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THE NATIONAL EXAMINATION BOARD IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

NATIONAL GENERAL CERTIFICATE IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


PAPER A1: IDENTIFYING AND CONTROLLING HAZARDS
JUNE 1998
Answe ALL !"es#$%ns T$&e A''%we(: ) *%"s
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) Define the term `ergonomics'. (2)
(b) Outline the possible effects on health that may be caused by the poor
ergonomic design of visual display unit (VDU) workstations.
(4)
(c) Outline the main factors to be considered in an ergonomic assessment
of a workstation to be used by a VDU operator.
(14)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Provide sketches to show clearly the nature of the following
mechanical haards from moving parts of machinery!
(i) entanglement (2)
(ii) crushing (2)
(iii) drawing" in (2)
(iv) shear. (2)
3 (a) Outline the main factors to be considered in the siting of fire
e#tinguishers.
(4)
(b) Outline the inspection and maintenance re$uirements for fire
e#tinguishers in the workplace.
(4)
4
Explain #*e &e,n$n6 %3 #*e 3%''%w$n6 #e&s $n e',#$%n #% n%$se
+%n#%'
(i) silencing (2)
1
(ii) absorption (2)
(iii) damping (2)
(iv) isolation. (2)
5 Outline a procedure for the safe lifting of a load by the use of a crane%
having ensured that the crane has been correctly selected and
positioned for the &ob.
(8)
6 (a) Define the term `target organ' within the conte#t of occupational health. (2)
(b) Outline the personal hygiene practices that should be followed to
reduce the risk of ingestion of a haardous substance.
(6)
7 Identify O!" different types of haard that may necessitate the use of
special footwear e#$l%inin& in '()* case how the footwear affords
protection.
(8)
8 +ist the items that should be included on an inspection checklist
designed to ensure the safety of portable electrical appliances.
(8)
, Outline the main precautions to be taken when carrying out e#cavation
work.
(8)
1- (a) 'tate ./O respiratory diseases that may be caused by e#posure to
asbestos.
(2)
(b) Identify where asbestos is likely to be encountered in a building during
renovation work.
(6)
11 +ist the ways in which a fork lift truck may become unstable whilst in
operation.
(8)
2
NEBOSH Certificate June 1998
Paper A1 Identifying and Cntrlling Ha!ard"
Outline an"#er" and guidance gi$en in t%e NEBOSH exa&iner'" (eprt
Sectin 1
)ue"tin 1
*%i" +ue"tin ai&ed t a""e"" candidate", -readt% f .n#ledge in relatin t ergn&ic"/
0any candidate"1 fr part 2a31 #ere a-le t pr$ide ade+uate definitin" f ergn&ic"1 #%ic%
i" generally accepted a" -eing t%e "tudy f t%e interactin -et#een #r.er" and t%eir #r.1
and i" cncerned #it% t%e de"ign f t%e #r.place1 #r. e+uip&ent and #r. &et%d" #it%
t%e need" and li&itatin" f t%e %u&an peratr in &ind/ 4efinitin" "uc% a" 5&an6&ac%ine
interface,1 #%ic% "till c&&nly appear in candidate", an"#er"1 are cn"idered t -e t
narr#ly fcu"ed/ Ergn&ic" i" cncerned #it% far &re t%an "i&ply t%e u"e f &ac%inery/
Part 2-3 re+uired candidate" t de&n"trate an under"tanding f t%e p""i-le %ealt% effect"
t%at &ay -e cau"ed -y t%e pr ergn&ic de"ign f 748 #r."tatin"/ A nu&-er f
candidate" "i&ply li"ted cnditin" "uc% a" #r.6related upper li&- di"rder" and eye "train1
#%ic% #a" in"ufficient t gain %ig% &ar."/ *%e +ue"tin re+uired candidate" t pr$ide an
utline f "uc% cnditin" in rder t de&n"trate a prper under"tanding f t%e effect"/ An
ade+uate utline #uld typically include detail f "y&pt&" and t%e circu&"tance" t%at #uld
&a.e t%e effect" &re li.ely/
*%e final part f t%e +ue"tin #a" an"#ered rea"na-ly #ell -y &"t candidate"/ Strnger
candidate" #ere a-le t gi$e #ell "tructured an"#er" t%at cn"idered t%e e+uip&ent1 t%e
en$irn&ent1 t%e ta". and t%e indi$idual1 and t%eir inter6relatin"%ip"/ S&e candidate" #ent
-eynd t%e "cpe f t%e +ue"tin and parap%ra"ed t%e re+uire&ent" f t%e Healt% and Safety
24i"play Screen E+uip&ent3 (egulatin" 19991 "uc% a" t%e re+uire&ent fr eye"ig%t te"t"/ In
fact1 &"t f t%e factr" rele$ant t an ergn&ic a""e""&ent are cntained in a "c%edule t
t%e"e (egulatin"/ In additin1 "&e an"#er" included nn6ergn&ic i""ue" "uc% a" fire
"afety and electricity/ Once again1 candidate" are re&inded t read t%e +ue"tin t%rug%ly
and t ta.e nte f .ey #rd" and p%ra"e"/
Sectin 9
)ue"tin 9
An under"tanding f &ec%anical %a!ard" a""ciated #it% &$ing part" f &ac%inery i" a .ey
part f t%e Certificate "ylla-u" and t%i" +ue"tin #a" de"igned t te"t candidate",
under"tanding f t%e categri"atin f &ec%anical %a!ard" gi$en in Part 1 f BS EN
999:19911 5Safety f &ac%inery 6 -a"ic cncept"1 general principle" fr de"ign, 2and in t%e
fr&er Briti"% Standard1 BS ;<=>:19881 5Safeguarding f &ac%inery,3/
Exa&iner" #ere nt l.ing fr #r." f art? t%ey did1 %#e$er1 re+uire "&et%ing t%at clearly
3
repre"ented part" f &ac%inery and #%ic% de&n"trated t%e particular %a!ard -eing referred
t/ Arr#" t "%# t%e directin f &$e&ent %elped enr&u"ly in t%i" ta"./ S&e ".etc%e"
#ere " pr t%at it #a" i&p""i-le t tell #%et%er a %a!ard exi"ted at all #%erea" t%er"
#ere extre&ely #ell pre"ented and grap%ic1 cca"inally $erging n t%e &aca-re/ A
cn"idera-le nu&-er f candidate" "%#ed cnfu"in -et#een t%e different type" f %a!ard?
in particular1 entangle&ent and dra#ing6in %a!ard" #ere ften interc%anged1 and 5"%earing,
"ee&ed unfa&iliar t &any/ Exa&iner" #ere +uite cncerned t%at n t%e #%le candidate"
did nt ta.e ad$antage f #%at "%uld %a$e -een ea"ily -taina-le &ar." fr& t%i" +ue"tin/
)ue"tin <
*%i" +ue"tin #a" an"#ered #ell -y t%e &a@rity f candidate"/ Ar part 2a31 nearly all
candidate" #ere a-le t ffer an utline f t%e &ain factr" t -e cn"idered in t%e "iting f
fire extingui"%er"/ *ypical factr" &entined -y candidate" included acce""i-ility1 $i"i-ility1
prxi&ity t exit" and e"cape rute"1 tra$el di"tance"1 and t%e &ean" f "upprting t%e
e+uip&ent ff t%e grund and free fr& -"tructin/ Only a fe# candidate"1 %#e$er1
identified t%e need t prtect extingui"%er" fr& t%e #eat%er and t%er "urce" f da&age/
A little &re difficulty #a" fund #it% part 2-31 #%ic% re+uired candidate" t utline prcedure"
t en"ure t%at fire extingui"%er" re&ain peratinal/ *%ere #ere1 %#e$er1 "&e $ery gd
an"#er" t%at clearly differentiated -et#een t%e purp"e" f an in"pectin and t%"e f
&aintenance/ In"pectin f fire extingui"%er" typically ta.e" t%e fr& f rutine 2eg &nt%ly3
$i"ual c%ec." t en"ure t%at extingui"%er" are in place1 %a$e nt -een di"c%arged and -ear
n -$iu" da&age/ 0aintenance1 n t%e t%er %and1 i" "&et%ing rat%er &re exten"i$e and
u"ually in$l$e" annual te"t" -y a c&petent per"n accrding t t%e &anufacturer,"
in"tructin" in rder t en"ure t%e integrity f t%e extingui"%er1 #it% t%e re&$al and
replace&ent f e+uip&ent fund t -e faulty/
)ue"tin >
*%i" +ue"tin "ug%t t a""e"" candidate", .n#ledge f -a"ic ni"e cntrl ter&" and
principle"/ 8nfrtunately1 &any candidate" eit%er cnfu"ed t%e ter&"1 particularly da&ping
and a-"rptin1 r #ere una-le t de&n"trate a clear under"tanding f t%e ter&" in relatin
t ni"e cntrl/ *%e latter grup f candidate" "&eti&e" re"rted t gi$ing t%er infr&atin
n ni"e t%at %ad nt -een a".ed fr1 "uc% a" t%e re+uire&ent" f t%e Ni"e at Br.
(egulatin" 19891 and fr #%ic% &ar." #ere nt t%erefre a$aila-le/
*%e Exa&iner" #ere l.ing fr an"#er" #%ic% explained t%at: "ilencing refer" t t%e
"uppre""in f ni"e generated -y t%e fl# f air1 ga" r "tea& in duct" and pipe"1 r #%en
ex%au"ted t t%e at&"p%ere1 and i" ac%ie$ed -y t%e inclu"in f eit%er a-"rpti$e &aterial r
-affle"? a-"rptin i" u"ed t reduce t%e a&unt f reflected ni"e -y u"ing &aterial" "uc% a"
fa& r &ineral #l? da&ping i" u"ed pri&arily t reduce t%e a&unt f ni"e radiating fr&
large panel" and i" ac%ie$ed -y increa"ing t%e "tiffne"" f t%e panel"? and i"latin refer" t
t%e p%y"ical "eparatin f peple fr& t%e ni"e "urce 2eg acu"tic -t%" r %a$en"31 r t
t%e reductin in "tructure6-rne ni"e -y $i-ratin i"latin 2eg flexi-le pipe" r anti6$i-ratin
&ac%ine &unt"3/ S&e gd an"#er" included "i&ple ".etc%e" and exa&ple" t %elp t
de&n"trate a c&plete under"tanding f t%i" area/
)ue"tin ;
4
*%i" #a" a +ue"tin #%ere candidate" culd earn %ig% &ar." -y i&agining a lifting peratin
and t%en applying apprpriate cntrl" fr& fir"t principle"/ It #a" nt nece""ary1 t%erefre1 t
%a$e a detailed .n#ledge f crane" r lifting tac.le/ S&e candidate" #a"ted $alua-le ti&e
-y ging int detail n t%e "uita-ility f t%e crane it"elf1 e$en t%ug% t%e +ue"tin #a" carefully
#rded " a" t eli&inate t%i" a"pect/ A prcedure fr a lifting peratin need" t ta.e int
accunt "uc% i""ue" a": t%e "uita-ility f t%e lifting tac.le 2"afe #r.ing lad1 free fr& defect1
etc3? t%e c&petence f t%e per"n" in$l$ed 2dri$er1 "linger1 "ignaller3? en"uring t%e lad i"
lifted $ertically1 and t%at it i" "ecure1 -alanced and cntrlled during t%e lift -y t%e attac%&ent
f tag line" #%ere nece""ary? en"uring prper c&&unicatin? .eeping t%e area clear f t%er
per"n"? and perfr&ing eac% part f t%e peratin 2lifting1 "le#ingC&$ing and l#ering3 at a
rate t%at &aintain" prper cntrl/
)ue"tin D
0"t candidate"1 fr part 2a31 #ere a-le t cn$ey t%e idea t%at t%e %ar&ful effect" f a txic
"u-"tance are nr&ally cnfined t particular rgan" #it%in t%e %u&an -dy1 "uc% a" t%e
lung"1 li$er1 ".in r .idney"/ Hence1 a 5target rgan, i" t%e part f t%e -dy t%at "u"tain" an
ad$er"e effect #%en it i" exp"ed t1 r i" cnta&inated -y1 a particular %ar&ful "u-"tance r
agent/ Part 2-3 l.ed at t%e ri". f inge"tin and t%e rle played -y per"nal %ygiene in
reducing t%e ri"./ Again1 candidate" are re&inded f t%e need t read t%e +ue"tin carefully
"ince &any appeared t &i"" t%e #rd" 5per"nal %ygiene, and pr$ided an"#er" t%at t. in
t%e entire COSHH %ierarc%y/ Ed an"#er" t part 2-3 pr$ided detail f per"nal %ygiene
practice" "uc% a" regular %and #a"%ing1 t%e re"trictin f "&.ing and eating in t%e
#r.place1 t%e u"e f "uita-le per"nal prtecti$e e+uip&ent 2eg gl$e"31 and t%e need fr
re&$ing and cleaning cnta&inated clt%ing/
)ue"tin F
*%e i&prtance f ft prtectin i" illu"trated -y t%e fact t%at arund 911=== ft and an.le
in@urie" #ere reprted t t%e enfrcing aut%ritie" in 199DC9F/ *%i" +ue"tin ai&ed t te"t
candidate", a#arene"" and under"tanding f t%e need fr ft prtectin in &any
ccupatinal "etting"/ It #a" plea"ing t nte t%at a %ig% prprtin f candidate" #ere a-le t
pr$ide excellent an"#er" t t%i" +ue"tin1 identifying gd exa&ple" f t%e type" f %a!ard
and t%e apprpriate ft#ear re+uire&ent"/ *%e &"t c&&n included: falling -@ect" 2"teel
te6cap"31 "%arp -@ect" 2"teel in6"le"31 fla&&a-le at&"p%ere" 2anti6"tatic ft#ear31
"pread f cnta&inatin 2#a"%a-le -t"31 &lten &etal 2%eat re"i"tant -t" and gaiter"31
electricity 2ru--er "le"31 #et en$irn&ent" 2i&per&ea-le #ellingtn"31 "lippery "urface"
2nn6"lip "le"31 and cld en$irn&ent" 2t%er&ally in"ulated ft#ear3/
)ue"tin 8
*%e Exa&iner" #ere plea"ed #it% t%e $erall re"pn"e t t%i" +ue"tin/ 0"t candidate"
#ere a-le t ffer fairly c&pre%en"i$e li"t" f in"pectin ite&" t%at included: e+uip&ent
apprpriate fr t%e ta". and en$irn&ent? e+uip&ent te"ted? e+uip&ent1 plug"1 cnnectr"
and ca-le" free fr& da&age? crrect #iring and "und cnnectin"? fu"e" and t%er &ean"
f pre$enting exce"" current in place and f crrect rating? acce""i-le and apprpriate &ean"
f i"latin? and "y"te& nt $erladed/
5
)ue"tin 9
*%e danger" f exca$atin #r. include cllap"e f "ide"1 fall" f per"n"1 &aterial" r
$e%icle" int t%e exca$atin1 cntact #it% -uried "er$ice"1 -uild6up f fu&e"1 ingre"" f #ater
and cntact #it% &ec%anical plant/ Candidate" "%uld %a$e -een a-le t utline a range f
precautin" de"igned t prtect again"t "uc% danger"/ Precautin" include: detectin f
"er$ice" 2eg fr& plan"1 u"e f ca-leCpipe detectr"1 etc3? "upprt f "ide"? "trage f
&aterial" and "pil a#ay fr& edge? &ean" f pre$enting $e%icle" falling int exca$atin 2eg
"tp -lc."3? guard6rail" and -arrier"? &ean" f pre$enting cllap"e f ad@acent "tructure"?
"afe &ean" f acce""Cegre""? te"ting fr1 and $entilatin f1 nxiu" fu&e"? &ean" f
pu&ping ut #ater? prcedure" fr #r.ing #it% &ec%anical plant? and general i""ue" "uc% a"
in"pectin1 training and "uper$i"in/ Candidate" #% #ere a-le t pr$ide detail f "uc%
precautin"1 ften -y &ean" f exa&ple"1 perfr&ed particularly #ell n t%i" +ue"tin/
)ue"tin 1=
0"t candidate" #ere a-le t pr$ide t# re"piratry di"ea"e" fr part 2a31 a"-e"t"i" and
lung cancer -eing t%e &"t ppular/ In "i&ilar $ein1 &"t candidate"1 fr part 2-31 #ere a-le t
identify "e$eral area" #%ere a"-e"t" culd -e encuntered in a -uilding during ren$atin/
*%e"e included pipe lagging1 #all and rf panel"1 ceiling tile"1 textured cating" "uc% a" fire
re"i"tant encap"ulatin f &etal girder"1 in"ulatin &aterial"1 and in ga".et" and t%er "eal"/
Alt%ug% nt affecting t%e &ar."1 t%e Exa&iner" #ere a little "urpri"ed -y t%e fe# an"#er"
t%at referred t &e"t%eli&a in part 2a31 de"pite t%i" particular type f cancer -eing
pred&inantly a""ciated #it% a"-e"t" exp"ure/
)ue"tin 11
0"t candidate" cped rea"na-ly #ell #it% t%i" +ue"tin1 #it% &ar." -eing relati$ely ea"y t
-tain #%en a "tructured apprac%1 #%ic% cn"idered t%e lad1 t%e en$irn&ent and t%e
$e%icle it"elf1 #a" adpted/ *ypical i""ue" &entined #ere: in"ecure1 exce""i$e r une$en
lading? incrrect tilt andCr ele$atin f fr." #%en tra$elling? une$en r uncn"lidated
grund? "lpe" 2and incrrect prcedure" t deal #it% t%e&3? -"tructin" 2$er%ead and l#
le$el3? crnering at exce""i$e "peed"? "udden -ra.ing? pr cnditin f tyre"? and
&ec%anical failure/
6
*HE NA*IONAG EHA0INA*ION BOA(4 IN OCC8PA*IONAG SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
NA*IONAG EENE(AG CE(*IAICA*E IN OCC8PA*IONAG SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
PAPE( A9: *HE 0ANAEE0EN* OA SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
J8NE 1998
An"#er AGG +ue"tin" *i&e All#ed: 9 %ur"
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) Outline the duties placed on employers under the (anual )andling
*perations +egulations ,--..
(4)
(b) Descri0e the O!" factors that should be considered when making an
assessment of manual handling operations.
(16)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the factors that should be considered when preparing a
procedure to deal with a workplace emergency.
(8)
3 (a)
4efine #*e #e& 7ne6'$6en+e8
(2)
(b) Outline the .*"'' standard conditions that must be met for an
employee to prove a case of alleged negligence against an employer.
(6)
4
Outline #*e 2e1 /%$n#s #*,# s*%"'( 4e +%.ee( $n , #,$n$n6 sess$%n
3% e&/'%1ees %n #*e e/%#$n6 %3 ,++$(en#s9$n+$(en#s-
(8)
5 +ist the main re$uirements of the /rovision and Use of 0ork 1$uipment
+egulations ,--..
(8)
6 0ith reference to the )ealth and 'afety (2onsultation with 1mployees)
+egulations ,--3!
(i) e#$l%in the difference between `consulting' and `informing' (2)
(ii) outline the health and safety matters on which employers must consult (6)
7
their employees.
7 Outline ./O reactive measures and ./O proactive measures that can
be used in monitoring an organisation's health and safety performance.
(8)
8 Outline the reasons why employees may fail to comply with safety
procedures at work.
(8)
, (a) '#$l%in the meaning of the terms!
(i) 4occupational e#posure standard5 (*1')
(ii) 4ma#imum e#posure limit5 ((16).

(2)
(2)
(b) Outline O!" actions management could take when an (16 has been
e#ceeded.
(4)
1- (a) '#$l%in the meaning of the term 4safe system of work5. (2)
(b) Descri0e the enforcement action that could be taken by an enforcing
authority when a safe system of work has not been implemented.
(6)
11 Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first"aid
provision in a workplace.
(8)
8
NEBOSH Certificate June 1998
Paper A9 *%e &anage&ent f "afety and %ealt%
Outline an"#er" and guidance gi$en in t%e NEBOSH exa&iner'" (eprt
Sectin 1
)ue"tin 1
Bit% &anual %andling in@urie" a&ng"t t%e &"t c&&n type f in@ury "u"tained -y peple
at #r.1 t%i" +ue"tin "ug%t t te"t t%e dept% and -readt% f .n#ledge f candidate" #it%
regard -t% t t%e legal re+uire&ent" relating t &anual %andling and t t%e practical
cn"ideratin" f cnducting &anual %andling a""e""&ent"/
*%ere #ere "&e $ery gd re"pn"e" t t%e fir"t part f t%i" +ue"tin/ Ed an"#er"
utlined t%e e&plyer", dutie" cntained in regulatin > f t%e (egulatin" f: a$iding
&anual %andling peratin" #%ere$er p""i-le? cnducting "uita-le and "ufficient
a""e""&ent" f t%e ta"."? ta.ing "tep" t reduce t%e ri". f in@ury t t%e l#e"t le$el
rea"na-ly practica-le? pr$iding infr&atin t e&plyee" n t%e #eig%t and #eig%t
di"tri-utin f t%e lad? and re$ie#ing a""e""&ent" a" nece""ary/
Part 2-3 re+uired candidate" t de"cri-e t%e fur factr" t -e cn"idered in an a""e""&ent f
&anual %andling peratin"/ *%e fur factr" "ug%t1 and #%ic% nearly all candidate"
crrectly identified1 #ere t%e ta".1 t%e lad1 t%e en$irn&ent and t%e indi$idual/ *%e
Exa&iner" a#arded &ar." t candidate" #% #ere a-le t cn"ider a #ide range f i""ue"
under eac%1 and #%ic% are li"ted in Clu&n 9 f Sc%edule 1 f t%e (egulatin"/ *%erefre1
#%en cn"idering t%e ta".1 i""ue" "uc% a" t%e di"tance f t%e lad fr& t%e trun.1 -dy
&$e&ent" and p"ture" re+uired 2eg t#i"ting1 "tping1 "tretc%ing1 exce""i$e carrying1 etc31
exce""i$e pu"%ing r pulling1 and t%e #r. rate i&p"ed -y t%e prce""1 are all rele$ant/
Si&ilarly1 a range f i""ue" a""ciated #it% t%e lad #uld include it" #eig%t1 -ul.ine""1
"ta-ility1 "%arpne""1 te&perature and t%e ea"e #it% #%ic% it can -e gra"ped/ B%en
cn"idering t%e en$irn&ent1 factr" "uc% a" a&-ient te&perature1 flr cnditin"1 "pace
and lig%ting are i&prtant/ Ga"tly1 a "uita-le and "ufficient a""e""&ent #uld cn"ider t%e
indi$idual -y l.ing at p%y"ical capa-ilitie"1 %ealt% 2eg fitne""1 pregnancy3 and t%e
re+uire&ent" fr "pecial infr&atin and training/
*%e $erall "tandard f re"pn"e t t%i" +ue"tin #a" extre&ely gd and Exa&iner" #ere
plea"ed t%at candidate" #ere generally a-le t "%# a clear under"tanding f "uc% an
i&prtant %ealt% and "afety i""ue/
Sectin 9
)ue"tin 9
*%i" +ue"tin re+uired candidate" t utline t%e factr" t%at "%uld -e cn"idered #%en
preparing a prcedure t deal #it% #r.place e&ergencie" "uc% a" a fire1 expl"in1 -&-
"care1 c%e&ical lea.age r t%er dangeru" ccurrence/ Ar&al prcedure" "%uld -e
9
e"ta-li"%ed t deal #it% "uc% e$entualitie" and are a "pecific re+uire&ent f t%e 0anage&ent
f Healt% and Safety at Br. (egulatin" 1999/
(e"pn"e" t t%i" +ue"tin #ere $aried #it% "&e candidate" a-le t pr$ide +uite
rea"na-le an"#er" and t%er" &erely fcu"ing n #%at t d in an actual e&ergency
2u"ually a fire3 rat%er t%an #%en preparing a prcedure t deal #it% ne/ Better candidate"
pr$ided a #ide range f cn"ideratin"1 including a&ng"t &any t%er p""i-ilitie": t%e
identificatin and training re+uire&ent" f per"n" #it% "pecific re"pn"i-ilitie"? t%e layut f
t%e pre&i"e" in relatin t e"cape rute"1 etc? t%e nu&-er f per"n" affected? a""e""&ent f
"pecial need" 2di"a-led per"n"1 c%ildren1 etc3? #arning "y"te&"? e&ergency lig%ting? t%e
lcatin f "%ut6ff $al$e"1 i"latin "#itc%e"1 %ydrant"1 etc? t%e e+uip&ent re+uired t deal
#it% t%e e&ergency? t%e lcatin f a""e&-ly pint"? c&&unicatin #it% e&ergency
"er$ice"? and t%e training andCr infr&atin t -e pr$ided t e&plyee"1 $i"itr"1 t%e lcal
c&&unity and t%er" #% &ig%t -e affected/
)ue"tin <
4i"appintingly1 &any candidate" fund it difficult t pr$ide1 fr part 2a31 a clear definitin f
negligence1 a trt in$l$ing a -reac% f t%e c&&n la# duty t ta.e rea"na-le care/ A" %a"
%appened in t%e pa"t1 candidate" "&eti&e" cnfu"ed t%e i""ue -y intrducing a"pect" f
cri&inal lia-ility1 in particular -y intrducing t%e "tatutry dutie" under "ectin 9 f t%e Healt%
and Safety at Br. etc Act 19F>/
Ar part 2-31 &"t candidate" &anaged t pr$ide rea"na-le an"#er" t%at identified t%e
t%ree "tandard cnditin" fr an e&plyee t pr$e a ca"e f alleged negligence: fir"tly1 t%at a
duty f care i" #ed? "ecndly1 t%at a -reac% f t%e duty ccurred in t%at t%e e&plyer failed
t ta.e rea"na-le care? and1 t%irdly1 t%at t%e -reac% led directly t t%e l""1 da&age r in@ury/
An utline #a" re+uired t "%# #%at eac% &ean" in practice/ S&e candidate" &ade u"e f
apprpriate exa&ple" fr t%i" purp"e/
)ue"tin >
*%e $erall re"pn"e t t%i" +ue"tin #a" rat%er pr/ It #a" clear t%at a nu&-er f
candidate" cn"idered t%e #rd 5reprting, "lely in relatin t t%e (eprting f In@urie"1
4i"ea"e" and 4angeru" Occurrence" (egulatin" 199;/ Ot%er" appeared t &i"" t%e
reference t training and "i&ply utlined "uita-le internal reprting prcedure"/ B%il"t "uc%
prcedure" #uld fr& part f a training "e""in1 t%e actual prcedure" did nt really fr&
part f an an"#er t t%i" +ue"tin/ Ed an"#er" t t%i" +ue"tin referred t t%e need in a
training "e""in t explain t%e i&prtance f reprting accident" and incident" 2fr legal1
in$e"tigati$e and &nitring rea"n"31 t%e type" f incident t%at t%e rgani"atin re+uire" t
-e reprted1 t%e line" f reprting1 %# t c&plete internal dcu&ent" and fr&"1 and
re"pn"i-ilitie" fr c&pleting t%e accident -. and fr c&plying #it% "tatutry reprting
dutie"/
)ue"tin ;
*%i" #a" a "traig%tfr#ard +ue"tin #%ere little difficulty #a" anticipated and1 rea""uringly1
little appeared t %a$e -een fund/ 0any candidate" gained &axi&u& &ar." -y including
&"t1 if nt all1 f t%e re+uire&ent" relating t: t%e "uita-ility f #r. e+uip&ent? training?
10
&aintenance f e+uip&ent? cnfr&ity #it% E8 re+uire&ent"? pre$enting cntact #it%
dangeru" part" f &ac%inery? prtectin again"t "pecified %a!ard"? prtectin again"t %ig% r
l# te&perature"? "tp and e&ergency "tp cntrl"? p"itin f cntrl"? "afety f cntrl
"y"te&"? &ean" f i"latin? "ta-ility? lig%ting? "afety f &aintenance peratin"? and t%e
pr$i"in f &ar.ing" and #arning"/ Gittle &re t%an t%i" #a" re+uired fr t%e li"t t%at #a"
a".ed fr/ A fe# an"#er" #ent furt%er t%an nece""ary -y gi$ing detail f t%e re+uire&ent"1
"uc% a" t%e &ean" f prtecting again"t dangeru" part"/ 4e"pite &uc% f t%e infr&atin
-eing "und1 n furt%er &ar." #ere a$aila-le and candidate" are nce again re&inded t
ta.e nte f t%e 5actin $er-, in eac% +ue"tin/
)ue"tin D
*%e HSE guide t t%e Healt% and Safety 2Cn"ultatin #it% E&plyee"3 (egulatin" dra#" a
clear di"tinctin -et#een 5infr&ing, and 5cn"ulting,/ Per%ap" fr& a general under"tanding
f t%e #rd"1 nearly all candidate"1 fr part 2i31 #ere a-le t differentiate -et#een t%e t#/
8nder t%e Healt% and Safety at Br. etc Act 19F>1 e&plyer" %a$e a duty t infr&
e&plyee" 2ie pr$ide infr&atin n %a!ard"1 ri"." and cntrl &ea"ure"3 in rder t %elp t
en"ure t%eir %ealt% and "afety/ *%i" general duty i" ec%ed in a nu&-er f (egulatin" &ade
under t%e Act/ *%e Healt% and Safety 2Cn"ultatin #it% E&plyee"3 (egulatin" 199D1
%#e$er1 re+uire t%at e&plyer" cn"ult t%eir e&plyee" n %ealt% and "afety &atter" 2ie
li"ten t1 and ta.e accunt f1 t%eir $ie#"3 -efre a deci"in i" ta.en/
*%e re"pn"e t part 2ii3 #a" &ixed1 #it% "&e candidate" "ee&ingly applying a certain
a&unt f gue""#r. 2al-eit "&eti&e" +uite intuiti$ely3 and t%er" "%#ing an -$iu"
fa&iliarity #it% t%e re+uire&ent" f t%e (egulatin"/ It i" #rt% nting t%at t%e &atter" n
#%ic% an e&plyer &u"t cn"ult under t%e"e (egulatin" are identical t t%"e in t%e Safety
(epre"entati$e" and Safety C&&ittee" (egulatin" 19FF/ *%ey include: t%e intrductin f
any &ea"ure at t%e #r.place t%at &ay "u-"tantially affect e&plyee", %ealt% and "afety? t%e
arrange&ent" fr appinting andCr n&inating c&petent per"n"? t%e planning and
rgani"atin f %ealt% and "afety training? t%e %ealt% and "afety i&plicatin" f intrducing
ne# tec%nlgy? and t%e infr&atin t%at t%e e&plyer i" re+uired t pr$ide under t%er
(egulatin"1 "uc% a" t%at relating t ri". a""e""&ent"1 pre$enti$e &ea"ure" and e&ergency
prcedure"/ Hence1 e&plyer" are -liged nt nly t pr$ide infr&atin -ut6 t%ey &u"t al"
cn"ult t%eir e&plyee" n t%e apprpriatene"" f t%e infr&atin -efre it i" gi$en/
)ue"tin F
Healt% and "afety perfr&ance in t%e #r.place can -e &nitred u"ing a $ariety f
tec%ni+ue" and &ea"ure"/ *%i" +ue"tin re+uired candidate" t di"tingui"% -et#een t%"e
t%at &ig%t -e de"cri-ed a" 5reacti$e, 2a""e""ing pa"t failure" t cntrl ri"."3 and t%"e t%at
are 5practi$e, 2identifying nn6c&pliance #it% plicy r prcedure" -efre actual %ar&
ccur"3/ (eacti$e &ea"ure" include accident and ill %ealt% recrd"1 ci$il clai&" and
enfrce&ent actin" #%erea" practi$e &ea"ure" include t%e re"ult" f "afety in"pectin"
and audit"1 en$irn&ental &nitring recrd"1 a""e""&ent" f %ealt% and "afety training and
t%e extent t #%ic% ri". a""e""&ent" %a$e -een c&pleted/ *%e general re"pn"e t t%i"
+ue"tin #a" rea"na-ly gd alt%ug% "&e candidate" appeared t cnfu"e t%e t# ter&"1
#%ic% re"ulted in #ea.er an"#er"/
)ue"tin 8
11
*%i" +ue"tin #a" an"#ered #ell -y t%e &a@rity f candidate"/ Exa&iner" #ere plea"ed t%at
candidate" #ere a-le t utline a #ide range f i""ue" fr t%i" %u&an factr" +ue"tin1 #%ic%
de&n"trated a gd under"tanding f t%i" part f t%e Certificate "ylla-u"/ *%ere are &any
rea"n" #%y e&plyee" &ay fail t c&ply #it% "afety prcedure" at #r. and candidate"
ac%ie$ing gd &ar." recgni"ed "&e f t%e&1 a&ng"t t%er"1 a": unreali"tic r
ill6cn"idered prcedure"? &ental andCr p%y"ical capa-ilitie" nt ta.en int accunt?
inade+uate training? pr rgani"atinal "afety culture? c&placencyClac. f &ti$atin? peer
grup pre""ure? t%er priritie" and pre""ure"? ri"." nt percei$ed? "lip" and lap"e"? fatigue
and "tre""? and percei$ed lac. f cn"ultatin/
)ue"tin 9
4e"pite pre$iu" Exa&iner", (eprt" dra#ing attentin t t%e general lac. f under"tanding
f1 and cnfu"in -et#een1 t%e t# type" f ccupatinal exp"ure li&it 2OEG31 &any
candidate" #ere again "truggling t pr$ide ade+uate an"#er" t part 2a3 f t%i" +ue"tin/ A"
a "tarting pint1 tutr" "%uld en"ure t%at candidate" are a#are t%at OEG" refer t air-rne
cncentratin" f particular "u-"tance" and t%u" are pri&arily cncerned #it% t%e pre$entin
f ill6%ealt% effect" -y in%alatin/
All#ing t%i"1 t%ere need" t -e an under"tanding t%at a %ar&ful "u-"tance i" a""igned an
OES #%en current e$idence indicate" t%at t%ere i" n %ar&ful effect at t%i" le$el1 and t%at
a$erage air-rne cncentratin" at r -el# t%e "tandard are cn"idered accepta-le/ An
0EG1 %#e$er1 i" a""igned t a "u-"tance #%en t%ere are difficultie"1 eit%er tec%nical r due
t lac. f e$idence1 in e"ta-li"%ing a le$el t%at i" cn"idered 5"afe,/ Ar t%i" rea"n1 air-rne
cncentratin" f "u-"tance" #it% an 0EG &u"t -e a" far a" rea"na-ly practica-le -el#
t%i" &axi&u& li&it in rder t &ini&i"e any ill6%ealt% effect"/ Excur"in" a-$e an 0EG &u"t
-e explained and i&&ediately cntrlled/
Ed an"#er" t part 2-3 relied t an extent n candidate", explanatin" f an 0EG in t%e fir"t
part1 and an under"tanding f t%e "eriu" i&plicatin" f exceeding an 0EG/ Better re"pn"e"
differentiated -et#een t%e i&&ediate and lnger ter& actin" t%at &ay -e nece""ary/
E&ergency prcedure" "uc% a" e$acuatin1 i"latin and $enting f t%e affected area1 and
curtailing t%e prce"" prducing t%e cnta&inant1 #uld -e re+uired i&&ediately/ All#ing
t%at1 an a""e""&ent "%uld -e &ade f t%e rea"n" fr t%e -rea.d#n in cntrl and
i&pr$e&ent" 2"uc% a" &re effecti$e $entilatin3 intrduced/ At t%e "a&e ti&e1 anyne
exp"ed t %ig% cncentratin" "%uld -e t%e "u-@ect f "pecial %ealt% "ur$eillance/
)ue"tin 1=
*%e de$elp&ent f "afe "y"te&" i" an e""ential part f t%e #r. f t%"e #it% %ealt% and
"afety re"pn"i-ilitie"/ It i" plea"ing t nte t%at &any candidate" #ere a-le t ffer clear1
cnci"e definitin" t%at "%#ed a gd under"tanding f t%e ter& and it" i&plicatin"/ A
rea"na-le explanatin f t%e ter& i"1 fr exa&ple1 a cn"idered prcedure fr carrying ut a
ta". "afely1 ta.ing int accunt t%e ri"." and cntrl &ea"ure"1 t%e e+uip&ent needed1 t%e
en$irn&ent1 cntingent re+uire&ent"1 and t%e c&petence and ".ill" re+uired f per"nnel/
Part 2-3 #a" al" #ell an"#ered alt%ug% t%ere #a" a "lig%t tendency fr li"t"1 #%ic% recei$ed
&ini&al credit/ Hig%er &ar." #ere a#arded t candidate" #% explained t%e cnditin" t%at
12
#uld deter&ine t%e type f actin t%at an in"pectr &ig%t ta.e1 and t%e effect" f t%at actin
n t%e rgani"atin/ P""i-le enfrce&ent actin" are t%e i""ue f an i&pr$e&ent r
pr%i-itin ntice1 and pr"ecutin/ Credit #a" al" gi$en fr t%e recgnitin t%at an in"pectr
&ay gi$e $er-al r #ritten ad$ice andCr #arning -efre ta.ing &re "eriu" actin/
)ue"tin 11
0"t candidate" "ee&ed t -e fa&iliar #it% t%e need fr fir"t6aid pr$i"in in t%e #r.place
and t%e factr" t%at #uld deter&ine t%e le$el f pr$i"in re+uired/ An a""e""&ent f fir"t6aid
pr$i"in in$l$e" l.ing at t%e nu&-er and le$el f training f fir"t6cider"1 a" #ell a" t%e type
and lcatin f fir"t6aid facilitie" and e+uip&ent1 in relatin t "uc% factr" a" t%e nu&-er and
di"tri-utin f e&plyee"1 t%e #r. pattern" in peratin 2eg "%ift#r.31 t%e #r.place
acti$itie" and ri"."1 and t%e prxi&ity f e&ergency "er$ice"/ S&e candidate" c&&enda-ly
extended t%eir an"#er" -y cn"idering t%er factr" "uc% a" t%e "pecial need" f yung1
di"a-led r peripatetic e&plyee"/

13
Paper A1
7uestion , 8n inefficient local e#haust ventilation (61V) system has been identified as the
main cause of e#cessive dust levels in a workplace.
(i) Identify FOUR possible indications of a dust problem that may have alerted staff to the inefficiency
of the LEV system. ()
(ii) Outline the factors that may have reduced the effectiveness of the LEV system.
(!)
(iii) "escribe control methods other than LEV that mi#ht be used to minimise levels of airborne dust.
(!)
$his %uestion &as desi#ned to assess candidates' breadth of (no&led#e of the problem of dust in the
&or(place. In ans&erin# part (i)) most candidates &ere able to identify at least three indications of a
dust problem in a &or(place) such as deposits of dust on people and surfaces) particles visible in the air
and complaints of discomfort and irritation by the employees. Only a fe& referred to the results of air
monitorin# or actual ill*health effects.
For part (ii)) most candidates &ere able to outline at least a reasonable ran#e of factors. +etter
candidates addressed both underlyin# factors) such as poor desi#n and a lac( of maintenance and,or
periodic testin#) and the more immediate factors) such as the hood bein# placed too far from the source
of the emission) dama#ed or bloc(ed ductin# or filters) unauthorised alteration to the system) incorrect
settin#s) a faulty fan and possible chan#es to the process leadin# to increased dust emissions.
In part (iii)) candidates &ere #iven the opportunity to describe methods of minimisin# levels of airborne
dust that may be needed in addition or as an alternative to local e-haust ventilation. $hese could have
included the cessation of the activity creatin# the dust) chan#in# the process to reduce the amount of
dust produced) substitutin# a dust creatin# material for another in paste or li%uid form) se#re#atin# or
enclosin# the process and dampin# do&n the dust to enable it to be removed by vacuum. .any
candidates demonstrated a #ood understandin# of the principles by describin# such methods in a
hierarchical order) and almost all indicated the importance of usin# cleanin# methods that do not
disturb settled dust (ie vacuumin# instead of s&eepin#). /ome became a little carried a&ay &ith the
0O/11 hierarchy by referrin# to the use of respiratory protective e%uipment) &hich may reduce
personal e-posures but has no effect on levels of airborne dust. .any candidates also su##ested the
introduction of dilution ventilation) &hich is an ineffective method of controllin# dust and may even
have the effect of distributin# it more &idely across the &or(place.
2uestion 3 Outline the possible hazards from usin# a petrol*driven strimmer to
maintain roadside ver#es.
(!)
$his &as not a &ell ans&ered %uestion) &ith most candidates able to achieve only a fe& of the mar(s
available for outlinin# some of the possible ha4ards arisin# from usin# a petrol*driven strimmer. /uch
ha4ards include e-posure to fumes) the possibility of fire or e-plosion) contact &ith the movin# parts of
the strimmer) bein# struc( by flyin# stones and fra#ments) noise and vibration) manual handlin#) slips)
trips and falls) the possibility of bein# struc( by movin# traffic and e-posure to e-treme &eather
conditions. /ome candidates decided not to ans&er the %uestion that &as as(ed and either outlined the
14
possible ha4ards arisin# from the use of an electric strimmer or discussed ho& the ris(s associated &ith
the use of the e%uipment mi#ht be controlled.
2uestion 5 Outline the precautions to protect a#ainst electrical contact &hen6
(i) e-cavatin# near under#round cables ()
(ii) &or(in# in the vicinity of overhead po&er lines. ()
7art (i) of this %uestion &as ans&ered sli#htly more successfully than part (ii)) &ith better candidates
referrin# to isolation of the supply) the identification of cable routes from plans and by the use of cable
detectors) chec(in# for service bo- covers) mar(in# of cable routes on site and digging with hand-
tools: rather than &ith a mechanical e-cavator.
7recautions a#ainst overhead po&er lines) for part (ii)) include isolation) erection of #oal*post barriers
to define clearance distances) clear mar(in# of dan#er 4ones (for e-ample &ith si#ns and buntin#))
ensurin# safe access routes under lines (for instance) &ith 8tunnels')) the appropriate use of marshals
and ban(smen &hen there is a possibility that cranes) e-cavators or tipper lorries mi#ht approach
overhead lines) and the restricted use of items such as metal ladders and scaffold tubes near live lines.
E-aminers' &ere #enuinely concerned by some of the precautions a#ainst hi#h volta#e electricity that
&ere bein# offered by some candidates) in particular the idea that insulated foot&ear and tools &ould
afford protection and that residual current . devices mi#ht be appropriate in either of the t&o situations.
It &as si#nificant that only about half of the candidates mentioned the possibility of isolatin# the po&er
supply in either part of the %uestion.
/ome candidates missed the focus of the %uestion and either concentrated on the preparation of a ris(
assessment or described in detail the operation of a permit*to&or( system) neither of &hich directly
affords protection a#ainst electrical contact.
2uestion
2a3 *utline the principles of the following types of
machine guard!
(i) fi#ed guard (.)
(ii) interlocked guard. (.)
(b) 9dentify :0* advantages and :0* disadvantages
of a fi#ed
machine guard. (;)
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) most candidates sho&ed they had at least a basic understandin# of
the principles of the most common types of #uard. $he ma9ority correctly identified that a fi-ed #uard
is physically attached to the machine and normally re%uires a special tool to remove it. Fe&er) ho&ever)
specifically mentioned the fact that it provides a physical barrier that has no movin# parts and is not
lin(ed to the controls) motion or ha4ardous condition of the machine.
Interloc(ed #uards) on the other hand) &or( on the principle that a machine cannot start or other&ise
15
become dan#erous until the #uard is closed) and that &hen the machine is in a dan#erous condition
either the #uard cannot be opened or openin# the #uard causes the machine to come to rest.
:here problems did arise &as in the identification of the advanta#es and disadvanta#es of a fi-ed
#uard. 0andidates should have identified that the simplicity of a fi-ed #uard means it is easy to inspect
and maintain and the fact that there are no movin# parts leads to increased reliability. On the other
hand) the fact that it is not lin(ed to the machine controls means that no protection is afforded should it
be removed and) since it is fi-ed and re%uires a special tool for its removal) access) &hen re%uired) is
more difficult. ; physical barrier) particularly if it is solid rather than meshed) may also hamper visual
inspection of the machine or the &or( bein# performed.
2uestion < Identify FOUR possible routes of entry of to-ic substances into the body
and) in E;01 case) describe a circumstance in &hich an employee mi#ht be at ris( of
such e-posure. (!)
.ost candidates successfully identified the routes of entry of to-ic substances into the body as
inhalation) in#estion) throu#h the s(in and by in9ection.
"escribin# the circumstances in &hich an employee mi#ht be at ris( in each case) ho&ever) proved a
little more difficult. E-aminers &ere loo(in# for e-amples such as6 inhalation due to a build up of fume
or vapour) either as part of a process (e# &eldin#) or accidentally (e# spilla#e)= in#estion caused
perhaps by poor personal hy#iene (e# eatin# or smo(in# &ithout first &ashin# the hands)= entry
throu#h the s(in if &ounds are not covered or by contact &ith chemicals (e# solvents) that may be
absorbed throu#h the s(in= and in9ection possibly caused by the handlin# of contaminated sharp
ob9ects.
