidimensional concept. (Alder & Nancy,
The relationship of shopping orientation and shopping on internet is not moderated by product
types on the basis of cost and tangibility. Patronage behavior is studied by shopping orientations
and patronage behavior includes in-home shopping, out home shopping, brand loyality and store
loyalty. Online shopping intentions are predicted at minimal by incremental demographic
indicators. (Chiu, Lin & Tang, 2005).
Older online shoppers as compared to young counterparts search and wander for fewer products.
But their actual purchase is equivalent to young adults. The variance in online shopping behavior
is explained much by attitudinal factors. In online purchasing age explains more variance when
people are purchasing online. This study has a focus on the young and older people while buying
on internet with attitudes playing the significant role. The research has implications as retail
managers can make use of the result to understand the behavior of consumers with different ages.
(Dennis & Charles, 2010).
The extent of customer confidence, product selection, website usability and the quality of
customer relationships are the best source of competitive advantage for firms working online.
The major opinion from consumers is that reduced difficulty while selection of items plays an
important role in online clothes purchasing. But when this opinion was generalized on gender
level, this selection difficulty was a barrier for women only while online buying clothing.
However less during online buying of clothes affected the purchase but fun is not the factor that
influenced females. Shopping orientation and online purchase intention across four different
gender related purchasing contexts has been analyzed and investigated in this research. For
understanding the impact of shopping orientation on online purchasing intention is analyzed
across different perspectives general setting on the basis of conceptual model developed and
tested. (Alder & Nancy, 1996).
This study moves beyond the concept of online buying behavior to shopping online continuance.
60% of the female intention to buy online continuance is explained in this research. In Saudi
Arabia continuance in online shopping is determined by perceived enjoyment, subjective norms
and usefulness. Among women in Saudi Arabia high and low spenders online are equivalent.
Online strategies should take into account high and low spending online and the differences in it.
A revised technology model has been proposed in this research and expectation confirmation
theory has been integrated to check the impact on online shopping continuance regards to Saudi
Arabia. 650 female respondents have been selected in the sample and the model has been
confirmed by structural equation model. Purchasing again and again is better than purchasing
one time. So continuance purchase is better than one time purchase. (Hui & Van, 2009).
Women prefer and place more significantly more importance on assurance than men. Assurance
has a close relation with privacy and security as women are not secured while shopping on
internet due to which they lack in trust. In other words, trust of the women is not sufficiently
built for online shopping. Trust is the major factor where females lacks especially in case of
online shopping and as things are normally a much assured s they get assurance in traditional
buying so there satisfaction level is not met. This research is different from other studies as it
does not consider gender differences in regards to frequency of buying or browsing online.
Rather it has considered the differences in the kinds and types of products that women and men
may prefer to buy online. Factors that affect the perceived quality of online retailers and the way
perceptions of genders differ in relation to this are studied in this research. Factor analysis has
been used to study seven electronic dimensions of retailing quality which includes credibility,
assurance, convenience, ordering services, product content, reliability and accessibility. These
dimensions critically influence the purchase intentions of both males and females. (Alder &
Repurchase intentions are influenced by different factors. Cost effectiveness, functionality,
transaction security and navigation are the core factors. Repurchase intentions are influenced by
trust and trust is affected by these factors. There is a moderating effect of Gender on the purchase
intentions. The thought processes of males affect the trust which in turn affects the repurchase
intentions. This influence is less in females. In females the case is different. Their thought
processes are influenced by the navigation functionality which affects the trust and so the
repurchase intentions as compared to males. These four factors are identified and their affect on
trust in online tourism shopping is analyzed. And the effect of trust on repurchase intention is
then analyzed. This research is helpful in future context as it helps in designing the websites that
helps in development of intention to repurchase and trust prediction methodologies. These
designed websites than creates appeal to different genders. (Chiu, Lin & Tang, 2005).
While buying online time saving and convenience are seen as the major supporting variables
while interview with over 70% of young females. Most of the respondents of this study were
females that are young less than 55 in age and have their average income $70,000 or more. 15%
have reported that online grocery purchase is difficult as due to constraint or physical issues.
