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Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards

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Overview
LAN communications defined
A fundamental requirement of any LAN is a transmission channel. Once this channel has
been put into place, the next step is to use it to allow stations to communicateto transmit
data, exchange files and messages, and to monitor and manage the network.
There are three basic configurations for the transmission of data:
A point-to-point connection, where two computers or a computer and a peripheral
device are directly attached to each other.
A LAN, which is usually a shared data communications facility. Here, a number of
stations can attach to the transmission channel but only one can successfully
transmit at a time.
A WAN (Wide Area Network) which represents communication between LANs over
extended geographic distances. Often, the communications channels used for
WAN activity are owned by a third party, such as a telephone company.
For all of the above configurations, the interface between the devices must either be the
same, or appropriate hardware/software must be provided to convert the coding, formatting,
framing and protocols between the different systems.
The focus of this chapter is on how communications are achieved between stations on a
LAN.
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Communications terminology
Asynchronous communications.
Each data character is coded as a string of bits and characters are separated by
start-character bit(s) and stop bit(s).
Synchronous communications.
No start and stop bits are used. Groups of bits are separated using a clocking
mechanism. That is, the sending and receiving stations are in synch with each
other.
Error detection and correction.
Techniques to permit a station to detect corrupted data and initiate a
retransmission.
Bandwidth.
A measure of data throughput. The information transmission capacity of the
transmission system, typically measured in Megabits per second (Mbps) in LAN
environments.
Packets/Frames/Datagrams.
A package of data with header informationtypically, source and destination
addresses, error correction information, sequence numbers and other information.
Sent and received by stations on a LAN.
Bit stream.
A series of binary 0s and 1s, representing the message being communicated.
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CCITT, continued
Communications standards organizations
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
ANSI is responsible for the development of both the FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
and the TP-PMD (Twisted-Pair- Physical Medium Dependent) LAN standards. Both of these
technologies operate at 100 Mbps, FDDI over optical fiber cabling and TP-PMD over twisted-
pair cabling. They are discussed in greater detail in a later chapter.
Comite Consultatif Internationale de Telegraphique et
Telephonique (CCITT)
More commonly known in English as the Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy
and Telephony.
The CCITT forms part of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), based in
Geneva, Switzerland. The ITU is a United Nations agency and all UN members belong to the
ITU.
The job of the CCITT is to study, recommend and standardize technical and operational
issues for telecommunications. The activities of the CCITT can be divided into three areas:
Study Groups
Their focus is to set standards for telecommunications equipment, systems,
networks and services.
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Plan Committees (World Plan and Regional Plan Committees)
Their focus is to develop general plans for a harmonized evolution of networks and
services.
Specialized Autonomous Groups
Their focus is to produce handbooks, strategies and case studies for support
mainly of developing countries.
The CCITT is more recently referred to as ITU-TSS (International Telecommunications
Union-Telecommunications Standardization Section).
CCITT (ITU) recommendations
These recommendations have a non-binding statusno one is forced to follow them.
However, there is an increasing awareness that following such recommendations
simplifies interconnection and interoperability of devices on a worldwide basis.
Two well-known series of standards produced by the CCITT include the V-series and the
X-series. The V-series covers transmission over telephone networks and has been used to
classify modem devices. The X-series covers Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
standards, discussed later in this chapter.
CCITT, continued
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Examples of V-series CCITT standards
V.22 1200 bps (bits per second) full-duplex modem standard.
V.22bis 2400 bps full-duplex modem standard.
V.28 Defines circuits in RS-232 interface.
V.32 Asynchronous and synchronous 4800 and 9600 bps standard.
V.32bis Asynchronous and synchronous standard up to 14400 bps.
V.34 A proposed standard for 28 Kbps transmission rates.
V.35 Defines high data rates over combined circuits.
V.42 Defines error checking standards.
V.42bis Defines modem compression using Lempel-Ziv method.
Examples of X-series CCITT standards
X.25 (ISO 7776) Packet-switching network interface.
X.200 (ISO 7498) OSI Reference Model.
X.400 (ISO 10021) Message handling (e-mail).
X.500 (ISO 9594) Directory Services.
X.700 (ISO 9595) Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP).
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International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Commonly referred to as the International Standards Organization, ISO is the worlds most
influential standards organization. Based in Geneva, ISO has developed a seven-layer
reference model for computer networking known as the Reference Model of Open Systems
Interconnection (less formally, the OSI model).
OSI Model
The OSI model is concerned with how systems exchange informationtheir
interconnectionnot with the internal functions performed by a given system. This model
uses a layered approach, where sets of functions are assigned to different layers.
A description of the OSI model and the role it plays in the LAN environment is detailed
later in this chapter.
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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
The IEEE is a United States-based organization responsible for the development of local
area network architecture standards. It was founded in 1884 for the purpose of promoting the
members, theories and practices in the fields of electrical, and later, electronic and computer
engineering.
The IEEE Computer Society Local Network Committee has developed several standards
related to the LAN environment. They have produced, and continue to update, a set of
standards defined under IEEE Project 802 (so named because it was formed in February,
1980).
IEEE Project 802
Project 802 is responsible for providing recommendations regarding how data should be
transmitted from one network device to anothercorresponding to the lowest two layers of
the OSI seven-layer model (the Physical and Data Link layers).
Early on in its work on developing LAN standards, it became clear to members that a
single standard, meeting all LAN requirements, would be impossibly complex. For this
reason, Project 802 worked towards developing sets, or families, of standards. The
objective was to encourage compatibility within a given family of standards, while
permitting the different families to meet various market requirements.
The role Project 802 plays in the LAN environment is detailed later in this chapter.
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Communications fundamentals
Protocols
Defined
A protocol is defined as:
A specific set of rules relating to the formatting and timing of data
transmission between two devices.
Protocols are therefore, the rules that govern the communications between two computers.
They represent a standard procedure that two data devices accept and use to
communicate with each other.
Computer communications protocols are much like diplomatic protocols which, for
example, define the proper procedures for communications between two heads of state.
They specify who talks to whom, at what point in time, what they can say to each other,
and how they must say it.
Communication protocols are defined within the context of a layered architecturea
protocol stack such as the OSI seven-layer reference model. In a layered architecture,
each layer builds a protocol data unit (PDU) that it sends to the peer, or equivalent, layer
in the destination computer. Upper layers of a protocol stack build PDUs, then pass them
to lower layers for further packaging.
Protocols, continued
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Function of a protocol
Protocols for data communications cover such areas as:
Speed of communication.
Electrical characteristics.
Use of shared resources.
Message length.
Addressing.
Error handling.
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Packets/Frames/Datagrams
Defined
A packet or datagram is a package of data that is transmitted between stations over a
transmission channel. Packets are assembled by the protocol layer(s) in the sending
station and disassembled by the corresponding protocol layer(s) in the receiving station.
Once a packet reaches the bottom of the protocol stack, it is broken into one or more
frames for transmission as a bit stream over the communications channel. The frame
format is defined by the LAN technology used.
A packet consists of two componentsthe data being exchanged (sometimes referred to
as the payload) and headers. Headers include the source and destination addresses and
control information. The data being exchanged can be:
Data, such as the contents of files.
Messages and commands, such as a request for service.
Control codes for managing the communication session, such as codes to indicate
communication errors and the need for retransmission.
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Layered architectures
Defined
Layering is a design approach specifying different functions and services at different levels
in a protocol stack. The protocol stack itself defines how communication hardware and
software interoperate at various levels. The Open Systems Interconnection seven-layer
reference model is an example of such a protocol stack.
Protocol stacks have the following characteristics:
Lower layers provide services to upper layers.
Each layer provides a set of services.
Services are defined by protocols.
Service access points (SAPs) are the connection points between layers.
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Hardware independence
Overview
A major problem in the early days of LAN computing was the lack of hardware and cabling
independence. That is, the hardware and the cabling system were dependent on the type
of LAN environment.
The difficulty was that no one type of hardware and cabling was best suited for all
situations. LAN buyers confirmed the need for these different environments by purchasing
different systems for different organizational requirements. Unfortunately, few of these
diverse systems were able to communicate with each other.
Rather than focus on a single, general-purpose LAN to satisfy all requirements, standards
committees work towards achieving hardware independence, defined as the ability of
different components to communicate and work with each other.
Objectives
There are certain objectives that should be met in the development of open
communications standards:
Connectivity
It should be possible to connect different hardware and software products to form a
networking system.
Hardware independence,
continued
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Modularity
It should be possible to use a relatively small set of general-purpose building
blocks in a wide variety of network environments.
Ease of implementation
It should be possible to quickly and easily install in a variety of configurations to
meet the needs of the users.
Ease of use
It should be possible for network users to use the communications facilities without
knowledge of the network structure or implementations.
Reliability
It should provide error detection and correction functions.
Ease of modification
It should be possible for the network to evolve as user needs changes or as new
technologies become available.
Much of the credit for hardware independence and ease of communication between
devices goes to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Institute
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Their work in these areas is discussed in
the following pages.
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The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
Overview
The primary objective of the OSI model is to provide a framework for the development of
standards for computer-to-computer communications. Specifically, the model details the
standards which allow for the flexible interconnection of systems using data communications
facilities. A system can be defined as follows:
One or more computers and the associated software, peripherals,
operators, physical processes and transfer means that forms an
autonomous whole capable of processing and/or transferring
information.
This broad definition of a system allows the OSI model to be applied to very simple systems
as well as to complex ones.
The model is meant to provide a generalized view of a layered architecture. The model,
introduced in 1978, divides the communication process into a hierarchy of seven
interdependent functional layers. Each layer has a built-in interface to the adjacent layer(s).
OSI overview, continued
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FIGURE 3.1: THE OSI MODEL
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
Application
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
Layer 4
Layer 5
Layer 6
Layer 7
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Defining the seven layers of the OSI model
Physical Layer
The physical layer is responsible for the transmission of bit streams across a particular
physical transmission channel. This involves a connection between two devices allowing
electrical signals to be exchanged between them.
Data Link Layer
The data link layer is responsible for providing reliable data transmission from one device
to another and for shielding higher layers from concerns regarding the physical
transmission channel. This layer is concerned with the error-free transmission of packets
between network devices.
Network Layer
The network layer is concerned with routing data from one network device to another. It is
responsible for establishing, maintaining and terminating the network connection between
any number of devices and for transferring data along that connection. It is possible to
have only one path for network connection or many possible routes to choose from when a
connection is established between any two devices on a network.
Defining the seven layers of the
OSI model, continued
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Transport Layer
The transport layer is responsible for providing data transfer between two users at an
agreed-upon level of quality. After establishing a connection between two users, the
transport layer is responsible for selecting a particular class of service to be used,
monitoring the transmission for billing purposes, ensuring that the appropriate service
quality is maintained, and for generating an alert if this quality has been compromised.
Session Layer
The session layer provides the services used to organize and synchronize a given dialog
occurring between devices and to manage the data exchange. A major purpose of the
session layer is to control when devices in communications with each other can send and
receive data. Among other factors, this is based on whether the devices can send and
receive data concurrently or alternately.
Presentation Layer
The presentation layer is responsible for the presentation of information in a way that is
meaningful to the network devices. Included in the specifications are character code
translations, data conversions, or data compression and expansion.
Application Layer
The application layer provides a means for similar or dissimilar application processes to
exchange information. Included are services used to establish and terminate connections
between devices, and services to monitor and manage the systems being interconnected
as well as the various resources being employed.
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Purpose of the OSI model
The OSI model is concerned with the exchange of information between a pair of open
systems. It is not concerned with the internal functions of the individual systems.
The model is concerned with the capability of systems to cooperate in the exchange of
information and in the ability to accomplish the tasks governing this exchange.
The primary motive in the development of the OSI model was to provide a framework for
standardization. Within the model, one or more protocol standards can be developed at each
layer. The OSI model defines, in general terms, the functions to be performed at a particular
layer.
This model is meant to facilitate the standards-making process in two ways:
The pace at which communications standards are developed is made faster with
the model. The functions of each layer are well-defined, allowing standards to be
developed independently and simultaneously for each layer.
The introduction of new standards is simplified. The boundaries between layers are
well-defined, therefore, a new standard in one layer need not affect any of the
workings of the other layers.