2uestion > Outline the precautions that should be ta(en to reduce the ris( of in9ury &hen &or( is
carried out on a pitched (slopin#) roof. (!)
*%i" +ue"tin "ug%t t te"t candidate", .n#ledge f t%e precautin" t%at "%uld -e ta.en t
reduce t%e ri". f in@ury #%en #r.ing n "lping rf"/ *%e &a@rity pr$ided rea"na-le
an"#er" and referred t &any f t%e rele$ant precautin" "uc% a" t%e pr$i"in f "afe acce""
t t%e rf6 and rf edge prtectin1 t%e u"e f cra#ling -ard" r rf ladder"1 identifying and
c$ering rf lig%t"1 arrange&ent" fr &$ing tl" and &aterial" t and fr& t%e rf1 t%e i""ue
and #earing f per"nal prtecti$e e+uip&ent "uc% a" %el&et"1 ft#ear and %arne""e"1 t%e
16
e&ply&ent f a trained and c&petent #r.frce1 and t%e need t "tp t%e #r. acti$ity
during ad$er"e #eat%er cnditin"/
Question 7 (a)Outline SIX factors to be considered when selecting suitable eye protection
for use at work. (6)
(b) Identify O! ad"antage and O! disad"antage of safety goggles co#pared with
safety spectacles. ($)
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) most candidates referred to the need to ensure that
the type of protective e%uipment is appropriate for the particular ha4ard a#ainst &hich
protection is re%uired (e# chemical) impact) ultraviolet li#ht) molten metal). In this
conte-t) reference &as usually made to the need for the e%uipment to meet %uality and
safety standards) in particular that it bears a 0E mar(. 0omfort factors &ere also #enerally
identified) as &as compatibility &ith other e%uipment) includin# prescription spectacles.
Other relevant factors to be considered include durability) cost) and maintenance and
trainin# re%uirements.
0andidates #enerally #ained full mar(s for their ans&ers to part (b) since there are several
advanta#es and disadvanta#es of #o##les from &hich only one of each &as re%uired.
;dvanta#es include the fact that #o##les provide all round protection) particularly a#ainst
pro9ectiles and chemicals) and tend not to be easily displaced. "isadvanta#es include the
increased tendency of #o##les to mist up) the #enerally hi#her cost involved and the fact
that they may be more uncomfortable than spectacles.
2uestion ! Outline the possible risks to health and safety associated with laying pa"ing slabs in a
busy high street. (%)
E-aminers &ere loo(in# to candidates to outline such ris(s as6 trapped fin#ers) foot in9uries and
musculos(eletal problems from handlin# slabs= the possibility of bein# struc( by traffic= in9uries from
the use of cuttin# discs (e# contact &ith the disc and bein# struc( by flyin# particles)= the effects of
e-posure to noise) vibration) dust and &et cement= and the increased li(elihood of trippin#. Even
thou#h candidates mi#ht not have had personal e-perience of the activity described) it &as nevertheless
one that could be visualised %uite easily in order to identify a #ood ran#e of possible ris(s. ; fe&
candidates) ho&ever) a#ain seemed not to have read the %uestion carefully enou#h and concentrated on
the control measures) for &hich no mar(s could be a&arded.
2uestion & Outline the #easures that should be taken to #ini#ise the risk of fire fro# electrical
e'uip#ent. (%)
17
In ans&erin# this %uestion) E-aminers e-pected candidates to outline measures such as the proper
selection of e%uipment to ensure its suitability for the tas() pre*use inspection by the user) establishin#
correct fuse ratin#s) ensurin# circuits and soc(ets are not overloaded) disconnectin# or isolatin# the
e%uipment &hen it is not in use) and ensurin# that electric motors do not overheat (e# by chec(in# that
vents are uncovered). ;dditional measures include the need to uncoil cables (particularly e-tension
leads) to prevent the build up of heat and protectin# cables from mechanical dama#e. Importantly)
electrical e%uipment and systems should be sub9ect to re#ular inspection) testin# and maintenance by
competent persons. $his should ensure) for instance) that contacts are sound) thereby reducin# the
li(elihood of electrical arcin#. :hile most candidates &ere able to outline some of the above measures)
surprisin#ly fe& offered comprehensive ans&ers. Of those &ho did identify a sufficient number of
measures) some provided ans&ers that &ere far too brief. For an outline) it &as necessary to say
somethin# about ho& each measure reduces the ris( of fire.
2uestion ?@ (a)Identify ()O respiratory diseases that #ay be caused by e*posure to asbestos.
($)
(b) Explain where asbestos is likely to be encountered in a building during reno"ation
work. (6)
In ans&erin# part (a) of this %uestion) many candidates identified a variety of respiratory problems that
&ere either non*specific or are not associated &ith asbestos. 7neumoconiosis and asthma &ere
fre%uently #iven as e-amples. .ore (no&led#eable candidates referred specifically to asbestosis)
mesothelioma or lun# cancer.
7art (b) &as reasonably &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates identifyin#) for instance) pipe la##in#)
roofin# materials) loft and &all insulation) sprayed coatin#s (for e-ample) in fire*resistant encapsulation
of metal #irders)) and the use of asbestos in ceilin# tiles) panels and te-tured finishes. Fe&er mentioned
the possibility of #as(ets) pac(in# and plu#s made of asbestos*containin# materials.
Question ++ List !I,-( non.#echanical ha/ards associated with #achinery. (%)
$his &as intended to be a strai#htfor&ard %uestion that should have been ans&ered %uic(ly as &ell as
#ivin# the candidates an opportunity to #ain valuable mar(s. $he list should have included such
ha4ards as electricity) noise) vibration) radiation) e-tremes of temperature) fire and e-plosion)
ha4ardous substances (both by direct contact &ith) for instance) oils and #reases and by e-posure to
dust and fumes) and those related to insufficient attention to er#onomic issues. /ome candidates
included in their list) or even concentrated on e-clusively) various mechanical ha4ards) for &hich no
mar(s could be #iven. $his su##ests that they had either misread the %uestion or did not fully
appreciate the distinction bet&een mechanical and non*mechanical machinery ha4ards.
Paper A2
1
2uestion ? ; newly established co#pany is to refurbish e*isting office acco##odation before
recruiting staff. Outline0
(i) the welfare facilities that should be considered when planning the refurbish#ent (%)
(ii) the #ain issues to be addressed in a general health and safety1 induction progra##e (6)
for the new staff
(iii) the procedures that #ight be needed in order to ensure the health and safety of "isitors to the
pre#ises during working hours (6)
18
$his %uestion &as #enerally ans&ered %uite &ell) probably because it &as concerned &ith issues that
&ere relatively strai#htfor&ard and ones &ith &hich many candidates &ould have already been
familiar.
In ans&erin# part (i)) candidates should have referred to the provision of sanitary conveniences)
&ashin# facilities) drin(in# &ater) eatin# and rest areas a&ay from the &or( area) accommodation for
clothin# not &orn at &or( and rest facilities for e-pectant and nursin# mothers. /ome candidates
appeared not to notice that the &or( situation described &as office*based and ans&ered the %uestion as
thou#h more dan#erous activities &ere involved. Fe& offices) for instance) &ould be re%uired to have
loc(er rooms) or sho&er and chan#in# facilities. In addition) a fe& candidates too( a &ider remit than
&as re%uired by the %uestion by referrin# to #eneral &elfare issues (e# heatin#) ventilation and other
factors affectin# comfort) rather than concentratin# on the actual facilities for employee &elfare.
For part (ii)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for ans&ers that referred to issues such as the company health
and safety policy) emer#ency procedures) specific ris(s associated &ith the &or(in# environment)
procedures for reportin# incidents) first*aid arran#ements) information on &elfare facilities)
consultation procedures and the responsibilities of employees. $his part of the %uestion seemed to
cause some candidates surprisin# difficulty &ith a fe& able to refer to little more than fire and other
emer#ency issues and accident reportin#.
;ny candidate &ho had visited a &ell*mana#ed &or(place should have had little difficulty in
ans&erin# part (iii) by outlinin# procedures such as the initial reception process involvin# the
re#istration of personal details and the issue of identification bad#es) the provision of information on
site rules (includin# emer#ency procedures) and information on the ha4ards and ris(s &ithin the
establishment that mi#ht affect the visitor. +etter candidates su##ested that visitors should be
supervised) and possibly escorted) at all times by a member of staff.
0ommon to each of the three parts of the %uestion &as a re%uirement to provide an outline of the issues
identified. It &as insufficient in part (i)) for instance) simply to specify 'sanitary conveniences' &ithout
mentionin# that they should be ade%uate in number in relation to the number of employees) separate for
men and &omen) and &ell lit and ventilated.
2uestion $ Inade'uate lighting in the workplace #ay affect the le"el of stress a#ongst e#ployees.
Outline !I,-( other factors associated with the physical en"iron#ent that #ay
increase1 stress at work.
$his %uestion re%uired candidates to outline factors associated &ith the physical &or(in# environment
that mi#ht increase levels of stress at &or(. ;ns&ers should have referred to factors such as cramped)
dirty or untidy &or(in# conditions) &or(place layout resultin# in a lac( of privacy or security)
problems &ith #lare) e-tremes of temperature and,or humidity) inade%uate ventilation resultin# in stale
air (or conversely) drau#hty conditions)) e-posure to noise and vibration) inade%uate &elfare facilities
and) for those &or(in# outside) inclement &eather conditions.
"espite the clear si#npostin#) many candidates referred to psycholo#ical (e# bullyin#) and
or#anisational (e# &or( pressures) stressors instead of restrictin# their ans&ers to the physical
environment as re%uired.
2uestion 2 Explain, using an e*a#ple in !34- case1 the #eaning of the following ter#s0
19
2i3 `haard' (.)
(ii) `risk' (<)
(iii) `so far as is reasonably practicable'. (<)
Exa&iner" #ere di"appinted1 and a little "urpri"ed1 t find t%at a "ignificant nu&-er f
candidate" "truggled t pr$ide explanatin" f "uc% funda&ental %ealt% and "afety ter&"/
Additinally1 in t%e ca"e f t%"e #% did gi$e rea"na-le explanatin"1 t%ey eit%er t%en did nt
gi$e exa&ple" r u"ed inapprpriate exa&ple" t%at "ugge"ted a lac. f under"tanding f #%at
%ad gne -efre/ *%i" #a" particularly " in relatin t t%e ter& 5%a!ard,/ A" far a" ,ri"., #a"
cncerned1 a nu&-er f candidate" referred t t%e pr-a-ility r li.eli%d f %ar& -ut did nt
expand t%eir explanatin t include t%e li.ely cn"e+uence in ter&" f t%e "e$erity f "uc%
%ar&/ In atte&pting t explain 5" far i" a" rea"na-ly practica-le,1 &"t candidate" inferred
t%at t%i" in$l$e" -alancing ri". again"t c"t -ut fe#er #ere a-le t g &uc% furt%er in
explaining #%at t%i" &ean" in practical ter&"/
2uestion In relation to the Safety 5epresentati"es and Safety 4o##ittees 5egulations +&771
outline0
(i) the functions of a trade"union appointed safety
representative
(3)
(ii) the facilities that an employer may need to provide to safety
representatives. (.)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline functions such as e-aminin#
the causes of accidents) investi#atin# complaints from employees) carryin# out safety inspections)
ma(in# representation to the employer) attendin# safety committee meetin#s) and representin#
employees in consultation &ith the enforcin# authority and receivin# information from its inspectors.
$here &ere some #ood ans&ers to this part of the %uestion &here candidates &ere able to sho& their
(no&led#e of the relevant part of the Re#ulations. Unfortunately) these &ere balanced by some very
poor attempts from those &ho did not possess such (no&led#e.
For part (ii)) reference should have been made to the provision of facilities such as a private room in
circumstances &hen this is necessary and access to a telephone) fa- machine) photocopier and relevant
reference material. /ome candidates did not seem to appreciate the meanin# of the &ord 8facilities' and
outlined instead the ri#hts of safety representatives) such as those relatin# to trainin# and the allocation
of sufficient time to carry out their duties.
2uestion 6
(a)Identify :0* situations where a permit"to"work
considered appropriate. (.)
(b) Outline the key elements of a permit"to"work system. (3)
For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to identify t&o situations &here a permit*to&or( system mi#ht
be considered appropriate choosin# from &or( in confined spaces) &or( in flammable atmospheres)
&or( on electrical e%uipment) hot &or() and maintenance &or( on dan#erous process plant or
production machinery.
7art (b) of the %uestion &as not so &ell ans&ered and relatively fe& candidates &ere able to outline
20
all the elements of a permit system) the first of &hich &ould be a description and assessment of the
tas( to be performed (includin# the plant involved and the possible ha4ards). $his &ill determine the
need for) and nature of) other (ey elements * namely) the isolation of sources of ener#y and inlets)
the additional precautions re%uired (e# atmospheric monitorin#) 77E) emer#ency e%uipment) and the
duration of the permit. ;n essential element of a permit*to*&or( system is) of course) the operation
of the permit itself. +y means of si#natures) the permit should be issued by an authorised person and
accepted by the competent person responsible for the &or(. On completion of the &or() the
competent person &ould need to indicate on the permit that the area had been made safe in order for
the permit to be cancelled by the authorised person) after &hich the isolations could be removed.
2uestion 6 Outline the factors that #ay indicate a need for health sur"eillance of e#ployees in a
workplace. (%)
$his %uestion appeared to cause problems for many candidates) some of &hom identified particular
situations &here health surveillance &ould be appropriate rather than outlinin# the factors that mi#ht
indicate a need for it.
In ans&erin#) candidates could have chosen from a variety of factors such as ill*health and absence
records) first*aid treatments) complaints from employees) the findin#s of ris( assessments) the results of
inspections or monitorin# activities) chan#es in methods of &or( and the relevant re%uirements of
current le#islation and approved codes of practice.
2uestion A Outline 7O85 ad"antages and 7O85 disad"antages of using propaganda posters to
co##unicate health and safety infor#ation to the workforce. (%)
7osters are a commonly used medium for passin# on health and safety messa#es to the &or(force and
many candidates &ill have used them or seen them in use. $he %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered
althou#h some found more difficulty in outlinin# the disadvanta#es as opposed to the advanta#es.
;dvanta#es of posters include their relatively lo& cost) their fle-ibility) their brevity) their use in
reinforcin# verbal instructions or information and in providin# a constant reminder of the importance of
health and safety) and the potential to involve employees in their selection and hence in the messa#e
bein# conveyed.
"isadvanta#es include the need to chan#e posters on a re#ular basis if they are to be noticed) the fact
that they may become soiled) defaced and out*of*date) and the possibility that they mi#ht appear to
trivialise serious matters. $here may also be an over*reliance on posters to convey health and safety
information and they may be perceived by unscrupulous employers as an easy) if not particularly
effective) &ay of dischar#in# their health and safety obli#ations by shiftin# the responsibility onto the
&or(force for any accidents that may occur.
2uestion %
(a) Identify 7O85 factors relating to the indi"idual that #ight increase the risk of accidents at
work. (9)
(b) Give reasons why #aintenance operations #ay pose particular risks to those undertaking
the#. (9)
$his %uestion produced a mi-ed response from candidates. In ans&erin# part (a)) many could identify
only one or t&o factors) most commonly the stron#ly lin(ed psycholo#ical factors of attitude and
21
motivation. Only better candidates identified additional factors such as a#e) lac( of s(ill or e-perience)
lac( of familiarity (or possibly overfamiliarity) &ith the &or(place) hi#h stress levels) and health
problems) medical conditions or physical disability,incapacity (includin# that brou#ht about by alcohol
or dru#s).
/imilarly) for part (b) there &ere fe& candidates &ho &ere able to identify a ran#e of relevant reasons
for maintenance activities posin# special ris(s. /uch reasons may include the e-istence of ne& or
different ha4ards) the lac( of familiarity or e-perience &ith the tas(s or e%uipment involved) the
li(elihood that the events leadin# to the need for maintenance and their contin#ent ha4ards &ould be
unpredictable) the possibility that the maintenance operations &ould have to be carried out in
confined spaces or other poor &or( environments) and the inevitable pressure on maintenance staff to
complete the &or( in as short a time as possible in order to return to normal production.
2uestion B Explain the difference between -S4 3ppro"ed 4odes of :ractice and -S! guidance1
gi"ing an e*a#ple of !34-. (%)
(elati$ely fe# candidate" perfr&ed #ell n t%i" +ue"tin/ 0"t fund it difficult t explain t%e
e""ential difference" -et#een t%e t# type" f dcu&ent and1 #%en exa&ple" #ere gi$en1
t%ey #ere ften $ague r incrrect/
Appr$ed Cde" f Practice are appr$ed -y t%e Healt% and Safety C&&i""in #it% t%e
cn"ent f t%e Secretary f State and pr$ide a recgni"ed interpretatin f %# an e&plyer
&ay c&ply #it% rele$ant legi"latin/ Alt%ug% failure t c&ply #it% t%e pr$i"in f an ACOP
i" nt in it"elf an ffence1 t%e failure &ay -e cited in curt in cri&inal prceeding" a" prf t%at
t%ere %a" -een a cntra$entin f t%e legi"latin t #%ic% t%e pr$i"in relate"/ E&plyee"
&u"t eit%er &eet t%e "tandard" cntained in t%e ACOP r "%# t%at t%ey %a$e c&plied #it%
an e+ual r -etter "tandard/ A nu&-er f exa&ple" culd %a$e -een cited "uc% a" t%e ACOP"
c&ple&enting t%e Br.place 2Healt%1 Safety and Belfare3 (egulatin" 1999 and t%e
0anage&ent f Healt% and Safety at Br. (egulatin" 1999/
Cuidance) on the other hand) is issued by the 1ealth and /afety E-ecutive &ith the intention of #ivin#
advice on #ood practice. $he advice is #enerally more practically based than that contained in an ;0O7.
Cuidance has no le#al standin# in a court of la&. E-amples of 1/E #uidance documents include those
issued on matters such as manual handlin#) display screen e%uipment and personal protective e%uipment.
2uestion +; (a) In relation to risk assess#ents carried out under the <anage#ent of -ealth
and Safety at )ork 5egulations +&&&1 explain the #eaning of the ter# =suitable and
sufficient>. (2)
(b) Outline the changes in circu#stances that #ay re'uire a risk assess#ent to be
re"iewed. (6)
E-aminers found that part (a) of this %uestion elicited a #enerally poor response and fe& candidates &ere
able to #ive an ade%uate e-planation of the term 8suitable and sufficient' in relation to ris( assessment.
/uch an assessment should identify all si#nificant ha4ards and ris(s) enable priorities to be set) allo& the
identification of the protective measures re%uired) be appropriate to the nature of the &or( and be valid
over a reasonable period of time.
7art (b)) in contrast) tended to attract some better ans&ers) &ith candidates able to outline such
circumstances as chan#es in process) &or( method or materials (type or %uantity)) the introduction of ne&
plant or technolo#y) ne& information becomin# available) a chan#e in le#islation) chan#es in personnel
22
(e# the employment of youn# or disabled persons)) and &hen the results of monitorin# (accidents) ill*
health and environmental) are not as e-pected.
2uestion ?? Identify !I,-( #easures that can be used to #onitor an organisation>s1 health and safety
perfor#ance. (%)
$here are various indicators that an or#anisation can use to assess different aspects of its health and safety
performance and E-aminers &ere loo(in# for ans&ers containin# a mi-ture of both proactive and reactive
measures. Reactive performance measures include accident and ill*health statistics) incidents of reported
near*misses and dan#erous occurrences) actions ta(en by the enforcement authorities and insurance
claims. 7roactive measures) on the other hand) mi#ht include the results of inspections and,or
environmental monitorin#) safety audit outcomes and the results of medical,health surveillance.
/ome candidates restricted their ans&ers to the identification of monitorin# #ethods (such as safety
inspections) tours and samplin#) rather than the #easures that are derived from them and &hich can be
compared over time. $his sometimes limited the number of marks that could be awarded.
23
*HE NA*IONAG EHA0INA*ION BOA(4 IN OCC8PA*IONAG SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
NA*IONAG EENE(AG CE(*IAICA*E IN OCC8PA*IONAG SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
PAPE( A1: I4EN*IAIINE AN4 CON*(OGGINE HAJA(4S
J8NE 1999
An"#er AGG +ue"tin" *i&e All#ed: 9 %ur"
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) +ist .*"'' types of crane used for lifting operations. (3)
(b) Outline factors to be considered when assessing the suitability of a
mobile crane for a lifting operation.
(7)
(c) Outline a procedure for the safe lifting and lowering of a load by use of
a mobile crane% having ensured that the crane has been correctly
selected and positioned for the &ob.
(1-)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 9n relation to occupational dermatitis!
(i) identify ./O common causative agents (2)
(ii) descri0e the typical symptoms of the condition (3)
(iii) st%te the sources of information that may help to identify dermatitic
substances in the workplace.
(3)
3 8 pneumatic drill is to be used during e#tensive repair work to the floor
of a busy warehouse.
(i) Identify by means of a labelled sketch% .*"'' possible transmission
paths the noise from the drill could take.
(3)
(ii) Outline appropriate control measures to reduce the noise e#posures of
the operator (1D the warehouse staff.
(5)
4 2t%te the health and safety risks associated with welding operations. (8)
5 (a) Outline the effects on the human body from a severe electric shock. (4)
24
(b) Descri0e how earthing can reduce the risk of receiving an electric
shock.
(4)
6 I(en#$31 FOUR different type" f %a!ard t%at &ay nece""itate t%e u"e f
"pecial ft#ear1 e0/',$n$n6 in EACH ca"e %# t%e ft#ear affrd"
prtectin/
(8)
7 :he e#terior paintwork of a row of shops in a busy high street is due to
be repainted.
Identify the haards associated with the work and outline the
corresponding precautions to be taken.
(8)
8 (a) Identify ./O types of non"ionising radiation% giving an occupational
source of '()*.
(4)
(b) Outline the health effects associated with e#posure to non"ionising
radiation.
(4)
, '#$l%in the methods of heat transfer that cause the spread of fire. (8)
1- (a) +ist ./O types of in&ury that may be caused by the incorrect manual
handling of loads.
(2)
(b) Outline a good manual handling techni$ue that could be adopted by a
person re$uired to lift a load from the ground.
(6)
11 +ist 'I3*. safe practices to be followed when using a skip for the
collection and removal of waste from a construction site.
(8)
NEBOSH Certificate June 1999
Paper A1 Identifying and Cntrlling Ha!ard"
Outline an"#er" and guidance gi$en in t%e NEBOSH exa&iner'" (eprt
25
Sectin 1
)ue"tin 1
*%i" +ue"tin #a" de"igned t te"t candidate", .n#ledge n t%e u"e and peratin f
crane"/ Part 2a3 re+uired candidate" t identify t%ree type" f crane and it #a" en$i"aged t%at
t%i" #uld cau"e little difficulty1 particularly "ince ne type #a" i&&ediately apparent -y
reading part 2-3 f t%e +ue"tin/ *# t%er type"1 %#e$er1 did nt "ee& t c&e t &ind
ea"ily and &any candidate" #ere a-le t na&e nly ne1 c&&nly a fixed @i- 2r derric.3
crane/ * gain &axi&u& &ar."1 t%ey culd al" %a$e "elected an $er%ead gantry r a t#er
crane/
Part 2-3 re+uired candidate" t u"e t%eir practical .n#ledge t utline t%e factr" t cn"ider
#%en a""e""ing t%e "uita-ility f a &-ile crane fr a lifting peratin/ (eference "%uld %a$e
-een &ade t &atter" relating t t%e re+uire&ent" f t%e lift it"elf 2eg $ertical and %ri!ntal
di"tance" t -e lifted1 #%et%er it i" t -e a "tatinary lift r #%et%er t%e lad i" t -e
tran"prted1 t%e #eig%t and "i!e f lad t -e lifted1 etc3/ Suc% factr" #ill deter&ine t%e
capa-ility re+uire&ent" f t%e crane/ In additin1 grund cnditin" &ay deter&ine1 fr
in"tance1 #%et%er a trac.ed crane i" &re "uita-le t%an a #%eeled crane/ Ha$ing e"ta-li"%ed
a crrect "pecificatin fr t%e crane1 it" "uita-ility fr t%e "ite #ill need t -e deter&ined ta.ing
int accunt t%e &ean" f acce""1 "pace cn"traint" and any %a!ard" ari"ing fr& t%e
prxi&ity f $er%ead p#er line" r t%er $er%ead -"tructin"/ Ainally1 a crane #ill -e
"uita-le nly if it i" &ec%anically "und and carrie" a current te"t certificate/ B%ile &any
candidate" #ere a-le t pr$ide rea"na-ly gd an"#er" fr t%i" part f t%e +ue"tin1 t%ere
#ere t%er" #% "ee&ed una-le t differentiate -et#een an 5a""e""&ent, and a 5prcedure,
and included in t%eir an"#er" &atter" t%at #ere &re apprpriate t part 2c3/
Part 2c3 #a" clearly fcu"ed n t%e lift it"elf yet "e$eral candidate" appeared nt t %a$e read
t%e +ue"tin carefully and ga$e an"#er" t%at included detail" n t%e "etting up and
p"itining f t%e crane/ A prcedure fr a "afe lift "%uld include i""ue" relating t crrect
"linging1 en"uring "ecurity and "ta-ility f t%e lad1 .eeping t%e lift area clear f per"nnel1 t%e
u"e f c&petent "taff 2dri$er1 -an."&en and "linger31 en"uring "&t% and gradual
&$e&ent"1 lifting $ertically t a$id -t% dragging and uncntrlled "#inging f t%e lad1 and
en"uring a "afe landing p"itin/
*%e +ue"tin prduced a $ery &ixed re"pn"e/ B%ile "&e candidate" &ay %a$e %ad a
practical #r.ing .n#ledge f lifting peratin"1 gd &ar." culd nnet%ele"" -e -tained
-y any candidate1 #% t. nte f t%e re+uire&ent" f t%e +ue"tin" and #% #r.ed
t%rug% t%e rele$ant i""ue" fr& fir"t principle"/
Sectin 9
)ue"tin 9
Ar part 2i31 t%e identificatin f t# cau"ati$e agent" p"ed fe# pr-le&" "ince candidate"
culd %a$e c%"en fr& a li"t including acid"1 al.ali"1 &ineral il"1 rganic "l$ent"1 &etal
26
"alt" and ce&ent du"t/ S&e candidate" #ere a-le t cite der&atitic c%e&ical" -y na&e 2eg
i"prpyl alc%l3 alt%ug% reference t -rad categrie" 2eg "l$ent"3 #a" "ufficient t gain
t%e &ar." a$aila-le/
Ar part 2ii3 candidate" "ee&ed #ell ac+uainted #it% t%e typical "y&pt&" f reddening and
"rene"" f t%e ".in tget%er #it% crac.ing and -leeding 6 leading t infectin and ulceratin
in &re "eriu" ca"e"/
In an"#er" t part 2iii31 Exa&iner" #ere l.ing fr reference t "uc% "urce" a"
&anufacturer", "afety data "%eet" and prduct la-el"1 COSHH a""e""&ent"1 EH>= guidance
and t%er HSE "urce" f infr&atin1 and e&pirical e$idence fr& t%e #r.place/ 0"t
candidate" referred t COSHH a""e""&ent" and data "%eet" -ut fe# &entined t%er
a$aila-le "urce" f infr&atin/
)ue"tin <
*%e +uality f t%e ".etc%e" "u-&itted in an"#er t part 2i3 $aried cn"idera-ly/ Se$eral
candidate" c%"e t de&n"trate t%eir ".ill" f draug%t"&an"%ip and appeared t "pend a
di"prprtinate a&unt f ti&e n t%e prductin f t%e ".etc%e"/ E$en in t%e"e ca"e"1 t%e
+uality f t%e infr&atin cntained in t%e ".etc%e" #a" ften di"appinting #it% &"t
candidate" a-le t identify nly t# tran"&i""in pat%" 6 directly t%rug% t%e air and reflected
fr& #all" and "urface"/ Better candidate" added t t%e"e t# t%e p""i-ility f ni"e -eing
tran"&itted t%rug% t%e "tructure/
Ar part 2ii31 &any candidate" utlined t%e need fr a""e""&ent" and ga$e detail" f t%e
Ni"e at Br. (egulatin" 1989 -ut failed t identify t%e practical cntrl &ea"ure" t%at culd
-e i&ple&ented/ *%e"e &ig%t include t%e fitting f lagging and a "ilencer t t%e drill1 t%e
erectin f in"ulating -arrier" r "creen"1 &ini&i"ing exp"ure ti&e" r arranging fr t%e #r.
t -e carried ut ut"ide nr&al #r.ing %ur" and1 ulti&ately1 t%e pr$i"in f %earing
prtectin fr t%e peratr" andCr #r.frce/ Better candidate" al" cn"idered c&pre""r
ni"e/
)ue"tin >
*%i" #a" a relati$ely "traig%tfr#ard +ue"tin t%at #a" generally an"#ered "ati"factrily/
Alt%ug% different type" f #elding #ill pre"ent "pecific %a!ard"1 t%e ri"." f fire1 ad$er"e
effect" fr& fu&e in%alatin1 -urn"1 da&age t t%e eye" and tripping $er pipe" r ca-le"
tend t -e c&&n t all type"/ 4epending n t%e type f #elding1 t%ere &ay al" -e ri"." f
electric "%c. 2arc #elding31 fireCexpl"in due t xygen enric%&ent r -uild6up f fla&&a-le
ga"e" 2eg xy6acetylene #elding31 and &u"cul".eletal di"rder" fr& %andling cylinder" and
pr #r.ing p"ture"/ S&e candidate" &ig%t %a$e i&pr$ed t%e +uality f t%eir an"#er" -y
a$iding t%e u"e f $ague ter&"1 "uc% a" 5eye in@ury,1 and referring in"tead t "pecific
cnditin"1 "uc% a" cataract" r arc6eye/
)ue"tin ;
Ar part 2a31 &"t candidate" #ere a-le t "pecify t%e t# &ain effect" f electricity n t%e
%u&an -dy a" interference #it% ner$eC&u"cle actin and ti""ue -urn"1 -ut fe# #ere a-le t
prgre"" &uc% furt%er t%an t%i" -y #ay f an utline/ A gd utline f electric "%c. referred
27
t t%e cardi6re"piratry effect"1 in particular t%e ri". f fatal in@ury due t di"ruptin t %eart
r%yt%&/ Cntact #it% AC current can al" cau"e an in$luntary grip n t%e li$e cnductr1 t%u"
prlnging current fl# t%rug% t%e -dy/ A" far a" ti""ue -urn" are cncerned1 candidate"
"%uld %a$e referred t t%e &ain "ite" f da&age a" -eing t%e entry and exit pint"1 and t
t%e p""i-ility f da&age t internal rgan"/ Seriu" -urn" &ay al" re"ult fr& "%rt circuit
fla"%$er fr& %ig% $ltage "upplie"/
An"#er" t part 2-3 #ere generally $ery di"appinting and it -eca&e clear t%at fe# candidate"
%ad .n#ledge f1 and e$en fe#er under"td1 %# eart%ing can reduce t%e ri". f recei$ing
an electric "%c./ A gd an"#er #uld %a$e referred t t%e re+uire&ent fr all &etal#r.
t%at culd -ec&e li$e t -e eart%ed1 and t t%e fact t%at t%e re"i"tance f t%e eart% pat%
"%uld -e a" l# a" p""i-le " a" t induce1 in t%e ca"e f a fault1 a current "ufficiently %ig%
t 5-l#, a fu"e r 5trip, ant%er fr& f prtecti$e de$ice/ 0any an"#er" cncentrated n %#
t%e"e prtecti$e de$ice" #r.1 #%ic% #a" nt re+uired -y t%e +ue"tin/
)ue"tin D
*%i" +ue"tin re+uired candidate" t identify %a!ard" #%ere a particular type f ft#ear i"
re+uired eit%er t pr$ide prtectin again"t ft in@ury r t &ini&i"e t%er .ind" f ri"./
Candidate" %ad nly t identify fur fr& a lengt%y li"t f %a!ard" including falling -@ect"
2"teel te cap"31 "%arp -@ect" 2"teel in"le"31 c%e&ical" 2c%e&ical re"i"tant31 %t &aterial"
2%eat re"i"tant -t" #it% gaiter"31 "lippery "urface" 2nn6"lip "le"31 cld en$irn&ent"
2in"ulated -t"31 #et en$irn&ent" 2ru--eri"ed -t" r #ellingtn"31 "pread f
cnta&inatin 2#a"%a-le -t"31 fla&&a-le at&"p%ere" 2anti6"tatic ft#ear3 and electricity
2nn6cnducting "le"3/ *%i" #a" a #ell6an"#ered +ue"tin t%at ga$e t%e pprtunity t
candidate" #% culd $i"uali"e a range f different "ituatin" and en$irn&ent" t ac%ie$e full
&ar."/
)ue"tin F
*%e "cenari pr$ided candidate" #it% t%e pprtunity t identify "e$eral different %a!ard"
ari"ing fr& t%e #r. acti$ity including t%"e a""ciated #it% t%e u"e f acce"" e+uip&ent 2eg
ladder" and &-ile t#er "caffld"31 fall" f per"n" and &aterial"1 exp"ure t %a!ardu"
"u-"tance" 2du"t"1 "l$ent"1 etc3 and t%e danger cau"ed -y and t pa""ing $e%icle" and
pede"trian"/ Ae# candidate"1 %#e$er1 addre""ed &re t%an t# r t%ree f t%e"e/ 0"t
candidate" identified fall" f per"n" -ut fe# &entined t%e %a!ard" t pa""er"6-y f fall" f
e+uip&ent r &aterial"/ Ae#er "till cn"idered t%e en$irn&ent in #%ic% t%e #r. #a" ta.ing
place and t%e danger" created -y $e%icle" r t%e #eat%er/
Ha$ing identified t%e %a!ard"1 t%e crre"pnding precautin" "%uld %a$e fll#ed al&"t
aut&atically/ Precautin" "uc% a" crdning ff t%e area1 en"uring t%e crrect "electin and
u"e f acce"" e+uip&ent 2eg a$iding t%e need t #r. fr& ladder"31 pre$enting ".in cntact
#it% t%inner"1 t%e u"e f du"t &a"." #%en preparing #d#r.1 and en"uring prtectin
again"t t%e %ar&ful ray" f t%e "un are exa&ple" t%at culd %a$e -een cited/
)ue"tin 8
Part 2a3 f t%e +ue"tin #a" an"#ered #ell -y &"t candidate" alt%ug% a "ignificant &inrity
ga$e exa&ple" f ini"ing radiatin1 %a$ing eit%er failed t read t%e +ue"tin #it% "ufficient
28
care r -ecau"e t%ey culd nt differentiate -et#een t%e ini"ing and nn6ini"ing type"/ *#
exa&ple" f nn6ini"ing radiatin culd %a$e -een c%"en fr& a li"t t%at include" ultra$ilet
lig%t and infrared1 &icr#a$e1 radi#a$e and electr&agnetic radiatin/ Crre"pnding
"urce" f eac% f t%e"e are #elding acti$itie"1 la"er"1 &icr#a$e $en"1 tran"&itter" and
%ig% $ltage electricity1 all f #%ic% &ay -e encuntered in ccupatinal "etting"/
Ar part 2-31 nce candidate" %ad &entined t%e p""i-ility f ".in cancer1 &any "truggled t
utline t%er %ealt% effect"/ *%e effect" #ill depend n t%e particular type f nnini"ing
radiatin -ut include p%t.eratiti" r arc6eye fr& #elding 287 lig%t31 retinal -urn"1 crneal
da&age and cataract" fr& exp"ure t infrared radiatin1 -urn" t t%e ".in 287 and infrared31
and t%e %eating f1 and da&age t1 ".in and internal rgan" -y radifre+uencie"1 particularly
&icr#a$e"/
Question 9
$here are #enerally considered to be four methods of heat transfer6 conduction) radiation) convection
and direct burnin#. $he last of these is in fact a combination of the other methods but is normally
re#arded as a method in its o&n ri#ht. $here &ere some very #ood ans&ers to this %uestion but several
candidates) havin# identified the methods by name) &ere unable to proceed further and e-plain ho&
each method causes the spread of fire. $his could be done %uite ade%uately by the use of a suitable
e-ample. /ome candidates totally misunderstood the %uestion and #ave ans&ers relatin# to the fire
trian#le) &hich #ained no mar(s.
Question 1
.ost candidates achieved full mar(s for part (a)) selectin# their in9uries from a list includin# slipped
discs) torn li#aments) muscular strains) hernias) and cuts and abrasions. Va#ue descriptions) such as
8bac( pain') &ere considered inade%uate.
For part (b)) candidates #enerally displayed a #ood #rasp of an appropriate method to be follo&ed &hen
liftin# a load from the #round. 1o&ever) althou#h the action &ord in the %uestion &as 8outline') several
ans&ers tended to be len#thy and more detailed than &as re%uired. ;n ade%uate outline of a liftin#
techni%ue could be provided by a fe& relatively short statements= it &as not necessary to provide a
detailed e-planation of each point. :hile #ainin# the mar(s) a fe& candidates probably spent lon#er on
this %uestion than &as necessary.
Question 11
;ns&ers to this %uestion sho&ed that) in #eneral) candidates &ere a&are of or could ma(e some
sensible su##estions for ensurin# safety in the use of s(ips. .ost referred to the more obvious safe
practices of6 ensurin# the inte#rity of the s(ip= locatin# the s(ip on firm) level #round a&ay from
e-cavations= ensurin# clear access for fillin# and for removin# from site by vehicle= fillin# by chute or
by mechanical means unless items are to be placed in the s(ip by hand (a drop*side s(ip should be used
&hen fillin# by &heelbarro&)= introducin# controls to prevent overfillin# and the tippin# of
29
incompatible &astes= and nettin# or sheetin# the s(ip &hen full. Fe& candidates) ho&ever) referred to
the fire ha4ards created by s(ips and the probable need to site a&ay from buildin#s and to protect
a#ainst arson. Fe&er still realised that all construction &aste is controlled &aste and must be carried by
a licensed &aste carrier under a &aste transfer note system to a disposal site capable of acceptin# the
&aste. Even &ithout this specific (no&led#e) &hich perhaps should not be e-pected at 0ertificate level)
very fe& candidates referred in #eneral to the use of a competent contractor.
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
1,$# 1999
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) Outline the factors that should be considered when planning a health
and safety inspection of a workplace.
(1-)
(b) Identify the information that should be included in a report of a
workplace inspection% e#$l%inin& how the information should be
presented in order to increase the likelihood of action being taken.
(1-)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 0ith reference to the +eporting of 9n&uries% Diseases and Dangerous
*ccurrences +egulations ,--=!
(i) list O!" types of ma&or in&ury (4)
(ii) outline the procedures for reporting a ma&or in&ury to an enforcing
authority.
(4)
3 Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of
persons who are re$uired to work on their own away from the
workplace.
(8)
30
4 Outline 'I3*. factors that may be important in determining the
maintenance re$uirements for an item of work e$uipment.
(8)
5 Outline reasons for undertaking regular fire drills in the workplace. (8)
6 Outline O!" duties of '()* of the following persons under the
2onstruction (Design and (anagement) +egulations ,--;!
(i) the planning supervisor (4)
(ii) the principal contractor. (4)
7 Outline the factors that may lead to unacceptable levels of occupational
stress amongst employees.
(8)
8 0ith reference to the (anagement of )ealth and 'afety at 0ork
+egulations ,--.% identify!
(i) the particular matters on which employees should receive health and
safety information
(4)
(ii) the specific circumstances when health and safety training should be
given to employees.
(4)
, Outline the main components of a health and safety management
system.
(8)
1- (a) Outline the main functions of!
(i) criminal law
(ii) civil law.
(4)
(b) '#$l%in the principal differences between common law and statute law. (4)
11 Outline the factors that should be considered when developing a safe
system of work.
(8)
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 1une 1999
31
Paper A2 4 !he 3anage3ent of safety and health
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
$he %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e on t&o important aspects of carryin# out a
health and safety inspection * plannin# and presentin# the findin#s. $he t&o parts of the %uestion
therefore addressed either end of the inspection process. It &as unfortunate) then) that some candidates
&ere intent on describin# the bit in the middle the inspection itself. It is unclear &hether this &as due to
candidates readin# the %uestion &ith insufficient care or because they found difficulty in ans&erin# the
actual %uestion bein# as(ed and therefore ans&ered the one that they &ould have preferred.
7art (a) sou#ht an outline of a ran#e of factors to be considered &hen plannin# a health and safety
inspection. ;s ten mar(s &ere on offer) a &ide ran#e of factors needed to be identified in order to
obtain full mar(s. $hese should have included factors such as the reasons for carryin# out the
inspection (e# routine,one*off) #eneral,specific) etc)) the persons to underta(e the inspection) the
inspection area and the route to be ta(en) the timin# of the inspection) the method by &hich results &ill
be recorded (chec(list) prompt list) open,closed %uestions) etc)) reference materials and e%uipment
re%uired) safety re%uirements for those carryin# out the inspection) the persons to receive reports of the
inspection and the means by &hich remedial action sho&n to be necessary &ill be actioned.
7art (b) re%uired both the identification of information that should be included in a subse%uent report
and an e-planation of ho& the information should be presented in order to ma(e it more li(ely that the
report &ould #enerate the re%uired action. .ost candidates &ould have reco#nised that this part of the
%uestion related to (ey re%uirements of the practical assessment component of the Dational Ceneral
0ertificate. .ore successful candidates &ere able to provide detail of &hat should be in a report) such
as the ob9ectives of the inspection) the location) date and time of the inspection) a summary of the
findin#s and a plan of remedial actions. ;dditionally) they demonstrated an understandin# of the
techni%ue of #ood report &ritin# * such as conciseness) a user*friendly presentation (e# no 9ar#on) clear
headin#s) possible use of dra&in#s and photo#raphs) etc)) prioritisation of findin#s &ith financial and
le#al implications emphasised) overall conclusions clearly stated) and realistic time scales for remedial
actions.
/ome candidates produced very short) list*type ans&ers for both parts of the %uestion. ;lthou#h they
&ere often able to list a #ood ran#e of points) &ithout an ade%uate outline or e-planation they missed
the opportunity to #ain all the mar(s available.
-ection 2
Question 2
.any candidates appeared to &elcome a %uestion on RI""OR. $hey needed to be a&are) ho&ever)
that althou#h part (i) re%uired only a list) part (ii) needed somethin# more in the form of an outline of
the reportin# procedures.
32
7art (i) &as ans&ered in the main by reference to fractures (other than fin#ers) thumbs and toes))
dislocations) amputations and loss of si#ht. Fe&er candidates offered ans&ers on other valid ma9or
in9uries) such as in9uries re%uirin# resuscitation and those leadin# to hospitalisation for more than 3
hours. /ome candidates offered 8fatality' in their lists and althou#h) in real terms) it is difficult to ar#ue
that death is not a ma9or event) fatal in9uries are cate#orised separately under the Re#ulations and are
not included &ithin the list of defined ma9or in9uries.
7art (ii) re%uired an outline that should have included the identification of &ho &ould report the
accident and ho&. 0andidates &ho outlined ho& the 8responsible person' &ould first notify the
enforcin# authority by the %uic(est practical means (usually telephone or fa-)) and then provide a
report &ithin ?@ days by an approved means (e# form F3<@!)) #ained full mar(s.
Question 8
0andidates needed to read the %uestion carefully and appreciate that it referred to persons &ho &ere
re%uired to &or( alone and a&ay from the &or(place. $his &as not a %uestion solely about lone
&or(in#) althou#h some of the factors are still very relevant.
0andidates &ho approached the %uestion in a lo#ical) structured and practical &ay by identifyin# those
factors that &ould contribute to the potential ris() and then identified factors that mi#ht miti#ate or
possibly increase the level of ris() achieved hi#h mar(s. $he former includes the &or( to be done and
its attendant ha4ards) the e%uipment to be used and the ris( control measures in place at the &or(
location= the latter relates to such factors as the competence and suitability of the persons involved)
methods of communication &ith the home base) and emer#ency and first*aid procedures.
$he %uestion sou#ht a practical approach to this type of &or( situation. 1o&ever) a reference to the
re%uirements of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BB3 * particularly the need
for a ris( assessment * &as credit&orthy.
Question 9
"espite the re%uirement for an outline of a specific number of factors) some candidates seemed to
believe that they could ma(e up for a deficient number by providin# much detail on the fe& factors that
they had selected. $he strate#y &as not successful. 0andidates &ho missed or i#nored the fact that the
%uestion referred to maintenance) rather than to #eneral machinery safety) &ere even less successful) as
&ere those &ho decided that the %uestion &as about securin# the safety of maintenance staff.