19% have reported that they purchase their full grocery online. 243 US consumers who online
purchase their groceries were asked and shopping and demographic variables are proved to affect
willingness to buy grocery online, experience with online grocery shopping and shopping online
perception as compared to store. (Chiu, Lin & Tang, 2005).
Females and males prefer differently while buying on internet. Both like to buy but have certain
conditions. Females need to be more satisfied than males and want to purchase best at the end.
They search for number of sites and spend hours and hours to get their choice. Also they have a
security issue. Credit card and personal information needs to be much more secured so that they
may not get into problem otherwise. Males have a trust factor more with them. They are not that
conscious about the color schemes, patterns and prices. Bargaining is the factor which females
go for normally more. So if there are price discounts available online they feel much satisfied
and happy. Variety and uniqueness are also the elements of their choice. If different varieties in
one category are available they are encouraged and do not get confused. The purchase intention
is highly diverted if the above mentioned factors are furnished by the e-retailers making the
shopping experience much easier than traditional buying or purchasing. (Dennis & Charles,
Female consumers clearly mentioned that at this moment they prefer to buy traditionally due to
certain steps, procedures and actions like touching and scrunching textile or cloth before taking
the decision to buy them which they otherwise cannot do online. Whether to adopt internet or
not, their current practices or ways play an important role in shaping their minds and hearts. In
order to refine the response, respondents were asked to use different websites at which apparels
are sold online. Data analysis process proposed by Miles and Huber man is used to analyze the
data. 24 semi structured interviews have been conducted with women that are living in the major
city of South Africa and these females are professional. And the type of research is qualitative in
nature. Women are best at buying in holidays and males are otherwise best in buying. This has
very clear implications for online sellers to take effective strategies while creating the impact
online. The major focus of the study is to check the role of female consumer apparel shopping
script play from the social cognitive approach in the adoption of internet for online buying is
used as a theoretical framework in the methodology of the research. In order to study consumer
adoption processes from consumer perspective social cognitive approach has been used by e-
retailers and marketers. (Dennis & Charles, 2010).
Repeat purchase intention is positively influenced by satisfaction and consumer inertia and
consumer inertia is more powerful than satisfaction. Positive word of mouth positively
moderates the relationship of consumer inertia and repeat purchase intention and negatively
moderates the relationship of consumer inertia and repeat purchase intention. The relationship of
both consumer inertia and satisfaction with repeat purchase intention is not affected or moderate
by alternative attraction. Self developed online survey system has been used to collect data. The
questionnaire consisted of three sections. Gender and online shopping experience has been used
in the first section to screen participants. In the research model, perception of each construct by
the respondents has been made the part of second section. Basic personal data of respondents has
been made the part of third section. Also it has been proved that female shoppers online are
increasing and outweighing male shoppers online and outnumbering them as well. The direct
influence of consumer inertia and satisfaction on purchase intention has not been analyzed.
Switching path analysis technique has been used in the research to check the effect of consumer
inertia and satisfaction on purchase intention and moderate effect of alternative attraction and
positive word of mouth has been analyzed. (Yip, 2003).
The comportment with which the women online shoppers have been shifted to cooperate
mindsets and behaviors from competitive mindsets and behaviors with other women online
shoppers has been explored. Four complimentary trajectories explain this shift that describes
women progressive intention of different mindsets of cooperation, co-petition, charity and
competition. The realm of highly dynamic environment molds and fosters the moods and minds
female online shoppers. (Yip, 2003).
26% of female as compared to 31% of men compare prices while shopping online. 47% of
women think buying online gifts saves them money whereas 6 out of every 10 men think that
there money is saved while online shopping. 42% of men think their time is saved while
shopping online as compared to 36% of women opinion of time saving while shopping online.
For holiday shopping on internet women are much more active than men. 27% women with
internet access have purchased gift online in 2000 holidays as compared to 20% men. Women
online shopping behavior change during holiday as in other days men are purchase more online.