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Using the OSI model
The hardware level
Layers 1 and 2 (Physical and Data Link) are referred to jointly as the hardware level. They
provide the fundamental link between two devices on which other, more sophisticated,
services are built.
At this level, three protocols are in common useEthernet, Token-bus and Token-ring.
These have been defined by the IEEE Project 802 and are further discussed later in this
chapter.
The transport level
Layers 3 and 4 (Network and Transport) make up the transport level. This level is
responsible for controlling network communications.
Actual communications on a network involve only two types of devicesthe sending
devices and the receiving devices. A temporary communications linka virtual
connectionis made between these devices when they need to communicate. This virtual
connection is different from the permanent physical connection each device has to the
network.
Software at this level establishes and manages the temporary connection between the
sending device and the receiving device.
Using the OSI model, continued
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Transport-level protocols
Several transport level protocols are commonly found in the LAN environment. Each of
these protocols has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. Two of the
more commonly used LAN transport level protocols are the following:
IPX/SPX
Novells transport protocol, IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/ Sequenced Packet
Exchange) is based on Xeroxs XNS (Xerox Network Systems). It was designed at a time
when few LAN-specific transport protocol existed. Today it is a widely-used protocol in
LAN environments.
NetBEUI
Developed by IBM and Microsoft, NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) was
introduced in 1984, along with NetBIOS (Network Basic Input and Output System), its
corresponding session layer protocol. Since both of these influential vendors declared that
they would use NetBIOS/NetBEUI in their future networking products, many other vendors
have adopted these protocols for their networking systems.
Both of these protocols enjoy a wide level of support in the LAN community. This,
combined with the independence between the transport and the hardware levels, means
that either of these protocols can be used to establish communications between stations
on dissimilar LANs.
Using the OSI model, continued
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The application-to-transport level
The application-to-network level is the point where an application running on a station can
attach to the network joining that station to the others.
Some applications, such as gateway communications between a LAN station and a
mainframe system, are communications-intensive and require point-to-point
communications services. A point-to-point connection is an uninterrupted connection
between two devices. These applications usually attach to the network at Layer 5
(Session).
The other application-to-network layer is Layer 6 (Presentation). Nearly all application
programs attach to the network through this layer.
The application level
Layer 7 (Application) defines the communications interface for network applications
software designed specifically to be used over a network. Network operating systems use
the services defined at this level, as do many network utility programs, such as electronic
mail systems. The network applications in turn, support various user applications.
It should be noted that user applications, such as word processing, are not defined using
the OSI model; only products used for network communications are defined.
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Applying the OSI model in the LAN environment
The OSI model was developed for computer networks in general, not specifically for the LAN
environment. However, the first two layers of the OSI reference model play an important role
in establishing LAN
communicationsthe Physical layer
and the Data Link layer. Both of
these layers are clearly defined by
IEEE Project 802, discussed next.
The OSI reference model is crucial in
network-to-network
communications internetworking. It
allows for the development of
standards to enable communications
between two dissimilar networks.
The role of the OSI reference model
in internetworking is detailed in a
later chapter.
FIGURE 3.2:
THE OSI MODEL AND
LAN COMMUNICATIONS
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical
Network applications
software
Specialized
Network
communications
software
Media Access Control
Physical Link Control
Logical Link Control
OSI Model LAN communications
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IEEE Project 802
Overview
IEEE Project 802 was initiated specifically for the LAN environment. The rationale of this
group was to develop standards which would be widely accepted. This, in turn, would ensure
a high-volume market, encouraging manufacturers to commit the necessary resources to
developing standardized products. More importantly, it would allow the equipment from these
manufacturers to communicate with each other.
The original series of standards developed under Project 802 were subsequently adopted by
ANSI in 1985 as American National Standards and by ISO in 1987 with the designation 8802.
Project 802 has produced a set of standards for LAN communications. They are designed to
be a subset of the OSI model. This means higher-layer protocols can be developed for various
network services without the need to produce new LAN protocols to accompany them.
The relationship between the OSI model and Project 802 follows:
The physical layer of the various Project 802 standards correspond to the physical
layer of the OSI model.
The Data Link layer of the OSI model has been divided into two sublayers by
Project 802Medium Access Control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC).
LAN architectures are subdivided in this manner because a set of common link
control subfunctions can apply to all LANs, while the medium access control
technique can differ for each one.
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802 standards
The IEEE 802 is made up of many subcommittees. A brief overview of these committees
follows.
IEEE 802.1 - High-Level Interface
The IEEE committee defining the relationship between the IEEE 802 standards
and the ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. It provides for
LAN management and bridging standards.
IEEE 802.2 - Logical Link Control
A Data Link layer standard used with IEEE 802.3, 802.4 and 802.5 standards.
IEEE 802.3 - Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
A Physical layer standard specifying a linear bus LAN with a CSMA/CD access
method commonly associated with Ethernet and Fast Ethernet.
IEEE 802.4 - Token-bus
A Physical layer standard specifying a token-passing access method on a bus
topology. It is used by the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP), developed by
General Motors, and by ARCnet.
802 standards, continued
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IEEE 802.5 - Token-ring
A Physical layer standard specifying a token-passing access method on a ring
topology.
IEEE 802.6 - Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Describes a topology known as Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB). This
topology consists of two parallel runs of cable to link devices over a metropolitan
(city-sized) area. The transmission medium is usually optical fiber and transmission
speed in the range of 100 Mbps.
IEEE 802.7 - Broadband Technology
The IEEE technical advisory group for broadband LANs. This committee provides
technical advice to other subcommittees on broadband networking techniques.
IEEE 802.8 - Fiber Optics
The IEEE technical advisory group for optical fiber LANs. This committee provides
technical advice to other subcommittees on optical fiber networks as alternatives to
existing copper-based networks.
IEEE 802.9 - Integrated Services LAN
The IEEE committee working on the integration of voice, data and video traffic over
other 802 LANs.
802 standards, continued
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IEEE 802.10 - LAN Security
The IEEE technical advisory group for security. This group is working on the
definition of a standard security model that will operate over a variety of networks.
It incorporates both authentication and encryption methods.
IEEE 802.11 - Wireless
The IEEE committee working on standards for wireless networks. This group is
working on the standardization of media such as spread-spectrum radio,
narrowband radio, infrared and transmission over power lines.