1avin# said that) there &ere some #ood ans&ers from candidates &ho referred to such factors as the
type) a#e and use of the e%uipment) statutory and insurance re%uirements) manufacturers'
recommendations) reliability of the e%uipment based on brea(do&n history) the environment in &hich
the e%uipment is used) the criticality of the e%uipment to the process) and the implications of failure of
the e%uipment for the health and safety of employees.
Question :
It is #enerally accepted that fire drills form an important part of ensurin# the safety of employees.
0andidates &ere re%uired to outline the reasons &hy this is so. E-aminers &ere see(in# reasons such as
satisfyin# a le#al re%uirement or one specified in a fire certificate) testin# the effectiveness of the
evacuation procedures) familiarisin# staff &ith fire alarms) evacuation procedures) escape routes and
assembly points) affordin# the opportunity to fire &ardens to practise their desi#nated roles) and
33
chec(in# the effectiveness of the arran#ements for disabled employees and visitors. /ome candidates
failed to ta(e the broader vie& and &rote in too much detail on 9ust one or t&o of these matters. $his
obviously restricted the number of mar(s that could be a&arded.
Question ;
Relatively fe& candidates &ere able to approach this 0". %uestion &ith the confidence needed) and
most demonstrated a lac( of (no&led#e of the re%uirements of the Re#ulations &ith respect to the t&o
named duty holders. $he Re#ulations form one of the cornerstones of health and safety for the
construction industry and 0". is a topic that E-aminers &ill undoubtedly revisit in the future.
For the plannin# supervisor) candidates could have outlined duties such as co*ordinatin# activities
bet&een the client) desi#ner and principal contractor) ensurin# the preparation of the health and safety
plan) collatin# information for the health and safety file) and advisin# as re%uired on the competence of
the principal contractor and desi#ner.
;s for the principal contractor) a number of duties could have been cited. $hese include6 co*ordinatin#
the activities of all contractors on site= developin# the health and safety plan and ensurin# compliance
&ith it on site= displayin# the statutory notices= providin# health and safety information to contractors
and ensurin# that contractors provide information and trainin# to their employees= ensurin# effective
consultation &ith employees= controllin# access to the site= ensurin# the competence of all contractors
involved= and passin# to the plannin# supervisor any information that should be included in the health
and safety file.
Question <
;#ain) candidates needed to outline a ran#e of factors in order to #ain hi#h mar(s. $he %uestion &as
#enerally approached &ell by candidates &ith many offerin# ans&ers based upon their studies and the
constructive use of issues in &or(places &ith &hich they &ere familiar. .ost candidates outlined
factors such as 9ob insecurity) bullyin#) lac( of proper trainin#) repetitive and often borin# &or() too
much or too little responsibility) and lac( of career development. .ar(s &ere also available for
environmental factors that can lead to stress such as heat) noise) poor ventilation and lac( of ade%uate
&or(in# space.
$here &as sympathy (but no e-tra mar() for the candidate &ho added a comment about the additional
stress caused by not (no&in# the ans&er to an e-amination %uestionE
Question =
$he provision of information and trainin# is an important factor in any system desi#ned to ensure the
effective mana#ement of health and safety. $he %uestion re%uired candidates to display their (no&led#e
of the re%uirements of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BB3 on this (ey
issue.
In ans&ers to part (i)) ris(s to health and safety identified by ris( assessment &ere commonly
identified) as &ere emer#ency arran#ements. Fe&er candidates identified the need to provide
information on the preventive and protective measures that had been introduced) or on the identity of
persons responsible for implementin# the emer#ency procedures.
34
Induction trainin# &as ri#htly a feature of many ans&ers to part (ii) but fe&er candidates seemed a&are
of the specific re%uirements to train &hen employees chan#e 9obs) and &hen ne& &or( e%uipment) ne&
technolo#y or a chan#ed system of &or( is introduced.
/ome candidates offered &ider thou#hts on information and trainin# and i#nored the need to focus on
the particular matters and the specific circumstances referred to in the stated Re#ulations.
Question 9
0andidates &ere e-pected to do &ell on this %uestion. $he e-pectation &as sadly not realised in a lar#e
number of cases and it &as disturbin# to find that so many found difficulty &ith a %uestion that should
have been relatively strai#htfor&ard for anyone &ho had studied the outline of a mana#ement system
for health and safety.
Cood ans&ers) albeit fe& in number) &ere those that addressed the follo&in# components and
hi#hli#hted the essential features of each6
the policy to be a clear statement of intent) settin# the main health and safety aims and
ob9ectives of the company=
the or#anisation for health and safety to be such as to ensure the allocation of responsibility to
appropriate members of staff) &ith the emphasis on achievin# competency) control)
communication and consultation=
plannin# and implementin# to involve ris( assessment) the settin# of standards and the
introduction of appropriate control measures to achieve the standards=
measurin# performance by active and reactive monitorin# methods=
revie& and audit to chec( &hether &hat &as planned is actually ta(in# place) and to consider
options for improvement) settin# ne& tar#ets &here necessary.
Question 1
For part (a)) candidates should have identified that criminal la& sets a code of conduct for society)
normally has a protective function and allo&s the state to ta(e action a#ainst those &ho brea( the code.
0ivil la&) on the other hand) has the function of enablin# an individual &ho has suffered harm to #ain
appropriate recompense) or to see( an in9unction to prevent harm occurrin#.
7art (b) needed an e-planation of the principal differences bet&een common and statute la&. /uccessful
candidates &ere those &ho e-plained that common la& is not &ritten do&n but has been developed by
the courts over many years and) in the area of health and safety) forms the basis of most civil actions.
/tatute la&) on the other hand) is &ritten do&n in the form of ;cts and Re#ulations) lays do&n
re%uirements and assi#ns duties and responsibilities. Failure to comply &ith statute la& normally (but
not al&ays) constitutes a criminal offence) althou#h it can also be used in civil actions unless
specifically disallo&ed.
0riminal and civil la& and common and statute la& undoubtedly form an important part of the tuition
#iven by course providers but they still remain a source of confusion for many candidates. $his &as
particularly evident in several cases &here candidates ans&ered part (b) as if common la& and civil la&
&ere the same * and similarly for statute la& and criminal la&. $he differences bet&een branches of la&
and sources of la& are not difficult concepts to understand) yet the concepts are plainly often not
35
understood. $his is an area that re%uires even more emphasis by centres.
Question 11
.ost candidates found this %uestion to their li(in# and &ere able to provide an outline of at least some
of the factors that should be considered. $hese include the particulars of the tas( or activity to be
performed) the e%uipment and materials that are involved) and the people carryin# out the tas( or
activity. ;dditional factors are the inherent and contin#ent ha4ards and ris(s (ta(in# into account the
particular environment)) the control measures in place) relevant le#al re%uirements) emer#ency
procedures) and the systems for monitorin# and supervision.
36
2-8
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A1: I*#$!I./I$0 A$* +O$!)O%%I$0 "A>A)*-
'A)+" 2
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 Diesel powered fork"lift trucks are used in a wide range of organiations
and can introduce additional haards into the working environment.
(i) Identify O!" haards associated with such vehicles that may pose a
risk to the health of drivers.
(4)
(ii) Descri0e the various circumstances that may cause such a vehicle to
overturn.
(8)
(iii) Outline the precautions that may be needed to ensure the safety of
pedestrians in areas where fork" lift trucks are operating.
(8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline 'I3*. precautions that should be considered to ensure the
safety of children who might be tempted to gain access to a construction
site.
(8)
3 (a) Descri0e the typical symptoms of occupational dermatitis. (2)
(b) 2t%te the factors that could affect the likelihood of dermatitis occurring in
workers handling dermatitic substances.
(6)
4 8n engineering workshop uses an overhead gantry crane to transport
materials.
(i) Identify ./O reasons why loads may fall from this crane. (2)
(ii) Outline precautions to prevent accidents to employees working at
ground level when overhead cranes are in use.
(6)
37
5 Outline the factors to be considered in the selection of respiratory
protection e$uipment for persons carrying out welding activities.
(8)
6 +ist 'I3*. design features and>or safe practices intended to reduce the
risk of accidents on staircases used as internal pedestrian routes within
work premises.
(8)
7 8n essential raw material for a process is delivered in powdered form
and poured by hand from bags into a mi#ing vessel. Outline the control
measures that might be considered in this situation in order to reduce
employee e#posure to the substance.
(8)
8 (a) 9n relation to machine safety% outline the principles of!
(i) interlocked guards
(ii) trip devices.
(2)
(2)
(b) *ther than contact with dangerous parts% identify O!" types of
danger against which fi#ed guards on machines may provide protection.
(4)
, 6ocal e#haust ventilation (61V) systems must be thoroughly e#amined
at least every ,; months. Outline the routine maintenance that should
be carried out between statutory e#aminations in order to ensure the
continuing efficiency of an 61V system.
(8)
1- 9n relation to the use of electrical cables and plugs in the workplace!
(i) identify O!" e#amples of faults and bad practices that could
contribute to electrical accidents
(4)
(ii) outline the corresponding precautions that should be taken for '()* of
the e#amples identified in (i).
(4)
11 +ist 'I3*. features of a safe means of escape from a building in the
event of fire.
(8)
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 'arch 2
38
Paper A1 4 Identifying and controlling hazards
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
For part (i)) it &as important for candidates to read the %uestion carefully and ta(e note that it referred
to health ris(s. Of those candidates &ho realised this) many &ere unable to su##est much beyond diesel
fuel and fumes even thou#h there are li(ely to be ha4ards associated &ith manual handlin# (of the
for(s) for instance)) noise and vibration) and er#onomics. ; lar#e proportion of candidates) ho&ever)
had not read the %uestion carefully enou#h and proceeded to identify various causes of physical in9ury.
.ost candidates coped reasonably &ell &ith part (ii) by describin# circumstances such as insecure and
unstable loads) manoeuvrin# &ith the load elevated) collidin# &ith (erbs and other obstructions)
cornerin# at speed) bra(in# harshly) drivin# on uneven or soft #round) and mechanical failure. $hose
&ho #ained hi#h mar(s for this part tended to be those &ho adopted a structured approach and
considered the load) the environment and the vehicle itself.
7art (iii) &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith candidates outlinin# methods of se#re#atin# pedestrians
from vehicles by the use of barriers) defined traffic routes and one*&ay systems. $hey also too( into
account trainin# and supervision of the drivers and visibility issues) such as the need for #ood li#htin#)
mirrors and hi#h visibility clothin#.
-ection 2
Question 2
$he %uestion &as #enerally ans&ered &ell) &ith the ma9ority of candidates outlinin# a hierarchy of
measures be#innin# &ith attempts to prevent entry by the use of fencin# and si#ns) and monitorin# by
the use of security patrols or closed*circuit television. $his &as follo&ed by reference to the need)
should entry be #ained) to ma(e the site itself safe by isolatin# services) reducin# hei#hts of materials)
coverin# or fencin# e-cavations) as &ell as removin# ladders and denyin# access to scaffoldin#. +etter
candidates also considered further precautions such as securin# tools) chemicals) e%uipment and
vehicles.
Question 8
For part (a)) candidates &ere e-pected to identify symptoms such as reddenin#) blisterin# and crac(in#
of the s(in. $he ma9ority achieved this althou#h fe& considered the further possibility of infection or
ulceration.
In part (b)) mar(s &ere available initially for reco#nisin# that the nature of the a#ent) concentration
levels and the duration and fre%uency of e-posure &ere some of the factors that mi#ht influence the
li(elihood of dermatitis occurrin# &hen dermatitic substances are handled. ;dditional factors that could
increase the ris( include cuts and abrasions) &hich &ould allo& chemicals to be absorbed more readily)
e-istin# s(in conditions) the type of s(in and its sensitivity) the specific site of s(in contact) poor
personal hy#iene) and the misuse or non*use of protective measures.
39
/ome candidates) instead of addressin# the ris( factors) detailed the precautions that should be ta(en to
prevent dermatitis. :hile many of these &ere undoubtedly correct) and the lac( of such precautions
&ould affect ris() they &ere not directly relevant to the %uestion that had been as(ed.
Question 9
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates could have selected from a list of reasons includin#
e%uipment failure) overloadin#) poor slin#in# and insecure loads. .ost candidates &ere able to identify
t&o such reasons %uite easily.
.ore difficulty appeared to be encountered in ans&erin# part (ii) and it &as evident that some
candidates did not appreciate that the %uestion referred to overhead cranes and not to those operatin# at
#round level. 1ence) factors relatin# to #round conditions and the stability of mobile cranes had no
relevance here. .ar(s could have been #ained by outlinin# precautions such as6 carryin# out
maintenance and statutory inspections of the cranes= operatin# &ithin safe &or(in# load limits=
ensurin# the competence of slin#ers and others involved &ith the operation of the cranes= ensurin# that
crane operators or drivers have #ood visibility= and havin# proper procedures in place to ensure that
lifts are not carried out &hile persons are directly belo&. /uch procedures &ould include the means of
&arnin# &hen liftin# is about to ta(e place and a system of supervision.
Question :
.any candidates made the initial point that the first %uestion to be as(ed is &hether other forms of
protection) such as local e-haust ventilation) have been properly considered. $hat said) the primary
consideration in decidin# on an appropriate item of personal protection relates to the nature and li(ely
concentrations of contaminants released from the &eldin# process. $herefore) the material to be
&elded) any surface coatin#s (e# lead paint) and the constituents of the filler materials must all be
assessed. Only &hen this information is available can a ran#e of respiratory protective e%uipment that
&ould offer sufficient protection be defined. Factors that mi#ht then be ta(en into account in selectin#
from this ran#e include6 the compatibility of the e%uipment &ith the &or( to be done and &ith other
personal protective e%uipment= er#onomic considerations (bul(iness) comfort etc)= the level of trainin#
re%uired= the duration of use= the ease of maintenance and stora#e= and cost.
Fe& candidates demonstrated an understandin# of this %uestion since the ma9ority of ans&ers either
concentrated on other types of personal protective e%uipment associated &ith &eldin# activities or #ave
an outline of #ood practice. ;mon#st those &ho did consider the selection of respiratory protective
e%uipment) there &ere a fe& &ho &ere content to rest their case on the &ell*&orn &ords 8suitable' or
8appropriate' &ithout proceedin# further and su##estin# ho& suitability or appropriateness mi#ht be
decided.
Question ;
$his %uestion called for practical su##estions on &ays of preventin# accidents such as slips) trips and
falls on staircases. It &as &ell ans&ered by most candidates. .atters that should have sprun# to mind
almost immediately include the removal of obstructions and the provision of non*slip surfaces) to#ether
&ith reflective ed#in#) ade%uate li#htin# and effective maintenance. Important desi#n features of a
staircase (&hich are to a lar#e e-tent defined by buildin# standards) are its &idth) the provision of
handrails) the dimensions of treads and risers) and the provision of landin#s. /ome of the better ans&ers
to this %uestion referred to the need to ma(e special provision for disabled persons and also to the
40
possibility of usin# a lift as an alternative) in particular to avoid the need to carry lar#e or heavy items
up or do&n stairs. /ite rules should address such issues as &ell as definin# appropriate foot&ear.
Question <
$his %uestion re%uired candidates to outline possible control measures to reduce employees' e-posure
to a substance) &ith a #ood indication #iven that dust &ould be a si#nificant problem. Cood ans&ers
follo&ed the #eneral hierarchy of control and considered such issues as6 the substitution of the po&der
&ith #ranules or li%uid= automatin# the process= usin# local e-haust ventilation= limitin# the time of
e-posure and the numbers e-posed= introducin# #ood house(eepin# procedures and methods (e#
vacuumin# rather than s&eepin#)= providin# respiratory protective e%uipment and protective clothin#=
and ensurin# hi#h standards of personal hy#iene.
/ome candidates seemed confused and discussed ris( factors rather than control measures) &hile
others) &ho may not have read the %uestion &ith sufficient care) outlined measures to reduce manual
handlin# problems.
Question =
For part (a)) candidates should have referred to an interloc(ed #uard as one that is lin(ed to the
machine controls by mechanical) electrical) hydraulic or pneumatic means so that the machine &ill not
operate until the #uard is closed= and that &hen the machine is in a dan#erous condition) the #uard is
either prevented from openin# or) if it is opened) the dan#erous parts of the machine &ill come to rest.
; trip device) on the other hand) operates &hen a person approaches a dan#er area. $ypical e-amples
are trip bars or probes) pressure mats or photoelectric systems (8li#ht curtains'). Once tri##ered) the
device 8trips' the machine so that it stops or other&ise becomes safe. $his part of the %uestion &as
#enerally fairly &ell ans&ered and most candidates &ere able to outline ade%uately the principles of
operation of an interloc(ed #uard and trip device. 1o&ever) there &ere some &ho sho&ed confusion
bet&een the different types of machine safe#uards) in particular bet&een interloc(ed #uards and
automatic #uards.
Relatively fe& candidates read part (b) carefully enou#h to ta(e note of the re%uirement to identify
ha4ards other than those caused by contact &ith dan#erous parts. 0onse%uently) there &ere many
ans&ers that presented a list of mechanical ha4ards such as entan#lement) dra&in#in and abrasion.
E-aminers e-pected candidates to describe ho& a fi-ed #uard mi#ht help to protect employees by
reducin# noise emissions) by containin# ha4ardous substances such as oil mist or dust) by providin#
shieldin# a#ainst heat or electricity) and by preventin# them from bein# struc( by particles e9ected from
the machine.
Question 9
E-aminers &ere e-pectin# candidates to outline maintenance operations such as cleanin# ductin#)
repairin# any physical dama#e) repositionin# hoods to correct an#les) chec(in# the condition and
correct installation of filters) e-aminin# fan blades to ensure that there is no build up of contaminant)
ti#htenin# and cleanin# drive belts) and carryin# out #eneral lubrication of movin# parts.
.any candidates demonstrated their (no&led#e of statutory e-aminations of local e-haust ventilation
systems and smo(e testin# but did not seem to have the same #rasp of routine maintenance operations.
; number of ans&ers contained #eneral statements such as 8loo( at the fan' &ithout an e-planation of
&hat that &as intended to achieve. /ome candidates used up time in producin# a s(etch of an LEV
41
system in the hope that it &ould earn them mar(s= unfortunately) such hopes &ere not realised since it
did not help in ans&erin# the %uestion.
Question 1
$he E-aminers could thin( of at least t&elve e-amples of faults and bad practice that could have been
identified for part (i)) from &hich candidates &ere re%uired to select four. $hey include6 failure to select
the ri#ht e%uipment for the environment (e# armoured or heat resistant cable mi#ht be re%uired in
arduous conditions)= incorrect ratin# of fuses= ineffective or discontinuous earthin#= overloadin# of
soc(et outlets= cables unnecessarily lon# (or short)= the use of coiled e-tension leads= poorly &ired
plu#s (e# &ires under tension or outer protective sheath not clamped)= and the use of defective cables
and plu#s. .any candidates found little difficulty in identifyin# the re%uired number of e-amples to
#ain full mar(s. .ore difficulty &as found) ho&ever) in addin# to these mar(s in part (ii) by outlinin#
relevant precautions for the e-amples identified. $hese should have follo&ed almost automatically but
sadly this &as not al&ays the case.
Question 11
$his %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered by most candidates. $he term 8means of escape' refers to
methods and facilities available in order to enable someone to escape from a fire &ithin a buildin# and
to move to a place of safety. Issues that should have been foremost in candidates' minds include6 the
need to ensure there are at least t&o escape routes in different directions) ta(in# into account travel
distances to the nearest e-it or ad9oinin# fire compartment= the fire inte#rity of the actual escape route=
the ability of fire doors to open easily in an out&ard direction and to self*close= the clear mar(in# of
escape routes= provision of emer#ency li#htin#= the need to (eep escape routes free from obstruction=
and the appropriate sitin# and mar(in# of assembly points. $here &ere many other issues that
candidates could have included in their list.
; minority of candidates did not ans&er the %uestion that appeared on the paper and described instead
evacuation procedures or focused on types of alarm system and,or firefi#htin# e%uipment. :hile these
are associated &ith the means of escape) they are not a means of escape in themselves.
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
'A)+" 2
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
42
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) '#$l%in% with specific e#amples% the meaning of the term 4confined
space5.
(4)
(b) :he inside of a large underground storage tank is to be cleaned
manually before it is brought back into service.
(i) Outline the factors that should be taken into account when assessing
the risks to employees undertaking the cleaning of the vessel.
(ii) Outline the elements of a safe system of work for the cleaning
operation.
(8)
(8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline ways in which employers may motivate their employees to
comply with health and safety procedures.
(8)
3 9nade$uate lighting in the workplace may affect the level of stress
amongst employees. Outline 'I3*. other factors associated with the
$hysic%l environment that may increase stress at work.
(8)
4 (a) Define the term 4negligence5. (2)
(b) Outline the .*"'' standard conditions that must be met for an
employee to prove a case of negligence against an employer.
(6)
5 Outline O!" proactive monitoring methods that can be used in
assessing the health and safety performance of an organisation.
(8)
6 9n relation to the )ealth and 'afety (2onsultation with 1mployees)
+egulations ,--3% identify!
(i) the health and safety matters on which employers have a duty to consult
their employees
(4)
(ii) O!" types of information that an employer is 1O. obliged to disclose
to an employee representative.
(4)
7 (a) Outline the legal re$uirements whereby an employer must prepare a
written health and safety policy.
(2)
43
(b) Identify the .*"'' main sections of a health and safety policy
document and e#$l%in the purpose and general content of '()*
section
(6)
8 Outline the re$uirements of the 0orkplace ()ealth% 'afety and 0elfare)
+egulations ,--. relating to the provision of welfare facilities.
(8)
, (a) 3ive O!" reasons why an organisation should have a system for the
internal reporting of accidents.
(4)
(b) Outline factors that may discourage employees from reporting
accidents at work.
(4)
1- :he manager of a company is concerned about a substance to be
introduced into one of its manufacturing processes. Outline O!"
sources of information that might be consulted when assessing the risk
from this substance.
(8)
11 +ist the powers given to inspectors appointed under the )ealth and
'afety at 0ork etc 8ct ,-?;.
(8)
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 'arch 2
Paper A2 4 !he 3anage3ent of safety and health
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
In ans&erin# part (a)) most candidates provided an acceptable e-planation of the term 8confined space')
definin# it as any space &hich) by virtue of its enclosed nature) presents a reasonably foreseeable
specified ris(. E-amples that mi#ht have been #iven include chambers) tan(s) vats) silos) pits) trenches)
pipes) se&ers) flues and &ells. +etter candidates additionally made appropriate reference to the
44
0onfined /paces Re#ulations ?BBA.
For part (b)(i)) factors that should be ta(en into account &hen assessin# the ris(s to employees relate to
the methods of &or() the previous contents of the tan( (e# to-ic) flammable)) possible contact &ith
residues) cleanin# chemicals or hot cleanin# li%uids) the interaction bet&een residues and cleanin#
chemicals) tools and e%uipment to be used) restricted physical dimensions) means of access and e#ress)
means of isolatin# the vessel) and the li(elihood of o-y#en deficient) e-plosive and,or to-ic
atmospheres.
In ans&erin# part (b)(ii)) it &ould follo& that any safe system of &or( for the operation &ould be based
on the identification of ha4ards and assessment of ris(s already completed. E-aminers &ere loo(in# to
candidates to outline control measures such as a permit*to*&or( system) &hich &ould detail the
precautions to be observed before entry to the tan( and &hile the &or( is carried out. $hese precautions
&ould be li(ely to include the ventilation of the tan() atmospheric monitorin#) the isolation of services
to the tan() the provision and use of personal protective e%uipment) the employment of competent
personnel and arran#ements for their supervision) and emer#ency procedures.
.any candidates &ere unable to differentiate bet&een the factors to be ta(en into account &hen
assessin# the ris(s and the elements of a safe system of &or() and transposed their ans&ers to parts (i)
and (ii). $here &as) admittedly) some overlap of issues. For instance) a ris( assessment &ould need to
investi#ate the li(elihood of un&anted materials enterin# the vessel (ie the inte#rity of the means of
isolation) &hereas a safe system of &or( &ould ensure that the means of isolation &ere employed.
$hey are) therefore) addressin# t&o distinct aspects and candidates &ere re%uired to ma(e such a
distinction in their ans&ers.
-ection 2
Question 2
.otivation is the drivin# force behind the &ay in &hich a person acts in order to achieve a #oal. In this
case) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for su##estions of ho& employees mi#ht be motivated to &or( safely.
;ns&ers should have outlined such &ays as6 improvin#) by trainin# and by the provision of
information) employees' (no&led#e of the conse%uences of not &or(in# safely= sho&in# the
commitment of the or#anisation to safety by providin# resources and a safe &or(in# environment=
involvin# employees in health and safety decisions by consultation and team meetin#s= and reco#nisin#
and re&ardin# achievement. .ore able candidates reco#nised that positive motivation * ie employees
&or(in# safely because that &as ho& they &anted to &or( * tends to be more effective than ne#ative
motivation * employees &or(in# safely for fear of disciplinary action. :ith the ri#ht balance bet&een
them) ho&ever) both have their place.
$he %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith many candidates demonstratin# a #ood understandin#
of this facet of human factors) althou#h) in some cases) responses &ere some&hat limited)
concentratin# solely on the re&ard and discipline aspects.
Question 8
$his %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' understandin# of some of the factors that mi#ht increase
stress in the &or(place. $he ma9ority of candidates successfully outlined factors such as cramped) dirty
or untidy &or(in# conditions) &or(place layout resultin# in a lac( of privacy or security) problems &ith
45
#lare) e-tremes of temperature and,or humidity) inade%uate ventilation or stale air (or) conversely)
drau#hty conditions)) e-posure to noise and vibration) inade%uate &elfare facilities and) for those
&or(in# outside) inclement &eather conditions.
:hile there &ere some #ood ans&ers) the (ey &ords in the %uestion &ere physical environment. /ome
candidates missed the si#nificance of these &ords and concentrated on a number of non*physical
factors) such as &or( overload or mana#ement pressure and bullyin#.
Question 9
For part (a)) many candidates found it difficult to provide a clear definition of ne#li#ence) &hich could
have been described as a tort involvin# unreasonably careless conduct) or a breach of the common la&
duty of care) resultin# in loss) dama#e or in9ury.
In ans&erin# part (b)) most candidates provided reasonable ans&ers that identified the standard
conditions for an employee to prove a case of alle#ed ne#li#ence. $hese are6 firstly) that a duty of care
&as o&ed by the employer (ie that the employee &as actin# in the course of his,her employment)=
secondly) that the employer acted in breach of that duty= and) thirdly) that the breach led directly to the
loss) dama#e or in9ury. +etter candidates &ere able to support their ans&ers &ith e-amples and) in
many cases) by appropriate reference to reasonableness and foreseeability.
"espite some difficulties &ith part (a)) a number of candidates obtained hi#h mar(s for their ans&ers to
this %uestion. $hey clearly had studied and understood the basic le#al concepts involved.
Question :
1ealth and safety performance in the &or(place can be monitored and assessed usin# a variety of
techni%ues and measures. $he %uestion re%uired candidates to outline proactive methods that &ould
include safety audits) safety inspections) safety surveys) safety tours) safety samplin#) benchmar(in#)
and health surveillance. In #eneral) responses to this %uestion &ere #ood althou#h some candidates
introduced reactive methods) su##estin# a#ain that the %uestion had not been read &ith sufficient care.
Question ;
.atters on &hich employers must consult &ith their employees under the 1ealth and /afety
(0onsultation &ith Employees) Re#ulations ?BB> are specifically6 the introduction of measures that
may substantially affect the health and safety of employees= the arran#ements for appointin# or
nominatin# competent persons= any health and safety information the employer is re%uired to provide
to employees= the plannin# and or#anisation of any health and safety trainin# that must be provided=
and the health and safety conse%uences of the introduction of ne& technolo#y.
In part (b)) most candidates &ere able to identify that an employer is not obli#ed to disclose personal
medical or other information to an employee representative &ithout the consent of the individual
concerned and) additionally) information that &ould be a#ainst the interests of national security.
1o&ever) fe& candidates demonstrated a more comprehensive understandin# of the Re#ulations and
did not ade%uately identify types of information such as6 that not relatin# to health and safety= &here
the information &ould contravene a statutory prohibition imposed on the employer= &here the
information &as obtained by the employer in connection &ith le#al proceedin#s= and &here it &ould
dama#e the employer's business interests.
46
Question <
$here &ere some e-cellent ans&ers to this %uestion) and the ma9ority of candidates &ere able to
outline) for part (a)) that an employer must prepare a &ritten health and safety policy &here he employs
five or more persons. $hey further reco#nised that the %uestion as(ed for the le#al re%uirements and
conse%uently stated that this is a re%uirement of the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct ?BA.
7art (b) &as intended to test candidates' understandin# of health and safety policies and their structure.
.ost candidates correctly identified the three main sections) and then &ent on to e-plain their purpose
&ith varyin# de#rees of success. +etter candidates first referred to the 8statement of intent') &hich both
demonstrates mana#ement's commitment to health and safety and sets #oals and ob9ectives for the
or#anisation= they then referred to the 8or#anisation' section) the purpose of &hich is to identify health
and safety responsibilities &ithin the company= and) finally) they turned to the 8arran#ements' section)
&hich sets out in detail the systems and procedures that sho& ho& the policy is to be implemented.
Question =
0andidates should have referred in their ans&ers to the re%uirements for the provision of sanitary
conveniences) &ashin# facilities) drin(in# &ater) eatin# and rest areas a&ay from the &or( area)
accommodation for clothin#) separate male and female chan#in# facilities) arran#ements in rest areas to
protect non*smo(ers from ci#arette smo(e) and rest facilities for pre#nant &omen and nursin# mothers.
$he action &ord in this %uestion &as 8outline' and those &ho provided a mere list of the facilities
re%uired &ithout further amplification could not e-pect to be &ell re&arded. /ome candidates failed to
note that the %uestion re%uired an outline of the facilities relatin# to &elfare provision and dealt &ith
the re%uirements for the &or(place in #eneral * in terms of ade%uate temperature and li#htin#) for
instance. /ome of these mi#ht affect employees' &elfare (as &ell as health or safety) but they are not
&elfare facilities. /chedule 5 to the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct ?BA does) in fact) provide a
clear distinction bet&een &or(in# conditions and &elfare facilities.
Question 9
$here are a number of reasons &hy an or#anisation should have a system for the internal reportin# of
accidents. $hese include the compilation of accident statistics and the identification of trends= to meet
the re%uirements of the Reportin# of In9uries) "iseases and "an#erous Occurrences Re#ulations ?BB<=
so that an investi#ation may be carried out to prevent a recurrence= for use in civil claims or to satisfy
insurance re%uirements= to help in the identification and reduction of loss= and to inform the revie& of
ris( assessments.
In ans&erin# part (b)) candidates &ere e-pected to outline such factors as6 i#norance of the reportin#
procedures= peer pressure= possible retribution by mana#ement= to preserve the company's or
department's safety record (particularly &hen an incentive scheme is in operation)= to avoid receivin#
first*aid or medical treatment (for &hatever reason)= overcomplicated reportin# procedures= and lac( of
obvious mana#ement response to earlier reported accidents.
Question 1
E-aminers &ere surprised to find that a number of ans&ers to this %uestion lac(ed detail) &ith
candidates referrin# only to manufacturers' or suppliers' specific product information and official 1/E
publications such as E1@. .ore successful candidates &ere able to outline additional sources of
47
information such as specialist te-tboo(s) 9ournals and research papers) #uidance from trade or
professional bodies) and electronic health and safety databases.
Question 11
/ection 3@ of the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct ?BA provides the main source of information to
ans&er this %uestion and most candidates &ere able to list enou#h po&ers available to appointed
inspectors to #ain hi#h mar(s. $he po&ers include6 the ri#ht to enter premises) if necessary by enlistin#
the assistance of a police officer= to carry out e-aminations and investi#ations= to direct that premises or
e%uipment be left undisturbed for the purpose of investi#ations= to ta(e measurements and photo#raphs=
to inspect and,or ta(e copies of documents and records= to ta(e samples= to re%uire a person to ans&er
%uestions and si#n a declaration to the truth of his,her ans&ers= to ta(e possession of articles and
substances= to issue enforcement notices= and to insti#ate and conduct proceedin#s in a ma#istrates
court (e-cept in /cotland).
48
2-;
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A1: I*#$!I./I$0 A$* +O$!)O%%I$0 "A>A)*-
1,$# 2
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 0oodwork on the e#terior of a two" storey office building is to be
repainted during @uly this year. /reparation work will be carried out from
a mobile tower scaffold using blowlamps% scrapers and an electrical
hand"held sander.
(i) Identify the physical and procedural measures that should be
adopted in order to protect against the dangers of people and>or
materials falling from the scaffold.
(8)
(ii) Outline the practical measures to reduce the risk from electricity
when using the portable sander.
(8)
(iii) +ist O!" other haards arising from the preparation work and% for
'()* haard% st%te the possible means of protection.
(4)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%ns- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 8 computer operator has complained of neck and back pain. Outline the
features associated with the workstation that might have contributed
towards this condition.
(8)
3 (a) 0ith reference to the fire triangle% outline ./O methods of
e#tinguishing fires.
(4)
(b) 2t%te the ways in which persons could be harmed by a fire in work (4)
49
premises.
4 (a) or '()* of the following types of non" ionising radiation% identify a
source and state the possible ill health effects on e#posed individuals!
(5)
(i) infra" red radiation (2)
(ii) ultra"violet radiation. (2)
(b) Identify the general methods for protecting people against e#posure to
non" ionising radiation.
(4)
5 *utline the precautionary measures to be taken to avoid accidents
involving reversing vehicles within a workplace.
(8)
6 (a) Define the term 4target organ5 within the conte#t of occupational health. (2)
(b) Outline the personal hygiene practices that should be followed to
reduce the risk of ingestion of a haardous substance.
(6)
7 Identify the main dangers associated with e#cavation work on
construction sites.
(8)
8 Outline the factors to be considered when undertaking a manual
handling assessment of a task that involves lifting buckets of water out
of a sink.
(8)
, Identify O!" mechanical haards presented by pedestal drills and
outline in '()* case how in&ury may occur.
(8)
1- (a) Descri0e% by means of a labelled sketch% a chemical indicator (stain
detector) tube suitable for atmospheric monitoring.
(4)
(b) +ist the main limitations of chemical indicator (stain detector) tubes. (4)
11 +ist 'I3*. items to be included on a checklist for the routine inspection
of a fork" lift truck at the beginning of a shift.
(8)
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 1une 2
Paper A1 4 Identifying and +ontrolling "azards
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
50
-ection 1
Question 1
$his %uestion described a scene that &ould present itself in many &or(places that are underta(in#
routine maintenance to the fabric of a buildin#. 0andidates should therefore have had little difficulty in
visualisin# the sort of &or( bein# carried out and the ha4ards presented by such &or(.
In #eneral) part (i) of the %uestion &as reasonably &ell ans&ered althou#h some candidates became a
little carried a&ay and included points that &ere more appropriate to part (iii). 0onversely) others
treated the %uestion purely as one relatin# to scaffold stability and hence missed the breadth of response
needed to cover all aspects relevant to the prevention of falls of people or materials) and the measures
necessary should prevention fail. ;ns&ers should therefore have included reference to such issues as6
firm) level #round= proper assembly= &heels loc(ed and outri##ers in place= appropriate means of
access= platform secure and complete= toe*boards and handrails in place= appropriate loadin#= and the
scaffold not to be moved &hen loaded &ith persons or materials. .eans of protection include barriers
around the scaffold to prevent access and collisions) and the use of hard hats for persons &or(in# at
#round level.
7art (ii) &as &ell ans&ered by most candidates) &ith the more competent mana#in# to achieve the full
ei#ht mar(s. .ost ans&ers included reference to suitable e%uipment (maintained,tested)) reduced lo&
volta#e systems) cable mana#ement issues and user chec(s. 0andidates &ith a broader (no&led#e &ere
able to refer to the use of protective devices (e# residual current devices)) double insulation) proper
connections and avoidance of use in &et &eather.
.any candidates did not fully read part (iii) of the %uestion and listed ha4ards &ithout their
correspondin# control measures. $hose that addressed both aspects found mar(s easy to come by since
there &as a &ide ran#e to choose from. $he more astute candidates realised that all information in a
%uestion is relevant and pic(ed up on the fact that) even in the UF) there is li(ely to be sunshine in Guly
and &ere able to include this in their ans&ers. Other ha4ards include6 dust and fumes= e9ected particles=
fire,e-plosion= burns from a blo&lamp= noise,vibration= and so on. For many of these) some form of
personal protective e%uipment &ould be needed but candidates should realise that simply statin# H77EH
is insufficient to #ain mar(s. $he appropriate type of 77E must be specified in all cases.
-ection 2
Question 2
$his &as a relatively poorly ans&ered %uestion mainly because candidates seemed more prepared to
state &hat a "/E &or(station should have than to identify &hat mi#ht have been deficient. 1ence) a
fully ad9ustable chair that is properly ad9usted is somethin# that should be provided but is not
somethin# that &ould have led to the condition described. $oo many candidates correctly reco#nised
that the %uestion related to "/E but then simply #ave a practised ans&er) startin# &ith a "/E ris(
assessment and continuin# &ith everythin# that a #ood &or(station should possess.
51
Question 8
For part (a)) nearly all candidates &ere familiar &ith the fire trian#le) &hich they could use to
demonstrate t&o methods of e-tin#uishin# a fire * for instance) by starvation (removin# the fuel)) by
smotherin# (eliminatin# o-y#en)) by coolin# or by interferin# chemically &ith the combustion process.
7art (b) &as ans&ered less &ell and some candidates &ere perhaps tryin# to find more in the %uestion
than &as in fact there. In a fire situation) people may be harmed by bein# burned) by inhalin# to-ic
fumes) by the effects of smo(e) by depleted o-y#en supply) by fallin# parts of a buildin#) or by bein#
crushed or sufferin# some other type of in9ury in an attempt to escape.
Question 9
$he mere mention of the &ord IradiationJ in a %uestion seems to thro& terror into the hearts of some
candidates. For those &ho &ere not immediately put off) most) for part (a)) could cite typical sources of
IR radiation as fire or furnaces) and of UV li#ht as the sun or &eldin# operations. 1ealth effects caused
a little more difficulty althou#h burns to the s(in and eye dama#e are common to both types of
radiation. Ceneral (no&led#e of the effects of the sun (sunburn and s(in cancers) should have helped
those &ho had identified this particular source of UV li#ht.
For part (b)) (no&led#e of ho& to avoid the harmful effects of the sun in a non*occupational settin#
should have enabled candidates to come up &ith a ran#e of preventive measures. $hese include
shieldin#) increasin# the distance bet&een source and person) reducin# the duration of e-posure)
appropriate 77E (such as clothin# and eye protection) and the use of barrier creams.
Question :
$his &as a &ell*ans&ered %uestion &ith most candidates able to specify a variety of precautionary
measures. +etter candidates presented a hierarchical ran#e) from avoidin# the need for vehicles to
reverse (one*&ay and Idrive*throu#hJ systems) turnin# circles) etc)) throu#h the separation of vehicles
and pedestrians (barriers) si#ns) etc) and aspects of vehicle and &or(place desi#n (audible alarms)
mirrors) #ood visibility) refu#es) li#htin#) etc)) to procedural measures (e# use of ban(smen) site rules)
driver trainin#). /urprisin#ly fe& candidates) ho&ever) mentioned the need for hi#h visibility clothin#
and pedestrian a&areness trainin#.
Question ;
$he term Itar#et or#anJ &as poorly defined by most candidates for part (a)) althou#h many &ere able to
demonstrate an understandin# of the concept &ith e-amples * 8asbestos and the lun#s' &as commonly
cited. ; simple definition such as 8the or#an,s of the human body upon &hich a to-ic material e-erts its
effects' &as all that &as re%uired for full mar(s.
7art (b) provided another e-ample of the importance of carefully readin# the %uestion. .any sa& this
as a #eneral 0O/11 %uestion &ithout ta(in# note of the (ey &ords Hpersonal hy#ieneH and Hin#estionH.
1ence) the %uestion &as specifically about &hat should be re%uired of employees to avoid harmful
substances enterin# the mouth. /uch practices as &ashin# hands before eatin#) the avoidance of eatin#)
52
drin(in# and smo(in# in the &or(place) utilisin# facilities for contaminated clothin#) appropriate use of
#loves and avoidin# hand*to*mouth contact &ere all relevant in this respect.
Question <
0andidates &ho performed better on this %uestion considered all aspects of e-cavation &or( and not
9ust the situation of a person &ithin an e-cavation &ho mi#ht be harmed by a collapse of the
e-cavation) contact &ith buried services) in#ress of &ater) build*up of fumes or bein# struc( by fallin#
materials * important as these are. +roader ans&ers also included dan#ers associated &ith the
e-cavation machinery (e# contact &ith overhead lines)) the effect on ad9acent structures and the
possibility of vehicles or people fallin# into unprotected e-cavations. /ome ans&ers) ho&ever) &ere far
too broad and too( in #eneral construction issues &ithout focusin# on e-cavation &or(= others &asted
time by detailin# control measures) &hich &ere not as(ed for. .any candidates seemed to thin( that
simply &ritin# Iconfined spacesJ &as sufficient &ithout identifyin# the particular dan#ers posed.
Question =
.ost candidates could identify the main factors to consider in a manual handlin# assessment * tas()
individual) load and environment * but fe& could apply each to a practical) and familiar) situation.
Under the headin# 8tas(') for instance) very fe& candidates produced a ran#e of issues to be considered
* such as fre%uency of activity) vertical and hori4ontal distances to be lifted,transported) distance of
load from the body) a&(&ard body movements and so on. /imilarly) under IloadJ fe& considered
factors such as the type,si4e of buc(et and &ater temperature) and under IenvironmentJ there &ere fe&
references to &et floors) space constraints and ambient temperature. $he savin# #race for some
candidates) sufficient to #ain a couple of mar(s) &as some thou#ht #iven to the physical capabilities
and limitations of the individual carryin# out the tas(.
Overall) there &ere some very disappointin# ans&ers to this %uestion and there &as a tendency by some
candidates to launch into control measures) such as the use of hosepipes) &hich is the ne-t sta#e of the
process not addressed by the %uestion.
Question 9
;lthou#h not all candidates may have been familiar &ith the precise type of drill described) the mere
mention of the &ord IdrillJ should have led candidates into thou#hts of entan#lement of clothes and hair
&ith the drill bit) and stabbin# in9uries from the end of the bit. For most it did) but many could not #o
beyond this. Other ha4ards include contact &ith the drill chuc( (abrasion) and e9ection of) or impact by)
unclamped &or(pieces) made &orse by the fact that the &or(piece may be spinnin# at fast speed on the
bit. 0uttin# ha4ards may also be presented by metal s&arf produced by the drillin# process. 0onfusion
bet&een mechanical and non*mechanical ha4ards &as apparent) &ith some candidates inappropriately
citin# noise and electricity.
Question 1
53
$his %uestion re%uired candidates to demonstrate their (no&led#e of stain detector tubes and to provide
details of their limitations. It &as evident from a number of non*responses that some candidates &ere
unfamiliar &ith this type of monitorin# e%uipment.
0andidates' s(etches of a stain detector tube) for part (a)) should have been clearly labelled to sho& a
#lass tube &ith brea(able tips) calibrated scale and an indication of airflo& direction) &ith pac(in#
material and chemicals &ithin the tube. 0andidates should note that credit &as #iven for overall clarity
and that 8thumb*nail' s(etches) sometimes produced because detailed (no&led#e &as lac(in#) did not
%ualify for this. /(etches that sho&ed bello&s) or other means of dra&in# air throu#h the tube) &ent
beyond the re%uirements of the %uestion and often lac(ed the specific detail sou#ht.
0andidates &ho had demonstrated a lac( of (no&led#e of the e%uipment in part (a) &ere nevertheless
sometimes able to ma(e up #round in part (b) by identifyin# some of the limitations of #rab samplin#
techni%ues usin# stain detector tubes. $he main limitations relate to accuracy) interference by other
contaminants and difficulties in determinin# daily e-posures from spot samples) particularly &hen
concentrations of a contaminant vary over time. Other limitations relate to the fra#ile nature of the
tubes) their limited shelf life and their specificity to particular contaminants.
Question 11
.ost candidates had little difficulty &ith this last %uestion of the paper) &hich traditionally appears as
one that can be ans&ered %uic(ly by those runnin# out of time. $he %uestion &as made that much
easier by the fact that many of the chec(s are similar in nature to those made by car drivers before
settin# out on a 9ourney. 0ondition and pressure of tyres and proper functionin# of li#hts (&here fitted)
are e-amples. $he main &ea(ness in some candidates' responses &as a tendency to provide one*&ord
ans&ers (such as IseatJ or ImirrorsJ) &ith no indication of the particular aspect to be chec(ed.
