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Dr. Tara Devi S.

Ashok Introduction to Biological Anthropology - ANTH 105


Review Sheet Test 1

Lecture 1: Overview and Introduction to Anthropology
Lecture 2: Development of Evolutionary Theory
Lecture 3: Mendels laws of Inheritance
Lecture 4: The cell: structure and function
Lecture 5: Chromosome structure
Lecture 6: Mitosis
Lecture 7: Meiosis and development
Lecture 8: Chromosomal abnormalities
Lecture 9: DNA, RNA, protein synthesis
Lecture 10: Non Mendelian genetics
Lecture 1: Overview and Introduction to Anthropology
1. What Is Anthropology?
2. The subfields of Anthropology
3. How can we study Humans
4. Issues for Physical Anthropologists
5. Scientific Methodology
Lecture 2: Development of Evolutionary Theory
1. Aristotle
2. Can you see evolution happening right now?
3. The Scopes Trial - 1925
4. Pre-Darwinian Theories
5. Darwins theory of Evolution
Lecture 3: Mendels laws of Inheritance
1. Study of Pea plants
2. Seven characters
3. Dominant Trait / Recessive Trait
4. Homozygous / Heterozygous
5. Character and Trait
6. Gene and Allele
7. Locus
8. Genotype / Phenotype
9. Somatic cell / Germ cell
10. Haploid / Diploid
11. Laws of Mendel: Law of segregation;
Law of Independent assortment
12. Monohybrid phenotypic ratios (3:1)
13. Monohybrid genotypic ratios (1:2:1)
14. Applications of Mendel's laws to Humans
15. Know some examples of Human Dominant & Recessive traits
16. Heritability
Lecture 4: The cell: structure and function
1. Parts of a cell: Cell membrane, cytoplasm and organelles
2. Organelles: Nucleus
3. Mitochondria
4. Ribosomes
5. Cytoskeleton
Lecture 5: Chromosome structure
1. DNA, Chromatin and Chromosome
2. Autosomes 22 pairs
3. Sex Chromosomes
4. Males have 22+XY chromosomes
5. Females have 22+ XX chromosomes
6. Total chromosome # in a somatic cell
7. Total chromosome # in a germ cell
8. What is a karyotype?
9. Telomere
10. Centromere
11. Chromosomes:
.
P arm and Q arm
.
Acrocentric / metacentric / submetacentric

Lecture 6: Mitosis
1. Cell division in all parts of the body
2. Division makes identical daughter cells
3. Stages of Mitosis: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase,
Telophase (nuclear division)
4. Cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm
5. Apoptosis (programmed cell death)
Lecture 7: Meiosis and Development
1. Meiosis- cell division occurs in ovary and testis to
produces sperms and ovum
2. Homologous chromosomes / Non homologous chromosomes
3. Sister chromatids
4. Spermatogenesis (sperm production) / Oogenesis (egg
formation
5. Meiosis I: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and Telophase
two cells
6. Meiosis II: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and Telophase
four cells
7. Fertilization
8. Zygote formation
9. Development
10. Twining: Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins

Lecture 8: Chromosomal abnormalities
1. In Autosomes: Numerical & Structural
2. In sex chromosomes: Numerical & Structural
3. Polyploidy
4. Down syndrome ( Trisomy 21)
5. Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13)
6. Edward syndrome ( Trisomy 18)
7. Turner syndrome ( 45, XO)
8. Kinefelters syndrome (47,XXY)
9. XXX and XYY syndrome
10. Deletion / Duplications / Translocation / Inversion


Lecture 9: DNA, RNA, protein synthesis
1. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid: structure and function
2. RNA Ribonucleic acid: structure and function
3. DNA replication ( ATTCAGTACCGGA
TAAGTCATGGCCT)
4. Protein synthesis: Transcription and Translation
5. Transcription is ( DNA to RNA)
ATTGCCATTGCACGA-DNA
UAACGGUAACGUGCU-mRNA
6. Translation is ( RNA to Protein)
UAA CGG UAA CGU GCU-mRNA ( three letter codes)
AA -AA - AA -AA -AA (AA different amino acids)
7. Proteins are made up of Amino acids, two amino acids
are joined by a peptide bonds
8. Three kinds of RNA: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

Lecture 10: Non Mendelian genetics
1. Codominance
2. Autosomal linkage
3. Sex linkage
4. Polygenic inheritance
5. Maternal Inheritance
6. Multiple alleles ( ABO blood groups)
7. Expansion - Tri-nucleotide repeats ( CAG repeats
Huntington disease
8. Imprinting ( Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes)