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NATIONAL AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT

STRATEGY OF ETHIOPIA









April 2009
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

















Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development
Food and Agriculture Organization
Sub-Regional Office for East Africa


AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF ETHIOPIA

Table of Contents
FORWARD .................................................................................................................................................................. 3
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 4
1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 1
2. THE STATE OF THE AQUACULTURE INDUSTRY ................................................................................. 1
3. AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES .................................................................................... 1
4. DEFINITION OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK ................................................................................. 2
4.1. IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH POTENTIAL AQUACULTURE ZONES ............................................................................ 2
4.2. DEFINITION OF TYPES OF AQUACULTURE ......................................................................................................... 2
5. FORMULATION OF THE NATIONAL AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY .................. 3
6. KEY ISSUES ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
7. NADSE IMPLEMENTATION COMMITTEE .............................................................................................. 4
8. AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF ETHIOPIA ............................................................ 5
ELEMENTS OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK AND THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT AND
PRIVATE SECTORS .................................................................................................................................................. 5
1. AVAILABILITY AND ACCESS TO INPUTS ........................................................................................................... 5
2. EXTENSION/OUTREACH SERVICES ................................................................................................................... 6
3. TRAINING, EDUCATION AND CAPACITY BUILDING........................................................................................... 7
4. RESEARCH ........................................................................................................................................................ 7
5. CULTURE BASED FISHERIES ............................................................................................................................. 8
6. FISH HEALTH MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 8
7. GENDER ISSUES ................................................................................................................................................ 8
8. ACCESS TO LAND /AQUACULTURE ZONES/ BY INDUSTRIES AND FISH FARMERS .............................................. 9
9. LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK ......................................................................................................... 9
10. IMPROVED MARKETING ................................................................................................................................. 10
11. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS .................................................................................................................... 10
12. PUBLIC AWARENESS CREATION ..................................................................................................................... 10
13. MONITORING, CONTROL AND EVALUATION OF AQUACULTURE INDUSTRY ................................................... 10
14. POLICY ISSUES ............................................................................................................................................... 11
9. RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................................................. 11
ANNEX 1 ACTION PLAN FOR NATIONAL AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF
ETHIOPIA ................................................................................................................................................................. 13
FORWARD

Very recently, aquaculture, particularly rural integrated fish farming, is identified as one of the
strategic areas of intervention to address the problem of food insecurity and poverty in the rural
areas and is considered as an important economic activity supporting diversification, integration,
and improvement in the rural livelihoods. Its development is best suited and integrated with the
continued effort of water harvesting programs and livestock-crop production systems. These
opportunities are well recognized by the government. Therefore, for sustainable development of
market-responsive aquaculture industry, guidance document-Strategy is indispensable.

The objective of this strategy is to integrate this sub-sector to others to facilitate the development
of viable and sequential aquaculture plans to develop and establish national and regional
capabilities for development planning, monitoring, surveillance and enforcement in aquaculture.

Accordingly, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) in collaboration
with Food and Agriculture Organization Sub-Regional Office for East Africa (FAO/SFE) drafted
National Aquaculture Development Strategy Framework of Ethiopia.

Stakeholder Consultative Workshop from 11-12 March 2009, at Adama, Oromia Region further
develops this draft Strategy framework.

This strategy has been critically evaluated at different stage and adopted to be used as National
Aquaculture Development Strategy Framework of Ethiopia.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development would like to thank all professionals and
stakeholders involved in the preparation of this document. We would also like to thank Food and
Agriculture Organization, Sub Regional Office for Eastern Africa for financial and technical
support for formulation of National Aquaculture Development Strategy of Ethiopia.






Dr. Abera Deressa
State Minister, Agricultural Development
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
April 2009, Addis Ababa
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ANAF Aquaculture Network for Africa
ATVET Agricultural Technical Vocational Education and Training
BoARD Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development
BoTI Bureau of Trade and Industry
BoWRD Bureau of Water Resource Development
CCRF Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
CIFAA Committee on Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture for Africa
DoARD Department of Agriculture and Rural Development
ECA Ethiopian Customs Authority
EEPCO Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation
EHNI Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Institute
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EIPA Ethiopian Investment Promotion Agency
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPLAUA Environmental Protection Land Administration and Use Authority (Regional)
EQSA Ethiopian Quality and Standardization Authority
ETC Ethiopian Telecommunication Corporation
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO/SFE Food and Agriculture Organization/ Sub-Regional Office for East Africa
IBCR Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and Research
MDG Millennium Development Goals
MoARD Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
MoH Ministry of Health
MoWR Ministry of Water Resource
NADS National Aquaculture Development Strategy
NADSE National Aquaculture Development Strategy of Ethiopia
NEPAD New Partnership for African Development
NGO Non Governmental Organization
OoARD Office of Agriculture and Rural Development
PASDEP Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End Poverty
RDS Rural Development Strategy
TCDC Technical Cooperation for Developing Countries
ANAF Aquaculture Network for Africa
ATVET Agricultural Technical Vocational Education and Training





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FORMULATION OF THE NATIONAL AQUACULTURE
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FRAMEWORK FOR ETHIOPIA

1. INTRODUCTION
The total annual fish production from rivers, small and large reservoirs was estimated in 2007 to
be 13,000 tones. The total annual production potential from different waterbodies is predicted in
the range of 41,000 to 49,000 tones. It is reported that in some lakes, the production is rapidly
declining while the demand for fish is increasing especially in the big cities.
The Federal Government of Ethiopia had initiated the Agricultural Development Led
Industrialization, the Plan for Accelerated and Sustainable Development to End Poverty and the
Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme. These developmental frameworks
however do not provide a specific framework for the sustainable development of aquaculture in
the country. They are not comprehensive and do not provide guidance to the development of
aquaculture, neither at regional nor national level.
In order to develop aquaculture sector of the country, developing clear strategy is the priority
task. Its successful implementation, must take cognizance of the environmental and socio-
economic conditions. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / Sub-Regional Office for East Africa, took
initiative to prepare a National Aquaculture Development Strategy for Ethiopia.