$herefore) a daily chec(list for a for(*lift truc( is li(ely to specify) for e-ample) Iseats * secure,properly
ad9ustedJ and Imirrors * unbro(en,properly setJ. 0andidates &ho reco#nised this &ere appropriately
re&arded.
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
1,$# 2
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
54
1 8n investigation has identified the two key underlying causes of a
workplace accident as ineffective verbal communication between
employees and shortcomings in the $uality of health and safety training.
(i) Identify the barriers to effective verbal communication that may have
e#isted.
(8)
(ii) Outline the means by which communication could be improved. (6)
(iii) Descri0e the variety of training methods a trainer could use to
improve the effectiveness of employee training in health and safety.
(6)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%ns- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the factors to be considered when developing a strategy for the
inspection and testing of portable electrical appliances.
(8)
3 (a) Outline the main duties of a planning supervisor under the 2onstruction
(Design and (anagement) +egulations ,--;.
(4)
(b) Identify O!" items of information in a health and safety file that might
be needed by a contractor carrying out refurbishment work in an e#isting
building.
(4)
4 '#$l%in% using an e#ample in '()* case% the meaning of the following
terms!
(i) 4haard5 (2)
(ii) 4risk5 (3)
(iii) 4so far as is reasonably practicable5. (3)
5 Outline the actions that an employer might consider in order to avoid
unacceptable levels of occupational stress amongst employees
(8)
6 (a) Define the term 'permit" to"work system'. (2)
(b) Outline .*"'' types of work situation that may re$uire a permit" to
work system% giving reasons in '()* case for the re$uirement.
(6)
7 Outline the factors to consider when carrying out a fire risk assessment
of a workplace.
(8)
8 (a) '#$l%in the meaning of the term 4perception5. (2)
55
(b) Outline the factors relating 4O.* to the workplace (1D to the
individual that may influence a person's perception of an occupational
risk.
(6)
, 8n organisation uses various types of personal protective e$uipment
(//1). Outline the general issues relating to the selection and use of
//1 that will help to ensure its effectiveness in controlling haards.
(8)
1- (a) Identify ./O diseases that are reportable under the +eporting of
9n&uries% Diseases arid Dangerous *ccurrences +egulations (+9DD*+)
,--=.
(2)
(b) Outline reasons why employers should keep records of cases of
occupational ill health amongst employees.
(6)
11 +ist the factors that could be considered when assessing the health and
safety competence of a contractor.
(8)
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 1une 2
Paper A2 4 !he 3anage3ent of safety and health
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
$his %uestion tested candidates' understandin# of both communication at &or( in #eneral and) more
specifically) communication bet&een a trainer and employees bein# trained. $he three parts of the
%uestion addressed different but related aspects of communicatin# health and safety information.
7art (i) re%uired candidates to identify barriers to effective verbal communication such as bac(#round
56
noise) different lan#ua#es) accents and dialects of employees) the comple-ity of the information) use of
technical 9ar#on) interference due to 77E) distractions) sensory impairment and ambi#uity. (;n apposite
e-ample of ambi#uity is confusion bet&een 'underpressure') as the opposite to 'overpressure') and
8under pressure' meanin# pressurised.) 0andidates &ho noted that the %uestion related to verbal
communication only &ere able to obtain reasonable mar(s althou#h fe& #ave sufficient breadth to their
ans&ers.
$here &as a broad ran#e of issues that could have been included in ans&ers to part (ii). 1o&ever) some
candidates restricted their ans&ers to overcomin# only those barriers identified in the first part rather
than considerin# the &ider issues of effective communication. :hile their ans&ers had si#nificant
relevance) they missed some of the scope) in particular the possible need to supplement verbal
communication &ith other means of communication) such as &ritten instruction or teachin# by
e-ample. Other &ays of improvin# communication include see(in# confirmation that the messa#e has
been understood) developin# the communication s(ills of (ey personnel) adoptin# in*house standards to
ensure consistent use of technical terms and ensurin# communication is made at appropriate times (e#
&hen the recipient is free of distraction). $here &as a ran#e of issues here for &hich candidates could
#ain mar(s.
7art (iii) &as ans&ered &ell by candidates &ho described such trainin# methods as video) case studies)
#roup e-ercises) role play) practical e-ercises) %ui44es and so on. For those havin# 9ust completed a
course of study) this part of the %uestion should not have presented a problem althou#h) as &ith the
previous parts) a number of candidates described too fe& methods to achieve very #ood mar(s.
-ection 2
Question 2
; number of candidates ne#lected the 8strate#ic' aspect of the %uestion and instead provided details of
the inspection and testin# process itself * for e-ample) Hchec( cable for dama#eH. $he %uestion in fact
re%uired candidates to consider ho& a portable appliance testin# (7;$) system should be set up. $he
factors that &ould need consideration include6 the means of identifyin# the e%uipment to be tested= the
number and types of appliances to be tested= the le#al re%uirements for 7;$ testin# and the #uidance
available= the competence and trainin# re%uired of those carryin# out the testin#= &hether the
competence e-ists) or can be developed) in*house= the fre%uency of testin# in relation to the e%uipment
and the ris(= the records to be (ept= the testin# e%uipment re%uired= the responsibilities of particular
individuals= and the means of monitorin# the system.
Question 8
It appeared to E-aminers from ans&ers to both parts of the %uestion that candidates are not confident in
their understandin# of 0". re%uirements. ;ns&ers &ere often &ron# or) &here essentially correct) the
content &as thin.
7art (a) re%uired an outline of the main duties of a plannin# supervisor. ;s the name su##ests) the
titleholder is responsible for supervisin# the plannin# aspects of a construction pro9ect. Fey duties
therefore relate to ensurin# ade%uate desi#n) coordinatin# the activities of desi#ners &here more than
one is involved) and providin# advice to the client and others on the competencies of other parties. $he
57
plannin# supervisor is also responsible for ensurin# that the start of a pro9ect is notified (&here
appropriate) to the 1/E) that the health and safety plan is prepared and is sufficient) and that the health
and safety file contains all relevant information and is passed to the client on completion of the pro9ect.
7art (b) addressed the purpose of the health and safety file in terms of providin# health and safety
information for those carryin# out &or( on a buildin# at a later date. Information that should be
contained in the file includes6 dra&in#s and plans= location of utilities and services= details of the
construction methods and materials used= details of the structure's e%uipment= and instruction manuals
produced by specialist contractors and suppliers in respect of installed e%uipment.
Question 9
:hile most candidates &ere able to #ain reasonable mar(s for this %uestion) E-aminers &ere
disappointed) and a little surprised) to find that a si#nificant number stru##led to provide e-planations
of such fundamental health and safety terms. In addition) some other candidates provided seemin#ly
reasonable e-planations but then either did not #ive e-amples or used inappropriate e-amples that
su##ested a lac( of understandin# of &hat had #one before. /ince definitions of the terms appear in
every (ey health and safety te-t) and presumably in every set of course notes) it is not necessary to
repeat them here.
Question :
0andidates &ere able to #ain mar(s on this %uestion by providin# an outline of a ran#e of
environmental and,or or#anisational measures to reduce levels of stress at &or(. Environmental or
physical stressors include noise) e-cessive temperature) #lare and similar aspects of the &or(in#
environment. Improvements mi#ht therefore include noise reduction) ade%uate ventilation) er#onomic
desi#n of &or( areas) comfortable li#htin# and so on. Or#anisational measures relate to issues such as
improved 9ob desi#n) #ood communication) appraisal and feedbac() ensurin# that people are properly
selected for the 9ob) ade%uate trainin#) avoidance of &or( overload and underload) reducin# perceived
ris(s of in9ury) etc. 0andidates could also #ain credit for outlinin# the support measures that mi#ht be
provided by employers) such as counsellin# and those relatin# to bullyin#) harassment and violence at
&or(. .any ans&ers &ere too limited in breadth to #ain very #ood mar(s) some providin# very
detailed te-t on 9ust one or t&o actions that mi#ht be ta(en.
Question ;
.ost candidates) for part (a)) &ere able to provide some sort of definition that included reference both
to the permit*to*&or( system bein# a formal) documented and planned procedure and the fact that it is
desi#ned to protect personnel &or(in# in ha4ardous areas.
$here are many types of &or( situation for &hich a permit mi#ht be re%uired. For part (b)) candidates
&ere re%uired to select three of these. /uch situations include6 entry into confined spaces) 8hot &or(')
&or( on electrical e%uipment (particularly live &or(in# and,or hi#h volta#e systems)) &or(in# at hei#ht
and specialist maintenance &or( (for instance) on process plant). :hile most candidates could provide
e-amples) a number failed to provide reasons &hy a permit should be re%uired in terms of the ris(s
presented and the need to formalise and monitor the safety procedures. $here are al&ays some
58
candidates &ho &ant to introduce permits to almost everythin#) includin# routine or continuous
operations) rather than the finite) definable and hi#her ris( tas(s for &hich they are appropriate.
Question <
:ith the number of issues that mi#ht be considered in conductin# a fire ris( assessment) there &as
ample opportunity for candidates to #ain mar(s. Unfortunately) many let themselves do&n by providin#
limited breadth and,or depth to their ans&ers. /ome) for instance) restricted their ans&ers simply to
fire*fi#htin# issues &hereas others provided little more than a list of the main topic areas that did not
satisfy the re%uirement for an outline. 0andidates &ho performed better on this %uestion tended to #ive
structured ans&ers that addressed the assessment of6 the probability of fire brea(in# out and its possible
ma#nitude= the means of detection and raisin# the alarm= fire*fi#htin# measures= and evacuation. In this
respect) relevant issues include6 possible i#nition sources= the %uantities of flammable and combustible
materials= the sitin# and testin# of detectors and call*points= the sitin# and audibility of alarms= the
means of contactin# the emer#ency services= the sitin#) suitability and maintenance of fire
e-tin#uishers) sprin(ler systems) etc= trainin# of personnel in the use of e-tin#uishers= the ade%uacy of
emer#ency si#ns= the provision and testin# of emer#ency li#htin#= the number of people to be
evacuated and particular #roups at ris(= the ade%uacy of escape routes= and staff trainin# in evacuation
procedures.
Question =
For part (a)) a reasonable e-planation of 8perception' &as re%uired) such as the &ay that people interpret
and ma(e sense of presented information * for instance) in relation to their surroundin#s. /ome
candidates appeared to stru##le to put into &ords somethin# that is perhaps almost intuitive. 0ircular
definitions * for e-ample) Hperception is the &ay that people perceive thin#sH * &ere considered
inade%uate in this respect.
7erhaps because of its less abstract nature) many candidates * some of &hom had been unable to
provide an e-planation in part (a) * &ere able to outline a ran#e of factors that mi#ht influence a
person's perception of ris(. /uch factors include the nature of the ha4ard (e# obvious or hidden=
immediate or delayed effects etc)) a person's previous e-perience and familiarity &ith the situation= the
level and nature of trainin#= peer #roup influences= confidence in others' abilities and 9ud#ements= and
various other personal characteristics such as a#e) attitude and sensory impairment.
Question 9
Cood ans&ers to this %uestion tended to be those that loo(ed separately at the IselectionJ and IuseJ
issues. In terms of selection) it must be ensured that the correct type of 77E is chosen in relation to the
ha4ard= that it conforms &ith relevant standards= that it is compatible &ith other 77E= that it is
er#onomically sound and does not create any additional ris(= and that) if possible) a choice is provided
to employees) &ho should be consulted prior to its introduction. In terms of use) there must be trainin#
provided to employees= proper provision for maintenance) cleanin# and stora#e= a system for reportin#
defects and replacin# dama#ed e%uipment= and proper supervision and monitorin# of 77E usa#e and
59
effectiveness.
$he %uestion carried ei#ht mar(s and a full ran#e of issues needed to be outlined to #ain all the mar(s
available. For an 8outline') the E-aminers &ere e-pectin# more than the simple list provided above.
Rather) there should have been a fe& &ords to provide further detail of the re%uirement or a brief
e-planation of &hy the issue is relevant. $his can often be achieved by &ay of a suitable e-ample.
Question 1
Valid e-amples of reportable diseases #iven by candidates in ans&ers to part (a) included asbestosis)
occupational dermatitis) occupational asthma) tetanus) hand*arm vibration syndrome or any of the other
A #eneral diseases and conditions listed in /chedule 5 to RI""OR ?BB<. ;lmost all candidates &ere
able to #ain at least one of the t&o mar(s available and a si#nificant ma9ority #ained both.
Responses to part (b) &ere varied &ith fe& candidates #ainin# the full si- mar(s. Other than for
monitorin# purposes and) importantly) to prevent recurrences) there are le#al reasons for (eepin#
records of occupational ill health. It is a re%uirement under RI""OR that records of reported diseases
are (ept for three years= there may also be a re%uirement under the 0ontrol of /ubstances 1a4ardous to
1ealth Re#ulations ?BBB if the ill health &ere due to e-posure to a ha4ardous substance re%uirin#
health surveillance. $he information contained in a record may also be re%uired if there is a subse%uent
civil claim or if the affected employee is able to claim state benefit for the condition.
Question 11
$he last %uestion of the paper &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith many candidates able to list a #ood
ran#e of factors that included) amon#st many others6 the contractor's previous e-perience &ith the type
of &or(= the reputation of the contractor amon#st previous or current clients= the %uality and content of
the health and safety policy and ris( assessments= the level of trainin# and %ualifications of staff
(includin# those &ith health and safety responsibilities)= accident,enforcement history= membership of
approval or certification bodies= e%uipment maintenance records= and the detailed proposals for the
&or( to be carried out.
60
2-9
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A1: I*#$!I./I$0 A$* +O$!)O%%I$0 "A>A)*-
-#P!#'(#) 2
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 1mployees working for a specialist shoe manufacturer are engaged in
trimming soles by hand prior to using a solvent" based adhesive to glue
them on to the shoes.

(i) Descri0e O!" possible adverse health effects that might be
e#perienced by these employees.
(4)
(ii) Identify the information that should be included on the
manufacturer's material safety data sheet that has been supplied with
the adhesive.
(8)
(iii) Outline measures to minimise the health risks from 4O.* the
trimming (1D the gluing operations.
(8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%ns- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the practical precautions that might need to be taken prior to the
repair of a large item of process machinery.
(8)
3 8 pneumatic drill is to be used during e#tensive repair work to the floor
of a warehouse.

(i) Identify% by means of a labelled sketch% .*"'' possible
transmission paths the noise from the drill could take.
(3)
61
(ii) Outline appropriate control measures to reduce the noise e#posures
of A*:) the operator (1D the warehouse staff.
(5)
4 (a) Descri0e O!" features of an environment that could increase the
risks from using portable electrical e$uipment.
(4)
(b) Outline precautionary measures to reduce the risks from the use of
such e$uipment.
(4)
5 Outline the factors that may reduce the effectiveness of a local e#haust
ventilation (61V) system.
(8)
6 (a) Outline O!" haards associated with the use of photocopiers. (4)
(b) '#$l%in the precautions that should be taken to ensure the health and
safety of photocopier users.
(4)
7 8 chainsaw is to be used to fell a tree from ground level. 9n relation to
this% task!
(i) identify O!" haards associated with the use of the chainsaw (4)
(ii) list the items of personal protective e$uipment that should be used
by operatives.
(4)
8 8n organisation is about to purchase a fork" lift truck. 0ith reference to
its possible intended use and working environment% outline the
particular features of the fork" lift truck that should be taken into account
when determining its suitability for the &ob.
(8)
, Identify the O!" methods of heat transfer and e#$l%in how '()*
can cause the spread of fire.
(8)
1- (a) Identify the possible effects on health that may be caused by working in
a hot environment such as a foundry.
(2)
(b) Outline measures that may be taken to help prevent the health effects
identified
in (a)
(6)
11 Identify ways in which accidents may be prevented when using ladders
as a
means of access.
(8)
62
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 -epte3ber 2
Paper A1 4 Identifying and +ontrolling "azards
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) many candidates identified the possible systemic and narcotic
effects from solvent e-posure. Fe&er reco#nised the possibility of employees contractin# dermatitis or
sufferin# a &or(*related upper limb disorder (:RUL") from the operation bein# carried out. ;ns&ers
tended to be in the form of a list rather than the description that &as re%uired) &hich &as needed in
order to persuade the E-aminers that the health effects really &ere understood. .any candidates
included in9uries such as cuts to fin#ers) &hich) &hilst an 8effect') are the result of a mechanical rather
than a health ha4ard.
7art (ii) caused fe& problems as there is a &ide ran#e of information that mi#ht be included on a data
sheet. .ost candidates identified the need for the manufacturer of the adhesive to name the substance)
its constituents and its properties) and to specify the ha4ards associated &ith its use. In addition)
candidates #enerally identified that the data sheet should specify the types of control measure needed)
such as personal protective e%uipment) and the first aid measures follo&in# accidental e-posure. +etter
candidates included reference to stora#e re%uirements) occupational e-posure limits) the manufacturer's
contact details and disposal issues.
For part (iii)) candidates re%uired an understandin# of control measures. .any mi#ht have been more
successful had they attempted to structure their ans&ers around the reco#nised hierarchy of control
measures) althou#h some &ho attempted this #ave 8blan(et' ans&ers that included &ords such as
8substitution' or 8elimination' but &ithout an outline of ho& these mi#ht be achieved. Cood ans&ers
outlined measures such as the use of different adhesives (e# &ater*based or one usin# a less volatile
solvent)) the installation of local e-haust ventilation and) if sho&n to be necessary) the provision of
suitable personal protective e%uipment. ;dditionally) matters such as &or(station and tool desi#n) and
their maintenance) &ere &orthy of mention. 8$rainin#' &as a common feature in many ans&ers
althou#h there &ere fe& e-amples of &hat mi#ht be included in such trainin#.
63
-ection 2
Question 2
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates &ere re%uired to concentrate on Ipractical precautionsJ) &hich
are those typically identified by a ris( assessment. $he introduction of a permit*to*&or( system &as an
obvious startin# point. Other relevant precautions that should have been included in an ans&er &ere6
the isolation of any services or pipelines to the machine= the provision of safe access= se#re#ation by
the erection of barriers and &arnin# si#ns= ensurin# the availability and use of appropriate personal
protective e%uipment (e# #loves) eye protection etc)= and employin# only s(illed and competent
personnel to carry out the &or(.
1avin# reco#nised the need for a permit*to*&or( system) some candidates &ent into unnecessary detail
on ho& such a system &or(s) often at the e-pense of all else. 0onversely) others referred in very
#eneral terms to Isafe systems of &or(J and I77EJ but ne#lected to add the practical detail re%uired to
obtain the mar(s available.
Question 8
In part (i)) the %uality of the s(etches submitted in ans&ers varied considerably. /ome &ere often
difficult to interpret &ith no directional arro&s or clear paths #iven. +etter s(etches sho&ed at least t&o
transmission paths * usually one directly throu#h the air from drill to person) and the other representin#
reflected noise from &alls and surfaces. Relatively fe& candidates reco#nised the possibility of noise
bein# transmitted throu#h the structure.
In part (ii)) candidates &ere re%uired to apply reco#nised noise control techni%ues that &ere appropriate
to the situation described. .any candidates referred to #eneral terms such as absorption and insulation
but did not outline the appropriate control measures for the scenario #iven. $hese should have included6
fittin# a silencer and,or la##in# to the drill= sitin# the compressor outside the &arehouse= erectin#
insulatin# barriers or screens around the &or(in# area= minimisin# e-posure durations (e# by carryin#
out at least some of the &or( outside normal &or( time)= and providin# hearin# protection for the
operators and &arehouse staff.
Question 9
7art (a) re%uired an appreciation of the vulnerability of portable electrical tools in adverse
environments. .ost candidates reco#nised &et conditions but fe&er described ho& usin# the
e%uipment in flammable) e-plosive) corrosive or dusty environments mi#ht increase ris(. $he
possibility of mechanical dama#e by) for e-ample) impact or abrasion &as also fre%uently overloo(ed.
For part (b)) mar(s &ere a&arded for outlinin# measures associated &ith e%uipment desi#n (e# double
insulated) and mechanical protection. Other precautionary measures mi#ht include the use of
battery*operated tools or a reduced lo& volta#e supply) or) &here this is not possible) the use of residual
current devices. $he introduction of a system to ensure re#ular inspection and testin# of the e%uipment
64
&as also important. .any ans&ers to this part featured the common 'scatter#un' approach to electrical
safety %uestions * by listin# every available electrical precaution &ith little by &ay of an outline to
demonstrate a proper understandin#.
Question :
.any candidates listed a reasonable ran#e of factors that included dama#ed ductin#) bloc(ed or
defective filters and issues relatin# to fan inefficiency) althou#h some once a#ain ne#lected to add the
additional information re%uired for an 8outline' ans&er. .ore successful candidates included factors
such as poor initial desi#n) incorrect ad9ustments) unauthorised alterations) process chan#es and the
failure to provide a system of re#ular maintenance) inspection and testin#. /ome candidates produced
labelled dra&in#s of an LEV system that &ere not re%uired by the %uestion. It may &ell have been that
they &ere ans&erin# the %uestion for &hich they had prepared rather than the one that actually
appeared on the paper.
Question ;
$here is a ran#e of both mechanical and non*mechanical ha4ards associated &ith photocopiers from
&hich candidates &ere re%uired) for part (a)) to select 9ust four. 1a4ards can arise from contact &ith
solvents and toners) e-posure to o4one) electricity) hot surfaces) sharp ed#es and movin# parts. ; #ood
outline should have identified ho& each selected ha4ard &ould arise durin# the use of the photocopier)
&here IuseJ mi#ht include photocopyin#) restoc(in# paper and toner) cleanin# the #lass plate and
clearin# the inevitable 9ams.
In ans&erin# part (b)) candidates &ere e-pected to refer to precautions such as the need to site the
machine in a &ell ventilated area) &earin# of #loves as a protection a#ainst toner) isolation of the
electricity supply before openin# the machine doors and trainin# of personnel in the safe use of the
machine. /ince in this part of the %uestion the action &ord &as Ie-plainJ) it &as necessary not only to
identify the precautions but also to #ive reasons for their provision.
Question <
7art (i) of this %uestion bore a stron# similarity to the first part of the previous one) e-cept that there is
a ma#nitude of difference bet&een the dan#ers posed by photocopiers and those from chainsa&s.
;#ain) there is a &ide ran#e of mechanical and non*mechanical ha4ards) &hich in this case include
contact or entan#lement &ith the chain) noise and vibration) dust and fumes) e9ected particles) hot
surfaces) manual handlin# and the ha4ard of bein# struc( by fallin# branches or trees. /ome candidates
referred to the nature of the in9ury that could ensue from the identified ha4ard althou#h on this occasion
this &as not re%uired.
In part (ii)) better candidates provided a full specification of the personal protective e%uipment that
should be used by chainsa& operatives) includin# helmets fitted &ith mesh face shields) hearin#
protection) body and le# protection) #loves and boots. ;lthou#h a fe& candidates &ere evidently a&are
of the particular re%uirements of protective clothin# for chainsa& users) in that it is desi#ned to 8cho(e'
the chain if contact is made) such specialist (no&led#e &as not e-pected and &as not necessary even
65
for full mar(s.
Question =
E-aminers &ere loo(in# to candidates to identify initially salient features such as the po&er source of
the truc() its si4e and capacity) the hei#ht of the mast) the type of tyres and &arnin# systems fitted) and
the protection provided for the operator. 0andidates &ere then e-pected to outline factors that should be
ta(en into account in determinin# suitability in each case. For e-ample) in the case of the po&er source)
the choice of battery or diesel &ill depend partly on &hether the truc( is to be operated indoors or
outdoors &hilst) in the case of tyres) the choice of solid or pneumatic &ill depend on the nature of the
terrain over &hich the truc( is to run.
On the &hole) candidates made reasonable attempts at identifyin# the main features of for(lift truc(
safety but &ere not so successful in outlinin# the factors to be ta(en into account &hen determinin#
suitability. ; fe& candidates listed everythin# that they (ne& about for(lift truc(s in the hope that some
of it mi#ht be relevant. $his approach seldom &or(ed very &ell.
Question 9
$he four methods of heat transfer that should have been identified in ans&er to this %uestion are
conduction) convection) radiation and direct burnin#. .ost candidates &ere able to %uote the first three
but direct burnin# featured less often in the ans&ers. 1avin# identified some of the methods) ho&ever)
candidates found it difficult to e-plain ho& each method mi#ht cause the spread of fire. In many cases
it &as apparent that the &ords had been learned but there &as little understandin# of &hat they meant in
terms of the physics of heat transfer. +etter candidates amplified their e-planations) or could sho&
sufficient understandin#) by the appropriate use of practical e-amples. For instance) heat can be
transferred throu#h metal beams or other parts of a structure by conduction= it can be carried by risin#
air currents (convection) to cause a build*up of hot #ases under ceilin#s= it can be radiated throu#h the
air causin# heatin# of material at a distance from a fire= and) perhaps &hat should have been the most
obvious) combustible material in direct contact &ith flames can itself catch fire.
Question 1
0andidates &ho identified effects such as s(in burns from radiant heat) dehydration resultin# from the
loss of fluids) heat cataracts and heat stress could #ain both the mar(s available for part (a). /ome
ans&ers included reference to the health effects of dust) fumes and noise) &hich may be relevant to a
foundry environment but not necessarily to a Ihot environmentJ. /ince the %uestion &as clearly focused
on the effects of heat) such issues attracted no mar(s.
; selection of control measures is available in such situations and most candidates) for part (b))
identified such measures as minimisin# the e-posure times of employees) ensurin# fluid inta(e)
increasin# ventilation) allo&in# &or(ers to acclimatise #radually to the environment) the provision and
use of appropriate clothin#) the provision of screenin# a#ainst radiant heat (&here applicable) and
health surveillance. +etter candidates &ere able to provide a brief outline of ho& these measures help
to prevent harm.
66
Question 11
$here are many factors to consider &hen usin# ladders as a means of access. 0andidates &ho presented
a #ood ran#e of these &ere able to #ain hi#h mar(s) and many did. $hose &ho fared best tended to
provide a structured ans&er &ith issues #rouped into cate#ories of Icondition,suitabilityJ) Isitin#J and
IuseJ) and then #ave appropriate e-amples in each case. $his &as not a %uestion that posed too many
problems althou#h a fe& concentrated too much on the stability issues and virtually i#nored other
important aspects) such as matchin# the ladder to the tas( and pre*use inspections for si#ns of dama#e.
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
-#P!#'(#) 2
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) Identify the main topic areas that should be included in a planned
health and safety inspection of a workplace.
(8)
(b) 0ith reference to the 0orkplace ()ealth% 'afety and 0elfare)
+egulations ,--.% outline the re$uirements for O!" types of welfare
facility that an employer must provide for his employees.
(8)
(c) Descri0e the possible enforcement actions that might be taken against
an employer for failure to provide ade$uate welfare facilities.
(4)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%ns- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the various circumstances that may create a need for a review
of health and safety training within an organisation.
(8)
67
3 Bit% reference t t%e Healt% and Safety 2Cn"ultatin #it% E&plyee"3
(egulatin" 199D:
2i3 $(en#$31 t%e particular %ealt% and "afety &atter" n #%ic% e&plyer"
&u"t cn"ult t%eir e&plyee"
(4)
2ii3 %"#'$ne t%e entitle&ent" f repre"entati$e" f e&plyee "afety #%
%a$e -een elected under t%e (egulatin"/
(4)
4 O"#'$ne t%e &ea"ure" an e&plyer &ig%t cn"ider t &ini&i"e t%e ri".
f $ilence again"t e&plyee"/
(8)
5 E0/',$n t%e difference" -et#een HSC Appr$ed Cde" f Practice and
HSE guidance1 gi$ing an exa&ple f EACH/
(8)
6 (a) E0/',$n t%e %ealt% and "afety -enefit" f re"tricting "&.ing in t%e
#r.place/
(4)
(b) O"#'$ne #ay" in #%ic% an rgani"atin culd effecti$ely i&ple&ent a
n6"&.ing plicy/
(4)
7 O"#'$ne t%e rea"n" #%y an rgani"atin "%uld &nitr and re$ie# it"
%ealt% and "afety perfr&ance/
(8)
8 O"#'$ne t%e per"nal factr" #%ic% &ig%t place an indi$idual at a greater
ri". f %ar& #%ile at #r./
(8)
, Bit% reference t t%e (eprting f In@urie"1 4i"ea"e" and 4angeru"
Occurrence" (egulatin" 2(I44O(3 199;:
2i3 e0/',$n1 gi$ing T:O exa&ple"1 t%e &eaning f t%e ter& Kdangeru"
ccurrence'
(4)
2ii3 s#,#e t%e re+uire&ent" fr reprting a dangeru" ccurrence/ 2>3 (4)
1- (a) E0/',$n1 u"ing an exa&ple1 t%e &eaning f t%e ter& Kri".'/ (2)
(b) O"#'$ne t%e factr" t%at "%uld -e cn"idered #%en "electing indi$idual"
t a""i"t in carrying ut ri". a""e""&ent" in t%e #r.place/
(6)
11 (eplace&ent and retraining f "taff i" a c"t t%at an rgani"atin &ay
face fll#ing a #r.place accident/
L$s# EIGHT t%er p""i-le c"t" t an rgani"atin #%en a "eriu"
accident %a" ccurred at #r./
(8)
68
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 -epte3ber 2
Paper A2 4 !he 3anage3ent of safety and health
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
In part (a)) E-aminers e-pected candidates to identify topic areas such as substances or materials used)
traffic routes and means of access,e#ress) &or( e%uipment) &or( practices (e# manual handlin#)) &or(
environment) electricity) fire precautions) first*aid and &elfare facilities) &or(station er#onomics and
house(eepin#. One different cate#ory of topic area) identified by some and &orthy of merit) is the list
of action points from previous inspections.
$he identification of the main topic areas to be included in a planned inspection should have #iven
candidates the opportunity to #ain mar(s easily since these topics are &ell covered by the practical
assessment. Indeed) most candidates &ere able to do so. 1o&ever) a fe& seemed to misunderstand the
%uestion and set about e-plainin# ho& to carry out an inspection rather than &hat to loo( for.
In their ans&ers to part (b)) most candidates &ere able to identify the &elfare facilities re%uired by the
:or(place (1ealth) /afety and :elfare) Re#ulations ?BB3) namely sanitary conveniences) &ashin#
facilities) a supply of drin(in# &ater) accommodation for clothin#) and facilities for chan#in#) restin#
and eatin#. 1o&ever) the action verb &as IoutlineJ and those &ho provided little more than a list #ained
correspondin#ly fe&er mar(s. +etter candidates realised &hat &as re%uired and provided ans&ers that
&ere in #reater depth and &hich outlined the particular features of each of the facilities they had
selected. For instance) &ith respect to sanitary facilities) appropriate reference &as made to numbers of
toilets) li#htin#) ventilation) cleanliness and privacy.
In part (c)) many candidates #ained very fe& mar(s by not #ivin# an ade%uate description of the actions
available to an enforcin# authority &hen re#ulations have been breached. .ost candidates alluded to
the servin# of either an improvement notice or a prohibition notice as possible actions= a smaller
number mentioned the possibility of prosecution. 0andidates &ho #ained most mar(s for this part &ent
69
on to describe the circumstances that &ould lead to the issue of an improvement or prohibition notice
and added that any prosecution &ould ta(e place in a .a#istrates' 0ourt. +etter candidates &ere able to
differentiate bet&een the t&o types of notice in terms of their effects. .ore astute candidates &ere
correct to point out that a prohibition notice &ould be unusual in the case of inade%uate &elfare
facilities since rarely &ould such circumstances involve a ris( of serious personal in9ury.
-ection 2
Question 2
.ost candidates provided a reasonable ans&er to this %uestion by referrin# to circumstances such as6
the introduction of ne& technolo#y or a ne& item of e%uipment or process= a 9ob chan#e for one or a
#roup of individuals= accident incidence data or the findin#s of an accident investi#ation= the results of
ris( assessments or revie&= ne& le#islation or #uidance= a result of enforcement action= ne& employees
&ith special needs (e# youn# persons or disabled &or(ers)= and re%uirements imposed by the
employer's insurance company.
Question 8
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) E-aminers &ere loo(in# to candidates to identify the matters on
&hich employers must consult their employees as6 the introduction of measures affectin# the health and
safety of employees= the arran#ements for appointin# or nominatin# competent persons= health and
safety information re%uired by la& to be provided to employees= the plannin# and or#anisin# of any
health and safety trainin# that has to be provided= and the conse%uences of the introduction of ne&
technolo#y. $he response to this part of the %uestion &as disappointin# &ith the ma9ority of candidates
seemin# to have little (no&led#e of the consultation re%uirements under the #iven re#ulations.
7art (ii) produced a broadly similar response althou#h a #reater proportion &as able to outline some of
an employee representative's entitlements. $hese include trainin# in respect of functions) time off &ith
pay for trainin#) carryin# out the functions and standin# for election) and the provision of reasonable
facilities and assistance. Very fe& candidates reco#nised that representatives of employee safety are
entitled to the information necessary to enable them to consult and to carry out their functions and)
additionally) information contained in records (ept under the re%uirements of the Reportin# of In9uries)
"iseases and "an#erous Occurrences Re#ulations ?BB<.
Question 9
.easures most often cited in ans&ers to this %uestion &ere physical barriers) ade%uately lit car par(s)
employment of security staff) use of security e%uipment such as alarms) panic buttons and closed circuit
television) ade%uate staffin# levels and confrontation trainin#. Fe&er candidates reco#nised the
relevance of consultation &ith police) lone &or(in# arran#ements) procedures for home visits) staff
selection) reportin# of incidents and procedures for handlin# money. ; number of candidates restricted
their ans&ers entirely to a discussion of violence bet&een &or(ers rather than addressin# measures to
minimise ris( from e-ternal threats and) as a conse%uence) #ained relatively fe& mar(s.
Question :
;pproved 0odes of 7ractice are approved by the 1ealth and /afety 0ommission &ith the consent of the
70
/ecretary of /tate and provide a reco#nised interpretation of ho& an employer may comply &ith their
associated le#islation. ;lthou#h failure to comply &ith any provision of an ;0O7 is not in itself an
offence) the failure may be cited in court in criminal proceedin#s as proof that there has been a
contravention of the re#ulation to &hich the provision relates. Employers must either meet the
standards contained in the ;pproved 0ode of 7ractice) or sho& that they have complied &ith an e%ual
or better standard. ; number of e-amples could have been #ive such as the ;0O7s complementin# the
:or(place (1ealth) /afety and :elfare) Re#ulations ?BB3 and the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at
:or( Re#ulations ?BBB.
Cuidance) on the other hand) is issued by the 1ealth and /afety E-ecutive &ith the intention of #ivin#
advice on #ood practice. $he advice is #enerally more practically based than that contained in
;pproved 0odes of 7ractice. Cuidance has no le#al standin# in a court of la&. E-amples of 1/E
#uidance documents include those issued on matters such as manual handlin#) display screen
e%uipment and personal protective e%uipment.
Dot many candidates performed &ell on this %uestion. .ost found it difficult to e-plain the essential
differences bet&een the t&o types of document and) &hen e-amples &ere #iven) they &ere often va#ue
or incorrect.
Question ;
For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to point to benefits such as a reduction in the ris( of fire)
e-plosion and food contamination and) additionally) a reduction in the e-posure of non*smo(in# staff to
ci#arette smo(e) &hich can have an irritant effect (both physical and mental) as &ell as causin#
possible lon# term health dama#e. Other benefits include the #eneral promotion of #ood health and a
reduction in the conflict bet&een smo(ers and nonsmo(ers.
7art (b) re%uired candidates to provide an outline of ho& a no*smo(in# policy mi#ht be implemented
effectively. $he initial point to be made &as that the policy should be clear in its intent and
communicated to all staff. $his mi#ht be achieved by the use of notice boards) leaflets and other forms
of propa#anda) &hile there &ould also be a need to consult &ith employees in order to encoura#e
o&nership. .any candidates reco#nised mana#ement's part in the process and su##ested that mana#ers
should set an e-ample and also provide help to employees in the form of counsellin#. Finally) the
provision of desi#nated smo(in# areas and the use of disciplinary procedures &ere su##ested as
options.
Overall) candidates &ere able to produce some #ood ans&ers to this %uestion.
Question <
.any candidates e-perienced problems of different (inds &ith this %uestion. /ome appeared to mista(e
the &ords 8the reasons &hy' for Iho&J and proceeded to outline the various methods by &hich health
and safety performance can be monitored and revie&ed= others appeared to read IpolicyJ instead of
IperformanceJ and centred their ans&ers on the need for the re#ular revie& of an or#anisation's health
and safety policy= and some of those &ho clearly understood the %uestion often seemed to have
difficulty puttin# into &ords somethin# that may have seemed obvious and,or intuitive. $he fact that
the reasons for monitorin# and revie&in# performance are in some cases interlin(ed) or may appear to
71
be very similar) meant that candidates achievin# hi#h mar(s on this %uestion had a clear #rasp of the
issues relatin# to the improvement of health and safety standards in the &or(place.
;mon# the reasons offered by better candidates &ere the follo&in#6 to identify substandard health and
safety practices and conditions (perhaps by means of &or(place inspections)= to identify trends in
relation to different types of incident) or incidents in #eneral (by analysis of relevant incident data)= to
compare actual performance &ith previously set tar#ets= to Ibenchmar(J the or#anisation's performance
a#ainst that of similar or#anisations or an industry norm= to identify &hether control measures are in
use and to assess their effectiveness= to be able to ma(e decisions on appropriate remedial measures for
any deficiencies identified= to set priorities and establish realistic timescales= to assess compliance &ith
le#al re%uirements= and to be able to provide a +oard of "irectors or safety committee &ith relevant
information. /ome candidates successfully raised some sli#htly &ider issues in terms of reducin# the
human and financial costs of accidents and the loss of public ima#e of the or#anisation. Others
correctly stated that one of the reasons for monitorin# and revie&in# is simply because there is a le#al
re%uirement to do so under the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB.
Question =
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally of a #ood standard. Factors that mi#ht place an individual at
#reater ris( at &or( include6 a #enerally poor attitude to &or() authority and,or ris() often coupled &ith
lo& motivation= those relatin# to physical capabilities or development such as lac( of stature) stren#th
and,or stamina= those relatin# to mental capabilities such as poor reasonin# s(ills= poor perception of
ris() perhaps influenced by alcohol or dru#s= a#e*related behavioural factors associated &ith
immaturity= and innate or medical conditions affectin# physical or mental capacity. Further factors
relate to the levels of trainin# and e-perience of the individual.
Question 9
In part (i)) E-aminers found that there &as little appreciation by candidates of the difference bet&een
the term Idan#erous occurrenceJ) &hich has a le#al definition) and Inear*missJ. ; near*miss is any
potentially dan#erous incident &here in9ury has been avoided) &hereas a Idan#erous occurrenceJ in the
conte-t of the %uestion is one of a number of specific events that are listed in /chedule 3 to the
Reportin# of In9uries) "iseases and "an#erous Occurrences Re#ulations ?BB<. "an#erous occurrences
are particular events that have the potential to cause death or serious in9ury but do not. "espite an often
poor e-planation) most candidates &ere nevertheless able to identify at least one dan#erous occurrence
from the list contained in the RI""OR /chedule) such as scaffold collapse) failure of liftin# e%uipment)
contact &ith overhead po&er lines) pressure system failure) e-plosion or fire causin# a stoppa#e of
more than 3 hours) collapse of a buildin# or structure) and the unintentional release of a dan#erous
substance or biolo#ical a#ent.
7art (ii) &as #enerally &ell ans&ered. .ost identified that a dan#erous occurrence should be notified to
the relevant enforcin# authority by the %uic(est practicable means) &ith a &ritten report on Form F3<@!
bein# submitted &ithin ten days. +etter candidates appreciated that a dan#erous occurrence should not
be reported separately if the event has resulted in a reportable in9ury.
72
Question 1
E-aminers e-pressed concern that the concept of ris() &hich is so fundamental to health and safety)
&as so poorly understood. $hey found) in part (a)) a #reat deal of confusion bet&een ha4ard and ris(.
:hile Iha4ardJ refers to the potential of somethin# to cause harm) Iris(J is the li(elihood of that harm
actually occurrin# to#ether &ith the severity of its conse%uences. .any of the e-amples #iven related
to ha4ards and not to the ris(s associated &ith those ha4ards. ; suitable e-ample for ris( &ould have
been) for instance) Kthe chance of someone bein# (illed by comin# into contact &ith electricityL.
7art (b) &as reasonably &ell ans&ered &ith candidates able to obtain #ood mar(s for outlinin# factors
such as6 the level of trainin# in health and safety #enerally) and in carryin# out ris( assessments in
particular= e-perience of the process,activity= the possession of technical (no&led#e of the plant or
e%uipment involved= the ability to interpret standards) re#ulations and #uidance= communication and
reportin# s(ills= and attention to detail. 0ommitment to the tas( &as also hi#hli#hted as an important
factor by some candidates) as &as the individual's a&areness of his,her o&n limitations.
Question 11
$here &ere many possible responses to this %uestion and candidates could have chosen from a list of
possible costs that includes those associated &ith lost production) staff absence and temporary
replacement) repair of dama#ed plant and e%uipment) dama#e to products) investi#ation and remedial
action) additional administration incurred) an increase in insurance premiums) fines and dama#es
a&arded) and court and other le#al representation. ;lso relevant are the intan#ible costs arisin# from a
loss of business ima#e and the detrimental effect on employee morale resultin# in reduced productivity.
$his %uestion presented an opportunity for all candidates to #ain mar(s %uic(ly. 1o&ever) some
candidates failed to capitalise on this and &asted time by producin# an outline &hen a simple list &as
all that &as re%uired.
73
2-12
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A1: I*#$!I./I$0 A$* +O$!)O%%I$0 "A>A)*-
*#+#'(#) 2
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8 local authority employee uses a petrol"driven strimmer to maintain
roadside grass verges.

(i) Descri0e the possible haards faced by the employee in carrying
out this task.
(1-)
(ii) +ist I5' items of personal protective e$uipment that should be
provided to% and used by% the employee.
(5)
(iii) Outline measures other than the use of personal protective
e$uipment that might be necessary to ensure the health and safety of
the employee.
(5)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the main precautions to be taken when carrying out e#cavation
work.
(8)
3 8 large item of process e$uipment% situated within a factory% is to be
cleaned manually with a solvent prior to repainting. Outline the
precautions to minimise the risks to persons involved in cleaning the
e$uipment.
(8)
4 Outline 'I3*. precautions that should be considered to prevent
accidents to children who might be tempted to gain access to a
(8)
74
construction site.
5 9n relation to work" related upper limb disorders (0+U6Ds)!
(i) identify the typical symptoms that might be e#perienced by affected
individuals
(4)
(ii) outline the factors that would increase the risk of developing
0+U6Ds.
(4)
6 Outline the health and safety considerations when a fork"lift truck is to
be used to unload palletised goods from a vehicle parked in a factory
car park.
(8)
7 (a) '#$l%in the meaning of the term 4dilution ventilation5. (2)
(b) Outline the circumstances in which the use of dilution ventilation may
be appropriate.
(6)
8 Outline the measures that should be taken to minimise the risk of fire
from electrical e$uipment.
(8)
, 8n employee is re$uired to install glass" fibre insulation in a loft.

(i) Identify ./O haards connected with this activity. (2)
(ii) Outline the precautions that might be taken to minimise harm to the
employee carrying out this operation.
(6)
1- Identify measures that should be adopted in order to protect against the
dangers of people and>or materials falling from a mobile tower scaffold.
(8)
11 Outline the main re$uirements for a safe means of escape from a
building in the event of a fire.
(8)
75
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 *ece3ber 2
Paper A1 4 Identifying and +ontrolling "azards
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
$his %uestion as &ith other %uestions on the paper) &as desi#ned to test the ability of candidates to
apply basic principles of health and safety to a practical situation.
7art (i) re%uired candidates to describe the possible ha4ards faced by employees usin# a petrol*driven
strimmer on #rass ver#es on the roadside. $hese &ould include contact &ith the movin# parts of the
strimmer) the possibility of bein# struc( by flyin# stones or other material) slips,trips,falls) manual
handlin# ha4ards) the dan#er posed by movin# traffic) noise and vibration) dust and fumes) and the
ha4ards associated &ith the stora#e and transfer of petrol.
.ost candidates could provide at least five or si- e-amples of the possible ha4ards involved and
several &ere able to add to this number and achieve full mar(s. 0andidates &ho provided a bare list of
ha4ards &ithout further amplification could not e-pect to be a&arded all the mar(s available since the
%uestion clearly as(ed for a description. For instance) identification of e-treme &eather conditions as a
ha4ard re%uired some mention of ultra*violet radiation and the effects on the s(in. Other ha4ards &ere
perhaps a little more obvious and re%uired rather less by &ay of a description. Devertheless) some
indication should have been provided of ho& each particular ha4ard presented itself in the situation
#iven.
7art (ii)) on the other hand) did re%uire candidates to provide a list. $his should have included reference
to ear defenders) eye protection) respiratory protection (dust mas()) #loves) safety foot&ear) #aiters and
hi#h visibility clothin# that also afforded protection a#ainst the &eather. Fe& candidates had difficulty
&ith this part of the %uestion.
In contrast) part (iii) &as not so &ell ans&ered and fe& &ere able to outline measures such as the use of
traffic control or barriers) the selection and maintenance of e%uipment to reduce to a minimum the
levels of noise and vibration) the provision of information) instruction) trainin# and supervision) and
health surveillance. /ome candidates referred only to the completion of a ris( assessment and) &hilst
this is undoubtedly a useful startin# point) the assessment alone &ithout the further possible action that
should follo& is not sufficient to ensure the health and safety of employees.
-ection 2
Question 2
$his %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates outlinin# precautions such as
76
chec(in# for the presence of under#round services before startin# the operation) providin# support for
the side of the e-cavation &here there could be a ris( of collapse) usin# ed#e protection to prevent
persons fallin# into the e-cavation) providin# safe means of access and e#ress) ta(in# measures to
prevent vehicles approachin# too near to the ed#e of the e-cavation) testin# deep e-cavations for the
presence of to-ic #ases or fumes and providin# ventilation &here necessary) and supportin# ad9acent
structures a#ainst the possibility of collapse.
; fe& candidates concentrated on mana#ement or off*site issues instead of the practical on*site
precautions) &hile others did not read the %uestion carefully and proceeded to outline ha4ards rather
than precautions.
Question 8
In ans&erin# this %uestion candidates should have considered the precautions to be ta(en before the
cleanin# operation be#an and then those that &ere necessary durin# the operation itself. Initially) the
e%uipment &ould need to be isolated and) if it had been used in a process #eneratin# heat) time allo&ed
for it to cool off. $he area in &hich the operation is to be carried out should preferably be cordoned off
and safe means of access provided for those employees en#a#ed in the cleanin# operation. $he
operatives &ould then need to be provided &ith personal protective e%uipment) such as #loves) eye and
respiratory protection and clothin#) and instructed in its use. $hey &ould also need to be instructed in
procedures for the safe use of solvents) especially those concerned &ith the cleanin# of brushes and
disposal of ra#s. Finally) arran#ements should be made to deal &ith emer#encies such as solvent
spilla#e or fire.
On the &hole) ans&ers to this %uestion &ere disappointin#. .any candidates su##ested the need to
carry out #eneral ris( and 0O/11 assessments but made little reference to the practical control
measures necessary to minimise the ris(.
Question 9
$his %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith the ma9ority of candidates able to outline a hierarchy
of measures that started &ith precautions to prevent entry by the use of fencin#) &arnin# a#ainst the
dan#ers by means of si#ns) and monitorin# usin# security patrols or closed circuit television. $his &as
follo&ed by reference to the need) should entry be #ained) to ma(e the site itself safe by isolatin#
services) reducin# hei#hts of materials) coverin# or fencin# e-cavations as &ell as removin# ladders
and denyin# access to scaffoldin#. +etter candidates also considered further precautions such as
securin# tools chemicals) e%uipment and vehicles) and &or(in# &ith the community includin# visits to
schools.
/ome candidates a#ain did not ta(e careful note of the %uestion and outlined the ha4ards instead of
precautions. $here &ere also a fe& e-amples of candidates referrin# to very similar precautions as
separate issues) &hich did not al&ays provide the breadth of ans&er e-pected.
Question :
.ost candidates seemed to find difficulty in ans&erin# this %uestion. For part (i)) the ma9ority
77
stru##led to identify typical symptoms such as pain to the bac() nec( and shoulder) s&ollen 9oints)
reduced mobility and stiffness) and cramps and muscle fati#ue. /everal candidates mentioned 'carpal
tunnel syndrome' as a condition but &ere unable to describe its symptoms.
In their ans&ers to part (ii)) many candidates concentrated on display screen e%uipment issues and
outlined factors such as &or(station layout and the failure to provide sufficient brea(s from the tas(.
+etter candidates too( a broader vie& and referred to additional factors such as space constraints
resultin# in poor &or(in# postures) e-cessive force needed to carry out an operation) the fre%uency
&ith &hich tas(s need to be repeated) the use of vibratin# tools and e%uipment) and the involvement of
vulnerable &or(ers such as those &ith pre*e-istin# medical conditions and pre#nant &omen.
Question ;
$his %uestion &as based on a realistic scenario and appeared to ta(e candidates a little by surprise.
/ome) perhaps out of desperation) su##ested that Iunloadin# should not be underta(en in a car par(J
and left it at that.
.ost candidates tended to ans&er the %uestion by outlinin# #eneral control measures for for(*lift truc(
operation. 1ence) the &ei#ht and stability of the load) driver competence) the condition of the FL$ and
#round conditions &ere all relevant issues. 1o&ever) E-aminers &ere loo(in# to candidates to relate
these specifically to the situation described and to reco#nise that other issues &ould ta(e on a special
importance. In particular) the pro-imity of pedestrians and other vehicles (movin# or stationary) &ould
need to be considered in terms of the means of se#re#ation and the probable need for a ban(sman or
supervisor to oversee the operation. Other factors) such as space constraints) the presence of (erbs or
other obstructions and the ade%uacy of li#htin#) dependin# on the &eather conditions and,or time of
day) should also have received mention.
Question <
"ilution ventilation) despite its &idespread use as a means of control in &or(places) appears to receive
insufficient attention on courses) borne out by the #enerally very poor standard of ans&er to this
%uestion. $here &as some confusion &ith local e-haust ventilation and fe& candidates &ere able to
demonstrate a reasonable understandin# of &here the use of dilution ventilation mi#ht be appropriate)
despite its fre%uent use in domestic (itchens and bathrooms.
For part (a)) candidates &ere e-pected to e-plain the principles of dilution ventilation in terms of a
system desi#ned to induce a flo& of clean air into a &or( area) usually by means of e-traction fans in
&alls or roofs * sometimes supplemented by inlet fans * in order to dilute the concentration of a
contaminant in the &or(place air.
In ans&erin# part (b)) candidates tended to outline environments &here they thou#ht dilution
ventilation &ould be suitable instead of identifyin# the particular circumstances that mi#ht determine
the appropriateness of such a system. $hese include &or(place situations involvin# airborne
contaminants of lo& to-icity) lo& concentration and lo& vapour density (not dusts)) &here the rate of
evolution is constant and (no&n) &here there may be no discrete point of release and &here it is not
reasonably practicable to reduce levels by other means.
78
Question =
In ans&erin# this %uestion) E-aminers e-pected candidates to outline measures such as the selection of
the e%uipment to ensure its suitability for the tas() pre*use inspection by the user) ensurin# circuits are
not overloaded) disconnectin# or isolatin# the e%uipment &hen it is not in use) and proper stora#e and
transportation of portable e%uipment. ;dditional measures include the need to uncoil cables and
e-tension leads fully) the prevention of accidental dama#e to cables and re#ular inspection and
maintenance of the e%uipment by competent persons.
.ost candidates outlined in their ans&ers a system for the testin# of portable
appliances and it &as only the more able &ho included reference to the desi#n and suitability of the
e%uipment) the need to chec( fi-ed electrical e%uipment and systems) and the prevention of circuit
overload.
Question 9
In ans&erin# part (i)) candidates could have identified ha4ards such as the inhalation of or contact &ith
fibres) falls throu#h fra#ile ceilin#s or from access e%uipment) possible contact &ith live electrical
services in the loft and the er#onomic problems arisin# from &or(in# in a location &here space mi#ht
be restricted. /ome candidates concentrated solely on the ha4ards associated &ith the handlin# of
#lass*fibre and i#nored other possible ha4ards arisin# from the &or(in# environment.
For part (ii)) most candidates outlined precautions such as the provision and use of respiratory
protective e%uipment and layin# boards across the 9oists to prevent falls throu#h the ceilin#. +etter
candidates also referred to the need for safe access and a #ood standard of li#htin#) fre%uent &or(
brea(s and the provision of protection for the s(in such as hooded overalls and #loves.
Question 1
$his %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates displayin# an a&areness of the basic
precautionary measures that should be ta(en in the use of a mobile to&er scaffold. $hese included the
initial erection of the scaffold ensurin# no dama#ed components &ere used) the provision of a &or(in#
platform fitted &ith #uard rails and toe boards and an internal access ladder) and the fittin# of
outri##ers &here these are needed to ensure the correct ratio bet&een the hei#ht of the scaffold and its
base dimensions. Once assembled) the to&er should be used only on firm and level #round &ith its
&heels in the loc(ed position. It should not be moved &ith persons or materials on the platform and
should not be used at all durin# inclement &eather.
Question 11
$his %uestion &as &ell ans&ered by most candidates. $he term 'means of escape' refers to methods and
facilities available to enable someone to escape from a fire &ithin a buildin# and move to a place of
safety. Issues that should have been foremost in candidates' minds included6 the need to ensure that
there are at least t&o escape routes in different directions) neither of &hich should e-ceed the
79
reco#nised travel distance= the fire inte#rity of the actual escape route= the ability of fire doors to open
easily in an out&ard direction and to self*close= the importance of ensurin# that escape routes are
clearly mar(ed) provided &ith emer#ency li#htin# and (ept free from obstruction= and the provision of
a safe place clearly si#ned as an assembly point.
/ome candidates did not ans&er the %uestion that appeared on the paper and described evacuation
procedures or focused on types of alarm systems and fire fi#htin# e%uipment and techni%ues. $here &as
even the occasional irrelevant reference to the fire trian#le.
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
*#+#'(#) 2
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8 factory manager intends to introduce a new work process for which a
risk
assessment is re$uired under regulation < of the (anagement of )ealth
and
'afety at 0ork +egulations ,---.
(i) Outline the factors that should be considered when carrying out the
risk assessment.
(8)
(ii) '#$l%in the criteria that must be met for the assessment to be
deemed 4suitable and sufficient5.
(4)
(iii) Identify the various circumstances that may re$uire a review of the
risk assessment at a later date.
(8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 (a) Identify .*"'' types of haard for which personal eye protection
would be re$uired.
(3)
80
(b) Outline the range of issues that should be addressed when training
employees in the use of personal eye protection.
(5)
3 3ive reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly understood by
an employee.
(8)
4 (a) '#$l%in .*"'' possible defences to a civil law claim of negligence. (6)
(b) 2t%te the circumstances in which an employer may be held vicariously
liable for the negligence of an employee.
(2)
5 (a) Identify the ./O main functions of first"aid treatment. (2)
(b) Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first"aid
provision in a workplace.
(6)
6 0ith reference to the 2onstruction (Design and (anagement)
+egulations ,--;
(i) identify the circumstances under which a construction pro&ect must
be notified to an enforcing authority
(2)
(ii) outline the duties of the client under the +egulations. (6)
7 (ost occupational accidents can be attributed in part to human error.
Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace.
(8)
8 (a) '#$l%in the meaning of the phrase `so far as is reasonably practicable'. (2)
(b) 2t%te the general and specific duties of employers under section . of
the )ealth and 'afety at 0ork etc 8ct ,-?;.
(6)
, (a) Identify ./O situations where a permit"to" work system might be
considered appropriate.
(2)
(b) Outline the key elements of a permit"to" work system. (6)
1- 0ith reference to the +eporting of 9n&uries% Diseases and Dangerous
*ccurrences +egulations ,--=!
(i) list O!" types of ma&or in&ury (4)
(ii) outline the procedures for reporting a ma&or in&ury to an enforcing (4)
81
authority.
11 Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of
persons who are re$uired to work on their own away from the
workplace.
(8)
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 *ece3ber 2
Paper A2 4 !he 3anage3ent of safety and health
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
For part (i) of this %uestion) candidates &ere re%uired to outline the factors that should be considered
&hen carryin# out a ris( assessment. $hey &ere e-pected to identify factors such as the activities bein#
underta(en) the ha4ards involved) the li(elihood and severity of the harm that mi#ht be caused) the
number of employees e-posed and the fre%uency of their e-posure) the competence of the persons
carryin# out the activities) an evaluation of e-istin# control measures and the competence of the person
carryin# out the assessment. Very fe& candidates &ere able to provide comprehensive ans&ers to this
part of the %uestion. .any #ave detailed and len#thy accounts of one or t&o factors only and thus
restricted the number of mar(s they could be a&arded.
7art (ii) &as not &ell ans&ered) &ith many candidates clearly havin# little understandin# of the term
8suitable and sufficient' in this particular conte-t. For a ris( assessment to be deemed suitable and
sufficient) it should identify the si#nificant ris(s arisin# out of the &or( activity) it should identify and
prioritise the measures that need to be ta(en to comply &ith the relevant statutory provisions) it should
be appropriate to the nature of the &or( and) finally) it should be such that it remains valid for a
reasonable period of time.
In #eneral) ans&ers to part (iii) &ere a#ain lac(in# in substance but better candidates identified such
circumstances as6 chan#es to &or( processes or methods= introduction of ne& plant= chan#es in the
scale of production= the availability of ne& information concernin# ha4ardous substances or processes=
accidents or occurrences of ill*health= results of monitorin#) includin# inspections) audits and health
surveillance= chan#es in le#islation= chan#es affectin# personnel (to ta(e particular account of
disablement) pre#nancy and youth)= and routinely after the passa#e of a reasonable interval of time.
82
-ection 2
Question 2
In identifyin# the types of ha4ard for &hich personal eye protection &ould be re%uired) for part (a))
candidates could have chosen from a list includin# flyin# particles) dusts) molten metals) chemical
splashes and non*ionisin# radiation. ; fe& candidates &ere unable to provide the three e-amples
re%uired. It &as disappointin# to note that some mentioned a type of &or( activity such as &eldin#)
&ithout e-plainin# the actual ha4ard associated &ith the activity.
For part (b)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# to candidates to outline issues such as the le#al re%uirements for
eye protection) the conse%uences of employees not &earin# it) the limits of protection provided by the
e%uipment) compatibility &ith other forms of personal protective e%uipment) correct ad9ustment of the
eye protection) methods of (eepin# it clean) correct stora#e arran#ements and the circumstances &hen a
replacement should be sou#ht. /ome candidates did not pay sufficient attention to the action &ord in
the %uestion and lost the opportunity for mar(s by providin# only a list and not the re%uired outline. ;
fe& &ords of e-planation of the importance of each issue or some e-amples of the particular aspects to
be addressed &as all that &as needed.
Question 8
.ost candidates did &ell on this %uestion) perhaps usin# a mi-ture of &hat they had learned from their
studies and their personal e-periences at the &or(place. .ar(s &ere available for reasons such as the
nature of the &or(in# environment (hi#h levels of noise for e-ample)) the employee &earin# personal
protective e%uipment) the use of too much technical 9ar#on) lan#ua#e or dialect issues) sensory
impairment or learnin# difficulties) ambi#uity) the ine-perience of the receiver and the fact that verbal
instruction may not be the correct vehicle for passin# on comple- information.
Question 9
In ans&erin# part (a)) candidates seemed to fall into t&o distinct #roups6 those &ho (ne& the defences
to a civil la& claim for ne#li#ence and those &ho had no (no&led#e of this important area of la&.
$hose &ho did possess (no&led#e of this topic could be further sub*divided into those &ho stated or
merely listed the defences) and those &ho complied &ith the re%uirement of the %uestion and e-plained
them.
$he ma9ority of successful candidates e-plained the standard defences that no duty of care &as o&ed to
the in9ured party) that the duty &as not breached and that the in9ury or loss sustained &as not caused
directly by the breach. Other possibilities included the voluntary acceptance of the ris( by the claimant
('volenti non fit in9uria') * althou#h this &ould be unusual in an employer,employee case * and the
partial defence of contributory ne#li#ence. $hose &ho mentioned that everythin# reasonable &as done)
that the harm &as not reasonably foreseeable or that the harm &as caused by an 8act of Cod') as part of
the standard defences) &ere fe& and far bet&een.
.any candidates found difficulty in statin# the circumstances surroundin# an employer's vicarious
83
liability. $he t&o conditions that must be established are that the employee &as actin# &ithin the course
of his employment and) &hile doin# so) ne#li#ently caused dama#e or in9ury to a third party.
Question :
7art (a) re%uired the identification of t&o main functions of first*aid. :hile the function of preservin#
life and minimisin# the conse%uences of serious in9ury &as almost universally %uoted) the other main
function * the treatment of minor in9uries that do not re%uire medical attention * &as offered much less
fre%uently.
$he si- mar(s allocated to part (b) &ere available for an outline of factors such as6 the si4e of the
or#anisation and number of employees= the layout of the &or(place= the identified ha4ards and ris(s=
the distance from the &or(place to the nearest source of emer#ency medical services= &or(in# patterns
such as leave and shift &or(in#= and the need in some circumstances to train first aid personnel in
special procedures.
.ost candidates &ere comfortable &ith this %uestion applyin# the results of their studies) &or(
e-perience and a measure of common sense to #ood effect. 1o&ever) it &as a#ain disappointin# to find
that some candidates identified the relevant factors but did not provide an ade%uate outline) and
accordin#ly did not ta(e advanta#e of all the mar(s available.
Question ;
.ar(s &ere available for part (i) for identifyin# that notification is necessary if the construction &or( is
to last more than 5@ days or &ill involve more than <@@ person days. $here &as some confusion
bet&een notification re%uirements and application of the Re#ulations. Even in cases &here a pro9ect is
not notifiable) the Re#ulations still apply if there are reasonable #rounds to believe that there &ill be
five or more persons on site at any one time.
For part (ii)) candidates &ere e-pected to outline that the client had duties to appoint a plannin#
supervisor) a principal contractor and desi#ner. $he client must ensure the competence of the people
appointed and that they possess ade%uate resources to carry out the re%uirements placed on them by the
Re#ulations. $he client is also re%uired to ensure a health and safety plan is prepared before the pro9ect
starts and provide information for the plan) and to retain the health and safety file after completion of
the pro9ect and ma(e it available for inspection &hen re%uired.
$he 0onstruction ("esi#n and .ana#ement) Re#ulations ?BB are an important part of the 0ertificate
syllabus. It is currently an issue of concern for E-aminers that many candidates do not possess a #ood
understandin# of the Re#ulations and conse%uently stru##led &ith both parts of this %uestion. $his is a
recurrin# comment from E-aminers on 0". %uestions and therefore is an area that re%uires particular
attention by centres.
Question <
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline &ays of reducin# human error such as
usin# s(illed) competent and properly trained employees) and ensurin# that they are &ell motivated=
84
avoidin# monotonous &or( processes and arran#in# brea(s to counter fati#ue= desi#natin# clear roles
and lines of responsibility= establishin# #ood lines of communication &ith the &or(force= and ensurin#
the clarity of instructions and information passed on to them.
; fe& candidates provided ans&ers outlinin# causes of error &ithout su##estin# methods for dealin#
&ith these causes. ;dditionally) as &ith other %uestions) candidates need to be a&are that they must
provide sufficient detail &hen ans&erin# an 'outline' %uestion if they are to obtain full credit.
Question =
.ost candidates found little difficulty &ith part (a) and &ere able to offer an ans&er based on the
balance of ris( a#ainst cost.
7art (b) offered candidates &ith (no&led#e of section 3 of the 1/: ;ct the opportunity to obtain the
full si- mar(s available. .ost candidates &ere able to %uote the #eneral duty to ensure (so far as is
reasonably practicable) the health) safety and &elfare of employees but a si#nificant number &ere
unable to demonstrate (no&led#e beyond this and instead introduced re%uirements of the .ana#ement
of 1ealth and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB) such as the need to carry out ris( assessments. $hose
&ho &ere familiar &ith section 3) on the other hand) could refer to the specific duties to provide and
maintain safe plant and systems of &or() to ensure the safe use) stora#e) handlin# and transport of
articles and substances) and to provide and maintain a safe &or(place) includin# access and e#ress.
Others made proper reference to the provision of a safe &or(in# environment &ith ade%uate &elfare
facilities) and to the provision of information) instruction) trainin# and supervision. Fe&er seemed
a&are) or able to brin# to mind) that section 3 e-tends beyond the first t&o subsections and continues
&ith the re%uirements to prepare and revise a health and safety policy) to consult &ith employee
representatives and to establish a safety committee &hen re%uired to do so.
0andidates &ere not e-pected to identify particular subsections by number in their ans&ers and &ere
not penalised if they &ere unable to do so.
Question 9
$his %uestion tested candidates' understandin# of issues re#ardin# permit*to*&or( systems and) in
#eneral) the ma9ority performed &ell on both parts.
In ans&erin# part (a)) the types of situation that candidates could have identified include &or( in
confined spaces) &or( in flammable atmospheres) &or( on electrical e%uipment) &or( on dan#erous
plant such as conveyors and hot &or(.
For part (b)) the (ey elements that should have been outlined include a description of the tas( to be
performed) an indication of the duration of the validity of the permit) the isolations that have been made
and the additional precautions re%uired) details and si#nature of the person authorisin# the &or( and an
ac(no&led#ement of acceptance by the employee carryin# out the tas() &ho &ould then need to
indicate on the permit that the &or( has been completed and the area made safe in order for the permit
to be cancelled.
Question 1
85
.any candidates appeared to &elcome a %uestion on these Re#ulations and coped &ell &ith both parts.
$hey had to be a&are) ho&ever) that althou#h part (i) re%uired only a list) part (ii) re%uired somethin#
rather more) in the form of an outline of the reportin# procedures. 7art (i) &as ans&ered in the main by
reference to fractures (other than fin#ers) thumbs and toes)) amputation) and loss of si#ht. Fe&er
candidates offered ans&ers on other valid ma9or in9uries such as in9uries re%uirin# resuscitation or those
re%uirin# hospitalisation for more than 3 hours. /ome candidates offered 'fatality' in their lists and)
althou#h in real terms it is difficult to ar#ue that death is not a ma9or occurrence) fatal in9uries are a
special case &ithin RI""OR and do not come under the definition of ma9or in9ury.
7art (ii) offered four mar(s for an outline that should have included identification of &ho &ould report
the accident and ho&. 0andidates &ho included in their ans&ers ho& the responsible person &ould
notify the enforcin# authority by the %uic(est practical means (usually telephone or fa-) and ma(e a
report on the approved form (F3<@!) or other approved means &ithin ?@ days #ained full mar(s.
Question 11
:ith the possible e-ception of those &ho had run out of time) most candidates provided acceptable
ans&ers to this %uestion. 1o&ever) they needed to read the %uestion carefully and appreciate that it
referred to persons &ho are re%uired to &or( alone and a&ay from the &or(place. $his &as not a
%uestion solely about lone &or(in#) althou#h some of the factors are still very relevant.
0andidates &ho approached the %uestion in a lo#ical) structured and practical &ay by identifyin# those
factors that &ould contribute to the potential ris( (such as the &or( to be done) the e%uipment to be
used and the control measures in place at the &or( location)) and then identified the factors that mi#ht
miti#ate * or possibly increase * the level of ris( (such as the competence and suitability of the persons
involved) methods of communication &ith the home base and emer#ency , first*aid procedures))
achieved hi#h mar(s.
$he %uestion sou#ht a practical approach to this type of &or( situation. 1o&ever) a reference to the
re%uirements of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB (e# for ris(
assessment) &as &orthy of an additional mar(.
86
21-8
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A1: I*#$!I./I$0 A$* +O$!)O%%I$0 "A>A)*-
'A)+" 21
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8 storeman is re$uired to place bo#es of metal components by hand
on to shelved racking.
(i) +ist O!" types of in&ury to which the employee may be at risk while
carrying out this task.
(4)
(ii) Outline the factors in relation to the t%sk and the lo%d that will affect
the risk of in&ury.
(1-)
(iii) Outline a good manual handling techni$ue that could be adopted by
the employee when re$uired to lift one of the bo#es from ground level.
(6)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the precautions that should be taken in order to ensure the
safety of employees undertaking maintenance work in an underground
storage vessel.
(8)
3 (a) '#$l%in% using a suitable sketch% the significance of the 'fire triangle'. (4)
(b) +ist the types of ignition source that may cause a fire to occur% and &ive
an e#ample of '()* type.
(4)
4 Outline the precautions to be taken when carrying out repairs to the flat
roof of a building.
(8)
87
5 Bor '()* of the following types of haardous substance% &ive a typical
e#ample and st%te its primary effect on the body!
(i) to#ic (2)
(ii) corrosive (2)
(iii) carcinogenic (2)
(iv) irritant. (2)
6 O"#'$ne t%e "urce" and p""i-le effect" f FOUR n%n;&e+*,n$+,'
%a!ard" c&&nly encuntered in a #d#r.ing "%p/
(8)
7 (a) Outline the dangers associated with electricity. (4)
(b) Outline the emergency action to take if a person suffers a severe
electric shock.
(4)
8 8n employee is engaged in general cleaning activities in a large
veterinary
practice.
(i) Identify O!" specific types of haard that the cleaner might face
when undertaking the cleaning.
(4)
(ii) Outline the precautions that could be taken to minimise the risk of
harm from these haards.
(4)
, (a) '#$l%in the meaning of the term 4daily personal noise e#posure5 (6
1/%d
). (2)
(b) Outline the actions re$uired when employees' e#posures to noise are
found to be in e#cess of -C dA(8) 6
1/%d
.
(6)
1- (a) Identify the .*"'' types of asbestos commonly found in buildings. (3)
(b) '#$l%in where asbestos is likely to be encountered in a building during
renovation work.
(5)
11 Identify O!" different types of haard that may necessitate the use of
special footwear% e#plaining in '()* case how the footwear affords
protection.
(8)
88
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 'arch 21
Paper A1 4 Identifying and +ontrolling "azards
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) only better candidates reco#nised the need to refer to specific
types of in9ury such as slipped dis() torn li#aments) tendon sprain or hernia. Civen that the %uestion
related to handlin# and stac(in# potentially heavy bo-es) there &as) in addition) the possibility that the
bo-es or their contents could fall causin# cuts) abrasions and even fractures. .any candidates &ere
very va#ue about the types of in9ury to &hich the employee mi#ht be at ris() usin# phrases li(e 8bac(
in9ury' or 8bad bac('.
In part (ii)) the more successful candidates &ere those &ho read the %uestion carefully and realised that
no mar(s &ere available for factors relatin# to the individual or the environment. $he %uestion outlined
the tas( to be performed and this should have led candidates to consider the rate of &or() in terms of
the number of bo-es to be lifted and the fre%uency of liftin#) and the vertical and hori4ontal distances
that the bo-es are re%uired to be lifted or carried) particularly if they have to be lifted from the #round
and,or placed on hi#h shelves. $he need for e-cessive pullin# or pushin# of the load and t&istin# of the
body should also have been considered. Factors relatin# to the load that could affect the ris( of in9ury
include the &ei#ht and si4e of the bo-es) the &ei#ht distribution) the provision of handles or other
means to ensure an ade%uate #rip) the presence of sharp ed#es and the security of the loads &ithin the
bo-es to prevent une-pected movement.
.any or#anisations provide manual handlin# trainin# for their employees and so candidates should
have had little difficulty in ans&erin# part (iii) of the %uestion. +etter candidates initially emphasised
the need to address the si4e and &ei#ht of the load and the location to &hich it is to be moved) and then
outlined a techni%ue that included issues such as the correct positionin# of the feet) (eepin# the bac(
strai#ht) bendin# only the (nees) and liftin# smoothly &hile (eepin# the load close to the body.
-ection 2
Question 2
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected initially to hi#hli#ht the need to operate under a
permit*to*&or( system and then to outline the necessary precautions relatin# to pre*&or( re%uirements)
the &or( itself and the need to ensure competent staff) #ood communication and ade%uate emer#ency
89
procedures.
7re*&or( activities &ould include issues such as underta(in# ris( assessment) isolation) pre*cleanin#)
pur#in# and testin# of the atmosphere &ithin the vessel. $he re%uirement for carryin# out the &or(
safely &ould include maintainin# a safe means of access and e#ress) the provision and use of
appropriate tools) personal protective e%uipment and li#htin#) and continual monitorin#. Finally) there
&ould be a need to use competent and trained personnel) ensure that there is a #ood communication
system bet&een those in the tan( and above*#round support staff) and maintain comprehensive
emer#ency procedures.
$he ma9ority of candidates provided #ood ans&ers to this %uestion althou#h there &ere some &ho
ne#lected to mention the need for a permit*to*&or( scheme.
Question 8
7art (a) of this %uestion re%uired candidates to e-plain) &ith a clearly labelled dia#ram) that each side
of the fire trian#le represents one of three elements * namely) fuel) o-y#en and a source of i#nition *
that must be present for combustion to occur. $his part of the %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered.
7art (b) re%uired a list of types of i#nition source to#ether &ith an e-ample of each. :hile candidates
&ere able to provide a reasonable list) the inclusion of specific e-amples often proved more difficult.
7ossible sources of i#nition that could have been mentioned included6 electricity) from arcin# or from
overheatin# due to faulty &irin#) poor connections) e-cess current etc= chemical reactions= hot &or(
such as &eldin# or cuttin#= discarded smo(in# materials= friction caused by) for instance) inade%uate
lubrication of machinery= hot surfaces such as those on coo(in# or heatin# appliances= and spar(s from
static electricity. ; fe& candidates confused sources of i#nition &ith methods of heat transfer) &hich
&as perhaps the %uestion that they had hoped &ould appear.
Question 9
E-aminers &ere e-pectin# candidates to outline initially the more obvious precautions) such as the
provision of safe access to the roof (scaffoldin# and,or ladders) and ed#e protection to prevent the fall
of persons or materials. .ost candidates &ere able to refer to these particular precautions but it &as left
to the better candidates to outline the need to ensure that there is no dan#er to employees from fra#ile
roofli#hts) voids) overhead obstructions and services) and to su##est that consideration should be #iven
to the &ay in &hich materials are to be transported to the &or(in# area and the positionin# of ha4ardous
e%uipment such as bitumen boilers and #as cylinders.
Question :
"espite the fact that this %uestion has appeared on previous e-amination papers) ans&ers &ere
#enerally disappointin#. Only better candidates sho&ed a #ood #rasp of the types of ha4ardous
substance listed and &ere able to #ive e-amples to#ether &ith their main health effects.
Even &hen candidates provided an appropriate e-ample of a to-ic substance) such as lead) mercury or
pesticides) fe& &ere able to identify its primary effect on the body. For corrosive substances) reference
90
could have been made to stron# acids or al(alis) &hich cause the destruction of livin# tissue at the point
of contact (e# s(in) respiratory tract or di#estive tract). .ost candidates &ere able to identify that
carcino#enic substances can cause cancer and &ere able to cite asbestos) hard&ood dust) chromium or
vinyl chloride as their e-ample. 1o&ever) not all candidates &ere able to specify the part of the body
normally affected (e# the lun#s for asbestos and the nasal membrane for chromium) and this &as
re%uired for full mar(s. Irritants cause inflammation on contact &ith the s(in) eyes or mucous
membranes) and adhesives and deter#ents are prime e-amples of this type of substance. Relatively fe&
candidates #ained the t&o mar(s available here.
Question ;
$he (ey e-pression in this %uestion &as 8non*mechanical' and it is surprisin# ho& many candidates
spent time providin# irrelevant outlines of mechanical ha4ards present in a &ood&or(in# shop. $hose
&ho did read the %uestion &ith care &ere able to outline ha4ards such as6 dust from sa&in# and sandin#
operations (leadin# to lun# disorders and possibly cancer)= chemical ha4ards from varnishes) #lues etc
(leadin# to a ran#e of ill*health effects)= noise from machinery (causin# noise*induced hearin# loss and
other auditory and non*auditory effects)= sharps and splinters (causin# eye in9uries) cuts and infections)=
manual handlin# ha4ards (resultin# in musculos(eletal disorders)= and electricity (causin# shoc() burns
and fire).
Question <
7art (a) of the %uestion &as not ans&ered as &ell as part (b). .any candidates referred to the main
dan#er simply as bein# electric shoc( &ithout actually statin# &hy this is dan#erous and ho& it may
affect a person by interferin# &ith heart rhythm. +etter candidates &ere able to refer to a &ider ran#e of
dan#ers) such as burns to tissue) fire and e-plosion and secondary effects such as fallin# from a hei#ht
as a result of an electric shoc(.
For part (b)) the first action on discoverin# a person havin# suffered an electric shoc( should al&ays be
to summon help and follo&in# this) if the person is still in close pro-imity to the live part) isolate the
supply or push the victim clear usin# a nonconductive implement. First*aid should then be
administered) &hich) dependin# on the severity of the shoc() may include cardio*pulmonary
resuscitation. If successful) an air&ay should be maintained by placin# the victim in the recovery
position and breathin# should be monitored until medical help arrives.
Question =
In #eneral) this %uestion &as reasonably &ell ans&ered althou#h most candidates coped better &ith part
(i) than &ith part (ii). .any candidates &ere able to identify ha4ards specifically relatin# to cleaners)
such as cleanin# fluids) manual handlin#) slips,trips,falls and sharp ob9ects) and those associated &ith
the &or(in# environment) such as biolo#ical ha4ards) contact &ith animals and those arisin# from the
use of specialised e%uipment.
91
In ans&erin# part (ii)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# to candidates to outline precautions such as the
provision and use of personal protective e%uipment (includin# overalls and #loves)) the introduction of
a procedure for the handlin# and disposal of sharps) the need for animals to be (ept in secure
enclosures and the possible need for immunisation a#ainst diseases (no&n to be transmitted by
animals. 1i#hli#htin# that the employee &ould need specific trainin# in the precautions outlined &ould
have #ained an additional mar(.
Question 9
In their ans&ers to part (a)) there &ere fe& candidates &ho &ere able to provide an ade%uate
e-planation of the term 'daily personal noise e-posure') &hich e%uates a person's avera#e noise
e-posure over a particular &or(in# period to that received in an !*hour day. 1ence) if someone &ere
e-posed to an avera#e noise level of B@ d+(;) over hours) &ith insi#nificant e-posure for the rest of
the day) this &ould e%uate to !A d+(;) LE7)d (ie half of B@ d+(;)) usin# the rule that a reduction of 5
decibels represents one half of the noise dose).
In their ans&ers to part (b)) better candidates referred to the need to carry out a noise assessment and
then initially to reduce employees' e-posures to an acceptable level by en#ineerin# means. If this
measure &ere found to be not reasonably practicable) or not immediately possible) then hearin#
protection &ould need to be provided and maintained) and its use enforced. ;dditional mar(s &ere
available for referrin# to the establishment and si#nin# of hearin# protection 4ones) and for providin#
information to employees of the ris( and the protection re%uired.
Question 1
$he ma9ority of candidates found little difficulty &ith part (a) of the %uestion and &ere able to identify
the three common types of asbestos * &hite (chrysotile)) bro&n (amosite) and blue (crocidolite). For
full mar(s) the chemical names of each type &ere not necessary but &ere nevertheless identified by
many.
7art (b) &as also dealt &ith competently in the main) &ith candidates identifyin# possible sites of
asbestos such as pipe la##in#) ceilin# tiles) asbestos cement roof and &all sheets) sprayed asbestos
coatin#s on structural members) loft and &all insulation) and asbestos rope and #as(ets.
Question 11
$his %uestion re%uired candidates to identify ha4ards &ith the potential to cause foot in9uries and to
describe the types and features of foot&ear that &ould provide appropriate protection. 0andidates had
only to identify four from a len#thy list of possible ha4ards that includes fallin# ob9ects (steel toe*caps))
sharp ob9ects (steel insoles)) chemicals (impermeable) chemical resistant)) molten or hot materials (heat
resistant boots,shoes and possibly #aiters)) slippery surfaces (non*slip soles)) cold environments
(thermal,insulated)) electricity (rubber soles)) flammable atmospheres (anti*static materials) and spread
of contamination (&ashable &ellin#tons and,or overshoes). .ost mana#ed this &ithout too much
difficulty.
92
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
'A)+" 21
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8 driver of a fork"lift truck has been seriously in&ured after the vehicle
overturned.

(i) Outline the possible i66edi%te causes of the accident in terms of
4O.* the behaviour of the driver (1D the conditions of the workplace
and work e$uipment.
(1-)
(ii) Descri0e the underlying factors that may have led to the unsafe acts
or conditions identified in (i). (1-)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline O!" advantages and O!" disadvantages of using
4propaganda5 posters to communicate health and safety information to
the workforce.
(8)
3 (a) '#$l%in% giving an e#ample in '()* case% the circumstances under
which a health and safety inspector may serve!
(i) an improvement notice (3)
(ii) a prohibition notice. (3)
(b) 2t%te the effect on '()* type of enforcement notice of appealing
against it.
(2)
93
4 (a) Identify the factors that may place young persons at a greater risk of
accidents at work.
(4)
(b) Outline the measures that could be taken to minimise the risks to young
persons.
(4)
5 O"#'$ne t%e difference" -et#een +$.$' ',w and +$&$n,' ',w/ (8)
6 (a) 2t%te the circumstances under which an employer must establish a
health and safety committee.
(2)
(b) 3ive 2I7 reasons why a health and safety committee may prove to be
ineffective in practice.
(6)
7 0ith reference to the +eporting of 9n&uries% Diseases and Dangerous
*ccurrences +egulations ,--=!
(i) st%te the legal re$uirements for reporting a fatality resulting from an
accident at work to an enforcing authority.
(5)
(ii) outline .*"'' further categories of work"related in&ury (other than
fatal in&uries) that are reportable.
(3)
8 Outline% with an e#ample of '()*% the differences 0et8een he%lth
%nd s%fety re&ul%tions and *2) %$$roved codes of $r%ctice.
(8)
, (a) Define the term 4ergonomics5.

(2)
(b) +ist 2I7 observations made during an inspection of a machine operation
which may suggest that the machine has not been ergonomically
designed.
(6)
1- 2t%te the shape and colour% and &ive a relevant e#ample% of '()* of
the following types of safety sign!
(i) prohibition (2)
(ii) warning (2)
(iii) mandatory (2)
(iv) emergency escape or first"aid. (2)
94
11 Identify 'I3*. measures that could be used by an organisation in
order to monitor its health and safety performance.
(8)
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 'arch 21
Paper A2 4 !he 3anage3ent of safety and health
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
$his %uestion &as intended to test candidate's (no&led#e of the causes of accidents an important aspect
of accident investi#ation. $hey &ere re%uired to display the ability to distin#uish bet&een immediate
causes and underlyin# factors relatin# to a scenario involvin# the overturnin# of a for(*lift truc(.
In ans&ers to part (i) of the %uestion) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for causes in terms both of driver
behaviour and of the conditions of the &or(place and &or( e%uipment. "rivin# errors that could have
been identified include cornerin# too fast) hittin# obstructions) drivin# on uneven #round or across
slopes) turnin# on slopes) movin# &ith the load elevated) unstable or e-cessive) and collidin# &ith
another vehicle. 0auses associated &ith the &or(place and &or( e%uipment include potholes)
ineffective bra(es) tyres that &ere under*inflated or in poor condition and mechanical failures. 1uman
factors issues e-pressed in conte-t also #ained credit.
In ans&erin# part (ii)) there &ere many underlyin# factors that candidates could have described. $hese
include6 a poor or complete lac( of ris( assessment= poor selection of vehicle= inade%uate driver
trainin#= a failure to develop safe systems of &or(= poor employee selection procedures= a lac( of
supervision= poor maintenance procedures (for e%uipment and,or the &or(place)= failure to introduce a
system for reportin# defects= and a #eneral lac( of commitment to health and safety on the part of
mana#ement.
E-aminers &ere disappointed that many candidates &ere unable to differentiate effectively bet&een
immediate and underlyin# causes. ; number seemed to have misread or misinterpreted the %uestion and
&rote about topics such as accident investi#ation or described in some detail the domino theory of
95
accident causation. Overall) part (i) &as better understood and thus better ans&ered than part (ii).
-ection 2
Question 2
7osters are a commonly used vehicle for passin# on health and safety messa#es to the &or(force and
many candidates &ill have used them or seen them in use. 0onse%uently this %uestion &as #enerally
&ell ans&ered. 0andidates outlined advanta#es such as their relatively lo& cost) their fle-ibility) their
brevity) their use in reinforcin# verbal instructions or information) and the potential to involve
employees in their selection or desi#n (and hence in the messa#e bein# conveyed). $here &as) too) an
appreciation that humour can sometimes be used effectively to convey a serious messa#e.
"isadvanta#es include the need to chan#e posters on a re#ular basis if they are to be noticed) the fact
that they may become soiled) defaced and out of date) and the possibility that they mi#ht trivialise
serious matters and,or present lan#ua#e barriers. $here may also be an over*reliance on posters to
convey health and safety information and they may be perceived by unscrupulous employers as an
easy) if not particularly effective) &ay of dischar#in# their health and safety duties) and of shiftin# the
responsibility onto the &or(force for any accidents that may occur.
Question 8
$o serve an improvement notice) an inspector must be of the opinion that there is a breach of relevant
statutory provisions) or that there has been a breach that is li(ely to be continued or repeated. ; relevant
e-ample &ould be a floor that has been poorly maintained in contravention of the re%uirements of the
:or(place (1ealth) /afety and :elfare) Re#ulations ?BB3.
For a prohibition notice to be served) an inspector must be of the opinion that there is) or is li(ely to be)
a ris( of serious personal in9ury. ; relevant e-ample &ould be a scaffold that has been poorly
constructed and is therefore in an unsafe condition.
E-aminers reported that the first part of this %uestion &as poorly ans&ered &ith candidates sho&in#
confusion bet&een the circumstances in &hich an enforcement officer mi#ht serve the different types of
notice. 7art (b)) on the other hand) &as better ans&ered &ith many candidates correctly identifyin# that
the effect of an appeal a#ainst an improvement notice is to suspend the notice until the appeal is held)
&hereas a prohibition notice continues in force until the appeal is heard.
Question 9
For part (a)) E-aminers &ere re%uirin# candidates to identify factors such as lac( of (no&led#e)
e-perience or trainin#) the individual's physical development) and the tendency of youn# persons to
ta(e ris(s and to respond to peer #roup pressures. $he ran#e of issues in ans&ers to this part of the
%uestion &as some&hat limited and some candidates concentrated on one or t&o topics only) &hich
conse%uently restricted the number of mar(s that could be a&arded.
For part (b)) candidates &ere e-pected to outline measures such as the completion of ris( assessments
96
&ith youn# persons specifically in mind) the provision of induction pro#rammes) careful supervision or
mentorin# by an e-perienced and responsible fello& &or(er) specific health surveillance) clear lines of
communication and placin# restrictions on the types of &or( and the number of hours &or(ed. .ost
candidates &ere able to #ain some mar(s from this part of the %uestion althou#h reliance on the Iold
faithfulJ of Kinformation) instruction) trainin# and supervisionL &as insufficient on its o&n and &as not
re&arded unless used in the specific conte-t of the %uestion (ie related to youn# persons).
Question :
0andidates &ere e-pected to outline the essential differences bet&een the t&o main branches of la& *
civil and criminal. $hey could have referred to the different ob9ectives of the t&o systems (one to
provide a remedy and the other to punish)) the burden of proof re%uired (a balance of probabilities as
opposed to beyond all reasonable doubt)) the parties #enerally involved (t&o individuals rather than the
state and an individual) and the different court structures involved. ; fe& candidates su##ested
differences in the sources of la&) &ith criminal la& #enerally &ritten do&n in statutes and &ith civil
liabilities lar#ely defined in common la& by 9udicial precedent. $here &as) ho&ever) the usual
confusion bet&een branches of la& (civil and criminal) and sources of la& (statute and common)) &ith
many candidates apparently not realisin# that the concepts are entirely different.
$here &as a#ain a disappointin# response to this %uestion) &hich has appeared on many previous
occasions. $here &as more than an element of confusion &ith the result that the ma9ority found it
e-tremely difficult to differentiate bet&een the t&o types of la&. ;s &ell as the confusion bet&een
types and sources of la&) fundamental errors &ere also noted on other issues) such as the imposition of
fines in civil courts and civil cases bein# heard in a ma#istrates court. .any candidates) too) displayed
a lac( of #ood e-amination techni%ue) producin# lists &hen the %uestion clearly re%uired an outline.
Question ;
For part (a)) mar(s &ere a&arded to those candidates &ho identified that an employer must establish a
health and safety committee &hen re%uested to do so in &ritin# by t&o or more trade union*appointed
safety representatives.