IEEE 802.12 - Demand Priority
The IEEE committee charged with the standard for 100 Mbps Ethernet using a
Demand Priority access method, commonly referred to as 100VG-AnyLAN.
802 standards, continued
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FIGURE 3.3: PROJECT 802 LAYERS AND SUBLAYERS
802.3
Medium
Access
802.3
Physical
802.4
Medium
Access
802.4
Physical
802.5
Medium
Access
802.5
Physical
802.1 Bridging
802.2 Logical Link
802.7 Broadband Advisory
802.8 Optical fiber Advisory
OSI layers
Data link
Physical
802.12
Medium
Access
802.12
Physical
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Physical layer overview
The Physical layer is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and releasing physical
connections between two network devices and for transmitting bits over the transmission
channel. Included is:
Encoding data into the correct form for transmission.
Generating the signal.
Controlling the timing of devices so that they are synchronized with the signal
being transmitted and received.
IEEE Project 802 accommodates the three transmission media used at the Physical layer
twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable and optical fiber cable. Its specifications, for a given LAN
architecture, include:
The type of cable.
The type of transmission.
The encoding method.
The data rate.
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Data Link layer overview
Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer recommendations
Logical Link Control (LLC) specifies mechanisms for addressing stations across the
transmission medium and for controlling the exchange of data between two devices. It
includes provisions for establishing connections, for data transfer and for connection
termination.
The role of this sub-layer is to shield the higher-level layers from the low-level signaling
specifications of each LAN architecture. Project 802 defines only a single standard at this
levelit is a common element in all of the 802 standards.
The logical link control sub-layer is responsible for the following:
Initiating control signal interchange.
Organizing data flow.
Interpreting commands.
Generating responses.
Carrying out error control and recovery functions.
Data Link layer overview,
continued
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Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer recommendations
This sub-layer of the Data Link layer is responsible for defining the rules allowing network
devices to share the transmission channel. It defines how the many devices sharing the
single physical transmission channel gain orderly access to the medium. Four functions
make up the media access control sub-layer standard:
Medium Access Management
The rules or procedures used by network devices to control the sharing of the
transmission medium.
Framing
The addition of header and trailer information necessary to identify the beginning
and end of a packet, to synchronize the sender with the receiver, to route the
packet, and to provide for error detection.
Addressing
The determination of the appropriate network addresses to identify the devices
involved in sending and receiving a message.
Error Detection
The checking done to ensure that a packet has been transmitted and received
correctly.
Data Link layer overview,
continued
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Although many access control methods exist, Project 802 has standardized three methods:
CSMA/CD [introduced in IEEE 802.3].
Token-bus [introduced in IEEE 802.4].
Token-ring [introduced in IEEE 802.5].
Each of these methods is described on the following pages.
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IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD Media Access Control
Definition of CSMA/CD
The IEEE 802.3 standard specifies the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Detection) media access control method. CSMA/CD is the most commonly
employed access method for LANs using a bus or tree topology. It is the media access
control method used by Ethernet.
CSMA/CD operates per the following steps:
A station with a message to transmit listens to the transmission medium to see if
another station is currently transmitting a message.
If the transmission medium is quietno other station is transmittingthe
transmission is sent.
When two or more stations have a message to send, it is possible that they
transmit at precisely the same time, resulting in a collision on the network.
When a collision occurs, all receiving stations ignore the garbled transmission.
The transmitting stations stop transmitting as soon as they detect a collision.
Each of the transmitting stations waits a random period of time and attempts to
transmit again.
Definition of CSMA/CD, continued
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Carrier sensing
Carrier sensing is the approach used by CSMA/CD for listening to the transmission
mediumthe carrier to see if it is free. If it is, the encapsulated data frame is passed to
the physical layer for transmission. If the carrier is busy, it continues to be monitored until
it is free.
Collision detection
After transmission has begun, monitoring of the transmission medium continues. When
two signals collide, their messages get mixed and become unreadable. If this happens, the
affected stations stop transmitting and send out a jamming signal. This jamming signal
ensures that all other stations on the network are aware a collision has occurred.
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CSMA/CD functions
The IEEE CSMA/CD standard defines a model made up of six functions. Three of these
functions are concerned with sending data and the three others are concerned with receiving
data. The receiving functions operate in parallel with the sending functions.
Data encapsulation/decapsulation
The data encapsulation and decapsulation function is performed by the Media Access
Control sublayer. This process is responsible for addressing and error-checking functions.
Data encapsulation
Data encapsulation is performed by the sending station. It is the act of adding
informationaddresses and error control bytesto the beginning and end of the data unit
to be transmitted. This is done after the data packet is received from the Logical Link
Control sublayer. The information added to the packet is needed to perform the following
tasks:
Synchronize the receiving station with the signal.
Delimit the beginning and end of the frame.
Identify the addresses of both the sending and receiving stations.
Detect transmission errors.
CSMA/CD functions, continued
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Data decapsulation
Data decapsulation is performed by the receiving station. When a frame is received, the
receiving station is responsible for performing the following tasks:
Recognizing the destination address and determining if it matches the stations
own address.
Performing an error check.
Removal of the control information that was added by the data encapsulation
function in the sending station.
Media access management
The media access management function is also performed by the Media Access Control
sublayer.
In the sending station, the media access management function is responsible for
determining whether the transmission medium is available. If the channel is available,
transmission can begin. Additionally, the management function is responsible for
determining what action should be taken when a collision is detected and when to try to
retransmit.
In the receiving station, the media access management function is responsible for
performing validity checks on a frame before passing it to the data decapsulation function.
CSMA/CD functions, continued
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Data encoding/decoding
The data encoding/decoding function is performed by the Physical layer. This function is
responsible for getting the electrical form of the data transmission onto the transmission
medium.
Data encoding
Data encoding is performed by the sending station. It is responsible for translating the bits
into the correct electrical signals to be sent across the transmission medium. With
CSMA/CD, Manchester phase encoding is used to translate the bit stream into electrical
signals.
In addition, this function is responsible for listening to the transmission medium and for
notifying the media access management function whether the medium is free or busy or if
a collision has been detected.
Data decoding
Data decoding is performed by the receiving station. It is responsible for translating the
electrical signal back into a bit stream.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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CSMA/CD transmission frame
A transmission frame is defined as:
A group of bits in a specific format, with an
indicator at each end to signal the
beginning and end of the frame.
The defined format of a frame allows network
equipment to recognize the meaning and purpose of the
specific bits in the frame. A frame is usually a logical
transmission unit containing control information for
error checking and addressing purposes.
The CSMA/CD (IEEE 802.3) frame format is shown
below.
FIGURE 3.4:
CSMA/CD (IEEE 802.3) FRAME FORMAT
Frame Check
Sequence
Pad
(optional)
Information
Length Count
Source Address
Destination Address
Start Frame
Delimiter
Preamble
7 bytes
1 byte
2 or 6 bytes
Variable
2 bytes
2 or 6 bytes
0 - n bytes
4 bytes
CSMA/CD transmission frame,
continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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The CSMA/CD frame components are responsible for the following tasks:
Preamble
The preamble is responsible for providing the synchronization between the sending and
receiving device.
It is a series of 56 bits (7 bytes) of alternating 1s and 0s found at the beginning of the
frame.
Start Frame Delimiter
The start frame delimiter follows the preamble. As its name implies, it indicates the start
of the data frame. The start frame delimiter is 1 byte in lengthmade up of the following
8-bit sequence10101011.
Address Fields
Each of the address fieldsthe destination address and the source addresscan be
either 2 bytes or 6 bytes in length. If universal addressing is used, the addresses must be
6 bytes each. But if local addressing is used they may be either 2 or 6 bytes long. Both
destination and source addresses must be of the same length for all devices on a given
network.
The destination address field specifies the station(s) to which the data is to be sent. An
address referring to a specified group of stations is known as a multicast group address
and an address referring to all of the stations on the network is known as a broadcast
address.
The source address identifies the station making the transmission.
CSMA/CD transmission frame,
continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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39
Length Count
This is a 2-byte field indicating the length of the data field that follows. It is needed to
determine the length of the data field in those cases when a pad field is used.
Information Field
The information field contains the actual data packet to be transmitted. Its length is
variable.
Pad Field
A pad field is used to ensure that the frame meets a minimum length requirement. A frame
must contain a minimum number of bytes in order for stations to detect collisions
accurately.
Frame Check Sequence
The frame check field is used as an error-control mechanism.
When the transmitting device assembles a frame, it performs a calculation on the bits in
the frame. The algorithm used to perform this calculation always results in a 4-byte value.
The sending device stores this value in the frame check sequence field.
When the destination device receives the frame, it performs the same calculation and
compares the result to that in the frame check sequence field. If the two values are the
same, the transmission is assumed to be correct. If the two values are different, the
destination device can request a retransmission of the frame.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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IEEE 802.3 naming convention
A variety of IEEE 802.3 implementations are available. To distinguish between them, a
notation has been developed. The notation specifies three characteristics of the
implementation:
The data rate in Mbps.
The signaling method used.
The approximate maximum cable segment length in hundreds of m.
Some of these IEEE 802.3 implementations and their characteristics are as follows:
1Base-5
The IEEE standard for baseband Ethernet at 1 Mbps over twisted-pair cabling to a
maximum distance of 500 m (1640 ft).
10Base-5
The IEEE standard for baseband Ethernet at 10 Mbps over coaxial trunk and
AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) twisted-pair cable to a maximum distance of
500 m (1640 ft).
10Base-2
The IEEE standard for baseband Ethernet at 10 Mbps over thin coaxial cable to a
maximum distance of 185 m (607 ft).
IEEE 802.3 naming convention,
continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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41
10Broad-36
The IEEE standard for broadband Ethernet at 10 Mbps over broadband coaxial
cable to a maximum distance of 3600 m (2.25 mi).
10Base-T
The IEEE standard for baseband Ethernet at 10 Mbps over unshielded twisted-pair
following a star horizontal cabling topology, with a maximum distance of
100 m (328 ft) from the station to the hub.
10Base-F
The IEEE standard for baseband Ethernet at 10 Mbps over optical fiber to a
maximum distance of 2 km (1.25 mi).
100Base-TX
The IEEE standard for baseband Ethernet at 100 Mbps over two twisted-pairs
either 2-pair Category 5 UTP or 2-pair STP cabling.
100Base-T4
The IEEE standard for baseband Ethernet at 100 Mbps over four-pair UTP
cablingeither Category 3, 4 or 5.
100Base-FX
The IEEE standard for baseband Ethernet at 100 Mbps over a two-fiber
62.5/125 m optical fiber cabling system.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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IEEE 802.4 Token Bus Media Access Control
Definition of Token-bus
The IEEE 802.4 standard specifies the Token-bus media access control method. It is one of
two token passing access methods. IEEE 802.4 is based on a physical bus or tree topology.
The Token-bus approach requires a station to have possession of a token in order to
transmit. The token is passed from station to station in a logical ring.
IEEE 802.4 is the basis for LAN architectures often used in factory automation, such as MAP
and ARCnet.
Token-bus operates in the following manner:
A station having data to transmit must first be in possession of the token. The
token gives a device the right to transmit.
When a station receives the token, it broadcasts its transmission for all stations to
hear. The station is given a predetermined amount of time to send its message.
When the station has transmitted all of its data unit, or it has run out of time, the
token is passed to the next station.
If a station runs out of time, it must wait until the next time it possesses the
token to transmit the rest of the data.
Definition of Token-bus, continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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43
Devices on the network acknowledge only those transmissions addressed to them.
When a token is passed to the next device, the address field is changed. The token
is always passed from station to station in order of decreasing addresses. When
the lowest address is reached, the token is sent to the station with the highest
network address.
If a station receiving the token has no message to transmit, the token is
immediately passed on to the next station in the hierarchy.
Since possession of the token is needed for a station to transmit, there is no
possibility of a collision. With no possibility of a collision, there is no minimum
length requirement for data packets and only minimal control information is
required for proper processing.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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44
Token-bus functions
The Token-bus standard addresses five key areas as part of the Media Access Control
sublayer.
Interface to the Logical Link Control sublayer
The MAC sublayer receives data packets from the LLC sublayer and prepares them for
transmission. It also receives incoming data packets and prepares them to be passed on to
the LLC sublayer.