2. THE STATE OF THE AQUACULTURE INDUSTRY
Culture based fisheries is a dominant type of aquaculture practice in Ethiopia. It involves
stocking of newly constructed reservoirs with fingerlings collected from existing water bodies
mainly with Tilapia. Semi industrial aquaculture practices are at an infant stage of development.
It consists of extensive aquaculture operations in several small rural based fishponds with sizes
between 100-300m
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. Fish culture cages and pens have not begun yet. A national data on various
aspects of aquaculture including total production is yet not available.
Candidate species for aquaculture include Tilapias (O. niloticus) and the African catfish (Clarias
spp). Limited research activities are underway. The aquaculture capabilities of several other
species present in the fresh water rivers and reservoirs are yet to be explored.
Different types of institutions such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and
Environmental Protection Agency promote and regulate aquaculture development. Aquaculture
is not part of existing irrigation, farming and water harvesting schemes in the country. A lot of
work remains to be undertaken in promoting aquaculture. Few Universities and ATVET
Colleges offer courses in aquaculture as a part of the fisheries graduate programme, but none
offers aquaculture as a full graduate programme in their curricula to produce more skilled
workers locally.

3. AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES
The overall objective of the strategy is to define a regulatory framework and to build a strong
basis for the development of aquaculture in the country. The strategy seeks to integrate the
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aquaculture industry into the agricultural sector and to facilitate development of viable
aquaculture plans. It also aims to provide a framework in which the aquaculture industry can be
developed in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner. Aquaculture
development is to be targeted as an activity to ensure food security, alleviate poverty of rural
farmers and to provide fish for domestic consumption and industry. Aquaculture development is
to be planned, and executed as a business or commercial activity on a scale that contributes to
profitability and market oriented.

4. DEFINITION OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK

4.1. Identification of high potential aquaculture zones
A first step in determining where resources to develop aquaculture could be successfully used is
the identification of potential areas. This screening should be supplemented with a comparison of
existing aquaculture activities, including the concentration of existing producers and the presence
of government and other infrastructures
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.

Based on biophysical and socio-economic potential, aquaculture zones may well be subdivided
into areas that correspond to input supply/delivery. For example, to the extent that private seed
supply comes from specialized private hatcheries, these hatcheries will operate within areas
circumscribed by the economic ability to deliver seed to producers.

4.2. Definition of types of aquaculture
Commercial aquaculture can be defined as the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish,
molluscs and crustaceans and aquatic plants with the goal of maximizing profits. Thus, the
distinction between commercial and non-commercial aquaculture operations relies primarily on
the existence or absence of a business orientation and on how factors of production such as labor
will be paid.

An aquaculture system is a combination of type of culture unit, level of intensity, culture species
and scale or size of exploitation. Categorizing fish farmers and farms according to relative sizes,
degree of capitalization and profit motivation is always difficult. In the aggregate, these
categories are part of a spectrum that covers the full scope of production systems.

If this spectrum reflects production intensity and investment level, individuals at the low end will
likely internalize their aquaculture activities with little contribution to the public purse and little
benefit from public services. Conversely, individuals at the high end of the scale may make
important contributions to national aquaculture production but have relatively little need of
public support.


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Aguilar-Manjarrez, J. & S. S. Nath. 1998. A strategic reassessment of fish farming potential in Africa. CIFA
Technical Paper 32. FAO, Rome.
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For the purposes of this strategy framework, producers have been divided into two categories:
commercial and non-commercial. Commercial producers can be small medium or large-scale,
and are active participants in the market. They purchase inputs (including capital and labour) and
engage in off-farm sales of the fish produced. For these individuals, aquaculture is a principal
economic activity. Non-commercial producers may also purchase inputs, mainly seed and feed,
but rely chiefly on family labor and on-farm sales of the produce. An additional feature of non-
commercial aquaculture is the variety of enterprises comprising the farming system; i.e.
undertaken to diversify production, improve resource use and reduce risks of such events as crop
or market failure.

5. FORMULATION OF THE NATIONAL AQUACULTURE
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
As a result of field visits to collect data, consultations with various interest groups and review of
background reports and documents, the principal constraints of aquaculture development in
Ethiopia were identified. The constraints could also be regarded as the principal issues, the
critical success factors or the essential elements to be addressed in a sustained manner for a
smooth take-off of the aquaculture industry in Ethiopia.
The major amount of aquaculture production in the country at the moment is from the stocking
and harvesting of reservoirs. Therefore, culture based fisheries was included in the analysis
although not in its entirety. This analysis also applies to small-scale fish farming as well as to an
anticipated development of commercial aquaculture activities.
The constraints identified relate to the following issues; availability and access to inputs,
training, education, capacity building, extension/outreach services and research.
Other critical constraints listed for redress concern fish health management, gender, access to
land or aquaculture zones by enterprises, industries and fish farmers, legal and regulatory frame
work, improved marketing of fish, public-private partnerships in aquaculture development,
public awareness creation about the potentialities of aquaculture, policy issues, monitoring,
control and evaluation of industry.
The first draft NADSE report was produced after a series of meetings held by two TCDC
consultants and a national Task Force of seven members set up by the Ministry of Agriculture
and Rural Development (MoARD). The critical success factors or constraints were the first
issues to be identified followed by the interventions required to address each of them to develop
aquaculture in Ethiopia. At several follow up meetings the list of constraints and interventions
were reviewed until a final list was agreed upon for the preparation of the draft strategy.
A stakeholder consultative workshop was held to present and adopt the draft strategy. The
stakeholders were selected to reflect the different interests involved in aquaculture management
and development. Their views and recommendations were incorporated in updating the draft
strategy.
Government, represented through its ministries, departments and agencies, was identified as a
major public stakeholder whose policies, activities and decisions are very crucial. All the other
stakeholders were classified as private sector practitioners. The interventions required from each
stakeholder have also been spelt out as part of the strategy.

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6. KEY ISSUES
A key factor for the successful implementation of the strategy is Government commitment at
different level. This will be manifested in the institution of vital measures such as the provision
of tax incentives, formalizing public-private sector partnerships and roles, and in the
implementation of the recommendations of the strategic framework. The government and the
private sector should not play conflicting roles in hatchery and table fish production and in
running fish farms. Any Government intervention should be for a very limited period at the
beginning of strategy implementation. Government should limit its involvement in aquaculture
development to monitoring, control and evaluation, and the creation of an enabling environment
for the private sector to operate.
The culture of ornamental species for export could also be an important source of revenue for the
country. Introductions should be carefully considered to curtail any adverse consequences on the
environment. Efforts should be intensified to increase fish consumption in the country so as to
stimulate the growth of the aquaculture industry.
The adoption of the following recommendations will also enhance the successful implementation
of the strategy.
1. Establishment of the NADSE implementation committee.
2. Development of government-private partnerships in supplying services and inputs for the
industry.
3. A review of the Investment Code and regulations to make it attractive to investors and
financial institutions to pay a special attention to aquaculture.
4. The setting up of intervention targets and benchmarks for the successful establishment
and development of aquaculture in Ethiopia.
5. Avail necessary manpower and finance to implement the strategy.

7. NADSE IMPLEMENTATION COMMITTEE
For rapid and successful implementation of the strategy, it is recommended that an
implementation committee should be set up composed of different institutions.
The following institutions have been proposed as members:
1. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2)
2. Ministry of Water Resources
3. The Environmental Protection Agency
4. National Regional Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development (4)
5. The Institute of Biodiversity and Conservation
6. Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute
7. The University of Addis Ababa
8. The Food and Agriculture Organization Sub Regional Office for Eastern Africa.
It is also recommended that the MoARD directorate responsible for fisheries and aquaculture
should appoint the chairperson for the committee. The secretary for the committee will be a
fishery extension officer from the same directorate. It is strongly recommended that the
committee to implement the strategy draw up an action plan immediately. It is further noted that
private commercial operators be invited to join the committee whenever this becomes possible.
8. AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF ETHIOPIA

ELEMENTS OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK AND THE ROLE OF THE
GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS

1. Availability and Access to Inputs

1.1 Fish Seeds
Government should:
1. Establish and strengthen model seed production centers till the private sector takes over.
2. Encourage commercial farmers and hatcheries to produce quality seed for the entire sub-
sector.
3. Set up proper seed distribution centers and channels.
4. Support capacity building on seed production and distribution.
5. Maintain quality brood stock of selected culture organisms corresponding to the
identified production systems.
6. Identify and select suitable candidate species for aquaculture.
Private sector should:
1. Produce and distribute quality and traceable seed.
2. Maintain all data concerned with production, distribution and sales of fish seeds.
3. Adopt latest technologies on hatchery management and seed production.

1.2 Fish Feeds
Government should:
1. Develop guidelines on quality feed production and storage.
2. Facilitate the establishment of modern feed processing and formulating industry.
3. Educate private sector for the preparation of species specific fish feeds and their storage
Private sector should:
1. Be aware of the Government strategy regarding different production systems within
aquaculture zones.
2. Produce and distribute quality feed at affordable price to fish farmers.
3. Disseminate information on feed availability, quality, efficiency and price to the public
sector.
4. Monitor feed performance, get feedback and keep records.


1.3 Capital Investment
Government should:
1. Inform the lending institutions on the advantage and profitability of aquaculture.
2. Make information accessible on the other possibilities of financing.
3. Set up a developmental fund for aquaculture activities.
4. Evaluate the technical merits of investment proposals submitted to lending institutions for
funding.
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5. Advise fish farmers on where and how to access financial assistance.
6. Interact with the funding institutions to negotiate preferential interest rates for
aquaculture development.
7. Encourage farmers to prepare feasible aquaculture business plans.
Private sector should:
1. Build a capacity to organize business plans and management skills.
2. Develop strong and acceptable feasibility reports with all prerequisites for developing a
business proposal.
3. Lending institutions should finance viable aquaculture businesses.
Lending institutions (Government and Private) should:
1. Provide credit assistance for fish farmers based on quality proposals.
2. Monitor the disbursed funds through appropriate machinery.
3. Support farmers to establish savings and credit schemes to promote aquaculture business.

1.4 Fishing gears and Other Aquaculture Equipments
Government should:
1. Initiate and support the establishment of local fishing gear manufacturing factories.
2. Monitor fishing gear standards.
3. Educate farmers the use of nets while handling different stage of fish in fishponds.
4. Demonstrate the advantage and the use of other aquaculture equipments in fishponds.
Private sector should:
1. Produce standard fishing gear materials and fishing gears.
2. Upgrade skill and knowledge of making and mending of fishing gears.
3. Demonstrate the operation and maintenance of gears and other aquaculture equipments
for durability

2. Extension/Outreach Services
Government should:
1. Establish and support national and regional aquaculture information networks in order to
enhance outreach activities.
2. Provide technical assistance through an efficient aquaculture outreach programme.
3. Demonstrate and disseminate aquaculture technologies.
4. Train and equip aquaculture service providers.
5. Strengthen farmers training centers and associations to allow for ease of information
delivery and sharing of best practices.
6. Facilitate communication channels amongst different aquaculture stakeholders.
7. Play a pivot role in outreach programs.
8. Maintain all activities and reports relating to out reach programs.
9. Facilitate farmer internships including farmer-to-farmer contact to enhance learning.
Fishery/Aquaculture Professional organizations should:
1. Act as forum for information exchange among stakeholders.
2. Rationalize the marketing and purchasing of inputs, as well as to exert social control on
service suppliers.
3. Defend the collective interests and lobby for appropriate intervention of the public sector.
4. Establish relations with the research institutions and other stakeholders.
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Private sector should:
1. Collect all baseline information for setting up out reach programs and inform the details
to the government.
2. Obtain all appropriate extension material from concerned government agencies and other
organizations involved in aquaculture.
3. Inform the government the constraints that they experience and solution sought.

3. Training, Education and Capacity Building
Government should:
1. Promote aquaculture education at all levels including the development of curricula.
2. Develop and support continuing training plans for aquaculture technicians, farm
managers and researchers and assist in linking candidates with local, regional and
international agencies providing training, education and distance learning options.
3. Allocate experts in a rational manner.
4. Provide appropriate hands on training to all existing fisheries personnel in aquaculture.
Private sector should:
1. Provide feedback and advice on training, including the efficiency of training and required
training needs.
2. Facilitate practical training opportunities on their farms.