In ans&ers to part (b)) E-aminers e-pected candidates to identify reasons such as6 a lac( of
mana#ement commitment= no a#enda or remit and,or no minutes or notes of the meetin#s bein#
produced= an uneven balance bet&een mana#ement and employee representatives= poor chairmanship=
no access to the decision*ma(in# processes= infre%uent meetin#s= inappropriate topics= and no access to
health and safety e-pertise.
Responses indicated a lac( of (no&led#e of this aspect of health and safety mana#ement) and some
candidates did no more than raise the traditional ar#uments of mana#ement versus trade unions. If
safety committees are to play a useful role in the mana#ement and promotion of health and safety in the
&or(place) it is imperative that the reasons for their success and failure are &ell understood.
Question <
.ost candidates provided reasonable ans&ers to part (i) of the %uestion) identifyin# the re%uirement to
97
notify the enforcin# authority by the %uic(est practicable means and then to report the death formally
&ithin ten days by an approved means (e# on form F3<@!). .any failed to comment that the
responsible person under the Re#ulations has the duty to submit the report and fe&er still (ne& that
delayed deaths) up to one year after the ori#inal accident) have to be reported &hether or not they have
been previously reported under another cate#ory.
7art (ii) caused some confusion &ith relatively fe& candidates able to cate#orise reportable
&or(*related in9uries. ; number of candidates correctly identified 8ma9or in9ury' as a cate#ory but then
&ent on to list types of in9ury &ithin this cate#ory) i#norin# other cate#ories completely. $hey could
additionally have referred to in9uries that result in the in9ured person bein# a&ay from &or() or unable
to do normal &or() for more than three days) and to in9uries to non*employees &ho are ta(en to
hospital for treatment.
Question =
$o ans&er this %uestion candidates needed to be clear in their minds of the essential differences
bet&een health and safety re#ulations and approved codes of practice. 1ealth and safety re#ulations are
#enerally made under the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct ?BA by the /ecretary of /tate and contain
statutory re%uirements &hich) if not met by the person on &hom they are laid) may lead to prosecution
in the courts and the imposition of a fine or to the issue of an enforcement notice by the appropriate
enforcement authority.
;pproved codes of practice) on the other hand) are approved by the 1ealth and /afety 0ommission
&ith the consent of the /ecretary of /tate. $hey provide a practical interpretation of le#al re%uirements
in specific areas and) &hilst they do not themselves impose any le#al re%uirement) they may be
produced in court as supportive evidence. .any candidates had difficulty in outlinin# the above
differences and some could not produce e-amples) despite the reference in the previous %uestion to a
specific set of re#ulations.
Question 9
For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to produce an acceptable definition of the term 8er#onomics')
such as Kthe study of the interaction bet&een &or(ers and the &or( environmentH or Hma(in# the 9ob or
tas( fit the personL.
; number of observations could have been listed in ans&er to part (b)) includin#6 the need for e-cessive
force or repetitive movements by the operator= the need for the operator to stretch or stoop= machine
controls sited in a&(&ard positions= controls and displays unmar(ed or poorly mar(ed and their
functions not obvious= lac( of visibility of the tas( by the operator= the &or(piece difficult to position
because of its si4e or &ei#ht or because of the type of machine protection provided= and the difficulty
e-perienced in chan#in#) ad9ustin# or cleanin# the machine tools.
$here &ere not too many #ood ans&ers to part (b)) &ith many candidates stru##lin# to come to terms
&ith &hat the %uestion actually re%uired. .any listed the features of #ood er#onomic desi#n &ithout
identifyin# poor ones= others sa& this as a strai#htfor&ard 8machine' %uestion and proceeded to list
possible mechanical and nonmechanical ha4ards.
98
Question 1
;part from some minor confusion over shapes and,or colours) most candidates &ere comfortable &ith
this %uestion and &ere able to provide the information re%uired to#ether &ith relevant e-amples.
7rohibition si#ns have a &hite bac(#round &ithin a red circle and &ith a dia#onal red line * a Hno
smo(in#H si#n &as a popular choice of e-ample. :arnin# si#ns have a yello& bac(#round &ithin a
blac( trian#le * typical e-amples cited &ere those used to &arn a#ainst the ha4ards of flammable
materials) radiation and electricity. .andatory si#ns are round &ith a blue bac(#round and are used to
desi#nate the compulsory use of) for e-ample) hearin# or head protection) or the need to (eep a fire
door closed. Emer#ency escape and first*aid si#ns are rectan#ular or s%uare &ith a #reen bac(#round.
7erhaps the most obvious e-ample is the directional (8runnin# man') emer#ency escape si#n.
Question 11
E-aminers &ere loo(in# for ans&ers containin# measures such as6 rates of incidents) in9uries and
&or(*related ill*health= actions ta(en by enforcement authorities= the number of civil claims= the results
of inspections and environmental monitorin#= safety audit outcomes= the de#ree of compliance &ith
procedures (such as 77E usa#e)= number of staff trained in health and safety= and the results of medical
and,or health surveillance.
.any candidates did not seem to appreciate that &hat &as re%uired &ere measures of safety
performance rather than the methods that can be used to obtain the re%uired information. 0onse%uently)
there &ere many short lists of tas(s such as inspections) tours) surveys and audits but &ith no indication
of ho& these should be used to produce somethin# measurable that can be compared over time or &ith
others.
99
21-;
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A1: I*#$!I./I$0 A$* +O$!)O%%I$0 "A>A)*-
1,$# 21
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8 contractor is to be selected to drain and clear a section of canal.
(i) Identify the information that might be re$uired to establish the suitability
of the contractor.
(4)
(ii) Descri0e the haards associated with the draining and clearing
operation.
(8)
(iii) Outline suitable controls to minimise the risk from the haards
identified.
(8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline measures to be taken to prevent accidents when pedestrians
are re$uired to work in vehicle manoeuvring areas.
(8)
3 (a) +ist O!" respiratory diseases that could be caused by e#posure to
dust at work.
(4)
(b) Identify the possible indications of a dust problem in a workplace (4)
4 (a) or '()* of the following types of non" ionising radiation% identify a
source and state the possible ill" health effects on e#posed individuals
100
(i) infrared radiation (2)
(ii) ultraviolet radiation. (2)
(b) Identify the general methods for protecting people against e#posure to
non" ionising radiation.
(4)
5 Outline a procedure for the safe lifting of a load by a crane% having
ensured that the crane has been correctly selected and positioned for
the &ob.
(8)
6 (a) Identify the types of haard against which gloves could offer protection. (4)
(b) Outline the practical limitations of using gloves as a means of
protection.
(4)
7 Outline the health and safety risks associated with welding operations. (8)
8 8 cleaner is re$uired to polish floors using a rotary floor polisher.

(i) Identify the haards that might be associated with this operation. (4)
(ii) Outline suitable control measures that might be used to minimise
the risk.
(4)
, 2t%te the items that should be included on a checklist for the routine
inspection of portable electrical appliances.
(8)
1- (a) Outline the possible health risks associated with working in a seated
position for prolonged periods of time.
(4)
(b) Outline the features of a suitable seat for sedentary work. (4)
11 +ist 'I3*. ways of reducing the risk of a fire starting in a workplace. (8)
101
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 1une 21
Paper A1 4 Identifying and +ontrolling "azards
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
$his %uestion) concerned &ith the drainin# and clearin# of a section of a canal) re%uired candidates to
identify information that &ould be relevant for testin# the suitability and competency of a contractor)
and then to describe the ha4ards associated &ith the operation and the control measures to be applied to
minimise the ris( from the identified ha4ards. It &as not necessary to have a detailed (no&led#e of
canal clearance &or( to provide a #ood ans&er= but it &as necessary) by havin# a picture of a canal in
mind (perhaps in a rural and urban settin#)) to consider a broad ran#e of issues that mi#ht arise from
such &or(.
7art (i) of the %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered) &ith candidates referrin# initially to the
e-perience and %ualifications of the contractor and then pointin# to additional information that &ould
be revealin# * such as accident records and the %uality of the contractor's health and safety policy and
method statements.
In ans&erin# part (ii)) there &ere many ha4ards that could have been described includin#6 falls into the
&ater= entrapment in silt or mud= collapse of the canal sides= floodin#= ha4ards arisin# from the use of
e%uipment= and health ha4ards such as leptospirosis (:ell's disease). ;n outline of suitable control
measures) for part (iii)) should have follo&ed lo#ically from the ha4ards identified and &ould have
addressed the provision of buoyancy aids and rescue e%uipment) access e%uipment) appropriate
personal protective e%uipment) ed#e protection and shorin# of the canal ban(s) pumps a#ainst the ris(
of floodin#) and information to employees on the ris(s to their health and the precautions to be ta(en.
Unfortunately) candidates did not display the same de#ree of confidence in ans&erin# the other parts of
the %uestion as they had done in respondin# to the first part. /ome &ere preoccupied &ith ha4ards not
directly associated &ith the operation of clearin# and drainin# the canal and provided a comprehensive
listin# of machinery ha4ards. Others did not pay sufficient attention to the action verbs) 8describe' and
8outline' and instead provided simple lists that restricted the number of mar(s that could be a&arded.
-ection 2
Question 2
$his %uestion &as &ell ans&ered by most candidates. ;ns&ers #enerally included references to
se#re#ated systems for vehicular and pedestrian traffic) appropriate road mar(in#s) maintainin# #ood
visibility (mirrors) transparent doors) provision of li#htin# etc) and audible &arnin#s on vehicles. Other
relevant measures that &ere mentioned included the dra&in# up and enforcement of site rules) the
provision of refu#es) the &earin# of hi#h*visibility clothin#) a #ood standard of house(eepin# and
102
trainin# for) and supervision of) all concerned.
Question 8
.ost candidates coped &ell &ith part (a) of the %uestion) selectin# from a list of respiratory diseases
includin# asbestosis) silicosis) asthma) bronchitis and cancer of the lun# or other part of the respiratory
system.
7art (b) &as less &ell ans&ered) &ith most candidates able to identify only a limited number of
indications * such as visible si#ns of dust (in the air or deposited on surfaces or clothes) and complaints
of discomfort by employees. Other e-amples could have included cases of impaired health lin(ed to
e-posure (possibly detected by health or medical surveillance)) the results of &or(place air monitorin#
and problems associated &ith plant and e%uipment such as bloc(ed filters.
Question 9
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) most candidates could cite typical sources of infrared radiation
such as fire or furnaces) and of UV li#ht as the sun or &eldin# operations. 1ealth effects caused a little
more difficulty) althou#h burns to the s(in and eye dama#e are common to both types of radiation.
Ceneral (no&led#e of the effects of the sun (sunburn and s(in cancers) should have helped those &ho
had identified this particular source of UV li#ht.
$here &as a little less certainty in identifyin#) for part (b)) methods for protectin# people a#ainst
e-posure. Fno&led#e of ho& to avoid the harmful effects of the sun in a non*occupational settin#
should have enabled candidates to come up &ith a ran#e of preventive measures. $hese include
shieldin#) increasin# the distance bet&een source and person) reducin# the duration of e-posure)
appropriate personal protective e%uipment (such as clothin# and eye protection) and the use of barrier
creams.
Question :
1avin# correctly selected and positioned a crane for a liftin# operation) a number of precautions should
be put in place to ensure that loads are lifted safely. E-aminers &ere e-pectin# candidates to outline
matters such as6 the correct selection of the slin# and its inspection for dama#e before use= the
employment of competent persons to attach the slin# to the load in order to ensure a correct balance=
the provision of an unrestricted vie& for the crane driver or) &here this is not possible) the use of
competent ban(smen to maintain effective communication &ith the driver= chec(in# that the area &here
the lift is to ta(e place is (ept clear of employees= and ensurin# that the load is raised at the correct
speed) lo&ered slo&ly to its landin# position and controlled durin# its passa#e) possibly by the use of
ta# lines.
0andidates appeared to find this %uestion difficult and the ans&ers provided &ere not particularly
encoura#in#. "ifficulties &ere compounded in many cases &here candidates did not read the %uestion
&ith sufficient care and spent time and effort in outlinin# the procedures for correct crane selection and
103
positionin# for &hich no credit could be #iven.
Question ;
/ome #ood responses &ere provided for part (a) of the %uestion) &ith most candidates able to identify
chemical) mechanical) biolo#ical) radiation and electrical ha4ards. E-tremes of temperature and &et
&or( &ere also mentioned. One or t&o included I#ardenin#J in their ans&ers) prompted perhaps by
personal e-perience) but unfortunately this &as not a ha4ard &hich resulted in the a&ard of a mar(=
indeed) no specific ha4ard had been identified.
7art (b) proved a little more difficult and most candidates &ere content to outline only
limitations relatin# to loss of feelin# and other tactile issues. +etter candidates
referred additionally to the possibilities of localised heatin# of the hand that opens the
pores and increases s(in permeability) invisible lea(s) aller#ic response to the #love
material and entan#lement &ith machinery.
Question <
$his %uestion provo(ed a very mi-ed response. .ost candidates referred to the effects of fume
inhalation) dama#e to the eyes from UV li#ht) burns to the s(in or eyes and the increased ris( of fire.
Other ris(s &ere not so &ell reco#nised. $hese include) dependin# on the type of &eldin#) electric
shoc() trippin# over trailin# cables or pipes) in9uries from the handlin# of cylinders and the problems
associated &ith o-y#en enrichment leadin# to an increased ris( of fire and,or e-plosion.
Question =
7art (i) of the %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith candidates identifyin# most of the ha4ards
concerned includin#6 entan#lement= slips) trips and falls= noise and vibration= electrical and er#onomic
ha4ards= and the possible use of chemical cleanin# a#ents.
1avin# successfully identified the ha4ards) ho&ever) candidates e-perienced more difficulty in
outlinin# suitable control measures that mi#ht be ta(en to minimise the ris(. $hese should have
included #uardin#) cable mana#ement) isolation of the machine for chan#in# brushes) the &earin# of
appropriate foot&ear) re#ular maintenance and testin# of the machine) to#ether &ith the use of residual
current devices and the provision of trainin# for the operator &ith emphasis placed on pre*use chec(s.
0andidates performin# &ell on the second part of this %uestion &ere those &ho &or(ed lo#ically
throu#h the list of ha4ards they had identified in the first part and outlined appropriate control measures
for each one.
Question 9
.ost candidates &ere able to provide reasonable chec(lists in ans&er to this %uestion includin# such
items as6 the need to chec( that the appliance is of a suitable type for the operations to be carried out=
that the connectin# plu#s are in sound condition and soc(ets not overloaded= that the fuses fitted are of
the correct ratin#= that the appliance is operated at reduced volta#e (&here appropriate) and,or protected
by a residual current device= that cables are undama#ed and routed safely= and that the casin# of the
104
appliance is in #ood condition. ;lmost &ithout e-ception) additional reference &as made to the need to
chec( that a portable appliance test (7;$) has been carried out and is current) and that the relevant
information is recorded.
Question 1
$he %uestion re%uired candidates to demonstrate their (no&led#e both of the health ris(s associated
&ith sedentary &or( and the appropriate desi#n features of a seat that could be used by employees for
much of their &or(in# time.
In response to part (a)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# to candidates to identify health ris(s such as vertebral
or muscular dama#e) cardiovascular problems (e# elevated blood pressure) and problems &ith
circulation (e# thrombosis). $hey often loo(ed in vain since) &hile some candidates spo(e in va#ue
terms of possible bac( problems) others based their ans&ers entirely on &or( &ith display screen
e%uipment and concentrated on the er#onomic ha4ards associated &ith "/E &or( * such as possible
effects on vision.
0andidates &ere more at home &ith the more practical re%uirements of part (b)) in &hich they &ere
able to outline features such as #ood lumbar support) the ability to ad9ust both seat bac( and seat hei#ht)
the provision of foot*rests) the stability of the seat's base) the provision of arm rests &here appropriate
and a choice of material suitable for the environment.
Question 11
$he final %uestion of the paper re%uired candidates to provide a simple list and thus enabled those &ith
a #ood (no&led#e of the sub9ect to #ain mar(s %uic(ly) to the advanta#e of those runnin# out of time.
0andidates could have chosen from a list includin# the control of smo(in# and smo(in# materials)
#ood house(eepin# to prevent the accumulation of &aste paper and other combustible materials)
re#ular lubrication of machinery) fre%uent inspection of electrical e%uipment for dama#e) ensurin#
ventilation outlets on e%uipment are not obstructed) controllin# hot &or() the provision of proper
stora#e facilities for flammable li%uids and the se#re#ation of incompatible chemicals.
/everal candidates) perhaps in haste) did not pay sufficient attention to the &ordin# of the %uestion and
included measures that &ere more relevant to a situation &here a fire had already bro(en out * such as
the provision of alarms) fire*fi#htin# e%uipment and evacuation systems.
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
1,$# 21
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
105
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8n office building is about to be occupied by new owners.
(i) Outline the factors that should be considered by the new owners when
assessing the suitability of lighting within the building.
(8)
(ii) Descri0e O!" effects on health and safety that might result from
inade$uate lighting.
(4)
(iii) Outline the welfare facilities that should be provided in the building. (8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 '#$l%in why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate
health and safety information in the workplace.
(8)
3 9n relation to the spillage of a to#ic substance from a ruptured drum
stored
in a warehouse!

(i) identify .*"'' ways in which persons working in close vicinity to
the spillage might be harmed.
(3)
(ii) outline a procedure to be adopted in the event of such a spillage. (5)
4 (a) Outline the circumstances under which a written health and safety
policy is legally re$uired.
(2)
(b) Identify the purposes of '()* of the following sections of a health and
safety policy document!
(i) 'statement of intent' (2)
(ii) 4organisation' (2)
(iii) 4arrangements'. (2)
106
5 Outline the ways in which employers might motivate their employees to
comply with health and safety procedures.
(8)
6 (a) 2t%te the re$uirements for reporting an 4over three" day5 in&ury under the
+eporting of 9n&uries% Diseases and Dangerous *ccurrences
+egulations ,--=.

(2)
(b) Diving reasons in '()* case% identify .*"'' categories of persons
who may be considered a useful member of an internal accident
investigation team.
(6)
7 Outline the health% safety and welfare issues that a company might
need to consider before introducing a night shift to cope with an
increased demand for its products.
(8)
8 9n relation to the Eoise at 0ork +egulations ,-F-!
(i) st%te9 in dA(8)% the first and second action levels (2)
(ii) outline the measures that should be taken when employees are
e#posed to noise levels in e#cess of the second action level.
(6)
, Outline the factors that may increase risks to pregnant employees. (8)
1- Outline the general duties placed on employees by!
(i) the )ealth and 'afety at 0ork etc 8ct ,-?; (4)
(ii) the (anagement of )ealth and 'afety at 0ork +egulations ,---. (4)
11 Identify 'I3*. sources of information that might usefully be consulted
when developing a safe system of work.
(8)
107
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 1une 21
Paper A2 4 !he 3anage3ent of safety and health
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
7art (i) of this %uestion re%uired an outline of the factors to be considered &hen assessin# the suitability
of li#htin# &ithin an office buildin#. :ith ei#ht mar(s available) this should have #iven a clear
indication to candidates that a reasonable outline of a ran#e of relevant factors &as needed. E-aminers
e-pected candidates to outline factors such as the type of &or( to be underta(en) the type of e%uipment
to be used) the possibility of #lare at &or(stations and on V"U screens) the availability of natural li#ht
durin# both summer and &inter) the type of artificial li#ht provided) the re%uirement for local li#htin#
for specific tas(s) the availability of emer#ency li#htin#) and the number of li#htin# units provided in
relation both to the floor area and to the amount of li#ht emitted from each one. ;lso important is the
possibility of shado&s bein# cast and contrasts in li#htin# levels bet&een one area and another. /ome
candidates concentrated solely on display screen e%uipment issues) mainly #lare) and thus restricted the
number of mar(s that could be a&arded.
In part (ii)) there &ere mar(s to be #ained for descriptions of the possible effects on health from
inade%uate li#htin#) such as eyestrain) headaches and increased levels of stress. ;dditionally)
candidates &ere e-pected to refer to other relevant health and safety effects * such as trips and falls) and
the possibility of errors in performin# tas(s that mi#ht then put others at ris(.
; comprehensive ans&er to part (iii) of the %uestion included reference to the provision of sanitary
conveniences (ade%uate in number) separate male and female etc)) suitable and sufficient &ashin#
facilities) a supply of drin(in# &ater) eatin# and rest areas) accommodation for clothin#) first aid
facilities) protection for non*smo(ers a#ainst passive smo(in# and rest facilities for e-pectant and
nursin# mothers. $he action verb in this part of the %uestion &as 'outline' and some candidates could
not #ain all the mar(s that &ere available because they produced a list &ithout any accompanyin#
detail.
-ection 2
Question 2
$his %uestion re%uired consideration of the sort of information that needs to be communicated and the
different methods of presentin# such information. $his should have led candidates to su##est that
people respond differently to different stimuli) and that variety prevents over*familiarisation &ith one
method and helps to reinforce a messa#e. Other reasons that could have been cited &ere6 the need to
overcome lan#ua#e barriers and the inability of some employees to read= the need to motivate)
stimulate interest and #ain involvement and feedbac(= and the acceptance that different types of
information re%uire different methods of communication. .ost candidates &ere able to come up &ith
one or t&o relevant reasons but not many &ere able to ans&er the %uestion in the depth re%uired.
108
Question 8
7art (i) &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith many candidates #ainin# ma-imum mar(s for identifyin#
possible causes of harm such as s(in or eye contact) inhalation of fumes or particles and in#estion.
.ar(s &ere also available for identifyin# &ays that &ere not specific to the to-ic nature of the
substance but &hich could still be relevant) such as slips.
0andidates &ere #enerally not as successful in ans&erin# part (ii). ; procedure for such a spilla#e
should include isolation of the area and evacuation of employees at ris() the provision of bundin# to
contain the spilla#e) the issue of appropriate personal protective e%uipment to those involved in
carryin# out the procedure) contact &ith the emer#ency services) and the safe disposal of the spilled
substance and any absorbent material used. ;#ain) many candidates &ere content to provide a list &hen
more &as needed for an ade%uate outline.
Question 9
Dearly all candidates &ere able to #ain at least one of the t&o mar(s for part (a) and many #ained both
mar(s. $he t&o particular circumstances are &hen section 3(5) of the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct
?BA applies *ie &hen there is an employer and &hen that employer employs five or more persons.
7art (b)(i)) referrin# to the statement of intent) &as #enerally &ell ans&ered and candidates identified
that it should both demonstrate mana#ement's commitment to health and safety and set #oals and
ob9ectives for the or#anisation. For the rest of part (b)) and particularly for (b)(ii)) some candidates
stru##led to come to terms &ith the concepts of or#anisation and arran#ements) and many confused the
t&o. $he purpose of the policy section on 'or#anisation' is to identify health and safety responsibilities
and reportin# lines &ithin the company= the section on 'arran#ements' should set out in detail the
systems and procedures that assist in the implementation of the policy. .ore informed candidates
supplied e-amples of the systems and procedures that mi#ht be included in the 'arran#ements' section
of a policy.
Question :
E-aminers &ere loo(in# for su##estions on ho& employees mi#ht be motivated to &or( safely.
;ns&ers should have included &ays of improvin# employees' (no&led#e of the conse%uences of not
&or(in# safely by6 trainin# and the provision of information= sho&in# the commitment of the
or#anisation to safety by providin# resources and a safe &or(in# environment= involvin# employees in
health and safety decisions throu#h consultation and team meetin#s= and reco#nisin# and re&ardin#
achievement. .ost candidates &ere able to outline some of the above althou#h the more able
emphasised that positive motivation * employees &or(in# safely because that is ho& they &ant to &or(
* tends to be more effective than ne#ative motivation * employees &or(in# safely for fear of
disciplinary action. +oth) ho&ever) have their place in a &ell balanced system.
Question ;
7art (a) re%uired a strai#htfor&ard statement of the relevant (ey re%uirements of RI""OR ?BB<. .ost
candidates &ere able to secure both mar(s available for this part of the %uestion by referrin# to the
109
re%uirements that a report should be made by the responsible person to the relevant enforcin# authority
&ithin ten &or(in# days of the accident) and that it should be made by an approved means (e# on form
F3<@!).
In ans&erin# part (b)) candidates could have chosen from a number of possible cate#ories includin#6 a
senior mana#er from another department &ho could act as an independent chairman= a health and
safety practitioner to advise on technical health and safety issues and le#al re%uirements= a senior
mana#er from the department &here the accident occurred) &hose responsibilities &ould include
ensurin# that the recommendations of the investi#ation team &ere actioned= a local mana#er or
supervisor &ith detailed (no&led#e of the site of the accident and of the systems of &or( in place= and
an employee safety representative &ho) apart from havin# the statutory ri#ht to be involved if trade
union*appointed) could represent the in9ured &or(er and his,her co*&or(ers. Other possibilities e-isted
and &ere re&arded if a 9ustifiable reason could be #iven for their inclusion. In #eneral) thou#h)
candidates found difficulty either in identifyin# three separate cate#ories or) havin# carried out the
identification) in statin# the reasons for their inclusion in the team.
Question <
Responses to this %uestion &ere #enerally of a satisfactory standard althou#h some candidates did not
pay sufficient attention to the re%uest for an outline and produced ans&ers that lac(ed any sort of depth.
/ome ans&ers &ere also insufficiently broad to attract many mar(s.
.ost candidates focused on the physical issues involved) includin# circadian rhythm ('body cloc(')
effects and the need for shift rosterin#) the effects of fati#ue) the need to control temperature and
li#htin# to maintain alertness) and the precautions needed in the employment of pre#nant or youn#
&or(ers. +etter candidates additionally referred in their ans&ers to or#anisational issues such as the
revie& of e-istin# ris( assessments) the provision of first*aid and emer#ency arran#ements for the ni#ht
shift) ensurin# an ade%uate level of supervision and access to specialist advice) and the provision of
appropriate travel arran#ements for the &or(ers concerned.
Question =
$he ans&er to part (i) of this %uestion &as strai#htfor&ard and simply re%uired candidates to reco#nise
the first and second action levels under the Doise at :or( Re#ulations ?B!B as !< d+(;) and B@ d+(;)
respectively. 0andidates &ere either a&are of these levels or they &ere not * reassurin#ly) most &ere.
For part (ii)) the Re#ulations are %uite specific in statin# that) &here noise e-posures are li(ely to be at
or above the second action level) employers must reduce e-posures so far as is reasonably practicable
by means other than the provision of hearin# protection. Cood ans&ers) therefore) made reference to
the need for a noise assessment in order to evaluate the possibility of applyin# en#ineerin# controls.
Only &here these prove insufficient or impracticable is there a need to define and mar( hearin#
protection 4ones) provide suitable hearin# protection) and inform) instruct and train employees on the
ris( of hearin# dama#e and the preventive or protective measures re%uired to minimise such ris(. /ome
candidates referred appropriately to limitin# employees' e-posure to noise by time and,or distance.
.any candidates identified 9ust one or t&o of the relevant measures) usually in relation to hearin#
protection) but sometimes spent too much time on providin# unnecessary detail on these points &ithout
110
movin# on and broadenin# their ans&ers to include other relevant issues.
Question 9
; fe& candidates sho&ed a &ide (no&led#e of the issues involved and provided e-cellent ans&ers to
the %uestion. $he remainder) ho&ever) found it hard*#oin# and outlined only one or t&o of the relevant
factors.
Factors that could have been outlined included6 e-posure to chemicals such as pesticides) lead and
those that cause intracellular chan#es (muta#ens) or affect the embryo (terato#ens)= biolo#ical
e-posures (e# hepatitis)= e-posure to physical a#ents such as ionisin# radiation and e-tremes of
temperature= manual handlin#= er#onomic issues relatin# to prolon#ed standin# or the adoption of
a&(&ard body movements= stress= and issues associated &ith the use and &earin# of personal
protective e%uipment.
Question 1
E-aminers &ere surprised that many candidates did not appear to possess a basic (no&led#e of the (ey
re%uirements of health and safety la& necessary to ans&er this %uestion. In #eneral) the duties under
sections A and ! of the 1ealth and /afety at :or( ;ct &ere better (no&n) or perhaps came to mind
more readily) than those contained in re#ulation ? of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or(
Re#ulations.
For part (i)) section A re%uires employees to ta(e reasonable care for themselves and others &ho mi#ht
be affected by their acts or omissions) and to co*operate &ith their employer or other person so far as is
necessary to enable them to comply &ith their o&n statutory duties and re%uirements. /ection ! (&hich
in fact applies to all persons and not 9ust employees) re%uires that no*one shall intentionally or
rec(lessly interfere &ith or misuse anythin# provided in the interests of health) safety or &elfare.
Re#ulation ? of the '.ana#ement' Re#ulations) on the other hand) re%uires employees to use all &or(
items in accordance &ith the trainin# and instructions that they have been #iven. Re#ulation ? also
re%uires employees to inform their employer (or a specified employee &ith health and safety
responsibilities) of &or( situations that could present a serious and immediate dan#er) as &ell as any
shortcomin#s that they mi#ht reasonably reco#nise in the e-istin# arran#ements for health and safety.
It &as disappointin# to note that some candidates did not #ive sufficient attention to the &ordin# of the
%uestion and provided outlines of the duties of e#ployers rather than e#ployees.
Question 11
.ost candidates &ere able to secure at least a fe& mar(s in ans&erin# this %uestion. ; selection could
have been made from sources such as statutory instruments) ;0O7s and 1/E #uidance) manufacturers'
information) European and other official standards) industry or trade literature) results of ris(
assessments) accident statistics and health,medical surveillance records) the employees involved) and
enforcement a#encies and other e-perts.
$his should have been a strai#htfor&ard %uestion yet some candidates' ans&ers &ere very limited or
111
&ere va#ue as to the precise source. For instance) 'boo(s' or 'the internet' &ere considered rather too
unspecific to be &orthy of credit.
112
21-12
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A1: I*#$!I./I$0 A$* +O$!)O%%I$0 "A>A)*-
*#+#'(#) 21
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) Provide sketches to show clearly the nature of the following
mechanical haards from moving parts of machinery!
(i) entanglement
(ii) crushing
(iii) drawing"in.
(2)
(2)
(2)
(b) Outline the issues that should be addressed in assessing the
appropriateness and suitability of a fi#ed guard used to protect
against dangerous parts of a machine.
(6)
(c) Identify O!" non" mechanical haards to which woodworking
machine operators may be e#posed and outline the possible health
and safety effects in '()* case.
(8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the precautions that might be taken in order to reduce the risk of
in&ury when using stepladders.
(8)
3 (a) 9dentify the types of haard that may cause slips or trips at work. (4)
(b) *utline how slip and trip haards in the workplace might be controlled.
(4)
4 8 furniture factory uses solvent"based adhesives in its manufacturing
process.
(i) Identify the possible effects on the health of employees using the (4)
113
adhesives.
(ii) 2t%te O!" control measures to minimise such health effects. (4)
5 Outline the factors that could contribute towards the development of
work related upper limb disorders (0+U6Ds) amongst employees
working at a supermarket checkout.
(8)
6 (a) Identify the possible effects on health that may be caused by working in
a hot environment such as a foundry.
(2)
(b) Outline measures that may be taken to help prevent the health effects
identified in (a).
(6)
7 Outline a range of checks that should be made to ensure electrical
safety
in an office environment.
(8)
8 (a) Descri0e the ./O main types of personal hearing protection. (4)
(b) Identify O!" reasons why personal hearing protection may fail to
provide ade$uate protection against noise.
(4)
, Identify the O!" methods of heat transfer and e#plain how 182) can
cause the spread of fire.
(8)
1- (a) Identify possible routes of entry of biological organisms into the body. (4)
(b) Outline control measures that could be used to reduce the risk of
infection from biological organisms. (4)
11 +ist 'I3*. items to be included on a checklist for the routine inspection
of
a fork"lift truck at the beginning of a shift.
(8)
114
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 *ece3ber 21
Paper A1 4 Identifying and +ontrolling "azards
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
7art (i) of this %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered. 0andidates should note) ho&ever) that in order to
sho& clearly the ha4ards of movin# machinery) they should indicate in their s(etches the form of
movement of the machine parts involved. ;s an e-ample) the rotational movement of machinery
presentin# an entan#lement ha4ard should be sho&n by means of an arro&. 0andidates are not assessed
on their drau#htsmanship s(ills but s(etches must be sufficiently clear to sho& the nature of the ha4ard
bein# referred to.
7art (ii)) on the other hand) &as not so &ell ans&ered and fe& candidates &ere able to develop their
responses to the e-tent re%uired to achieve full mar(s. .ost referred to issues such as the need to assess
the stren#th) ri#idity and durability of the material from &hich the #uard is made) the security of its
fastenin#s in re%uirin# a special tool for its removal and the importance of securin# sufficient
ventilation &hen re%uired. +etter candidates outlined additional issues such as the use of a fi-ed #uard
only &hen fre%uent removal of the protection is not re%uired) the need to ensure that the #uard neither
interferes &ith the operation of the machine nor obstructs the vision of the operator) and any openin#s
in the #uard should be of such a si4e as to prevent access to the dan#er point.
In ans&erin# part (iii)) candidates could have identified ha4ards such as dust (causin# lun# disorders
and fires,e-plosions)) noise (resultin# in hearin# loss or tinnitus)) vibration (causin# hand*arm vibration
syndrome)) splinters (resultin# in in9uries to the eye) cuts and infection)) manual handlin# (&hich could
result in musculos(eletal disorders) and electricity (&ith its associated ris( of shoc() electrical burns
and fire). 0andidates #enerally coped &ell &ith this part of the %uestion and most &ere able to identify
four non*mechanical ha4ards to &hich &ood&or(in# machine operators mi#ht be e-posed. Lin(in# the
ha4ards to the possible health and safety effects) ho&ever) proved a little more difficult.
-ection 2
Question 2
In ans&ers to this %uestion) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of precautions such as6 the need to
ensure that the stepladder is inspected for defects before use= that it is correctly erected on level #round
&ith its chain or rope fully e-tended= that it is suitable for the tas( to be performed and does not involve
carryin# out &or( from the top step= that it is footed by a second person &hen necessary= that it is
correctly positioned to avoid over*reachin#= and that it is not overloaded.
In #eneral this %uestion &as reasonably &ell ans&ered by most candidates. /ome) ho&ever) confused
115
stepladders &ith other types of ladder (or even mobile scaffold to&ers) and referred to precautions such
as ?6 ratios and the need to tie the to&er or ladder to prevent overturnin# or slippin#. ;dditionally)
ans&ers referrin# only to the need to carry out a ris( assessment &ithout mentionin# specific control
measures #ained little re&ard.
Question 8
$here are many reasons &hy people slip or trip) includin# the floor bein# poorly maintained) chan#es in
level caused by ramps) slopes or (erbs) slippery surfaces caused by oil or &ater) inappropriate foot&ear
and #eneral obstructions in &al(&ays such as trailin# cables) pipes and air hoses. $his part of the
%uestion &as &ell ans&ered by most candidates.
In ans&erin# part (b)) candidates could have outlined control measures such as improved &or( layout
&ith desi#nated &al(&ays) usin# non*slip floorin#) hi#hli#htin# chan#es in level &ith ha4ard &arnin#
strips) providin# #ood li#htin#) introducin# procedures for reportin# defects and for dealin# &ith
spilla#es) and ensurin# hi#h standards of house(eepin# to (eep floors clear of obstructions. .any
candidates &ere unable to e-pand their ans&ers beyond the house(eepin# issues. $hose &ho lin(ed the
control measures &ith the ha4ards identified in part (a) tended to produce more comprehensive
ans&ers.
Question 9
;ns&ers to part (i) of this %uestion &ere reasonable &ith most candidates identifyin# health effects
such as irritation of eyes) s(in and lun#s) dermatitis) headaches) nausea and di44iness. $he more able
candidates also referred to the psycholo#ical effects of e-posure to the adhesive &ith the possible
secondary effect of an increased ris( of accidents.
In ans&erin# part (ii)) candidates could have selected from a number of control measures such as
discontinuin# the use of the adhesive or introducin# a less to-ic alternative) minimisin# the use of the
product or limitin# the surface area of application) providin# ventilation for the area &here the adhesive
is used) introducin# #ood house(eepin# and &or( procedures (e# to ensure that containers are not left
open)) providin# suitable personal protective e%uipment) ensurin# #ood standards of personal hy#iene
and providin# information) instruction and trainin# for the employees.
/ome candidates su##ested underta(in# a ris( assessment. :hile this is an acceptable course of action
to follo&) ris( assessment is not a control measure but the process that determines &hich control
measures mi#ht be appropriate.
Question :
$his %uestion concerned a &or( environment that should have been familiar to all candidates. It &as
disappointin#) therefore) to find that ans&ers &ere not to the standard anticipated. Factors that should
have been outlined include space constraints) poor e%uipment (such as chairs that are not ad9ustable))
bul(y or heavy items) poor desi#n or reliability of scannin# e%uipment) hi#h levels of repetition)
&or(in# at a fast pace) over*reachin# (often from a seated position)) insufficient rest brea(s)
environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity) and lac( of appropriate trainin#.
.any candidates did not #rasp the fact that the %uestion &as concerned &ith a particular operation in a
116
supermar(et and produced ans&ers that related to manual handlin# activities in #eneral) often
specifyin# the control measures for these activities. Others &ere content to produce ans&ers based
solely on the types of problem associated &ith display screen e%uipment) &hich missed many of the
(ey issues relatin# to body movement and the transfer of purchases) &ith the need very often to t&ist
items in order to pass them throu#h a scanner.
Question ;
0andidates &ho identified such effects as s(in burns from radiant heat) dehydration and heat cramps)
heat cataracts and heat stress could #ain both the mar(s available for part (a).
; selection of control measures should be employed in hot environments and most candidates) for part
(b)) identified measures such as the provision of shieldin#) minimisin# the e-posure time of employees)
ensurin# fluid inta(e) increasin# ventilation and the provision of suitable clothin#. Cood ans&ers also
referred to other measures such as health surveillance and the need to allo& &or(ers to acclimatise
#radually to the environment. +etter candidates included as part of their outline an indication of ho&
the measures help to prevent harm.
$his %uestion) &hich has been used on a number of previous occasions) &as &ell ans&ered by a lar#e
number of candidates.
Question <
/urprisin#ly fe& candidates offered comprehensive ans&ers for the ran#e of chec(s re%uired to achieve
electrical safety in an office environment. ;ns&ers could have included reference to visual inspections
for dama#e to cables) plu#s and soc(ets) the need to ensure that all fuses are of the correct ratin#) and
chec(in# that e%uipment is sited such that outlets are not overloaded and cables are not in vulnerable
positions. $he e%uipment itself should be chec(ed to ensure suitability and conformity &ith reco#nised
standards (e# 0E mar(in#) and a specific testin# procedure for portable appliances should be in place)
as &ell as a procedure for reportin# defects or dama#e.
.any ans&ers &ere based on best practice in factories or on construction sites rather than the ran#e of
routine chec(s that should be underta(en in an office environment. /everal candidates concentrated
solely on portable appliance testin# (7;$)) some describin# it in #reat detail) but omitted any
information on the other chec(s re%uired.
Question =
$his %uestion has been used on previous occasions and &as #enerally &ell ans&ered) &ith the more
complete responses bein# provided for part (a). For this part) almost &ithout e-ception) candidates
correctly identified earplu#s and ear defenders as the t&o main types of hearin# protection. ;ns&ers
differed only in the %uality and e-tent of the accompanyin# description.
In ans&erin# part (b)) candidates should have identified four from a list of possible reasons such as
incorrect selection) incorrect fit) incompatibility &ith other personal protective e%uipment) dama#e and
lac( of maintenance) lac( of trainin# in use) and the non*use of the e%uipment) even for short periods)
by those re%uirin# protection.
117
Question 9
$he four methods of heat transfer that should have been identified in ans&er to this
%uestion are conduction) convection) radiation and direct burnin#. $he last of these is
normally considered a method in its o&n ri#ht but is) in fact) a combination of the other
methods.
1avin# identified the methods) many candidates appeared to find difficulty in
e-plainin# ho& each method mi#ht cause the spread of fire. /ufficient understandin#)
ho&ever) could be demonstrated by the appropriate use of practical e-amples. For
instance) heat can be transferred throu#h metal beams or other parts of a structure by
conduction= it can be carried by risin# air currents (convection) to cause a build*up of
hot #ases under ceilin#s= it can be radiated throu#h the air causin# heatin# of material
at a distance from a fire= and) perhaps &hat is the most obvious method) combustible
material in direct contact &ith flames can itself catch fire.
Question 1
For part (a)) candidates could have chosen from a list includin# inhalation) in9ection) entry throu#h
bro(en s(in) e-chan#e of body fluids and in#estion. .ost candidates obtained all) or nearly all) the
available mar(s for this part of the %uestion.
0andidates &ere not so successful) ho&ever) in ans&erin# part (b)) althou#h there are a number of
control measures that should have become apparent if candidates had brou#ht to mind hospital or
laboratory situations. $his should have inspired an outline of measures such as cleanin# and
disinfectin#) personal protective e%uipment) en#ineerin# controls (such as containment and the use of
microbiolo#ical safety cabinets)) vermin control) #ood personal hy#iene and immunisation.
$he %uestion re%uired an outline. ;ccordin#ly) an ans&er providin# a list of #eneral measures such as
'protective clothin#' or 'trainin#' &ithout further e-planation &as insufficient.
Question 11
.ost candidates had little difficulty &ith the last %uestion on the paper) &hich traditionally appears as
one that can be ans&ered %uic(ly by those runnin# out of time. Even those candidates &ho are not
involved &ith the operation of for(*lift truc(s should have been able to cope since many of the chec(s
are essentially the same as those made routinely by car drivers. $he chec(list should have included
items such as the condition and pressure of tyres) the inte#rity and proper functionin# of li#hts) horn)
bra(es and mirrors) the absence of oil lea(s and a seat that is securely fi-ed (&ith properly functionin#
and intact restraints &here fitted). $he for(*lift truc( should also be chec(ed for obvious si#ns of
dama#e to body&or( and liftin# mechanism) and for the security of any e%uipment fitted such as an
L7C tan(.
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
118
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
*#+#'(#) 21
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8n employee has been seriously in&ured after being struck by a
reversing vehicle in a loading bay.
(i) 3ive O!" reasons why the accident should be investigated by
the person's employer.
(4)
(ii) Outline the information that should be included in the
investigation report.
(8)
(iii) Outline O!" possible immediate causes and O!" possible
underlying (root) causes of the accident.
(8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 3ive reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly understood by
an
employee.
(8)
3 (a) '#$l%in the health and safety benefits of restricting smoking in the
workplace.
(4)
(b) Outline the ways in which an organisation could effectively implement a
no" smoking policy. (4)
4 (a) Outline the main re$uirements of the (anual )andling *perations
+egulations ,--..
(4)
(b) +ist the possible indications of a manual handling problem in a
workplace.
(4)
5 (a) Outline O!" powers available to an inspector when investigating a
workplace accident. (4)
(b) Identify the ./O types of enforcement notice that may be served by an (4)
119
inspector% stating the conditions that must be satisfied before '()* type
of notice is served.
6 Outline the practical means by which a manager could involve
employees
in the improvement of health and safety in the workplace.
(8)
7 (a) Identify the ./O main functions of first"aid treatment. (2)
(b) Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first aid
provision in a workplace
(6)
8 (a) '#$l%in the meaning of the term 4perception5. (2)
(b) Outline the factors relating to the individual that may influence a
person's perception of an occupational risk.
(4)
, Outline the factors that may determine the level of supervision an
employee should receive during their initial period within a company.
(8)
1- (a) Outline the main duties of a planning supervisor under the 2onstruction
(Design and (anagement) +egulations ,--;.
(4)
(b) Identify O!" items of information in the health and safety file for an
e#isting building that might be needed by a contractor carrying out
refurbishment work.
(4)
11 Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of
persons who are re$uired to work on their own away from the
workplace.
(8)
$#(O-" +ertificate 4 *ece3ber 21
Paper A2 4 !he 3anage3ent of safety and health
Outline answers and guidance gi5en in the $#(O-" e6a3iner7s )eport
-ection 1
Question 1
For part (i)) nearly all candidates reco#nised that the primary purpose of investi#atin# an accident is to
identify the immediate and root causes in order to prevent similar accidents occurrin# in the future. In
this respect) the main reasons for investi#ation relate to the identification of possible &ea(nesses in ris(
120
assessment processes and other aspects of safety mana#ement systems. Other reasons relate to
facilitatin# compliance &ith le#al obli#ations (includin# the re%uirements of the Reportin# of In9uries)
"iseases and "an#erous Occurrences Re#ulations ?BB< and social security le#islation)) collectin#
evidence to defend a civil claim) determinin# economic loss and demonstratin# mana#ement
commitment to occupational health and safety.