In the rest of the year 49% of men purchase as compared to 45% of women. Women percentage
is 33 as compared to 14 percent men who say they enjoy holiday shopping on internet. For other
holiday purchases and celebrations women are also active online buyers. 56% of women are
active to send emails related to holidays to their relatives and friends in holidays as compared to
50% of men. Women also exceed in percentage in sending online greeting cards. 38% of women
send the greeting cards as compared to 27% of women. Only 14% of men researched recepies
and holiday crafts as compared to one third of women that is 33%. Also women are more likely
to express concerns about security and credit card information protection. These percentages
clearly depicts that women are much fond of shopping on holidays and so retailers should not
miss the golden chance of their website advertisement on holidays and should take effective
strategies in this regard. (Hannon & Jaw, 1995).
With the introduction of new technologies interactivity on internet and richer communication has
led to great exchange of information. With this huge exchange of information, worldwide web
retailers are now designing their website that attractive and gain the attention of consumers
towards themselves. The amount of information and the degree of media richness has also been
the focus. (Chiu, Lin & Tang, 2005).
Women expect that media should be able to educate and entertain. In the past women were not
attracted towards online shopping as much of the media was loaded with stuff entertaining and
educating males. (Hui & Van, 2009).
While shopping online females are curious and search for product information, use assistant
agent that includes customer reviews and comprehensive processors as compared to males.
Females also use more customer reviews and assistant agent when they shop for experience
goods as compared to search goods. Data has been collected from online retailer and analyze
online customer purchase behavior in terms of product and gender categories. This research is
best enough to help further researchers, practitioners and academics to work on online buying
behavior in online shopping context. (Dennis & Charles, 2010).
Females are reluctant to shop online and purchase. They have more computer anxiety and they
have a vulnerability of emotions and that is why they lack in interaction with people and so
higher perceived risk towards shopping on internet. They are not confident enough to take the
risk and buying online. Normally they are not satisfied because according to them actual good
and one displayed on the website are not similar. They are presented in a manner which creates
attraction for consumers. (Baldwin & Johansen, 2006).
According to the selectivity model, while buying online there are differences in information
processing. Females are considered as “comprehensive processors” whereas males are known as
“selective processors”. Males try to get heuristic information and females go for detailed
information related to products sold on internet. Females tend to ask for minute details and
features with manufacturing details. Also they go for price bargain together with many other
discussions which they cannot do otherwise online. (Rodgers, Shelly & Harris, 2003).
Females consider shopping enjoyable and are highly positive and considering and associating it
with leisure. Females spend most of their energies while shopping to get the best of the best. And
females search for more information by searching more product pages while shopping online.
(Van & Cristie, 2002).
In the online context for interactive experience consumer desires depend upon product
categories. It is best that retailers should design their websites that it makes real time interaction
with sales person furnished on it someway and comparable shopping experience on internet
especially in context of females. (Buckley & Peter, 2003).
Women differ in recreational, convenience and fashion consciousness but they do not differ in
brand, price consciousness, impulsive and shopping orientations. Also females in their clothing
shopping as they search for discounts, bargains, care about product quality and brand names. On
the whole females are less conscious than males in the about mentioned factors. (Dennis &
Adler, Nancy J., and Susan Bartholomew. "Managing globally competent people." The Executive
6.3 (1992): 52-65.
Baldwin, John R., and Joanne Johnson. "Business strategies in more-and less-innovative firms in
Canada." Research policy 25.5 (1996): 785-804.
Bhuiyan, Mohammad Nurul Karim. "Application of E-SCM Strategies to Enhance Efficiency
and Effectiveness in the Clothing Retail Sector." Industrial Engineering Letters 3.10 (2013): 11-
Bruce, Margaret, and Lucy Daly. "Innovative process in E-commerce fashion supply chains."
Innovative Quick Response Programs in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Springer
Berlin Heidelberg, 2010. 227-242.
Buckley, Peter J. "The impact of the global factory on economic development." Journal of World
Business 44.2 (2009): 131-143.