4. Research
Government should:
1. Consider research on aquaculture as one of the priority areas in agricultural development.
2. Allocate adequate funds to aquaculture oriented research activities.
3. Identify gap area of research in aquaculture development.
4. Support applied and farmer-participatory research directed at different production
systems.
5. Ensure that research is responsive to the needs of fish farmers.
6. Provide and support aquaculture research facilities.
7. Conduct research on aquaculture technology packages.
8. Upgrade status of research administration to a fully-fledged institute.
9. Demonstrate tested research outputs on aquaculture to users.
10. Patent aquaculture research innovations.
11. Develop infrastructure facilities for aquaculture research.
Private sector should:
1. Collaborate with government and establish modern facilities to conduct advanced
research.
2. Adopt research results.




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5. Culture Based Fisheries
Government should:
1. Ensure that conflicts arising out of the multi-purpose use and management of water
bodies and water harvesting facilities are amicably resolved.
2. Co-manage the fisheries of water bodies with the participation of the private sector and
fish farmers.
Private sector should:
1. Actively participate in the conservation and management of water bodies.
2. Manage the fisheries, the water resource and other activities relating to their businesses
having in mind the interest of all the other users.
3. Aware of carrying capacity of the resource of sustainable development.
4. Protect water bodies from pollution/degradation while practicing cage farming in natural
water bodies.

6. Fish Health Management
Government should:
1. Monitor and control fish health on fish farms and water bodies.
2. Educate fish farmers on fish health and fish health management.
3. Certify the quality and safety of fish imports and exports.
4. Make the surveillance of fish disease in natural and cultural systems.
5. Regular monitoring of water quality both in source water and in cultural systems.
6. Identify bacterial, protozoan and metazoan parasite infestations.
7. Find out other disorders in fish such as abnormality, nutritional disorders, pollution
induced changes and other physiological disorders in cultivable fish.
8. Take appropriate prophylaxis and other curative measures.
9. Establish and strengthen Fish Health Laboratory in Ethiopia with international support.
10. Make provision for registry of fish cases from natural and culture systems.
11. Establish contacts with FAO and World Fish Center to develop and promote fish health
programs.
12. Develop capacity for farmers to identify parasite and disease in its early stage of
development in culture systems.
13. Train the farmers the methods of disease control in culture systems.
14. Develop quarantine methods to import seeds to assess their health.

Private sector should:
1. Be responsible for the management, prevention and the control of the spread of diseases
within and outside their farms.
2. Report outbreaks of diseases on their farms to the appropriate authorities.
3. Familiar with the knowledge of water quality parameters
4. Familiar with the common parasite and disease of cultivable fishers with their control.

7. Gender Issues
Government should:
1. Promote gender equality and empower women on aquaculture.
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2. Develop a strategy to incorporate more women in aquaculture practice, processing and
marketing of aquaculture products.
3. Take into account the specific gender issues in the education, training and extension of
aquaculture capability development programs.
4. Elaborate indicators of reference in the effective implementation of gender issues in the
aquaculture sector.
5. Encourage community based aquaculture and village group concept to develop
aquaculture with the involvement of women groups.
6. Develop capacity building for women group to undertake viable aquaculture methods.
Private sector should:
1. Develop capacity building for women group to undertake viable aquaculture methods to
ensure gender equality.
2. Know the details and provide on the involvement of men and women in aquaculture
activities.
3. Know the funds allocated for addressing the gender issues.

8. Access to Land /Aquaculture zones/ by Industries and Fish Farmers

Government should:
1. Identify aquaculture potential areas.
2. Facilitate farmers and investors in suitable site selection for aquaculture.
3. Guarantee aquaculture investors' rights to land and their investment.
4. Develop technologies such as GIS and remote sensing for identifying and selecting
suitable sites for aquaculture.

9. Legal and Regulatory Framework
Government should:
1. Establish clear and secure user rights to land and water for aquaculture investment.
2. Involve private sector and other stakeholders in policy and development of regulations.
3. Regulate quality and production of feed and seed.
4. Develop a system to ensure that all sectors are aware of the regulations.
5. Effectively implement the regulation.
6. Develop environmental protection rules and regulations for aquaculture activities.
7. Give legal backing to the collection, analysis and publication of reliable and up to date
statistics.
8. Regulate the introduction of indigenous and exotics and the movement of aquaculture
species.
Private sector should:
1. Be aware of, adhere to relevant regulations, and control measures.
2. Follow procedures and regulations in the development of aquaculture practices.
3. Respect regulations on the introduction, importation and movement of aquaculture
species.
4. Seek permit before establishing aquaculture farms.
5. Conduct environmental impact assessment for aquaculture enterprises.
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6. Self regulate to ensure a safe-to-consume product is provided to all consumers.
7. Participate in the formulation of policies, strategies, regulations and development
programs.
8. Provide completed and accurate data for monitoring by the Government.

10. Improved Marketing
Government should:
1. Provide basic marketing infrastructure such as roads, electricity, potable water and
communication facilities.
2. Provide information on fish wholesale and retail prices from main domestic markets.
3. Provide and make technical and economic information on preservation and other post-
harvest processes, technologies and techniques available to producers and consumers.
4. Increase fish consumption by promoting new food fish recipes.
5. Develop marketing channels that are accessible to fish producers.
6. Protect local producers against unfair foreign competition provided that the protective
measures conform to international agreements.
7. Promote marketing of fish by increasing clients acceptability of aquaculture products
through fish quality assurance.
8. Assist fish farmers to increase incomes through value addition to their products.

11. Public Private Partnerships
Government should:
1. Assign clear roles to identifiable public and private institutions in the development of
aquaculture.
2. Encourage private sector to produce inputs such as seed, feed and fishing gears.
3. Limit its involvement in aquaculture development to monitoring, evaluation and the
creation of an enabling environment for the private sector to operate.
4. Government and the private sector should develop strong institutional arrangements in
support of aquaculture development.

12. Public Awareness Creation
Government should:
1. Promote aquaculture development by extending knowledge of the concept, skill and
profitability of aquaculture to the public.
Private Sector should:
1. Promote aquaculture development by extending knowledge of the concept, skill and
profitability of aquaculture to the public.