7art (ii) re%uired an outline of a sufficient ran#e of information to #ain the ei#ht mar(s available. $his
should have included reference to information such as the personal details of the in9ured party) the date)
time and location of the accident) environmental conditions) the &or( activity at the time of the
accident) the control measures in place) the precise circumstances of the accident) the type and e-tent of
in9ury sustained) details of &itnesses and copies of their statements &here ta(en) dra&in#s and
photo#raphs) immediate and root causes identified) possible breaches of the la& and the
recommendations of the investi#ation team in relation to remedial action re%uired. ;s is often the case)
some candidates provided a list rather than an outline= other ans&ers lac(ed the breadth re%uired by
concentratin# on a limited number of items of information) sometimes providin# rather more detail on
each than &as necessary.
In ans&erin# part (iii)) mar(s &ere available for outlinin# possible immediate causes such as human
error or failure to comply &ith procedures) mechanical failure) poor visibility in the loadin# bay (e#
absence of li#htin#)) restricted vie& for the driver and environmental conditions such as hi#h noise
levels. Underlyin# causes could have included lac( of driver and,or other employee trainin#) lac( of
supervision) absence of site rules or procedures for the control of reversin# vehicles) failure to separate
vehicular and pedestrian traffic and a lac( of maintenance of vehicles and,or the &or(place.
Overall) the first part of the %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered. 7art (iii) &as least &ell ans&ered)
&ith some candidates displayin# an obvious lac( of (no&led#e of the difference bet&een immediate
and underlyin# causes.
-ection 2
Question 2
.ost candidates produced #ood ans&ers to this %uestion) perhaps usin# a mi-ture of &hat they had
learned from their studies and their personal e-periences at &or(.
.ar(s &ere available for reasons such as the nature of the &or(in# environment le# hi#h levels of
noise) interference from personal protective e%uipment and other distractions)) the use of too much
technical 9ar#on) lan#ua#e or dialect issues) ambi#uity of the messa#e) sensory impairment or learnin#
difficulties) the ine-perience of the' recipient (ie bein# unable to relate properly to &hat is bein# said)
and the fact that the instruction may be too comple- or len#thy to be #iven verbally. 0andidates &ho
&ere less successful on this %uestion &ere those &ho concentrated on 9ust one or t&o reasons) often
restrictin# their ans&ers to noise issues and physical disabilities.
Question 8
For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to point to the health and safety benefits of restrictin# smo(in#
at &or( as a reduction in the ris( of fire) an improvement in #eneral cleanliness and a reduction in the
e-posure of non*smo(in# staff to ci#arette smo(e) &hich can have an irritant effect as &ell as causin#
121
possible lon# term health dama#e. Other reasons include the promotion of health #enerally and the
avoidance of conflict bet&een smo(ers and non*smo(ers.
7art (b) re%uired candidates to provide an outline of ho& a no*smo(in# policy mi#ht be implemented
effectively. $he initial point to be made &as that the policy should be clear in its intent and
communicated to all staff. $his mi#ht be achieved by the use of notice boards) leaflets and other forms
of propa#anda) &hile there &ould also need to be consultation &ith employees to encoura#e o&nership.
.any candidates reco#nised mana#ement's part in the process and su##ested that they should set an
e-ample and also provide help to employees in the form of counsellin#. Finally) the provision of
desi#nated smo(in# areas and the use of disciplinary procedures &ere su##ested as options.
$he ar#uments in favour of providin# smo(e*free environments have been &ell rehearsed and it &as
evident that the ma9ority of candidates &ere familiar &ith these. Do*smo(in# policies are also operated
by many or#anisations and) a#ain) candidates &ere able to sho& that they could ma(e a useful
contribution.
Question 9
$he .anual 1andlin# Operations Re#ulations ?BB3 are an e-tremely short set of re#ulations and the
duties of employers are confined to Re#ulation . $his re%uires employers primarily to avoid the need
for employees to carry out manual handlin# operations but) &here this is not reasonably practicable)
they are re%uired to carry out a suitable and sufficient assessment of manual handlin# tas(s that involve
a ris( of in9ury) ta(e appropriate steps to reduce that ris( to the lo&est level reasonably practicable
(&hich &ould include trainin#) and provide information to employees on the &ei#ht and characteristics
of the load to be lifted. $here is also a re%uirement to revie& the assessment &hen appropriate.
Re#ulation < places an obli#ation on employees to use any system of &or( put in place by their
employer.

In ans&erin# part (b)) mar(s &ere available for listin# indications such as accident reports) the results
of health surveillance) absence records) first*aid treatment) observations of the &or( in pro#ress (up to
full er#onomic assessments) and complaints from employees.
$he overall response of candidates to part (a) &as disappointin#) indicatin# that many did not have a
#ood understandin# of this (ey piece of le#islation. ;ns&ers to part (b) &ere sli#htly better althou#h
some candidates listed too fe& indications to #ain the full mar(s available. ; number of candidates
listed the different types of in9ury that employees could suffer as a result of manual handlin#) &hich the
%uestion did not as( for.
Question :
For part (a)) there is a ran#e of po&ers that allo& inspectors for instance6 to enter premises at any
reasonable time or &hen it is suspected that there is a dan#erous situation= to order that premises or
e%uipment be left undisturbed for the purpose of an investi#ation= to underta(e any necessary
e-aminations or inspections= to ta(e measurements and photo#raphs= to inspect or ta(e copies of
documents= to re%uire persons to ans&er %uestions and to ta(e declarations= and to ta(e enforcement
action.
7art (b) re%uired candidates to identify) and distin#uish bet&een) improvement and prohibition notices.
;n improvement notice may be served &here an inspector is of the opinion that there is a breach of a
statutory health and safety duty) or that there has been such a breach &hich is li(ely to continue or be
122
repeated= a prohibition notice may be served only &here) in the inspector's opinion) there is a ris( of
serious personal in9ury. In the latter case) a breach need not have occurred for the notice to be served.
;s a point of accuracy) a number of ans&ers included the phrase 'imminent ris(' even thou#h the &ord
'imminent' does not appear in the relevant section of the ;ct.
From the #eneral standard of ans&ers) it &ould appear that enforcement of health and safety le#islation
is an area that is &ell addressed on courses.
Question ;
;ns&ers to this %uestion should have included outlines of such means as6 involvin#employees in ris(
assessments) accident investi#ations and the development of safe systems and procedures= encoura#in#
ha4ard spottin# and the reportin# of defects= settin# up su##estion schemes= or#anisin# trainin# courses
and information pro#rammes= supportin# active involvement in safety committee meetin#s= bein#
accompanied by employees or their representatives on safety tours and inspections= and #ivin#
employees responsibilities for mentorin# youn# and ine-perienced &or(ers.
$his %uestion caused problems for a number of candidates. /ome &ere able to come up &ith no more
than one or t&o su##estions &hile others) despite the use of the &ord 'practical' in the %uestion) too( an
approach that loo(ed more at motivation theory than at the practical'&ays of directly involvin#
employees.
Question <
For part (a)) the t&o main functions of first*aid are) firstly) the preservation of life and,or the
minimisation of the conse%uences of serious in9ury and) secondly) the treatment of minor in9uries that
do not need medical attention.
$he si- mar(s allocated to part (b) &ere available for an outline of factors such as6 the si4e of the
or#anisation and number of employees= the layout of the &or(place= the identified ha4ards and ris(s=
the history of minor and other accidents (and typical need for first*aid treatment)= the distance from the
&or(place to the nearest source of emer#ency medical services= &or(in# patterns and practices such as
shift &or(in# and persons &or(in# a&ay from the &or(place= and the need in some circumstances to
train first*aid personnel in special procedures.
.ost candidates appeared comfortable &ith this %uestion) applyin# the results of their studies) &or(
e-perience and a measure of common sense to #ood effect. 1o&ever) it &as a#ain disappointin# to find
that some candidates identified relevant factors in part (b) but did not provide an ade%uate outline and
accordin#ly did not ta(e advanta#e of all the mar(s available.
Question =
For part (a)) a reasonable e-planation of 8perception' &as re%uired) such as the &ay that people interpret
and ma(e sense of presented information * for instance) in relation to their surroundin#s. /ome
candidates appeared to stru##le to put into &ords somethin# that is perhaps almost intuitive. 0ircular
definitions * for e-ample) Hperception is the &ay that people perceive thin#sH * &ere considered
inade%uate in this respect.
; #reater number of candidates) some of &hom had stru##led to provide an e-planation in part (a))
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&ere able to outline a ran#e of factors that mi#ht influence a person's perception of ris(. /uch factors
include6 the nature of the ha4ard (e# obvious or hidden) immediate or delayed effects) etc)= a person's
previous e-perience and familiarity &ith the situation= the level and nature of trainin#= peer #roup
influences= confidence in others' abilities and 9ud#ements= and a number of other personal
characteristics such as a#e) attitude and sensory impairment. Once a#ain) some candidates missed the
opportunity to #ain #ood mar(s by providin# a list rather than an outline of the relevant factors.
Question 9
E-aminers &ere e-pectin# candidates to outline factors such as previous e-perience of the &or() the
a#e of the employee and his,her %ualifications and s(ills) the employee's attitude and aptitude) the
nature and comple-ity of the tas( to be performed) and individual special needs or disabilities. .ost
candidates identified factors connected &ith the employee's e-perience but some &ent little beyond
this.
Question 1
7art (a) of the %uestion re%uired an outline of the main duties of a plannin# supervisor for a
construction pro9ect. ;s the name su##ests) the titleholder is responsible for coordinatin# the health and
safety aspects of pro9ect desi#n and plannin#. Fey duties therefore relate to ensurin# ade%uate desi#n)
co*ordinatin# the activities of desi#ners &here more than one is involved) and providin# advice to the
client and others on the competencies of other parties. $he plannin# supervisor is also responsible for
ensurin# that the pro9ect is notified to 1/E &here necessary) that a health and safety plan is developed
by the principal contractor and is ade%uate) and that the health and safety file contains all relevant
information and is passed to the client on completion of the pro9ect.
7art (b) addressed the content of a health and safety file in terms of providin# health and safety
information for those carryin# out &or( on a buildin# at a later date. Information that should be
contained in the file includes6 dra&in#s and plans= location of utilities and services= details of
construction methods and materials used= and details of installed e%uipment (e# lifts) air*conditionin#
systems) includin# manuals produced by specialist contractors and suppliers.
From ans&ers to both parts of the %uestion) E-aminers &ere of the opinion that candidates are not
confident in their understandin# of the re%uirements of the 0". Re#ulations. ;ns&ers &ere either
incorrect or) &here nominally correct) they did not contain sufficient information to demonstrate a full
and proper understandin#.
Question 11
:ith the possible e-ception of those &ho had run out of time) most candidates provided at least
reasonable ans&ers to this %uestion. $hey needed) ho&ever) to read the %uestion carefully and
appreciate that it referred to persons &ho &ere re%uired to &or( alone and a&ay from the main
&or(place. $he %uestion &as not solely about lone &or(in# althou#h some of the factors are still very
relevant.
0andidates &ho approached the %uestion in a lo#ical) structured and practical &ay by identifyin# the
factors that &ould contribute to the potential ris( (such as the &or( to be done and its attendant ha4ards
and ris(s) the e%uipment to be used and the ris( control measures in place at the &or( location) and
then identified factors that mi#ht miti#ate or possibly increase the level of ris( (such as the competence
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and suitability of the persons involved) methods of communication &ith the home base) and emer#ency
and first*aid procedures) achieved hi#h mar(s.
$he %uestion sou#ht a practical approach to this type of &or( situation. 1o&ever) a reference to the
re%uirements of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB * particularly the need
for a ris( assessment * &as credit&orthy.
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22-;
Paper Al
Identifying and controlling hazards
Question + 3 glassworks produces co"ers for streetlights and industrial lighting. (he
process in"ol"es #olten glass being blown by hand and shaped in #oulds.
(i)
Identify FOUR health effects that #ay be caused by working in the hot conditions of the glass
factory. (9)
(ii)
)Describe #easures that could be taken in order to #ini#ise thehealth effects of working in such hot
en"iron#ents.(!
(iii)
Outline the factors relating to the task and the load that #ay affect the risk of in?ury to an e#ployee
engaged in stacking the finishedproducts onto racking. ("#!
$his three*part %uestion #ave candidates the opportunity to identify the health ha4ards
associated &ith &or(in# in a hot environment) in this case a #lass&or(s) to describe the
appropriate control measures that should be ta(en and) lastly) to display their (no&led#e
of manual handlin#.
In ans&erin# part (i)) candidates &ere e-pected to identify four health effects caused by
&or(in# in a hot environment. /uch effects include heat stress) heat cataracts)
dehydration) e-haustion and respiratory distress. :hile most candidates could allude to
at least t&o of these) some perhaps did not read the %uestion &ith sufficient care and
referred to effects not directly related to the hot conditions.) such as manual handlin#
in9uries) or to those that cannot strictly be termed health effects) such as burns and cuts.
7art (ii) produced better ans&ers &ith most candidates describin# many of the control
measures that could be ta(en to minimise the health effects of &or(in# in a hot
environment. $hese mi#ht include6 the #radual acclimatisation of ne& personnel to the
environment= the provision and consumption of ade%uate amounts of fluid= the provision
of re#ular brea(s a&ay from the &or(= ensurin# ade%uate ventilation= the provision of
screens to protect a#ainst radiant heat= and the &earin# of appropriate personal
protective e%uipment.
7art (iii) referred to the factors relatin# to the tas( and load that mi#ht affect the ris( of
in9ury to an employee en#a#ed in the manual handlin# activity described. ;s far as the
tas( is concerned) candidates should have outlined factors such as6 holdin# or
manipulatin# loads at a distance from the trun(= the need to t&ist the body= e-cessive
pushin# or pullin# of the load or e-cessive carryin# distances= unsatisfactory posture
caused perhaps by space restriction= e-cessive liftin# distances (e# from the floor and,or
on to hi#h rac(in#)= and fre%uent or prolon#ed physical effort coupled &ith insufficient
rest or recovery periods. ;s for the load) reference should have been made to its &ei#ht
and si4e or shape) the ease &ith &hich the load can be held or #ripped) the presence of
sharp ed#es and the possibility that some components mi#ht still retain process heat.
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/ome candidates did not concentrate on the tas( and load but included factors relatin# to
the individual carryin# out the &or( and,or the environment in &hich the &or( &as
bein# carried out= others spent much time and effort in describin# correct liftin#
techni%ues. $his emphasises once a#ain the need for candidates to read the %uestion &ith
care so that they fully understand &hat they are bein# as(ed to do.
Question $ (a) Outline the #ain factors to be considered in the siting of fire
e*tinguishers. (9)
(b) Outline suitable arrange#ents for the inspection and #aintenance
of fire e*tinguishers in the workplace. (9)
$his %uestion &as ans&ered &ell by the ma9ority of candidates. For part (a)) nearly all
candidates &ere able to offer an outline of the main factors to be considered in the sitin#
of fire e-tin#uishers. $ypical factors mentioned included accessibility) visibility)
pro-imity to e-its and escape routes) the means of supportin# the e%uipment off the
#round and free from obstruction) and the need to protect e-tin#uishers from the &eather
and other sources of dama#e.
; little more difficulty &as found &ith part (b)) &hich re%uired candidates to outline
procedures to ensure that fire e-tin#uishers remain operational. Cood ans&ers clearly
differentiated bet&een the purposes of an inspection and those of maintenance.
Inspection of fire e-tin#uishers typically ta(es the form of routine (perhaps monthly)
visual chec(s to ensure that the e-tin#uishers are in place) have not been dischar#ed and
bear no obvious dama#e. .aintenance) on the other hand) is somethin# rather more
e-tensive and usually involves an annual e-amination and test by a competent person
accordin# to the manufacturer's instructions in order to ensure the inte#rity of the
e-tin#uisher) &ith the removal and replacement of e%uipment found to be faulty and the
date of the e-amination recorded on the e-tin#uisher.
Question 8 Outline the particular ha/ards that #ay be present during the de#olition of a
building. (%)
$his %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered by most candidates. $he main ha4ards
associated &ith this type of &or( include falls from a hei#ht) fallin# debris and
premature collapse) use of e-plosives) contact &ith and noise from e%uipment and heavy
plant) dust (possibly includin# asbestos) and the possible presence of services such as
electricity) #as and &ater.
; fe& candidates did not read the %uestion &ith sufficient care and included in their
ans&ers the precautions to be ta(en &hen underta(in# demolition &or() &hich &as not
&hat the %uestion re%uired.
Question 9 (a) Identify %&O types of ionising radiation. ($)
(b) Outline the ways in which e*posure to ionising radiation at work
#ay be controlled. (6)
In ans&erin# part (a)) many candidates identified #amma radiation and -*rays to #ain
the t&o mar(s available. $here &ere fe& references to alpha or beta radiation. 2uestions
on radiation still seem to present candidates &ith problems and the ans&ers a#ain
sho&ed that some are confused bet&een the ionisin# and non*ionisin# types) &hich &as
reflected in the mar(s that could be a&arded.
127
For part (b)) candidates &ere e-pected to outline control measures such as shieldin#)
increasin# the distance bet&een source and person) reducin# the duration of e-posure
and the use of appropriate personal protective e%uipment. .ost identified the first t&o
measures but no mar(s &ere a&arded for referrin# to personal protective e%uipment
unless there &as additional information on the type of e%uipment that should be &orn.
2uestion : Identify ways in which accidents #ay be pre"ented when using ladders
as a #eans of access. (%)
$here are many factors to consider &hen usin# ladders as a means of access. 0andidates
&ho presented a #ood ran#e of these &ere able to #ain hi#h mar(s) and many did. $hose
&ho fared best tended to provide a structured ans&er &ith issues #rouped into cate#ories
of 8suitability') 8sitin#' and 'use') and then #ave appropriate e-amples in each case. For
the first cate#ory) it is essential to ensure that the ladder is of the correct len#th,type and
that it is sound (e# not painted or dama#ed). For the second) the ladder must be placed
the ri#ht &ay up) on firm #round and at the correct an#le) securely footed and,or tied)
and positioned to avoid over*reachin# or contact &ith live cables. $he base of the ladder
should be protected from collisions by people or vehicles. Finally) users of the ladder
should have suitable foot&ear free of mud or #rease and be provided &ith means of
(eepin# their hands free (e# tool belts). $his &as not a %uestion that posed too many
problems althou#h some candidates read 8ladder' as 8to&er scaffold' and #ave details of
the ha4ards associated &ith the use of such e%uipment. Others placed the ladder in one
particular environment and then &ent on to describe in #reat detail the control measures
associated &ith that environment. $ypically) this approach included the various means of
preventin# vehicles and members of the public from collidin# &ith the ladder. /uch
ans&ers tended to miss the breadth of issues e-pected from the %uestion.
Question ; (a) Describe the typical sy#pto#s of occupational der#atitis. ($)
(b) Identify the factors that will influence the likelihood of der#atitis
occurring in workers handling der#atitic substances. (6)
For part (a)) candidates &ere e-pected to identify symptoms such as reddenin#)
blisterin# and crac(in# of the s(in. .ost &ere successful) &ith the more able also
considerin# the further possibility of infection or ulceration. /ome ans&ers referred
simply to 8inflammation' and,or 8pain' &hich &ere considered too va#ue by themselves
to be a&arded mar(s.
In part (b)) mar(s &ere available initially for reco#nisin# that the nature of the a#ent)
concentration levels and the duration and fre%uency of e-posure &ere some of the
factors that mi#ht influence the li(elihood of dermatitis occurrin# &hen dermatitic
substances are handled. ;dditional factors that could increase the ris( include cuts and
abrasions (&hich &ould allo& chemicals to be absorbed more readily)) e-istin# s(in
conditions) the type of s(in and its sensitivity) the specific site of s(in contact) poor
personal hy#iene) and the misuse or non*use of protective measures. ;ns&ers to this part
of the %uestion &ere particularly disappointin# and many candidates) instead of
addressin# the ris( factors) detailed the precautions that should be ta(en to prevent
dermatitis.
Question A Outline the particular risks to health and safety facing e#ployees in an
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indoor swi##ing pool. (%)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline ris(s associated &ith6
slips) trips and falls= falls from a hei#ht (e# into an empty pool or from a life#uard
station)= contact &ith chemicals= biolo#ical ha4ards) includin# fun#al or viral infection=
manual handlin#= noise= fati#ue and heat stress= violent assault= the use of portable
machinery (e# cleanin# e%uipment) includin# the ris( of electrocution from such
appliances= and) perhaps more obviously) dro&nin#.
Overall) most candidates provided #ood ans&ers to this %uestion and related their
ans&ers to the scenario of a s&immin# pool. ; fe&) ho&ever) did not consider the &or(
that #oes on 'behind the scenes') or decided that the %uestion referred to the ris(s facin#
those usin# the facility) and offered in their responses little more than the possibility of
dro&nin#.
Question = (a) Describe the possible effects of electricity on the body. (9)
(b) Outline FOUR factors that #ay affect the se"erity of in?ury fro#
contact with electricity. (9)
For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to specify the t&o main effects of electricity on
the human body as interference &ith nerve,muscle action and tissue burns * althou#h
some &ere content to rely on va#ue references to 8shoc(' or 8heart attac(') &hich &ere
insufficient as a description. .ore able candidates included reference to the cardio*
respiratory effects) in particular the ris( of fatal in9ury due to disruption of heart rhythm.
;s far as tissue burns are concerned) candidates should have referred to the main sites of
dama#e as bein# the entry and e-it points and to the possibility of dama#e to internal
or#ans.
For part (b)) many ans&ers concentrated almost entirely on the volta#es involved.
Relatively fe& candidates outlined additional factors such as the route ta(en throu#h the
body) the len#th of contact time) the #eneral health and a#e of the person involved) and
those factors that mi#ht affect the si4e of current passin# throu#h the body. In particular)
there &as little understandin# of resistance) based on thin#s such as dryness of the s(in)
natural body resistance) #round conditions and type of foot&ear.
Question 9 Outline FOUR ha/ards and the corresponding precautions to be taken when using
con"eyor syste#s for #o"ing #aterials within a workplace.
0andidates #ainin# hi#h mar(s on this %uestion &ere those &ho read the %uestion
carefully and noted firstly that it referred to conveyor systems and) secondly) that it
re%uired an outline of both ha4ards and the precautions a#ainst those ha4ards. $ypical
ha4ards and precautions that should have been mentioned include6 traps and dra&in#*in
(&ith nip #uards and trip devices as possible precautions)= entan#lement (fi-ed #uards)
avoidance of loose clothin#)= impact a#ainst overhead systems (bump caps) restricted
access) &arnin# si#ns) cushionin#)= items fallin# off (ed#e #uards or barriers)= contact
ha4ards (belt ed#e protection) restricted access) elimination of sharp ed#es)= manual
handlin# ha4ards (appropriate hei#ht of conveyor) the use of mechanical aids)= and noise
(various attenuation methods) hearin# protection).
(
F
)
.ost candidates stru##led &ith this %uestion. .any could refer to some of the
129
mechanical ha4ards associated &ith a conveyor belt but reference to the correspondin#
precautions &as #enerally limited to nip #uards on the rollers. Relatively fe& candidates
e-panded their ans&ers to include a ran#e of other precautions a#ainst the mechanical
ha4ards cited) and there &ere very fe& references at all to non*mechanical ha4ards.
Question 1 (a) Define the ter# (arget organ> within the conte*t of occupational
health. ($)
(b) Outline the personal hygiene practices that should be followed to
reduce the risk of ingestion of a ha/ardous substance. (6)
$he term 8tar#et or#an') for part (a)) &as poorly defined by most candidates) althou#h
many &ere able to demonstrate an understandin# of the concept &ith e-amples *
8asbestos and the lun#s' &as commonly cited. ; simple definition such as Hthe or#an's of
the human body upon &hich a to-ic material e-erts its effectsH &as all that &as
re%uired for full mar(s.
7art (b) provided another e-ample of the importance of carefully readin# the %uestion.
.any did not seem to ta(e note of the (ey &ords 8personal hy#iene' and 8in#estion'.
1ence) the %uestion &as specifically about &hat should be re%uired of employees to
avoid harmful substances enterin# the mouth. /uch practices as &ashin# hands before
eatin#) the avoidance of eatin#) drin(in# and smo(in# in the &or(place) utilisin#
facilities for contaminated clothin#) appropriate use of #loves and avoidin# hadn't*
mouth contact &ere all relevant in this respect. /everal candidates cited 8trainin#' in
their ans&ers to part (b). 1o&ever) &hile trainin# is essential for employees) it does not
describe a8personal hy#iene practice' in the conte-t of this %uestion.
Question 11 Identify FOUR different types of ha/ard that #ay necessitate the use of
special footwear1 explaining in !34- case how the footwear affords
protection. (%)
$his %uestion re%uired candidates to identify ha4ards &here a particular type of
foot&ear is re%uired to reduce ris() often the ris( of foot in9ury. 0andidates had only to
identify four from a len#thy list of ha4ards that mi#ht include6 fallin# ob9ects (steel toe
caps)= sharp ob9ects (steel insoles)= chemicals (chemical resistant foot&ear)= hot
materials (heat resistant boots &ith #aiters)= slippery surfaces (non*slip soles)= cold
environments (insulated boots)= &et environments (rubberised boots or &ellin#tons)=
spread of contamination (&ashable boots)= flammable atmospheres (anti*static
foot&ear)= and electricity (non*conductin# soles). $his &as a &ell*ans&ered %uestion
that #ave candidates &ho could visualise a ran#e of different situations and
environments the opportunity to achieve full mar(s.
Paper A2
!he 3anage3ent of safety and
Question + (a)
Outline the factors that should be considered when selecting indi"iduals to assist in carrying out risk
assess#ents in the workplace.
130
(b) @escribe the key stages of a risk assess#ent.
(c) Outline a hierarchy of #easures for controlling e*posures to
ha/ardous substances.
In ans&erin# part (a)) relevant factors that should have been outlined include6 the
individuals' past e-perience and trainin# in ha4ard identification and in carryin# out ris(
assessments= their e-perience of the process or activity carried out in the &or(place and
their (no&led#e of the plant and e%uipment involved= their ability to understand and
interpret re#ulations and standards= their communication s(ills= and their attitude and
commitment to the tas(.
For part (b)) most candidates &ere able to describe the three sta#es of identifyin# the
ha4ards involved in the activity or process) identifyin# the classes of person at ris( of
harm and evaluatin# the ris(s arisin# from the ha4ards (based on li(elihood of harm and
probable conse%uences) and then ta(in# current controls into account). +etter candidates
referred to the additional sta#es of identifyin# suitable measures to eliminate or control
remainin# ris(s) recordin# the findin#s of the assessment) and revie&in# and revisin# the
assessment &hen this becomes necessary.
In ans&ers to part (c)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of measures such as6
elimination of the substance= substitution for a less harmful substance or chan#in# the
process to avoid harmful e-posure= se#re#ation of persons or isolation of the process= the
introduction of en#ineerin# controls such as ventilation= and) finally) the provision and
use of personal protective e%uipment. +etter ans&ers referred also to the role of
procedural and behavioural controls) such as safe systems of &or( and trainin#) &ithin
this hierarchy. ;ns&ers to this part of the %uestion &ere disappointin# and many
candidates &ere able to identify only one or t&o measures. Others failed to #ain mar(s
because they did not pay sufficient attention to the 8action verb' and provided little more
than a list of (ey &ords. Relatively fe& candidates outlined a suitable hierarchy of
measures) supported &here appropriate by the use of e-amples to sho& a proper
understandin#.
Question $ )ith reference to the 5eporting of In?uries1 @iseases and @angerous
Occurrences 5egulations (5I@@O5) +&&60
(i) (ii)
list 7O85 types of #a?or in?ury
outline the procedures for reporting a #a?or in?ury to an enforcing authority.
() ()
$his is a %uestion that has appeared in several past papers and it &as therefore surprisin#
to find that it caused difficulty to a number of candidates. In ans&erin# part (i))
candidates could have chosen from a list of ma9or in9uries includin# fractures (other than
fin#ers) thumbs and toes)) amputation) loss of si#ht) in9uries re%uirin# resuscitation and
those re%uirin# hospitalisation for more than 3 hours. /ome candidates offered 'three
day in9uries' or 'fatalities' in their lists) neither of &hich are included as ma9or in9uries.
;lthou#h death mi#ht be considered a ma9or occurrence) fatal in9uries are a special case
&ithin RI""OR.
7art (ii) offered four mar(s for details of &ho should report a ma9or in9ury and the
means of so doin#. 0andidates #ainin# full mar(s &ere those &ho included in their
131
ans&ers ho& the responsible person &ould notify the enforcin# authority by the
%uic(est practical means (usually telephone or fa-) and then ma(e a report &ithin ten
days of the accident on the approved form (F3<@!) or by other approved means) such as
contact &ith the 1/E incident reportin# centre.
Question 8 Outline EIG'% possible causes of increased stress le"els a#ongst e#ployees other
than those associated with the physical en"iron#ent.
$his %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered althou#h some candidates a#ain did not pay
sufficient attention to its &ordin# and included in their ans&ers causes associated &ith
the physical environment) for &hich no mar(s could be a&arded. $here &ere) ho&ever)
numerous other causes that could have been outlined. $hese can be broadly cate#orised
into those relatin# to &or( arran#ements (shift&or() unsocial hours) e-cessive overtime)
lac( of ade%uate brea(s) etc)) &or( demands (too hi#h or too lo&) repetitive or
monotonous &or() lac( of control over the 9ob) mismatch bet&een s(ills and 9ob
re%uirements) etc) and relationships &ith others (#eneral relationships &ith supervisors
or peers) poor lines of communication and issues of harassment) bullyin#)
discrimination) abuse and violence). Employees may also) of course) face pressures in
their private lives (financial) marital) etc) that can increase #eneral stress levels.
Question 9 (a) Explain the #eaning of the ter#s0
(i) >occupational e*posure standard> (O!S) ($)
(ii) =#a*i#u# e*posure li#it> (<!A). ($)
(b) Identify FOUR duties placed on e#ployers by the 4ontrol of
Substances -a/ardous to -ealth (4OS--) 5egulations ?BBB. ()
(%)
$his &as a %uestion that caused candidates some difficulty) &ith many unable to offer
ade%uate e-planations of the t&o types of occupational e-posure limit or identify the
duties placed on employers by the 0O/11 Re#ulations ?BBB (no& 3@@3) * other than
that to carry out a ris( assessment.
;n 8occupational e-posure standard' (OE/) is the concentration of an airborne
substance) avera#ed over a reference period of usually either ! hours or ?< minutes) at
&hich there is currently no evidence of in9urious effect. Inhalation e-posure should not
be above this level and any e-cursions that may occur should be identified and
remedied as soon as is reasonably practicable.
;8ma-imum e-posure limit' (.EL)) on the other hand) is the ma-imum airborne
concentration of a particular substance to &hich a &or(er may be e-posed. ;n .EL
must never be e-ceeded and the aim must be to reduce e-posure to a level as far belo&
the .EL as is reasonably practicable. /ubstances are assi#ned an .EL &hen it is
considered that control at a safe limit is not reasonably practicable or &here no safe
limit can be determined (e# carcino#ens).
In ans&erin# part (b)) more able candidates &ere able to identify additional duties to
that of carryin# out a ris( assessment. $hey include6 preventin# or controllin#
employees' e-posure= ensurin# the proper use of control measures= the e-amination)
testin# and maintenance of control measures= monitorin# e-posure at the &or(place=
health surveillance &here appropriate= and the provision of information) instruction and
132
trainin# to those e-posed to ha4ardous substances.
Question : Outline the factors to consider when assessing the risks to a long distance
deli"ery dri"er. (%)
.ost candidates made a #ood attempt at ans&erin# this %uestion by applyin# the
(no&led#e that they had #ained durin# their studies to a particular situation. Ris( factors
that could have been outlined include6 the duration of the 9ourney) drivin# hours and the
demands of the route= &eather and other environmental factors= communications and the
problem of supervision at a distance= security and violence= vehicle maintenance and
brea(do&n provision= the nature of the load (e# ha4ardous) heavy) etc)= the need for) and
the means of) manual and mechanical handlin# of materials= the desi#n and layout of the
cab= and any specialist s(ills re%uired of the driver and the trainin# #iven.
Re#rettably) some candidates) even thou#h they identified many of the relevant factors)
could not be a&arded the full ran#e of mar(s available because they did not provide an
outline as re%uired. ; bullet*point list of issues &as insufficient to sho& the relevance of
each to an assessment of ris(.
Question ; (a) Explain the #eaning of the phrase 8so far as is reasonably
practicable>. ($)
(b) -tate the general and specific duties of e#ployers under section 3
of the -ealth and Safety at )ork etc ;ct +&79. (6)
Cenerally) this %uestion &as &ell ans&ered. .ost candidates found little difficulty &ith
part (a)) offerin# an e-planation based on the balance of ris( a#ainst cost (in terms of
money) time and trouble). /ome candidates supported their ans&ers &ith a short
e-ample that helped to sho& a #ood understandin#.
7art (b) offered candidates &ith (no&led#e of section 3 of the 1/: ;ct the opportunity
to obtain the full si- mar(s available. .ost candidates &ere able to %uote the #eneral
duty to ensure (so far as is reasonably practicable) the health) safety and &elfare of
employees. .any then &ent on to refer to the specific duties to provide and maintain
safe plant and systems of &or() to ensure the safe use) stora#e) handlin# and transport of
articles and substances) to provide and maintain a safe &or(place) includin# access and
e#ress) to provide a safe &or(in# environment &ith ade%uate &elfare facilities) and to
provide information) instruction) trainin# and supervision. 0andidates need to be a&are
that section 3 e-tends beyond the first t&o subsections and continues &ith the additional
re%uirements to prepare and revise a health and safety policy) to consult &ith employee
representatives and to establish a safety committee &hen re%uired to do so. 0andidates
&ho could not brin# to mind the five parts of section 3(3) mi#ht have benefited from this
(no&led#e.
Question < (a) Identify %'REE work situations that would re'uire the use of
personal eye protection. (2)
(b) Outline the range of issues that should be addressed when
training e#ployees in the use of personal eye protection. (6)
7art (a) re%uired candidates to identify three &or( situations that &ould re%uire the use
of eye protection. 0andidates could have chosen situations involvin# flyin# particles)
dusts) molten metals) chemical splashes or non*ionisin# radiation. /ome candidates &ere
too #eneral in their ans&ers) usin# &ords such as 'impact' or 8UV li#ht') or referrin# to
#eneral &or(in# environments such as 8metal&or( shop') rather than identifyin# specific
133
&or( situations such as UV li#ht from &eldin# or flyin# particles from #rindin#
operations.
For part (b)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for issues such as6 the le#al and or#anisational
re%uirements for eye protection= the conse%uences of employees not &earin# it= the
protection afforded by) and the limitations of) the e%uipment= compatibility &ith other
forms of personal protective e%uipment= correct ad9ustment of the eye protection=
methods of (eepin# it clean= correct stora#e arran#ements= and the circumstances &hen
replacement should be sou#ht. $his part of the %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered.
Question = Outline the possible effects on health and safety of poor standards of
housekeeping in the workplace. (%)
.ost candidates &ere able to reco#nise at least a fe& of the effects of poor
house(eepin# on health and safety. $he more obvious are6 slips (from spilla#es)
oil,#rease and slippery materials such as plastic)= trips and falls (e# from articles
obstructin# &al(&ays)= an increased ris( of fire (from a build*up of combustible
materials)= and fallin# materials (e# from poor stac(in# arran#ements). +etter candidates
could e-tend this ran#e by includin# such items as6 an increased chance of comin# into
contact &ith chemicals (e# from poor stora#e arran#ements)= the possibility of
infestation) particularly if food is involved= vehicle collisions if traffic routes are
bloc(ed= and the effects on emer#ency evacuation if fire e-its are obstructed. /ome
candidates also referred to the de*moralisin# aspects on a &or(force in #eneral) leadin#
to a lac( of interest in) and adherence to) health and safety procedures.
Question 9 (a) Outline the legal re'uire#ents whereby e#ployers #ust prepare
a written state#ent of their health and safety policy. ($)
(b) Outline the circu#stances that #ay gi"e rise to the need for a
health and safety policy to be re"ised. (6)
.ost candidates) for part (a)) &ere a&are of the need for the preparation of a &ritten
health and safety policy &here there are five or more employees. .any &ere also able
to identify the relevant part of the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct ?BA * namely
section 3(5).
For part (b)) the circumstances that may necessitate revisions to a health and safety
policy include6 chan#es in or#anisational arran#ements and,or responsibilities= the
introduction of ne& processes) &or( patterns or le#islation= or &here the results of ris(
assessment) auditin#) accident investi#ation) enforcement action) policy revie& or
consultation &ith employees indicate that the policy is deficient in some &ay.
Question ?@ (a) Explain the circu#stances under which an e#ployer #ust for# a
health and safety co##ittee. ($)
(b) Give reasons why a health and safety co##ittee #ay be
ineffecti"e. (6)
:hile a health and safety committee is considered an asset by many employers)
candidates should have e-plained) for part (a)) that an employer is re%uired by la& to
form a health and safety committee &hen re%uested in &ritin# by t&o or more trade
union*appointed safety representatives.
134
; ran#e of reasons &as re%uired to earn all si- mar(s available for part (b). $hey include6
an uneven balance in mana#ement and employee representation= a #eneral lac( of
commitment by mana#ement and,or employee representatives= poor chairmanship= no
published a#enda or minutes= the infre%uency or cancellation of meetin#s= the
unsuitability of the topics discussed= no health and safety e-pertise available= and no
access by the committee to decision*ma(in# processes.
In the main) this %uestion &as ans&ered fairly reasonably but E-aminers &ere surprised
that a si#nificant number of candidates stru##led &ith a sub9ect that should have been
familiar to all &ith an interest in promotin# health and safety in the &or(place.
Question ++ Identify !I,-( sources of infor#ation that #ight usefully be consulted when de"eloping
a safe syste# of work. (%)
.ost candidates &ere able to secure at least a fe& mar(s in ans&erin# this %uestion. ;
selection could have been made from sources such as statutory instruments) ;0O7s and
1/E #uidance) manufacturers' information) European and other official standards)
industry or trade literature) results of ris( assessments) accident statistics and,or
health,medical surveillance records) the employees involved) and enforcement a#encies
and other e-perts.
;s this &as the last %uestion on the paper) it is a matter of con9ecture as to &hether
candidates &ho identified only one or t&o sources &ere limited by &hat they (ne& or
9ust by time.
135
22-9
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A1: I*#$!I./I$0 A$* +O$!)O%%I$0 "A>A)*-
-#P!#'(#) 22
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8 pneumatic chisel is to be used to remove a concrete wall located
within a factory.
(i) Identify by means of a labelled sketch .*"'' possible transmission
paths the noise from the chisel could take.
(6)
(ii) Outline the means by which noise e#posures of 4O.* the chisel
operator (1D factory employees might be minimised.
(8)
(iii) '#$l%in the limitations of personal hearing protection used in these
circumstances.
(6)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 8n office employee is re$uired to replace .C litre (.Ckg) water bottles
located on top of water coolers.
(i) Identify O!" factors specific to the employee that might increase
the risk of in&ury when carrying out this task.
(;)
(ii) Outline a good handling techni$ue that could be used when lifting a
full bottle from the floor.
(;)
3 Outline the health and safety risks associated with welding operations. (F)
4 '#$l%in% using a suitable sketch% the significance of the 4fire triangle5. (;)
+ist O!" types of ignition source that may cause a fire to occur% and
&ive an e#ample of '()* type.
(;)
5 Outline the particular haards that might be encountered by staff (F)
136
working in a busy hotel kitchen.
6 '#$l%in the term 4respirable dust5 (.)
Outline the ways in which the levels of dust in a workplace can be
assessed.
(3)
7 Identify O!" haards when cutting grass on roadside verges with a
rider"operated motor" mower and outline the precautions to be taken
against '()* one.
(F)
8 *ccupational health haards can be classed as chemical% physical%
biological and ergonomic.
(i) 3ive an e#ample of a specific workplace health haard for '()*
class.
(;)
(ii) 2t%te the primary health effect of e#posure to '()* of the e#amples
given in part (i).
(;)
, Outline the precautions to be taken to prevent accidents to employees
working at ground level in a workshop where heavy loads are lifted and
transported by means of an overhead gantry crane.
(F)
1- 8 fitter is employed to lay carpet tiles using a solvent"based adhesive. 9n
relation to the use of the adhesive in such circumstances!
(i) identify the possible effects on health (;)
(ii) outline the control measures that should be considered. (;)
11 +ist 'I3*. rules to follow when a fork" lift truck is left unattended in a
workplace.
(F)
NEBOSH Ce#$3$+,#e < Se/#e&4e )==)
Paper A1 Identifying and cntrlling %a!ard"
Outline an"#er" and guidance gi$en in t%e NEBOSH exa&iner'" (eprt
Sectin 1
)ue"tin 1
137
Ar part 2i3 f t%e +ue"tin1 candidate" #ere re+uired t prduce a "i&ple ".etc% "%#ing t%e
t%ree tran"&i""in pat%" t%at ni"e can ta.e/ *%e"e are direct t%rug% t%e air1 reflected fr&
#all" r t%er "urface"1 and "tructure6-rne t%rug% t%e #all r flr/ S&e candidate" did nt
prduce a ".etc% at all and1 f t%"e #% did1 &any "%#ed a di"appinting le$el f .n#ledge
f ni"e tran"&i""in/ A fe# candidate" &i"under"td t%e +ue"tin entirely and prduced a
dra#ing f t%e ear/
In ans&erin# part (ii)) those candidates &ho could apply the theory of noise reduction to the scenario
described inevitably performed better than those &ho mentioned noise reduction techni%ues in the
abstract. E-aminers &ere loo(in# for responses that outlined means such as insulatin# the noise by the
erection of barriers or screens) fittin# a silencer to the chisel and,or la##in# it &ith a 9ac(et) coverin#
e-posed surfaces &ith absorbent material) minimisin# e-posure times by carryin# out the operation
&here possible at times &hen the employees of the factory are not at &or() and providin# hearin#
protection for the operator and &or(ers. Unfortunately) there &ere relatively fe& candidates &ho
sho&ed evidence of a #ood #eneral understandin# of ho& the noise reduction techni%ues of insulation)
absorption and isolation,se#re#ation could be applied in the circumstances described.
7art (iii) re%uired an e-planation of the limitations of personal hearin# protection used for the
demolition operation. 0andidates could have referred to limitations such as incorrect fit)
incompatibility &ith other personal protective e%uipment) interference &ith normal communication)
comfort factors and duration of use) and the need for re#ular cleanin# and maintenance. .ost
candidates mana#ed to refer to a number of valid issues but the e-planations provided &ere often poor
&ith only lists or brief outlines bein# offered.
$here &ere some #ood ans&ers to this %uestion but there &ere also many that sho&ed a lac( of breadth
or depth of (no&led#e of noise issues. $oo many ans&ers relied on learned facts that &ere poorly
applied to the particular situation described. /ome ans&ers &ere e-tremely brief and candidates should
remember that one*fifth of the mar(s for the entire paper are available for ans&ers to this %uestion.
;ns&ers are e-pected to be proportionate to the mar(s available.
-ection 2
Question 2
/pecific factors relatin# to the employee &ere re%uired in ans&erin# part (i) of this %uestion.
0andidates could have referred to factors such as physical stren#th and stature) the state of health of the
employee and the level of trainin# in manual handlin# techni%ues. Related to these are the person's
perceptions (or misperceptions) of there%uirements of the tas( or of their o&n abilities. .any
candidates did not read the %uestion &ith sufficient care and produced a broad ran#e of factors
includin# those relatin# to the load) the environment and the tas(.
$he second part of the %uestion produced much better responses) &ith most candidates able to #ive an
ade%uate outline of a #ood handlin# techni%ue by referrin# to the importance of ma(in# an initial
assessment of the load and then the need to ta(e a firm #rip of the bottle to be lifted before movin# it
smoothly) (eepin# the bac( strai#ht and usin# the le# muscles) ensurin# that the trun( is not t&isted
138
durin# the operation.
Question 8
Civen the variety of types of &eldin#) and the broad ran#e of ha4ards that can be presented) an outline
of the associated ris(s should have posed little problem. * .any candidates) ho&ever) concentrated on
identifyin# the ha4ards rather than the ris(s. "ependin# on the type of &eldin#) ris(s may include
electric shoc() trippin# over trailin# cables or pipes) in9uries from the handlin# of cylinders) and the
problems associated &ith o-y#en enrichment leadin# to an increased ris( of fire and,or e-plosion.
+etter candidates referred to the effects of fume inhalation) dama#e to the eyes from UV li#ht) burns to
the s(in and the increased ris( of fire from hot materials or spar(s.