Token handling
This function makes provisions for:
Passing tokens from station to station.
Recognizing a token when it is received.
Prioritizing data packets.
Ring maintenance
Ring maintenance functions include initialization of the logical ring during network start-up
and modification of the logical ring as stations are connected to or disconnected from the
network.
Token-bus functions, continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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45
Fault detection and recovery
Faults must be detected and, when possible, corrected as soon as possible. Some
possible faults occurring on a Token-bus network include:
Multiple tokens.
Lost tokens.
Token pass failures.
Stations with unresponsive receivers.
Duplicate station addresses.
Sending and receiving data
In order to send or receive data, control information must be added to and removed from
the data packet. Therefore, the MAC sublayer is responsible for preparing data packets
and passing them to the Physical layer for transmission. At the receiving end, the packets
must be taken from the Physical layer and stripped of control information.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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46
Token-bus transmission frame
The Token-bus frame format is shown below:
FIGURE 3.5: TOKEN-BUS FRAME FORMAT
End Deli miter
Frame Check
Sequence
Information
Source Address
Destination Address
Frame Control
Start Delimiter
Preamble 0 - n bytes
1 byte
1 byte
0 - 819 bytes
2 or 6 bytes
4 bytes
1 byte
2 or 6 bytes
Token-bus transmission frame,
continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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47
The Token-bus frame components are responsible for performing the following tasks:
Preamble
The preamble is responsible for providing the synchronization between the sending and
receiving device.
The length of this field and its contents depend on the modulation method being used and
the speed of the network.
Start Delimiter
The start delimiter follows the preamble. As its name implies, it indicates the start of the
data frame. The start frame delimiter is 1 byte in length and contains a signaling pattern
that is always different from the datathe actual signaling pattern varies with the
encoding scheme used.
Frame Control Field
This field identifies the type of frame being sentLogical Link Control data frames, token
control frames, Media Access Control management data frames, or special-purpose data
frames.
Token-bus transmission frame,
continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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48
Address Fields
Each of the address fieldsthe destination address and the source addresscan be
either 2 bytes (16-bit addresses) or 6 bytes (48-bit addresses) in length. If universal
addressing is used, the addresses must be 6 bytes each. But if local addressing is used
they may be either 2 or 6 bytes long. Both destination and source addresses must be of
the same length for all devices on a given network.
The source address must be for an individual device. The destination address can be an
individual address, a group address or a broadcast address.
Information Field
The information field contains the actual data packet to be transmitted. Its length is
variable. It may contain a Logical Link protocol data unit, token control data, management
data or special-purpose dataas indicated in the frame control field.
Frame Check Sequence
The frame check field is used as an error control mechanism.
When the transmitting device assembles a frame, it performs a calculation on the bits in
the frame. The algorithm used to perform this calculation always results in a 4-byte value.
The sending device stores this value in the frame check sequence field.
When the destination device receives the frame, it performs the same calculation and
compares the result to that in the frame check sequence field. If the two values are the
same, the transmission is assumed to be correct. If the two values are different, the
destination device can request a retransmission of the frame.
Token-bus transmission frame,
continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
1996, BICSI LAN Design Manual - CD-ROM, Issue 1
49
End Delimiter
The end delimiter marks the end of the frame and shows the position of the frame check
sequence field. Just as with the start delimiter, the signaling value is always different from
the data.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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50
Token-bus options
While the general principle behind Token-bus is token passing over a bus or tree topology,
the standard actually specifies three Physical layer optionsbroadband, carrierband and
optical fiber.
Broadband Token-bus
The definition of broadband states that such a transmission technique allows multiple
transmissions to occur simultaneously, with each transmission taking place at a different
frequency on the cable.
Broadband Token-bus is defined by the following characteristics:
It uses 75 coaxial cable as the transmission mediumcoaxial cable is commonly
used for broadband systems.
It follows a tree topologythis is sometimes referred to as a directional bus.
It supports data channels with the following bandwidths and transmission speeds:
1.5 MHz bandwidth with a transmission speed of 1 Mbps.
6 MHz bandwidth with a transmission speed of 5 Mbps.
12 MHz bandwidth with a transmission speed of 10 Mbps.
Token-bus options, continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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51
Carrierband Token-bus
Carrierband signaling requires that the whole frequency spectrum of the cable be devoted
to a single transmission path for the purpose of transmitting analog signals. For this
reason, carrierband is also referred to as single-channel broadband.
Carrierband Token-bus is defined by the following characteristics:
It uses 75 coaxial cable as the transmission medium.
It follows a traditional bus topology.
Since there is only one data channel, electronics are simpler and less expensive
than those used for broadband.
Specifications exist for transmission speeds of 1, 5 and 10 Mbps.
Optical fiber Token-bus
The optical fiber specification is the most recent addition to the IEEE 802.4 standard.
Optical fiber Token-bus is defined by the following characteristics:
The transmission medium is 2 optical fibersone for transmit and one for
receivethat supports a spectral width of 270 nanometers (nm) with a center
wavelength between 800 and 910 nm.
The optical fiber specification can be used with any topology that is logically a
busphysically, it usually follows a star topology where all devices are connected
to a central active or passive hub.
Specifications exist for transmission speeds of 5, 10 and 20 Mbps.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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52
IEEE 802.5 Token-ring Media Access Control
Definition of Token-ring
IEEE 802.5 is the second of the token passing access control methods. Token-ring is most
commonly used in a network structure following both a logical and physical ring topology.
The right to transmit is controlled by a token. The method of transmission is as follows:
A token indicating the right to transmit is known as a free token. When a station
receives a free token it changes the configuration of the token to that of a busy
token.
The busy token is included as part of each data unit transmitted. The station is
allowed to transmit data units until a predetermined time is reached.
The data unit travels from station to station around the ring.
Each station receiving a data unit checks the address to see if it should process the
information.
If the data unit is intended for another station, it is passed on to the next station in
the ring.
Definition of Token-ring, continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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53
The intended destination station, upon receiving and processing the data unit, sets
three control bits in the data unit before sending it to the next station:
The Address Recognized control bit allows the destination station to indicate
that it identified the data unit as being addressed to it.
The Packet Copied control bit shows that the destination station sent a copy of
the data unit to the LLC sublayer for processing.