13. Monitoring, Control and Evaluation of Aquaculture Industry
Government should:
1. Control the quality of aquaculture inputs (feed, seed, drugs, chemicals) and products
through certification.
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2. Enforce compliance with appropriate international codes such as the FAO Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fisheries CCRF.
3. Control introduction and export of aquatic organisms.
4. Establish a data collection, analysis and publication system for an effective evaluation of
all aspects of the sector.
5. Ensure that Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies are properly conducted
before an aquaculture establishment is set up.
Private Sector should:
1. Comply with the regulations on the responsible conduct of aquaculture and on their
obligations towards the conservation of the environment.
2. Obtain a permit before establishing an aquaculture establishment.
3. Regularly provide reliable and up to date statistics on their operations.
4. Comply with the quality standards set by Government for aquaculture inputs and
products.
14. Policy Issues
Government should:
1. Encourage the private sector to participate in aquaculture policy formulation.
2. Incorporate aquaculture production into the water harvesting, irrigation agriculture and
hydroelectric power generation schemes.
3. Increase and sustain the contribution of aquaculture to food security and poverty
alleviation.
4. Coordinate federal and regional state policies on issues related to aquaculture.
5. Promote aquaculture development in accordance with the New Partnership for African
Development (NEPAD) Action Plan and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).
6. Participate in the work of relevant international organizations such as the Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO), its Committee on Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture for
Africa (CIFAA), the Aquaculture Network for Africa (ANAF) and the World Fish
Centre.
7. Provide incentives for investors to undertake aquaculture business.
8. Put aquaculture to the rank of the priorities of government policy as stated in the
PASDEP and RDS.
9. Encourage the integration of aquaculture with other farms.

9. RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Establish aquaculture strategy implementation committee.
2. Develop government-private partnerships in supplying services and inputs for the
industry.
3. Undertake a thorough review of the Investment Code and regulations so as to make it
attractive to investors and financial institutions to pay a special attention to aquaculture.
4. For a successful establishment and development of aquaculture in Ethiopia, intervention
targets and benchmarks must be set.
The priorities amongst them are the following:
a. Training and education for specialists in aquaculture such as researchers and
extensionists.
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b. Make a study to identify the suitability of the potential areas considered as good
for aquaculture according to the different techniques.
c. Undertake sensitization programs to create awareness to different stakeholders in
the country including the local people, communities, investors, NGOs and donors.
d. Formulate aquaculture technical packages fitted to the various physical, social,
environmental, cultural and socio-economical concerns.
e. Undertake pilot projects in agro-ecological zones which have the best potential in
aquaculture.






ANNEX 1
ACTION PLAN FOR NATIONAL AQUACULTURE
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF ETHIOPIA






i
National Aquaculture Development Action Plan

No Issues Activities
Short term plan (2002-2005 Eth. calendar) Medium Term Plan (2006-2012 Eth. calendar)
1 Formulation of National Aquaculture Development Strategy of Ethiopia (NADSE)
1. Field survey and collection of
background information in
different regions of the country.

2. Field report writing and designing
of draft aquaculture development
strategy.

3. Consultative workshop.

4. Endorsement of the final NADSE

5. Establish National Aquaculture
Development Task Force (NADTF).
1. National working group and FAO consultants.
(Completed)


2. National working group and FAO consultants.
(Completed)

3. Stakeholders, National working group and FAO
consultants. (Completed)

4. MoARD and FAO.

5. MoARD Establish NADTF consisting of different
stakeholders indicated in NADSE document.


2

Prepare Action Plan

National working group. (Completed)

2.1 Availability and access to inputs













1. Establishment of model fish seed
(multiplication) hatchery
1. MoARD selects appropriate priority areas for the
hatchery establishment in consultation with the
regions.

2. Preparation of detailed hatchery establishment project
proposal by MoARD.

3. MoARD recruits consultants.

4. MoARD, BoARD and consultants select specific fish
hatchery sites.

5. Secure land and other facilities of the hatchery by

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BoARD, municipalities and other government
administrations.

6. MoARD, BoARD and consultants follow the
construction of the hatchery.
7. MoARD and BoARD employ hatchery staff based on
the project document.

8. Consultants, employed staff, MoARD and BoARD
officially start the hatchery operation.

9. MoARD, BoARD and fishery research centers
continuously monitor and follow all activities in the
hatchery including fish seed distribution.

10. Research Centers produce quality basic fish seed to
the hatcheries.
1. MoARD, BoARD and fishery research
centers continuously monitor and follow all
activities in the hatchery including fish seed
distribution.

2. MoARD initiates and encourage private
commercial fish seed producers.
2. Facilitate to establish and
strengthen private fish feed
factories
1. MoARD and BoARD encourage the existing and new
private animal feed producing unit to produce fish
feed.

2. Research Centers provide ration formulation and feed
package to the feed processors.

3. Research Centers, MoARD and BoARD develop
guidelines on quality feed production, storage and
distribution.
1. Research Centers, MoARD and BoARD
develop guidelines and monitor quality feed
production, storage and distribution.

3. Fishing gears 1. MoARD initiates and support establishment of local
fishing gears manufacturers.

2. MoARD and Ethiopian Investment Agency facilitate
fishing gear materials importation by arranging
reasonable incentives.
1. MoARD initiates and support establishment
of fishing gears manufacturers.

2. MoARD and Ethiopian Investment Agency
facilitate fishing gear materials importation
by arranging reasonable incentives.
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1. MoARD control fishing gear standards according to
the government rules and regulations.

1. MoARD control fishing gear standards
according to the government rules and
regulations.
4. Capital 1. MoARD and BoARD provide information to the
lending institutions on the profitability of aquaculture.

2. MoARD, BoARD and NGOs set up a development
fund for aquaculture activities.

3. MoARD, BoARD evaluate technical merits of
investment proposals.

4. MoARD, BoARD advise fish farmers on where and
how to access to financial assistance.

5. MoARD, BoARD interacts with the funding
institutions to negotiate preferential interest rates for
aquaculture development.
1. MoARD and Regional BoARD provide
information to the lending institutions on the
profitability of aquaculture.

2. MoARD, BoARD and NGOs set up a
development fund for aquaculture activities.

3. MoARD, BoARD evaluate technical merits
of investment proposals.

4. MoARD, BoARD advise commercial fish
farmers on where and how to access
financial assistance.
2.2 Extension/outreach services 1. MoARD and BoARD provide technical assistance
through an efficient aquaculture outreach programme.

2. MoARD and BoARD demonstrate and disseminate
aquaculture technologies.

3. MoARD and BoARD strengthen farmers training
centers and associations to allow for ease of
information delivery and sharing of best practices.