Chiu, Yu-Bin, Chieh-Peng Lin, and Ling-Lang Tang. "Gender differs: assessing a model of
online purchase intentions in e-tail service." International Journal of Service Industry
Management 16.5 (2005): 416-435.
Dawar, Niraj, and Tony Frost. "Competing with giants. Survival strategies for local companies in
emerging markets." Harvard business review 77.2 (1998): 119-29.
Deeter‐Schmelz, Dawn R., et al. "Business‐to‐Business Online Purchasing: Suppliers' Impact on
Buyers' Adoption and Usage Intent." Journal of Supply Chain Management 37.4 (2001): 4-10.
Dennis, Charles, et al. "The influences of social e-shopping in enhancing young women's online
shopping behaviour." Journal of Customer Behaviour 9.2 (2010): 151-174.
Feenstra, Robert C., and Gordon H. Hanson. Globalization, outsourcing, and wage inequality.
No. w5424. National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996.
Fulton, Katelyn, and Seung-Eun Lee. "Assessing sustainable initiatives of apparel retailers on the
internet." Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 17.3 (2013): 353-366.
González, José Manuel Hurtado, and Inés Herrero Chacón. "The causal effects of product
innovation, web technology and vertical integration on firm efficiency in the fashion industry."
Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice 16.1 (2014): 144-157.
Hannon, John M., Ing-Chung Huang, and Bih-Shiaw Jaw. "International human resource
strategy and its determinants: the case of subsidiaries in Taiwan." Journal of International
Business Studies (1995): 531-554.
Hansen, Rina, and Torben Tambo. "Branding and Channel Issues in E-Commerce from an
Information System's Perspective." Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS
Hui, Tak‐Kee, and David Wan. "Factors affecting Internet shopping behaviour in Singapore:
gender and educational issues." International Journal of Consumer Studies 31.3 (2007): 310-
Ives, Blake, and Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa. "Applications of global information technology: key issues
for management." Mis Quarterly (1991): 33-49.
Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L., and Blake Ives. "Organizing for Global Competition." Decision Sciences
24.3 (1993): 547-580.
Johansson, Johny K., and George S. Yip. "Exploiting globalization potential: US and Japanese
strategies." Strategic Management Journal 15.8 (1994): 579-601.
Kaul, Inge, et al. Providing global public goods: managing globalization. Oxford University
Quan-ming, Li, Xiao Xuan, and Zhu Yi. "Analysis and future of patterns for apparel e-
commerce." E-Business and E-Government (ICEE), 2011 International Conference on. IEEE,
Rodgers, Shelly, and Mary Ann Harris. "Gender and e-commerce: an exploratory study." Journal
of advertising research 43.03 (2003): 322-329.
Samiee, Saeed, and Kendall Roth. "The influence of global marketing standardization on
performance." The Journal of Marketing (1992): 1-17.
Scott, Allen J. "Entrepreneurship, innovation and industrial development: geography and the
creative field revisited." Small business economics 26.1 (2006): 1-24.
Tallman, Stephen, and Jiatao Li. "Effects of international diversity and product diversity on the
performance of multinational firms." Academy of Management journal 39.1 (1996): 179-196.
Van Slyke, Craig, Christie L. Comunale, and France Belanger. "Gender differences in
perceptions of web-based shopping." Communications of the ACM 45.8 (2002): 82-86.
Vu, Long, Nga Phan, and Ha Truong. "E-Customer values in Vietnamese apparel industry: A
study from customers' perception." (2011).
Workman, Jane E., and Siwon Cho. "Gender, fashion consumer groups, and shopping
orientation." Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 40.3 (2012): 267-283.
Zhu, Xiaowei, Samar K. Mukhopadhyay, and Hisashi Kurata. "A review of RFID technology
and its managerial applications in different industries." Journal of Engineering and Technology
Management 29.1 (2012): 152-167.
Zou, Shaoming, and S. Tamer Cavusgil. "The GMS: a broad conceptualization of global
marketing strategy and its effect on firm performance." Journal of Marketing 66.4 (2002): 40-56.
Yip, George S. Total global strategy. Prentice Hall PTR, 2001.