The Error control bit shows that an error condition was detected. This control bit
can be set by any station on the ring, not only by the destination station.
Once the data unit returns to the originating station, it is removed from the network.
The station then sends a free token to the next station in the ring.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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Token-ring functions
Token-ring tokens use three control bits indicating if the data unit was processed or if any
error conditions were detected. The different combinations of two of these bits, address
recognized and packet copied, allow the source station to differentiate between different
conditions. For example, it would be able to see if:
The data unit was recognized by the destination station and processed.
The data unit was recognized by the destination station but it was not able to
process it.
The data unit was not recognized by the destination station or the destination
station is nonexistent or inactive.
Token-ring differs in two other areas with respect to method of operationits manner of fault
management and an optional priority scheme.
Fault management
There are three serious error conditions affecting the operation of Token-ring:
The loss of a token.
A constantly busy token.
The failure of a station on the ring.
In order to detect and then correct the first two of these conditions, Token-ring designates
one of the stations on the network as an active monitor. All the remaining stations are
designed as passive monitorsmonitoring the operation of the active monitor.
Token-ring functions, continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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55
The station designated as the active monitor performs the following duties:
It continuously monitors the network.
If no token is detected for a predetermined amount of time, the monitor assumes
that the token has been lost and issues a new token.
To check for a constantly busy token, the monitor sets a monitor bit in a busy token
as it passes. If the busy token returns with the monitor bit still set, the monitor will
know that the sending station did not remove the data unit from the network. The
monitor then changes the data unit to a free token and passes it to the next device.
If the active monitor fails, the passive monitors use a contention procedure to determine
which one of them becomes the new active monitor.
The third serious error condition is that of a failed station. If a station fails, it may not be
able to transmit, causing the ring to be broken. To accommodate for such an occurrence, a
bypass switch in incorporated into each device. Closing this bypass switch removes the
station from the ring and allows data units to circulate properly. When a star-wired
topology is used, the bypass switches are found in the central hub. This makes physical
failures in the ring easier to correct.
Token-ring functions, continued
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Optional priority scheme
Token-ring access control can be operated on either a nonpriority basis or a priority basis.
When operating on a nonpriority basis, a station can transmit data units as soon as it
receives a free token.
When operating on a priority basis, three bits in each data unit are used to represent the
current priority. A station receiving a free token follows a set procedure as follows:
The priority value of the token is compared to the priority value of the data unit to
be transmitted.
If the priority value of the data unit is equal to or higher than that of the token, the
data is sent.
If the priority value of the data unit is lower, the data is not sent.
Each frame also has three reservation bits. These can be used by a station to reserve the
token for its data transmission. The process to use the reservation bits is as follows:
A station must have a data unit to transmit that has a priority greater than zero.
When this station receives and retransmits a frame, it sets the reservation bits in
the token to the same priority value of the data unit.
When the original sending station removes the data unit and generates a free token
it checks the reservation bits and the priorities of additional data units it has to
send.
Token-ring functions, continued
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If the reservation bits or the priority of the waiting data have a higher value than the
current priority, this original sending station resets the current priority to the higher
value.
When a priority is reset to a higher value, the station saves the previous priority
value and it is responsible for eventually restoring the token priority to that original
lower value.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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58
Token-ring transmission frame
The Token-ring frame format is shown below.
FIGURE 3.6: TOKEN-RING FRAME FORMAT
Frame Status
1 byte
Ending Delimiter
Frame Check
Sequence
Information
Source Address
Destination Address
Frame Control
Access Control
Starting Delimiter
1 byte
1 byte
1 byte
Variable
2 or 6 bytes
4 bytes
1 byte
2 or 6 bytes
Token-ring transmission frame,
continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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59
The Token-ring frame components are responsible for performing the following tasks:
Starting Delimiter
The starting delimiter indicates the start of the data frame. It uses a unique signal pattern
that does not correspond to either a 0 or 1 bit. These are known as nondata values and
ensure that no data sequence will ever be mistaken for a delimiter.
Access Control Field
This field identifies whether the frame is a data frame or a token. It contains a bit used to
identify a constantly busy token, a priority bit and reservations bits.
Frame Control Field
This field identifies the frame type and for certain types of control frames, the function it is
to perform.
Address Fields
Each of the address fieldsthe destination address and the source addresscan be
either 2 bytes (16-bit addresses) or 6 bytes (48-bit addresses) in length. If universal
addressing is used, the addresses must be 6 bytes each. But if local addressing is used
they may be either 2 or 6 bytes long. Both destination and source addresses must be of
the same length for all devices on a given network.
The source address must be for an individual device. The destination address can be an
individual address, a group address or a broadcast address.
Token-ring transmission frame,
continued
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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Information Field
The information field contains the actual data packet to be transmitted. This can be either
a protocol data unit being passed from the logical link control sublayer or control
information supplied by the media access control sublayer. Its length is variable
anywhere from 0 to 17800 bytes in length.
Frame Check Sequence
The frame check field is used as an error control mechanism.
When the transmitting device assembles a frame, it performs a calculation on the bits in
the frame. The algorithm used to perform this calculation always results in a 4 byte value.
The sending device stores this value in the frame check sequence field.
When the destination device receives the frame, it performs the same calculation and
compares the result to that in the frame check sequence field. If the two values are the
same, the transmission is assumed to be correct. If the two values are different, the
destination station can request a retransmission of the frame.
Ending Delimiter
This identifies the end of the frame by containing nondata values. It also contains bits used
to identify whether or not it is the last frame in a multiframe transmission and if an error
has been detected by any station.
Frame Status Field
The frame status field contains the address recognized and frame copied control bits.
Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
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Overview.................................................................................. 1
LAN communications defined....................................................... 1
Communications terminology ....................................................... 2
Communications standards organizations ........................ 3
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) .......................... 3
Comite Consultatif Internationale de
Telegraphique et Telephonique (CCITT) ...................................... 3
CCITT (ITU) recommendations ........................................................ 4
Examples of V-series CCITT standards ............................................................. 5
Examples of X-series CCITT standards ............................................................. 5
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ............... 6
OSI Model ......................................................................................... 6
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) .......... 7
IEEE Project 802............................................................................... 7



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Communications fundamentals ........................................... 8
Protocols ........................................................................................... 8
Defined .............................................................................................. 8
Function of a protocol ........................................................................ 9
Packets/Frames/Datagrams......................................................... 10
Defined ............................................................................................ 10
Layered architectures ................................................................... 11
Defined ............................................................................................. 11
Hardware independence .............................................................. 12
Overview ......................................................................................... 12
Objectives........................................................................................ 12
Connectivity ...................................................................................................... 12
Modularity ......................................................................................................... 13
Ease of implementation .................................................................................... 13
Ease of use ....................................................................................................... 13
Reliability .......................................................................................................... 13
Ease of modification ......................................................................................... 13



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The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model ............ 14
Overview.......................................................................................... 14
Defining the seven layers of the OSI model ............................. 16
Physical Layer .................................................................................................. 16
Data Link Layer ................................................................................................. 16
Network Layer ................................................................................................... 16
Transport Layer ................................................................................................. 17
Session Layer ................................................................................................... 17
Presentation Layer ............................................................................................ 17
Application Layer .............................................................................................. 17
Purpose of the OSI model ............................................................ 18
Using the OSI model ..................................................................... 19
The hardware level .......................................................................... 19
The transport level .......................................................................... 19
Transport-level protocols............................................................... 20
IPX/SPX ............................................................................................................ 20
NetBEUI ............................................................................................................ 20
The application-to-transport level ................................................... 21
The application level ....................................................................... 21
Applying the OSI model in the LAN environment ................... 22



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IEEE Project 802 ................................................................... 23
Overview.......................................................................................... 23
802 standards ................................................................................. 24
IEEE 802.1 - High-Level Interface .................................................................... 24
IEEE 802.2 - Logical Link Control ..................................................................... 24
IEEE 802.3 - Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection ............. 24
IEEE 802.4 - Token-bus .................................................................................... 24
IEEE 802.5 - Token-ring .................................................................................... 25
IEEE 802.6 - Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) .............................................. 25
IEEE 802.7 - Broadband Technology ................................................................ 25
IEEE 802.8 - Fiber Optics ................................................................................. 25
IEEE 802.9 - Integrated Services LAN ............................................................. 25
IEEE 802.10 - LAN Security ............................................................................. 26
IEEE 802.11 - Wireless..................................................................................... 26
IEEE 802.12 - Demand Priority ......................................................................... 26
Physical layer overview................................................................ 28
Data Link layer overview.............................................................. 29
Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer recommendations ................. 29
Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer recommendations ............ 30
Medium Access Management ........................................................................... 30
Framing ............................................................................................................. 30
Addressing ........................................................................................................ 30
Error Detection.................................................................................................. 30



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Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
1996, BICSI LAN Design Manual - CD-ROM, Issue 1
65
IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD Media Access Control .................... 32
Definition of CSMA/CD ................................................................. 32
Carrier sensing ................................................................................ 33
Collision detection ........................................................................... 33
CSMA/CD functions ...................................................................... 34
Data encapsulation/decapsulation .................................................. 34
Data encapsulation........................................................................ 34
Data decapsulation........................................................................ 35
Media access management ............................................................. 35
Data encoding/decoding .................................................................. 36
Data encoding ............................................................................... 36
Data decoding ............................................................................... 36
CSMA/CD transmission frame .................................................... 37
Preamble ........................................................................................................... 38
Start Frame Delimiter ....................................................................................... 38
Address Fields .................................................................................................. 38
Length Count ..................................................................................................... 39
Information Field ............................................................................................... 39
Pad Field ........................................................................................................... 39
Frame Check Sequence ................................................................................... 39
IEEE 802.3 naming convention ................................................... 40
1Base-5 ............................................................................................................. 40
10Base-5 ........................................................................................................... 40
10Base-2 ........................................................................................................... 40
10Broad-36........................................................................................................ 41
10Base-T........................................................................................................... 41
10Base-F........................................................................................................... 41
100Base-TX ...................................................................................................... 41
100Base-T4....................................................................................................... 41
100Base-FX ...................................................................................................... 41



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Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
1996, BICSI LAN Design Manual - CD-ROM, Issue 1
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IEEE 802.4 Token Bus Media Access Control .................. 42
Definition of Token-bus ................................................................ 42
Token-bus functions ..................................................................... 44
Interface to the Logical Link Control sublayer ................................ 44
Token handling ................................................................................ 44
Ring maintenance ........................................................................... 44
Fault detection and recovery ........................................................... 45
Sending and receiving data ............................................................. 45
Token-bus transmission frame ................................................... 46
Preamble........................................................................................................... 47
Start Delimiter ................................................................................................... 47
Frame Control Field .......................................................................................... 47
Address Fields .................................................................................................. 48
Information Field ............................................................................................... 48
Frame Check Sequence ................................................................................... 48
End Delimiter .................................................................................................... 49
Token-bus options ......................................................................... 50
Broadband Token-bus ..................................................................... 50
Carrierband Token-bus .................................................................... 51
Optical fiber Token-bus ................................................................... 51



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Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
1996, BICSI LAN Design Manual - CD-ROM, Issue 1
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IEEE 802.5 Token-ring Media Access Control .................. 52


Definition of Token-ring ................................................................ 52
Token-ring functions ..................................................................... 54
Fault management .......................................................................... 54
Optional priority scheme ................................................................. 56
Token-ring transmission frame ................................................... 58
Starting Delimiter .............................................................................................. 59
Access Control Field......................................................................................... 59
Frame Control Field .......................................................................................... 59
Address Fields .................................................................................................. 59
Information Field ............................................................................................... 60
Frame Check Sequence ................................................................................... 60
Ending Delimiter ................................................................................................ 60
Frame Status Field............................................................................................ 60
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Chapter 3 - LAN Communications Standards
1996, BICSI LAN Design Manual - CD-ROM, Issue 1
68
Figure 3.1: The OSI model .................................................... 15
Figure 3.2: The OSI model and LAN communications ....... 22
Figure 3.3: Project 802 layers and sublayers ..................... 27
Figure 3.4: CSMA/CD (IEEE 802.3) frame format .............. 37
Figure 3.5: Token-bus frame format ..................................... 46
Figure 3.6: Token-ring frame format ..................................... 58



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