4. MoARD and its stakeholders such as Research
Institutions, Universities etc. create professional
associations.

1. MoARD and BoARD provide technical
assistance through an efficient aquaculture
outreach programme.

2. MoARD and BoARD demonstrate and
disseminate aquaculture technologies.

3. MoARD and BoARD strengthen farmers
training centers and associations to allow for
ease of information delivery and sharing of
best practices.

4. MoARD and BoARD facilitate farmer
internships including farmer to farmer
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5. MoARD and BoARD play a coordinating role in
outreach programs.

6. MoARD and BoARD maintain performance statistics
and reports.

7. MoARD and BoARD facilitate farmer internships
including farmer-to-farmer contact to enhance
learning.

8. MoARD create and strengthen international
aquaculture linkages.

9. MoARD, BoARD will develop aquaculture manual
and also deploy appropriate staff members to do the
outreach programme.
contact to enhance learning.

5. MoARD strengthens international
aquaculture linkages.
2.3 Training, education and capacity
building
1. Higher learning institutions, MoARD and BoARD
establish aquaculture education and training at all
levels including the development of curricula.

2. Higher learning institutions, MoARD and BoARD
develop and establish continuous practical training
plans for aquaculture technicians, farm managers and
researchers and assist in linking candidates with local,
regional and international agencies providing training,
education and distance learning options.
1. Higher learning institutions, MoARD and
BoARD support aquaculture education and
training at all levels including up dating of
curricula.

2. Higher learning institutions, MoARD and
BoARD develop and support continuous
practical training programme for aquaculture
technicians, farm managers and researchers
and assist in linking candidates with local,
regional and international agencies providing
training, education and distance learning
options.
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2.4 Culture Based Fisheries 1. MoARD, BoARD, Regional administrations, zonal
and Woreda agricultural and rural development
offices ensure that conflicts arising out of the multi-
purpose use and management of water bodies and
water harvesting facilities are amicably resolved.

2. BoARD, zonal and Woreda agricultural and rural
development offices including the communities co-
manage of fisheries with the participation of the
private sector and communities.
1. MoARD, BoARD, Regional administrations,
zonal and Woreda agricultural and rural
development offices and other users ensure
that conflicts arising out of the multi-purpose
use and management of water bodies and
water harvesting facilities are amicably
resolved.

2. BoARD, zonal and Woreda agricultural and
rural development offices including the
communities co-manage of the fisheries with
the participation of the private sector and
communities.
2.5 Research
1. Consider research on aquaculture
as one of the priority areas in
agricultural development

1. MoARD, BoARD and Research institutes identify fish
farming potential areas of the country.

2. MoARD, BoARD and Research institutes identify
other aquaculture potential fish
species/varieties/ecotypes among the locally available
species.

3. MoARD, BoARD and Research institutes identify
potential feed sources from locally available agro-
industrial and other non-conventional feed sources.

4. Federal and regional administration encourage NGOs
engaged in wetland management, flood plain or
irrigation agriculture and water harvesting activities
need to integrate research as an agenda.
1. MoARD, BoARD and Research institutes
identify aquaculture potential areas of the
country.

2. Research institutes improve the potential of
aquaculture fish species.

3. Federal and regional administration
encourage NGOs engaged in wetland
management, flood plain or irrigation
agriculture & water harvesting activities
need to integrate research as an agenda.
2. Allocate adequate fund and provide
aquaculture research facilities for
development-oriented research
1. Establishment of research aquariums (indoor and
outdoor) as well as hatcheries and equipping them
with the necessary facilities by the institutes and

1. Give specialized practical training and
education on aquaculture.
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activities

.

centers.

2. Equipping the research centers with the necessary
laboratory and field equipments by the federal and
regional research institutes.

3. Establishment of on-station and on-farm research
ponds by the research institutes.

4. Give training and education to strengthen the research
centers with expertise.

2. Recruit senior specialized researchers.
3. Identify key research gaps and
undertake problem-oriented and
participatory research for
aquaculture development
1. Research institutes and centers should identify gaps or
problems and start doing research on:
Fish feed (type, availability)
Fish improvement (selection, breeding)
Fish Health (disease and parasite)
Fish cultures techniques (Pond, Cage, Pen,
Tank, etc)
Fish farming systems (integrated
monoculture, polyculture, etc.).

2. Formation of different farmers research groups and
demonstration ponds based on agro-ecologies.
1. Federal and regional institutes and
universities should prepare packages
consisting of:
Fish feed
Fish improvement
Fish Health
Fish culture techniques
Fish farming system
Fish disease and parasite control

2. Research institutes and centers should
prepare laboratory and hatchery manuals for
different fish species.

3. Scaling up/out the farmers research groups.
4. Ensure that research is responsive
to the needs of fish farmers
1. Research centers should give priority for the problems
identified by the farmers through the extension
system.

2. Research institutes and centers should give research
outputs or technologies recommended in response to
the identified problems.
1. Research centers should work together with
the farmers and release or adopt new outputs
or technologies.

2. Research centers should innovate and
improve the local skills (indigenous
knowledge) and way of doing as a tool to
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enhance aquaculture development.
5. Conduct research on quality seed
production and disseminate
information and technologies to
seed producers
1. Research centers maintain brood stock among the
selected fishes.

2. Establishment of hatcheries for selected fish species
by research centers.
1. Release of an improved species by the
agricultural institutes and Fisheries research
centers.

2. Research centers should establish sites that
supply improved offspring.
6. Conduct research on quality feed
production and feeding
1. Research centers should do research on feed
formulation.

2. Research centers assess alternative feed sources and
supplement the formulated feeds.

3. Laboratory analysis of the feed content of available
fish feed sources (live and others) and prepare guide
book by the research centers and universities.

4. Conduct research on live feed production for young
fish.
1. Research on planktons of special importance
for aquaculture and listing all the available
fauna and flora by the research institutes and
centers.

2. Laboratory analysis of the feed content of
available fish feed sources (live and others)
and prepare guide book by the research
centers and universities.
7. Upgrade status of research
administration to a fully fledged
institute
1. Federal and regional administration initiate the
establishment of aquaculture-linked institute.


2. Research centers should establish appropriate links
with international aquaculture institutes.
1. Federal and regional administration establish
an institution specific to aquaculture and
related research.

2. Research institutes establish and equip
competent laboratory engaged in analyzing
bio - chemical and bio - physical condition
of water, soil, feed and fish.

8. Demonstrate test and release
research outputs on aquaculture to
users
1. Research centers demonstrate the relevant
technologies.

2. Research centers undertake adaptive research for new
technology testing and adoption.
1. Research centers look for new technologies
in the globe and test them under Ethiopian
aquaculture.

2. The research centers undertake new research
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3. Higher learning institutes through their graduate
programme conduct basic research for new
technology.

findings to science and technology for
patenting.
9. Private sector Collaborate with
government in research
1. Adopt research results and use the findings. 1. Commercial farmers use better performing,
ecologically accepted and improved
technologies as recommended by the
research.
2.6 Fish health management
1. Monitor and control fish health on
fish farms and water bodies
1. MoARD and BoARD facilitate veterinary support
centers at aquaculture development areas.

2. EPLAUA and BoARD control and protect water
bodies used for aquaculture from agricultural &
industrial chemicals and other effluents.

1. MoARD, BoARD and Research institutes
establish laboratory to study fish disease and
parasites.

2. BoARD, EPLAUA and BoWRD control and
prevent use of dangerous antibiotics and
other chemicals on water bodies.
2. Educate fish farmers on fish health
and fish health management
1. BoARD and Research institutes prepare and provide
fish health management manuals and guides.

2. BoARD and Research centers give training on fish
health and health management.
1. BoARD establishes farmers training center
(FTC) on fish health and health
management.
3. Certify the quality of fish imports
and exports
1. MoARD, BoARD, EQSA, MoH and BoH prepare
guide line for fish marketing.

2. MoARD, EQSA, MoH, EHNI and ECA prepare
and/or use legislation regarding the quality of fish
product to be imported and exported.
1. MoARD, BoARD, EQSA, MoH and BoH
prepare guideline for fish marketing.
2.7 Gender
1. Take into account the specific
gender issues in the education,
training and extension aquaculture
1. MoARD and BoARD, Higher learning institutions and
training centers give training and outreach service for
women involved in fish farming.

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capability development programs
2. Define a strategy to increase the
recruitment of the women and the
vulnerable social categories into
the production, processing and
marketing of aquaculture products
1. BoARD, Research and Investment Promotion Agency
(IPA) give priority and privilege women and socially
vulnerable groups to involve in the aquaculture
industry.
1. The BoARD, Research and other
stakeholders involving in aquaculture
industry should increase the number of
women by threefold.
3. Elaborate indicators of reference in
the effective implementation of
gender issues in the aquaculture
sector
1. BoARD gives special practical training in the fish
production and processing units.

2. BoARD and Investment Promotion Agency (IPA)
give special attention and assistance for women
involving in fish farming investment.


1. The Bureau of Women Affaires (BoWA) as
well as Labor and Social Affairs should
follow regularly whether the women and
socially vulnerable groups are involving and
participating in the aquaculture industry.

2. The Cooperative Promotion Agency should
organize and establish different formal
cooperatives for the women and socially
vulnerable groups engaged in fish farming.
1. Private sector provides
disaggregated statistics on the
women and men involvement in all
aquaculture activities
1. Investors and NGOs give priority for women during
manpower recruitment.

2. Financial organizations outline rules and regulations
benefiting the women and socially deprived groups to
involve in fish farming.
1. NGOs promote the number of women
participants' at least 25% in aquaculture
development.

2. More of the fund released by the financial
institutions to the aquaculture industry goes
to the women.
2. Define a percentage of resources
donated for addressing the gender
issues.
1. NGOs arrange special incentive for women and
socially vulnerable groups working on the aquaculture
development.
1. The NGOs increase the ratio of women at
least 25% during donation.
2.8 Access to land or aquaculture zones,
by enterprises, industries and fish
farmers.


1. Identify aquaculture potential areas 1. MoARD, BoARD and Research institutes with the
involvement of stakeholders will develop the type of
1. MoARD, BoARD and Research institutes
with the involvement of other stakeholders
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aquaculture to be implemented with the different agro-
ecologies.
prepare aquaculture master plan describing
the environmental suitability and resource
availability for fish farming industry.

2. Research centers list all aquatic life
resources (big aquatic vertebrates to
microscopic planktons) important for
aquaculture industry.

3. Research institutes, MoARD and BoARD
identify the type of aquaculture industry to
be implemented in an area.
2. Facilitate farmers and investors in
suitable site selection for
aquaculture
1. MoARD, BoARD, and EIPA and EPLAUA consult
the fish farmers and investors in site selection and
research centers recommend species that fit to the
studied sites.

2. BoARD and research centers evaluate the areas
proposed by investors for its suitability to aquaculture.
1. BoARD and research centers together with
other stakeholders should identify areas
suitable for new way of farming system
(investment).

3. Guarantee aquaculture investors'
rights to land and their investment

1. The regional administration guarantees land for the
aquaculture investment.

2. The EIPA gives guarantee and special incentives for
the investments undertaken in aquaculture.
1. The EIPA facilitates the leasing of
aquaculture land for the investors.
2.9. Legal and regulatory framework
1. Establish clear and secure user
right to land and water favorable
for aquaculture investment.
1. BoARD, EEPCO and EIPA identify and list favorable
land for aquaculture investment.

2. Regional administration avails and secures favorable
land for aquaculture investment.
1. Regional administration avail and secure
favorable land for aquaculture investment.
2. Develop aquaculture regulation

1. Federal and regional administration develop
aquaculture rules and regulations together with
1. MoARD and BoARD monitor all
aquaculture activities of the country.
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stakeholders (MoARD, BoARD MoWRD, BoWRD
and EEPCO).

2. MoARD and BoARD monitor all aquaculture
activities of the country.

3. Regulate quality and production of
feed and seed
1. EQSA together with MoARD establishes quality
standard for fish seed and feed.

2. BoARD together with research centers apply the
quality control measures, monitor fish seed, and feed
products.
1. BoARD together with research centers
applies the quality control measures for fish
seed and feed.

4. Regulate introduction and
movement of aquaculture species
1. MoARD, IBCR and EEPCO in collaboration issue
rules and regulations on the introduction and
movement of aquaculture species.

2. BoARD applies the rules and regulations and monitors
the introduction and movement of aquaculture species.

1. BoARD apply the rules and regulations and
monitor the introduction and movement of
aquaculture species.
5. Collect, analyze and publish
reliable and up to date statistics
1. BoARD and Research Institute collects data analyze
and publish the statistics.

2. MoARD compiles regional statistics and publicize.
1. BoARD and Research institute collects data
analyze and publish the statistics.

2. MoARD compiles regional statistics and
publicize.
2.10 Improve marketing
1. Basic marketing infrastructure
development
1. The Federal and Regional Road Authorities construct
all weather roads.

2. EEPCO installs electric power facility.

3. BoWRD avails potable water.

4. ETC avails communication facilities.
1. The Federal and Regional Road Authorities
construct all weather roads.

2. EEPCO installs electric power facility.

3. BoWRD avails potable water.

4. ETC avails communication facilities.
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2. Information on technical and
economical aspects
1. MoARD, BoARD and mass media deliver information
on fish post harvest techniques, market channels, and
fish prices through trainings, workshops and
promotion.
1. MoARD, BoARD and mass media give
information on fish post harvest techniques,
market channels, and fish prices through
trainings, workshops and promotion.
3. Market channels 1. MoARD and BoARD trace and promote market
channels for fish producers, consumers and traders.
1. MoARD, BoARD and Bureau of Trade and
Industry (BoTI) trace and promote market
channels for fish producers, consumers and
traders for products.
4. Fish quality assurance 1. BoARD, Department of Agriculture & Rural
Development (DoARD), and Office of Agriculture &
Rural Development (OoARD) insure the quality of
fish in the domestic market according to the preset
standards.
1. BoARD, Department of Agriculture & Rural
Development (DoARD), and Office of
Agriculture & Rural Development (OoARD)
insure the quality of fish in the domestic
market according to the preset standards.

2. MoARD, BoARD and EQSA insure the
quality of exportable fish product according
to the preset standards.
2.11 Public Private Partnerships
1. Encourage private sector to
produce inputs
1. BoARD with MoARD encourage and facilitate the
privates to produce fish feed, seed and fishing gears
by creating awareness through trainings, workshops,
mass medias.

2. EIPA with the Regional investment commission
motivates and encourages aquaculture input
production investments by licensing and issuing
incentives.

3. Municipalities and town administrations allow or
secure land and other resources (water, electric power,
telecommunication, and road) for aquaculture input
producers.

1. BoARD with MoARD encourage and
facilitate the privates to produce fish feed,
seed and fishing gears by creating awareness
through trainings, workshops, mass medias.

2. EIPA with the Regional investment
commission motivates and encourages
aquaculture input production investments by
licensing and issuing incentives.

3. Municipalities and town administrations
allow or secure land and other resources
(water, electric power, telecommunication,
and road) for aquaculture input producers.

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4. BoARD facilitates market out lets for aquaculture
inputs.
4. BoARD facilitates market out lets for
aquaculture inputs.
2.12 Public awareness creation
1. Promote aquaculture development 1. BoARD with MoARD creates awareness on all
aquaculture activities, technologies and packages
through trainings, workshops and mass medias.

2. BoARD with MoARD creates awareness about all
rules and regulations of aquaculture activities through
trainings, workshops and mass medias.

3. BoARD, DoARD and OoARD prepare fish food
recipe and fish farming manuals.
1. BoARD with MoARD creates awareness on
all aquaculture activities, technologies and
packages through trainings, workshops and
mass medias.

2. BoARD with MoARD creates awareness
about all rules and regulations of aquaculture
activities through trainings, workshops and
mass medias.

3. BoARD, DoARD and OoARD prepare fish
food recipe and fish farming manuals.
2.13 Monitoring, control and evaluation
of aquaculture industry

1. Enforce compliance 1. MoARD enforces compliance with FAO Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF).
1. MoARD enforces compliance with FAO
Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
(CCRF).
2. Import/export 1. MoARD with IBCR and EPLAUA set up monitoring
and controlling scheme of import and export of all
aquatic organisms.

2. MoARD monitors and controls import and export of
all aquatic organisms.
1. MoARD monitors and controls import and
export of all aquatic organisms.
3. Evaluation of the aquaculture
sector
1. MoARD and BoARD prepare evaluation methods of
the sector.

2. BoARD evaluates the aquaculture sector through data
collection, analysis and summarization of information.

1. BoARD evaluates the aquaculture sector
through data collection, analysis and
summarization of information.

2. MoARD summarizes all information of the
region to evaluate the aquaculture sector at
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3. MoARD summarizes all information of the region to
evaluate the aquaculture sector at the country level.
the country level.

4. Environmental impact assessment 1. BoARD, MoARD and evaluate and ensure the
environmental impact assessment studies of each
aquaculture investments.
2. BoARD, MoARD and EPA evaluate and
ensure the environmental impact assessment
studies of each aquaculture investments.
2.14 Policy issues
1. Incorporate aquaculture production
with other development activities
1. BoARD with MoARD incorporate aquaculture
development with water harvesting policy and
activities.

2. MoARD, MoWRD, BoWRD, BoARD, Irrigation
Authority and other organizations dealing with water
harvesting and irrigation schemes incorporate
aquaculture development with irrigation schemes
(designs).

3. MoWRD and EEPCO incorporate aquaculture
development with hydroelectric power generation
schemes.
1. BoARD with MoARD incorporate
aquaculture development with water
harvesting policy and activities.

2. MoARD, MoWRD, BoWRD, BoARD,
Irrigation Authority and other organizations
dealing with water harvesting and irrigation
schemes incorporate aquaculture
development with irrigation schemes
(designs).

3. MoWRD and EEPCO incorporate
aquaculture development with hydroelectric
power generation schemes.
2. Promote aquaculture 1. MoARD promotes aquaculture in accordance with the
NEPAD Action plan and the MDG.
1. MoARD promotes aquaculture in
accordance with the NEPAD Action plan
and the (MDG).
3. Participation with international
organizations.
1. MoARD, BoARD and Research Institutes participate
in aquaculture developmental activities of other
international organizations such as FAO- Committee
on Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture for Africa
(CIFAA), ANFA and World Fish Center.
1. MoARD, BoARD and Research Institutes
participate in aquaculture developmental
activities of other international organizations
such as FAO-Committee on Inland Fisheries
and Aquaculture for Africa (CIFAA), ANFA
and World Fish Center.