Question 9
Part 2a3 f t%i" +ue"tin re+uired candidate" t explain1 #it% a clearly la-elled diagra&1 t%at
eac% "ide f t%e fire triangle repre"ent" ne f t%ree ele&ent" 6 na&ely1 fuel1 xygen and a
"urce f ignitin 6 all t%ree f #%ic% &u"t -e pre"ent fr c&-u"tin t ccur/ *%e
under"tanding f t%e fire triangle i" funda&ental t fire pre$entin and precautin"/ It #a" n
"urpri"e1 t%erefre1 t%at &"t candidate" %ad little pr-le& in pr$iding an ade+uately la-elled
".etc%/
7art (b) re%uired a list of types of i#nition source to#ether &ith an e-ample of each. :hile many
candidates &ere able to provide a reasonable list) the inclusion of specific e-amples proved more
difficult for some. /ome candidates confused sources of i#nition &ith methods of heat transfer. 7ossible
sources of i#nition that could have been mentioned include6 electricity (arcin# or overheatin# due to
faulty &irin#) poor connections) e-cess current) etc)= chemical reactions (any reaction bet&een
chemicals that #ives off heat)= hot &or( (e# &eldin# or cuttin#)= na(ed flame or burnin# material (e#
discarded smo(in# materials)= friction caused by) for instance) inade%uate lubrication of machinery= and
hot surfaces such as those on coo(in# or heatin# appliances.
Question :
Of the many ha4ards li(ely to be encountered by staff &or(in# in a hotel (itchen) the follo&in#
represent 9ust a fe& that candidates could have included in their ans&ers6 electrical and mechanical
ha4ards associated &ith machinery such as food mi-ers and processors= hot surfaces= sharp implements=
&et or obstructed floors increasin# the ris( of slips) trips and falls= boilin# &ater and hot coo(in# oils
causin# burns= manual handlin# ha4ards= health ha4ards (e# foodstuffs causin# aller#ic reactions)= and
cleanin# materials that may be corrosive. ; number of other ha4ards) relatin# mainly to the hot) busy
environment of a commercial (itchen) &ere raised by candidates.
7artly because of the &ide ran#e of ha4ards) and partly because a #eneral (itchen environment &ould
be familiar to candidates) this %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered. 1o&ever) some candidates) a#ain)
confused ha4ard and ris( and referred to effects of cuts) slips or burns &ithout specifyin# the particular
ha4ards that &ould cause them. Others provided simple lists of ha4ards &ith little reference to a
139
(itchen. ;n outline) as re%uired by the %uestion) typically included e-amples of &here the ha4ards
&ould be found and,or their potential. ; fe& candidates concentrated on identifyin# the precautions
that should be put in place) &hich &ere not re%uired. $his a#ain emphasises the need to read the
%uestions &ith #reat care.
Question ;
In an"#ering part 2a3 f t%e +ue"tin candidate" #ere expected t explain t%at re"pira-le du"t i"
an at&"p%eric du"t f a particle "i!e range t%at ena-le" it t enter t%e lung" during nr&al
re"piratin/ 7ery fe# candidate" &anaged t -tain t%e t# &ar." a$aila-le fr t%i" part f t%e
+ue"tin/
For part (b)) better candidates &ere able to distin#uish bet&een %ualitative &ays of assessin# dust levels
(e# visual e-amination of the accumulation of dust on surfaces or the use of a dust lamp to hi#hli#ht
sources of dust emission) and %uantitative methods (samplin# methods or direct readin# instruments).
;s far as samplin# is concerned) candidates should have referred to basic samplin# strate#ies (personal
versus fi-ed or area samplin#) and the principle of assessin# the concentration of airborne dust by
notin# the &ei#ht difference of a pre*&ei#hed filter after a (no&n %uantity of contaminated air is dra&n
throu#h it. It became clear that fe& candidates &ere a&are of the methods or principles of samplin#.
References in ans&ers to the use of stain tube detectors for dust measurement and 8blo&in# into tubes'
&ere particularly &orryin#.
Question <
0andidates &ere #enerally able to identify a number of ha4ards associated &ith the use of a
motor*mo&er) the more obvious perhaps bein# fast rotatin# blades and the potential for the machine to
overturn &hen operatin# on inclines. Other ha4ards that could have been mentioned &ere noise and
vibration) collision &ith road traffic or pedestrians) fumes) dust) flyin# ob9ects (e# stones e9ected from
the machine) and ha4ards associated &ith fuel. .ore able candidates referred to environmental issues
such as e-treme e-posure to sunli#ht and the presence of stin#in# insects.
;ppropriate precautions &ould include the fittin# of #uards to protect the blades) the provision of
personal protective e%uipment such as ear defenders) eye protection and hi#h visibility clothin#) conin#
off areas in close pro-imity to movin# traffic) and trainin# drivers in operatin# the machine on slopin#
#round) in re*fuellin# procedures and in carryin# out routine maintenance &or(. :hile the use of
personal protective e%uipment featured fre%uently as a precaution to be ta(en) very fe& candidates #ave
details of the types of protection to be provided.
.ore successful ans&ers tended to be those that &ere structured lo#ically so that a particular ha4ard
&as identified) and the correspondin# precautions outlined) before movin# on to the ne-t ha4ard.
Question =
140
In part 2i3 f t%e +ue"tin1 exa&ple" #ere re+uired fr eac% f t%e fur &ain cla""e" f %ealt%
%a!ard/ An exa&ple f a c%e&ical %a!ard culd %a$e -een c%"en fr& a $a"t range f
p""i-ilitie" t%at include" a"-e"t"1 lead1 &ercury and rganic "l$ent" 6 it #a" nt nece""ary
t gi$e t%e c%e&ical na&e f a particular "u-"tance pr$iding t%at t%e generic grup c%"en
culd -e de"cri-ed a" repre"enting a c%e&ical %ealt% %a!ard/ H#e$er1 it #a" nece""ary t
pr$ide a c%e&ical gruping and nt a $ague reference t1 fr in"tance1 ,du"t,1 ,cleaner", r
,paint",/ Ar an exa&ple f a p%y"ical %a!ard1 candidate" &ig%t %a$e "elected ni"e1 $i-ratin
r radiatin/ 7ariu" type" f $iru"e" and -acteria culd %a$e -een cited a" rele$ant exa&ple"
f a -ilgical %a!ard1 #%ile ergn&ic %a!ard" ari"e t%rug% prly de"igned #r."tatin" r
ta"." t%at are repetiti$e r in$l$e a#.#ard p"itin"/
.ost candidates &ere able to identify e-amples of biolo#ical and chemical ha4ards althou#h) as
inferred above) some e-amples #iven for the latter &ere a little too va#ue. $here seemed to be little
understandin# of physical health ha4ards) &ith fre%uent references to manual handlin# and movin#
parts of machinery. In some cases) the &ord 8physical' appeared to cause some confusion and) in others)
candidates did not seem to realise that the %uestion referred to health ha4ards (as opposed to safety
ha4ards). /imilarly) many candidates referred to 8manual handlin#' as an e-ample of an er#onomic
ha4ard althou#h this is) in fact) an activity that can involve a number of er#onomic ha4ards.
$he mar(s that could be a&arded for responses to part (ii) &ere limited by the difficulty that many
candidates e-perienced in identifyin# specific e-amples of health ha4ards in part (i). ; fe& candidates)
ho&ever) made life very easy for themselves by their choices of ha4ards. For e-ample) full mar(s could
be achieved by lin(in# asbestos &ith asbestosis) noise &ith noise*induced hearin# loss) le#ionella
bacteria &ith le#ionellosis) and repetitive tas(s &ith &or(*related upper limb disorders.
Question 9
.any of the issues relatin# to the use of an overhead #antry crane in a &or(place)
&hether operated from a cab or from floor level by pendant) are common to all crane
peratin"/
$he use) trainin# and competence of (ey personnel (operator) si#naller) slin#er) are of utmost
importance to #eneral crane safety) as are the re%uirements for maintenance and statutory inspection of
the crane and liftin# tac(le. ;s far as the actual operation is concerned) candidates should have had in
mind the &or(place situation and referred appropriately to &arnin#s of a lift ta(in# place (audible
and,or visual)) ensurin# that the load is secure) does not e-ceed the safe &or(in# load) is lifted to the
correct hei#ht and moved at an appropriate speed) and ensurin# that all those &or(in# in the area have
been properly trained and are ade%uately supervised.
Even thou#h the %uestion re%uired an outline of these precautions) in many instances nothin# more than
141
a list of points &as #iven. ;n outline in this case &ould typically refer briefly to the &ay in &hich the
particular precaution enhances safety. In addition) 7aper ;? %uestions normally re%uire practical issues
to be addressed but there &ere many references to #eneric issues) such as 8ris( assessment' and 8safe
systems of &or('. Deither of these demonstrates (no&led#e of safe liftin# operations. Indeed) a ris(
assessment is underta(en in order to determine the precautions that are needed and is not) in itself) a
precaution.
Question 1
Ar part 2i31 candidate" #ere expected t identify t%e p""i-le %ealt% effect" fr& t%e u"e f a
"l$ent6-a"ed ad%e"i$e/ *%e"e &ay include ".in and eye irritatin1 der&atiti"1 %eadac%e"1
nau"ea and di!!ine""1 #it% p""i-le and &re "eriu" effect" "uc% a" narc"i" and l"" f
cn"ciu"ne""/ *%i" #a" ant%er exa&ple #%ere t%e +ue"tin #a" read #it% in"ufficient care
-y "&e candidate"1 #% ffered .nee da&age and cut" fr& .ni$e" in t%eir an"#er" de"pite
t%e fact t%at t%e +ue"tin "pecifically referred t t%e u"e f ad%e"i$e" and t%eir effect" n
%ealt%/
In ans&erin# part (ii)) candidates should have referred to control measures such as the possible
substitution of the adhesive for a less to-ic or volatile one) ventilation of the &or(in# area) usin# the
minimum amount of the substance for the 9ob) adherin# to #ood house(eepin# procedures (e# (eepin#
lids on containers and avoidin# contaminated ra#s)) the use of a respirator and other personal protective
e%uipment) #ood personal hy#iene) and the provision of information) instruction and trainin# to the
fitter. .any candidates referred correctly to limitin# time e-posure and the use of respirators but fe&
covered the &ider ran#e of issues mentioned above.
>"es#$%n 11
*%i" +ue"tin #a" generally #ell an"#ered and &"t candidate" #ere a-le t cite a nu&-er f
rule" t%at need t -e fll#ed #%en lea$ing a fr.6lift truc. unattended1 "uc% a" returning t%e
truc. t a de"ignated par.ing area #%ere p""i-le1 applying t%e -ra.e and lea$ing t%e cntrl"
in a neutral p"itin1 en"uring t%e fr." are re"ting n t%e flr and t%e &a"t tilted "lig%tly
fr#ard1 a$iding t%e -"tructin f #al.#ay"1 exit" and fire pint"1 and re&$ing t%e ignitin
.ey and returning it t a re"pn"i-le per"n/
!"# $A!IO$A% #&A'I$A!IO$ (OA)* I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
142
$A!IO$A% 0#$#)A% +#)!I.I+A!# I$ O++,PA!IO$A% -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
PAP#) A2: !"# 'A$A0#'#$! O. -A.#!/ A$* "#A%!"
-#P!#'(#) 22
Answer A%% 2uestions !i3e Allowed: 2 hours
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) '#$l%in the purposes of the following sections of a health and safety
policy!
(i) 4statement of intent5 (2)
(ii) 4organisation5 (2)
(iii) 4arrangements5. (2)
(b) Outline the issues that are typically included in the %rr%n&e6ents
section of a health and safety policy.
(8)
(c) Descri0e the circumstances that would re$uire a health and safety
policy to be reviewed.
(6)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the .*"'' standard conditions that must be met for an
employee to prove a case of alleged negligence against an employer.
(3)
'#$l%in the meaning of the term 'vicarious liability'. (.)
3 Outline the issues that should be considered to ensure the health and
safety of cleaners employed in a school out of normal working hours.
(F)
4 9n relation to the spillage of a to#ic substance from a ruptured drum
stored in a warehouse!
(i) identify .*"'' ways in which persons working in close vicinity to
the spillage might be harmed
(<)
(ii) outline a procedure to be followed in the event of such a spillage. (=)
5 '#$l%in why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate
health and safety information in the workplace.
(F)
143
6 Outline O!" duties of '()* of the following persons under the
2onstruction (Design and (anagement) +egulations ,--;!
(i) the planning supervisor (;)
(ii) the principal contractor. (;)
7 Outline the various circumstances that may create a need for a review
of health and safety training within an organisation.
(F)
8 (a) 2t%te ./O duties of employees under the /ersonal /rotective
1$uipment at 0ork +egulations ,--..
(.)
(b) Outline the factors that could discourage employees from wearing //1. (3)
, Outline the factors to consider when carrying out a fire risk assessment
of a workplace.
(F)
1- (a) '#$l%in% giving an e#ample in '()* case% the circumstances under
which a health and safety inspector may serve!
(i) an improvement notice (<)
(ii) a prohibition notice. (<)
(b) 2t%te the effect on '()* type of enforcement notice of appealing
against it.
(.)
11
(eplace&ent and retraining f "taff i" a c"t t%at an rgani"atin &ay
face fll#ing a #r.place accident/
+ist 'I3*. other possible costs to an organisation when a serious
accident has occurred.
(F)
NEBOSH Ce#$3$+,#e < Se/#e&4e )==)
Paper A9 *%e &anage&ent f "afety and %ealt%
Outline an"#er" and guidance gi$en in t%e NEBOSH exa&iner'" (eprt
Sectin 1
)ue"tin 1
144
In an"#ering part 2a31 candidate" "%uld %a$e referred t t%e ,"tate&ent f intent, a" t%e
de&n"tratin f &anage&ent," c&&it&ent t %ealt% and "afety1 lin.ing t%i" #it% t%e "etting
f gal" and -@ecti$e"/ *%e purp"e f t%e ,rgani"atin, "ectin i" t identify %ealt% and
"afety re"pn"i-ilitie" #it%in t%e c&pany and t en"ure effecti$e delegatin and reprting/
*%e ,arrange&ent", "ectin i" #%ere practical arrange&ent" "uc% a" "y"te&" and prcedure"
t a""i"t in plicy i&ple&entatin are detailed/ In an"#ering t%i" part f t%e +ue"tin1 &any
candidate" %ad difficulty in di"tingui"%ing -et#een t%e different "ectin" f a %ealt% and "afety
plicy and1 f t%"e #% did1 "&e did nt gi$e "ufficient infr&atin t indicate a full
.n#ledge f t%e purp"e f eac% "ectin/
Part 2-3 led n fr& t%e fir"t part and re+uired candidate" t utline i""ue" t%at are included in
t%e ,arrange&ent", "ectin f a %ealt% and "afety plicy/ *%e"e #uld typically include detail"
f &atter" "uc% a" "afe "y"te&" f #r.1 ri". a""e""&ent prcedure"1 per"nal prtecti$e
e+uip&ent1 %ealt% and "afety training1 incident reprting and in$e"tigatin prcedure"1
e&ergency and fire "afety prcedure"1 #elfare arrange&ent" 2including fir"t6aid3 and
arrange&ent" fr cn"ultatin #it% e&plyee"/ 0any candidate" tended t cncentrate n t
fe# i""ue" and t%u" re"tricted t%e nu&-er f &ar." t%at t%ey culd -e a#arded1 e$en t%ug%
t%ey &ay %a$e pr$ided a #ealt% f detail n t%e i""ue" c%"en/
In general1 part 2c3 #a" #ell an"#ered #it% &"t candidate" referring t circu&"tance" "uc%
a": c%ange" in t%e "tructure f t%e rgani"atin r #r.ing arrange&ent"? n t%e intrductin
f a ne# prce"" r #r. &et%d? and fll#ing t%e finding" f an accident in$e"tigatin/
Better candidate" #ere al" a-le t refer t &atter" "uc% a" c%ange" in legi"latin1 a" a re"ult
f enfrce&ent actin r in re"pn"e t t%e re"ult" f auditing r cn"ultatin #it% t%e
#r.frce/
Sectin 9
)ue"tin 9
In an"#ering part 2a31 &"t candidate" #ere a-le t utline t%e t%ree "tandard cnditin" 6
na&ely1 t%at t%e e&plyer #ed a duty f care t t%e e&plyee1 t%at %e acted in -reac% f
t%at duty -y failing t ta.e rea"na-le care and t%at t%e -reac% led directly t t%e in@ury r
da&age/
Ar part 2-31 fe# candidate" #ere a-le t explain t%e &eaning f 5$icariu" lia-ility, 6#%ic% i"
t%at an e&plyer i" %eld lia-le fr da&age r in@ury if an e&plyee negligently cau"e" an
accident #%il"t acting in t%e cur"e f %i" e&ply&ent/ 0any candidate" cnfu"ed 5$icariu"
lia-ility, #it% t%er legal p%ra"e" "uc% a" ,cntri-utry negligence, r 'volenti non fit in&uria'/
>"es#$%n ?
Better candidate" cn"idered all a"pect" f t%e +ue"tin and #ere a-le t "tructure t%eir
an"#er" accrdingly/ (ele$ant i""ue" fell int t%ree .ey area": t%"e relating t cleaning in
general 2eg u"e f c%e&ical" and electrical e+uip&ent1 dealing #it% "%arp -@ect" li.e -r.en
gla""1 &anual %andling1 etc3? t%"e particular t t%e "c%l "ituatin 2eg la-ratry and
#r."%p %a!ard"3? and t%"e a""ciated #it% ,ut f %ur", #r. 2eg lne #r.ing1
145
c&&unicatin1 "uper$i"in1 "ecurity1 e&ergency arrange&ent"1 etc3/
Exa&iner" #ere plea"ed t "ee t%at &any candidate" "%#ed an a-ility t apply t%e
.n#ledge ac+uired during t%eir "tudie" t a practical "ituatin t%at &ay nt %a$e -een ttally
fa&iliar t t%e&/ S&e candidate"1 %#e$er1 #ere rat%er li&ited in t%eir range f i""ue" and
cncentrated n @u"t ne r t#/
)ue"tin >
Part 2i3 #a" generally #ell an"#ered #it% &any candidate" a-le t identify t%e p""i-le
cau"e" f acute r c%rnic txic effect" a": direct cntact #it%1 and p""i-ly a-"rptin
t%rug%1 t%e ".in r &ucu" &e&-rane" 2particularly t%e eye"3? in%alatin f fu&e" r
particle"? and1 under certain circu&"tance"1 inge"tin f t%e &aterial/ 0ar." #ere al"
a$aila-le fr identifying #ay" t%at #ere nt "pecific t t%e txic nature f t%e "u-"tance -ut
#%ic% culd "till -e rele$ant 6 "uc% a" "lip"/ 4e"pite t%e lac. f reference in t%e +ue"tin1 a
fe# candidate" a""u&ed t%at t%e &aterial ex%i-ited crr"i$e andCr fla&&a-le prpertie"
and &ade "&e unfunded "ugge"tin" in t%i" re"pect/
*%e "ecnd part f t%e +ue"tin re+uired candidate" t t%in. in practical ter&" a-ut a gi$en
"ituatin/ A prcedure fr "uc% a "pillage #uld -e t i"late r e$acuate t%e area1 %a$ing
&ade an initial a""e""&ent1 and t "u&&n %elp 2fr& t%e e&ergency "er$ice" if nece""ary3/
*%e "pillage1 if li+uid1 "%uld -e cntained -y u"ing a-"r-ent &aterial r -y -unding1 #it%
apprpriate per"nal prtecti$e e+uip&ent %a$ing -een i""ued t t%"e in$l$ed in carrying
ut t%e prcedure/ At t%e "a&e ti&e1 any per"n #% &ig%t %a$e -een %ar&ed -y t%e initial
"pillage "%uld -e gi$en apprpriate fir"taid r &edical treat&ent/ *%e "pilled "u-"tance and
any a-"r-ent &aterial u"ed "%uld -e di"p"ed f in a "afe &anner/ Alt%ug% t%e actual
prcedure &ig%t $ary depending n t%e nature f t%e "u-"tance and it" txicity1 t%"e
pr$iding gd an"#er" t t%i" +ue"tin cn"idered a lgical "e+uence f p""i-le actin"
"uc% a" t%"e de"cri-ed/
)ue"tin ;
*%i" +ue"tin re+uired cn"ideratin f t%e "rt f %ealt% and "afety infr&atin t%at need" t
-e c&&unicated in t%e #r.place and t%e different &et%d" f pre"enting "uc% infr&atin/
*%i" "%uld %a$e led candidate" t "ugge"t t%at peple re"pnd differently t different "ti&uli1
and t%at $ariety pre$ent" $er6fa&iliari"atin #it% ne &et%d and %elp" t reinfrce a
&e""age/ Ot%er rea"n" t%at culd %a$e -een cited are: t%e need t $erc&e language
-arrier" and t%e ina-ility f "&e e&plyee" t read? t%e need t &ti$ate1 "ti&ulate intere"t
and gain in$l$e&ent and feed-ac.? t%e "tatutry re+uire&ent" t pre"ent "&e infr&atin in
a particular #ay? and t%e acceptance t%at different type" f infr&atin re+uire different
&et%d" f c&&unicatin 2eg tec%nical r c&plex infr&atin $ery ften need" t -e #ritten
#%erea" "i&pler infr&atin i" ften -e"t pre"ented pictrially r $er-ally3/ En$irn&ental
factr"1 "uc% a" %ig% ni"e le$el"1 &ay al" %inder $er-al c&&unicatin1 in #%ic% ca"e a
different &et%d "%uld -e "ug%t/
146
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere particularly disappointin# &ith candidates outlinin# different methods of
communication rather than e-plainin# the importance of usin# a variety of methods to present health
and safety information as the %uestion re%uired.
Question ;
Ae# candidate" apprac%ed t%i" +ue"tin #it% any degree f cnfidence and t%ere "till appear"
t -e cnfu"in $er t%e dutie" f na&ed duty6%lder" under t%e C40 (egulatin"/ S&e
candidate" lin.ed t%e rle f t%e planning "uper$i"r t cl"ely #it% t%at f a %ealt% and "afety
ad$i"er/ *%ere #a" al" &uc% cnfu"in -et#een t%e %ealt% and "afety plan and t%e %ealt% and
"afety file/
For the plannin# supervisor) candidates could have outlined such duties as6 co ordinatin# activities
bet&een the client) desi#ner and principal contractor= notifyin# the 1ealth and /afety E-ecutive of the
pro9ect &here notification is re%uired= ensurin# the preparation of the health and safety plan= collatin#
information for the health and safety file= and advisin# as re%uired on the competence of the principal
contractor and desi#ner.
*%e dutie" f t%e principal cntractr1 n t%e t%er %and1 include: c6rdinating t%e acti$itie" f
all cntractr" n "ite? de$elping t%e %ealt% and "afety plan and en"uring c&pliance #it% it n
"ite? di"playing t%e "tatutry ntice"? pr$iding %ealt% and "afety infr&atin t cntractr"?
en"uring effecti$e cn"ultatin #it% e&plyee"? cntrlling acce"" t t%e "ite? en"uring t%e
c&petence f all cntractr" in$l$ed? and pa""ing t t%e planning "uper$i"r any infr&atin
t%at "%uld -e included in t%e %ealt% and "afety file/
>"es#$%n @
0"t candidate" pr$ided a gd an"#er t t%i" +ue"tin -y referring t circu&"tance" "uc%
a": t%e intrductin f ne# tec%nlgy r a ne# ite& f e+uip&ent r prce""? a @- c%ange
fr ne r a grup f indi$idual"? accident trend" r t%e finding" f an accident in$e"tigatin?
t%e re"ult" f ri". a""e""&ent" r in"pectin" and audit"? ne# legi"latin r guidance?
fll#ing enfrce&ent actin? ne# e&plyee" #it% "pecial need" "uc% a" yung per"n" r
di"a-led #r.er"? and re+uire&ent" i&p"ed -y t%e e&plyer," in"urance c&pany/
147
)ue"tin 8
Ae# candidate" appeared t .n# t%at1 under t%e PPE (egulatin"1 e&plyee" %a$e a duty t
u"e per"nal prtecti$e e+uip&ent in accrdance #it% t%eir e&plyer," in"tructin"1 t reprt
any l"" f r defect in t%e e+uip&ent and t return it t t%e acc&&datin pr$ided after u"e/
0any candidate" &i"read t%e +ue"tin and "tated t%e dutie" f t%e e&plyer rat%er t%an t%"e
f t%e e&plyee/
+etter ans&ers &ere provided for part (b) of the %uestion) &ith candidates outlinin# factors such as peer
pressure) lac( of mana#ement commitment) lac( of comfort (perhaps e-acerbated by a hot or arduous
&or(in# environment)) incompatibility &ith other protective e%uipment) lac( of trainin# or a&areness
of the dan#ers) and difficulty in obtainin# the correct e%uipment if it is not readily available.
Question 9
Bit% t%e nu&-er f i""ue" t%at &ig%t -e cn"idered in cnducting a fire ri". a""e""&ent1 t%ere
#a" a&ple pprtunity fr candidate" t gain full &ar."/ *%e +ue"tin #a" generally
#ell6an"#ered -ut candidate" #% perfr&ed -etter tended t -e t%"e #% pr$ided
"tructured an"#er" t%at addre""ed t%e a""e""&ent f t%e pr-a-ility f fire -rea.ing ut and it"
p""i-le &agnitude1 t%e &ean" f detectin and rai"ing t%e alar&1 fire6fig%ting &ea"ure" and
e$acuatin/ In t%i" re"pect1 rele$ant i""ue" include: p""i-le ignitin "urce"? t%e +uantitie" f
fla&&a-le and c&-u"ti-le &aterial"? t%e "iting and te"ting f detectr" and call6pint"? t%e
"iting and audi-ility f alar&"? t%e &ean" f cntacting t%e e&ergency "er$ice"? t%e "iting1
"uita-ility and &aintenance f fire extingui"%er"1 "prin.ler "y"te&"1 etc? training f per"nnel in
t%e u"e f extingui"%er"? t%e ade+uacy f e&ergency "ign"? t%e pr$i"in and te"ting f
emer#ency li#htin#= the number of people to be evacuated and particular #roups at ris(= the ade%uacy
of escape routes= and staff trainin# in evacuation procedures.
Question 1
* "er$e an i&pr$e&ent ntice1 an in"pectr &u"t -e f t%e pinin t%at t%ere i" a -reac% f
rele$ant "tatutry pr$i"in"1 r t%at t%ere %a" -een a -reac% t%at i" li.ely t -e cntinued r
repeated/ A rele$ant exa&ple #uld -e a flr t%at %a" -een prly &aintained in cntra$entin
f t%e re+uire&ent" f t%e Br.place 2Healt%1 Safety and Belfare3 (egulatin" 1999/
148
For a prohibition notice to be served) an inspector must be of the opinion that there is) or is li(ely to be)
a ris( of serious personal in9ury. ($he ris( of in9ury does not need to be 'imminent') as many candidates
su##ested) althou#h in practice it often is.) ; relevant e-ample &ould be a scaffold that has been poorly
constructed and is therefore in an unsafe condition.
.ost candidates &ere able to e-plain in broad terms the circumstances in &hich each type of notice
mi#ht be served but not many &ere able to #ive suitable e-amples for both and could not therefore be
a&arded all the mar(s available for this part of the %uestion.
For part (b)) the ma9ority of candidates correctly identified that the effect of an appeal a#ainst an
improvement notice is to suspend the notice until the appeal is heard) &hereas a prohibition notice
continues in force durin# this time.
>"es#$%n 11
*%ere #ere &any p""i-le re"pn"e" t t%i" +ue"tin and candidate" culd %a$e c%"en
fr& a li"t f p""i-le c"t" t%at include" t%"e a""ciated #it% l"t prductin1 "taff a-"ence1
repair f da&aged plant and e+uip&ent1 da&age t prduct"1 in$e"tigatin and re&edial
actin1 additinal ad&ini"tratin incurred1 an increa"e in in"urance pre&iu&"1 and fine" and
unin"ured c"t" #it% re"pect t legal actin 2cri&inal r ci$il3 including legal c"t"/ Al"
rele$ant are t%e intangi-le c"t" ari"ing fr& t%e p""i-le l"" f -u"ine"" i&age and t%e
detri&ental effect n e&plyee &rale t%at &ay re"ult in reduced efficiency/
An"#er" t t%i" +ue"tin #ere &"tly t a gd "tandard and candidate" t. ad$antage f
t%e pprtunity t gain &ar." +uic.ly/
149
9==9619
*HE NA*IONAG EHA0INA*ION BOA(4 IN OCC8PA*IONAG SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
NA*IONAG EENE(AG CE(*IAICA*E IN OCC8PA*IONAG SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
PAPE( A1: *HE 0ANAEE0EN* OA SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
4ECE0BE( 9==9
An"#er AGG +ue"tin" *i&e All#ed: 9 %ur"
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 (a) Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace. (8)
(b) 3ive O!" reasons why the seriousness of a haard may be
underestimated by someone e#posed to it.
(4)
(c) Outline ways in which managers can motivate employees to work
safely.
(8)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the factors that may increase risks to pregnant employees in the
workplace.
(F)
3 (a) '#$l%in the health and safety benefits of restricting smoking in the
workplace.
(;)
(b) Outline the ways in which an organisation could implement an effective
no" smoking policy.
(;)
4 Outline the reasons why an organisation should monitor and review its
health and safety performance.
(F)
5 0ith reference to the +eporting of 9n&uries% Diseases and Dangerous
*ccurrences +egulations ,--=!
(i) st%te the legal re$uirements for reporting a fatality resulting from an
accident at work to an enforcing authority
(=)
(ii) outline .*"'' further categories of work" related in&ury (other than (<)
150
fatal in&uries) that are reportable.
6
Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first"aid
provision in a workplace.
(F)
7 Outline O!" key differences between civil l%8 and cri6in%l l%8. (F)
8 (a) '#$l%in% using an e#ample% the meaning of the term 4risk5. (.)
(b) Outline the key stages of a general risk assessment. (3)
, Outline the main health and safety issues to be included in an induction
training programme for new employees.
(F)
1- (a) '#$l%in the meaning of the term `safe system of work'. (.)
(b) Outline 2I7 sources of information that may need to be consulted when
developing a safe system of work.
(3)
11 +ist the factors that could be considered when assessing the health and
safety competence of a contractor.
(F)
NEBOSH Ce#$3$+,#e < De+e&4e )==)
Paper A1 *%e &anage&ent f "afety and %ealt%
Outline an"#er" and guidance gi$en in t%e NEBOSH exa&iner'" (eprt
151
Sectin 1
)ue"tin 1
*%ere are a nu&-er f #ay" f reducing t%e li.eli%d f %u&an errr in t%e #r.place t%at
"%uld %a$e -een utlined in t%e an"#er t part 2a3 f t%e +ue"tin/ *%e"e include: t%e u"e f
".illed1 trained and c&petent "taff 2including pre6e&ply&ent "creening i""ue"3? &ti$atin f
t%e #r.frce? ta". $ariety t pre$ent &ntny and t%e pr$i"in f fre+uent -rea." t a$id
#r. $erlad? addre""ing #r.place en$irn&ental i""ue" "uc% a" ni"e1 lig%t and %eat?
&ec%ani"atin and aut&atin? en"uring t%at cntrl" n &ac%inery are clearly &ar.ed?
i&ple&entatin f a drug and alc%l plicy? and pr$iding c&petent "uper$i"in f
e&plyee"/
.ost candidates mentioned the need for competency and trainin# but fe& &ere able to provide the
ran#e of methods necessary to obtain all the mar(s available. ; fe& candidates) possibly because they
misread the %uestion) produced ans&ers based on the causes of human error rather than on &ays of
reducin# its li(elihood.
$here &ere some #ood ans&ers to part (b)) &ith many candidates #ainin# full mar(s by referrin# to
reasons such as6 over*familiarity and complacency= lac( of instruction) information and trainin#= lac(
of e-perience) particularly &here youn# persons are involved= the fact that some ha4ards (e# airborne
contaminants or radiation) may be invisible and,or inta#ible= sensory impairment= and involvement in
routine) repetitive tas(s that can lead to lac( of attention.
In ans&erin# part (c)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of methods to encoura#e the motivation of
employees to &or( safely. $he overt reco#nition of #ood health and safety performance (e# by #ivin#
praise and,or offerin# financial incentives) is important in this respect. 0onversely) disciplinin#
employees &ho choose to i#nore safe &or(in# procedures has its place but tends to be less effective.
Other measures mi#ht include6 involvin# employees) for instance) in carryin# out ris( assessments and
dra&in# up safe systems of &or(= improvin# the company's health and safety culture and
demonstratin# a hi#h level of mana#ement commitment= ensurin# a #ood &or(in# environment= and
providin# trainin# and ensurin# #ood communication.
/ome candidates seemed to perceive little difference in the re%uirements of parts (a) and (c) and &ere
content to repeat the ans&er that they had already #iven to the first part of the %uestion. 7art (c) &as) in
fact) intended to loo( in more depth at one aspect of the ans&er to part (a).
-ection 2
Question 2
; fe& candidates sho&ed a &ide (no&led#e of the issues involved and provided
e-cellent ans&ers to the %uestion. .ost of the remainder) ho&ever) outlined only one
152
or t&o of the. relevant factors.
Factors that could have been outlined include6 e-posure to chemicals such as pesticides) lead and those
that cause intracellular chan#es (muta#ens) or affect the embryo (terato#ens)= biolo#ical e-posures (e#
hepatitis)= e-posure to physical a#ents such as ionisin# radiation and e-tremes of temperature= manual
handlin#= er#onomic issues relatin# to prolon#ed standin# or the adoption of a&(&ard body
movements= stress= and issues associated &ith the use of personal protective e%uipment.
E-aminers &ere disappointed to find that) yet a#ain) some candidates did not pay sufficient attention to
the action verb and) althou#h they undoubtedly had some (no&led#e of the sub9ect) could not be
a&arded all the mar(s available because they chose to provide no detail of the relevant factors.
Question 8
For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to point to the health and safety benefits of restrictin# smo(in#
at &or( as a reduction in the ris( of fire) an improvement in #eneral cleanliness and a reduction in the
e-posure of non*smo(in# staff to ci#arette smo(e) &hich can have an irritant effect as &ell as causin#
possible lon# term health dama#e. Other reasons include the promotion of health #enerally and the
avoidance of conflict bet&een smo(ers and non*smo(ers.
7art (b) re%uired candidates to provide an outline of ho& a no*smo(in# policy mi#ht be implemented
effectively. $he initial point to be made &as that the policy should be clear in its intent and
communicated to all staff. $his mi#ht be achieved by the use of notice boards) leaflets and other forms
of propa#anda) &hile there &ould also need to be consultation &ith employees to encoura#e o&nership.
.any candidates reco#nised mana#ement's part in the process and su##ested that they should set an
e-ample and also provide help to employees in the form of counsellin#. Finally) the provision of
desi#nated smo(in# areas and the use of disciplinary procedures &ere correctly su##ested as important
to the successful implementation of the policy.
$he ar#uments in favour of providin# smo(e*free environments have been &ell rehearsed and it &as
evident that the ma9ority of candidates &ere familiar &ith these. Do*smo(in# policies are also operated
by many or#anisations and) a#ain) candidates &ere able to sho& that they could ma(e a useful
contribution.
Question 9
; number of candidates e-perienced problems &ith this %uestion by appearin# to mista(e the &ords
8the reasons &hy' for 8ho&' and proceedin# to outline the various methods by &hich health and safety
performance can be monitored and revie&ed. $he need to read the %uestion carefully and understand its
purpose is advice that cannot be #iven too often.
;mon# the reasons offered by better candidates &ere the follo&in#6 to identify substandard health and
safety practices and conditions (perhaps by means of &or(place inspections)= to identify trends in
relation to different types of incident) or incidents in #eneral (by analysis of relevant incident data)= to
compare actual performance &ith previously set tar#ets= to 8benchmar(' the or#anisation's performance
a#ainst that of similar or#anisations or an industry norm= to identify &hether control measures are in
use and to assess their effectiveness= to be able to ma(e decisions on appropriate remedial measures for
any deficiencies identified= to set priorities and establish realistic timescales= to assess compliance &ith
le#al re%uirements= and to be able to provide a +oard of "irectors or safety committee &ith relevant
153
information. ;n additional reason for monitorin# and revie&in# health and safety performance is %uite
simply because there is a le#al re%uirement to do so under the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at
:or( Re#ulations ?BBB.
:ea(er ans&ers to this %uestion never really pro#ressed from 'so that &e can see ho& &e are doin#')
&hereas it &as the reasons 8&hy &e should &ant to (no& ho& &e are doin#' that &ere bein# sou#ht.
$he %uestion re%uired a little thou#ht but allo&ed candidates &ith a #ood understandin# of health and
safety mana#ement systems to shine.
Question :
0"t candidate" pr$ided rea"na-le an"#er" t part 2i3 f t%e +ue"tin1 identifying t%e
re+uire&ent t ntify t%e enfrcing aut%rity -y t%e +uic.e"t practica-le &ean" and t%en t
reprt t%e deat% fr&ally #it%in ten day" -y an appr$ed &ean" 2eg n fr& A9;=83/ 0any
failed t c&&ent t%at t%e re"pn"i-le per"n under t%e (egulatin" %a" t%e duty t "u-&it t%e
reprt and fe#er "till .ne# t%at delayed deat%"1 up t ne year after t%e riginal accident1 %a$e
t -e reprted #%et%er r nt t%ey %a$e -een pre$iu"ly reprted under ant%er categry/
For part (ii)) a number of candidates correctly identified 8ma9or in9ury' as a cate#ory but then &ent on to
list types of in9ury &ithin this cate#ory (fracture of bone) amputation) 3*hours hospitalisation) etc) and
i#nored other cate#ories completely. $hey could additionally have referred to in9uries that result in the
in9ured person bein# a&ay from &or() or unable to do normal &or() for more than three consecutive
days) and in9uries to non*employees &ho are ta(en to hospital for treatment.
Question ;
.ost candidates &ere able to ans&er this %uestion &ell by providin# a broad ran#e of factors. Cood
ans&ers referred to the number of trained first*aid personnel and first aid facilities in relation to) for
e-ample) the si4e of the or#anisation) the distribution and composition of the &or(force) the types of
ha4ard and level of ris( present) the pro-imity to emer#ency medical services) the special needs of
travellin#) remote or lone &or(ers) and the ability to provide continued cover over different shifts and
for sic(ness) leave and other absence. /ome candidates spent too much time concentratin# in depth on
one or t&o factors only and as such #ained fe& mar(s. $hey should be a&are that in ans&erin# a
%uestion of this type) reference is needed to a ran#e of factors to obtain all the mar(s available.
Question <
Candidate" #ere expected t utline t%e e""ential difference" -et#een t%e t# &ain -ranc%e"
f la# 6 ci$il and cri&inal/ *%ey culd %a$e referred t t%e different -@ecti$e" f t%e t#
"y"te&" 2ne t pr$ide a re&edy and t%e t%er t puni"%31 t%e -urden f prf re+uired 2a
-alance f pr-a-ilitie" a" pp"ed t -eynd all rea"na-le du-t31 t%e partie" generally
in$l$ed 2t# indi$idual" rat%er t%an t%e "tate and an indi$idual3 and t%e different curt
154
"tructure" in$l$ed/ A fe# candidate" "ugge"ted difference" in t%e "urce" f la#1 #it% cri&inal
la# generally #ritten d#n in "tatute" r "tatutry in"tru&ent" and #it% ci$il lia-ilitie" largely
defined in c&&n la# -y @udicial precedent/
$here &as much confusion #enerally sho&n in ans&ers and) in particular) bet&een branches of la&
(civil and criminal) and sources of la& (statute and common)) &ith many candidates apparently not
realisin# that the concepts are entirely different. $here &as also a tendency of many candidates to refer
to relevant issues pertainin# to one type of la& before movin# on to the other type) thereby leavin# it to
E-aminers to &or( out for themselves &hat the differences &ere. Even &orse) there &ere numerous
e-amples of candidates referrin# to a characteristic of one type &ithout indicatin# the correspondin#
issue relatin# to the other * and therefore not sho&in# a difference at all. ;#ain) many candidates
displayed a lac( of #ood e-amination techni%ue) producin# lists &hen the %uestion clearly re%uired an
outline.
Question =
Part 2a3 #a"1 generally1 #ell an"#ered #it% &"t candidate" gi$ing an explanatin -a"ed n t%e
pr-a-ilityCli.eli%d f an ccurrence and t%e "e$erity f it" cn"e+uence"/ S&e candidate"
neglected t illu"trate t%eir explanatin #it% an exa&ple and &i""ed t%e pprtunity t gain an
extra &ar./
7roducin# an outline of the (ey sta#es of a #eneral ris( assessment for part (b) should not have
presented too much difficulty to candidates and this proved to be the case. $he initial sta#e in any
assessment is to define the tas( and identify both the ha4ards associated &ith the tas( and the classes of
persons at ris( of harm. $he ne-t sta#e &ould be to evaluate the ris(s arisin# from the ha4ards) to
assess the effectiveness of e-istin# precautions and to decide &hether additional measures are re%uired
to eliminate or control the ris(s. Finally the findin#s of the assessment need to be recorded and a
timescale set for their revie& and) if necessary) revision.
Question 9
*%i" +ue"tin #a" de"igned t exa&ine t%e i""ue" in$l$ed in t%e training f ne# "taff/ *%e
Healt% and Safety at Br. etc Act 19F> and t%e 0anage&ent f Healt% and Safety at Br.
(egulatin" 19991 in particular1 re+uire e&plyer" t addre"" t%e i&prtant i""ue f training/
*%"e #% did #ell cncentrated n t%e &atter" t -e included in an inductin training
prgra&&e a" #a" re+uired and did nt fall int t%e trap f di"cu""ing #ider training i""ue"/
155
.ost candidates &ere able to outline the main topics as the or#anisation's health and safety policy)
emer#ency procedures) ha4ards specific to the &or(place and the need to comply &ith health and safety
re%uirements) health and safety responsibilities and lines of communication) accident and first*aid
arran#ements) and &elfare provision. .ore able candidates referred to health surveillance and
consultation procedures.
Question 1
Ar part 2a31 a rea"na-le explanatin f t%e ter& i" t%e integratin f peple1 e+uip&ent1
&aterial" and t%e en$irn&ent t prduce an accepta-le le$el f "afety/ *%i" in$l$e" a
"tep6-y6"tep prcedure ta.ing int accunt %a!ard"1 cntrl"1 e""ential e+uip&ent1 per"nal
prtecti$e e+uip&ent and training/
7art (b) &as #enerally ans&ered &ell by most candidates) &ho outlined sources such as6 le#islation=
approved codes of practice and official #uidance= manufacturers' information= +ritish) European)
international and industry standards= and direct contact &ith enforcement a#encies and professional
bodies. ;s &ell as such e-ternal sources) better candidates loo(ed at a ran#e of information sources
from &ithin an or#anisation) such as in*house standards) the results of ris( assessment and 9ob safety
analysis) and accident and health surveillance data.
>"es#$%n 11
*%e la"t +ue"tin n t%e paper #a" generally #ell an"#ered #it% &any candidate" a-le t li"t
a gd range f factr" t%at included1 a&ng"t &any t%er": t%e cntractr," pre$iu"
experience #it% t%e type f #r.? t%e reputatin f t%e cntractr a&ng"t pre$iu" r current
client"? t%e cntent and +uality f t%e cntractr," %ealt% and "afety plicy and ri".
a""e""&ent"? t%e le$el f training and +ualificatin" f "taff 2including t%"e #it% %ealt% and
"afety re"pn"i-ilitie"3? accidentCenfrce&ent %i"try? &e&-er"%ip f accreditatin r
certificatin -die"? e+uip&ent &aintenance and "tatutry exa&inatin recrd"? and t%e
detailed prp"al" 2eg &et%d "tate&ent"3 fr t%e #r. t -e carried ut/
*HE NA*IONAG EHA0INA*ION BOA(4 IN OCC8PA*IONAG SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
NA*IONAG EENE(AG CE(*IAICA*E IN OCC8PA*IONAG SAAE*I AN4 HEAG*H
PAPE( A9: CON*(OGGINE BO(LPGACE HAJA(4S
4ECE0BE( 9==9
An"#er AGG +ue"tin" *i&e All#ed: 9 %ur"
156
Se+#$%n 1
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns ONE !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 HALF
AN HOUR %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* /,# %3 #*e !"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n
4,+2e#s-
1 8n employee is to use a petrol"driven chainsaw to fell a tree from
ground level.
(i) Outline the haards faced by the employee in carrying out this task. (1-)
(ii) +ist I5' items of personal protective e$uipment that should be
provided to% and used by% the employee.
(5)
(iii) Outline control measures other than personal protective e$uipment
that would be necessary to ensure the health and safety of the chainsaw
operator and other persons involved in the operation.
(5)
Se+#$%n )
T*$s se+#$%n +%n#,$ns TEN !"es#$%n- Y%" ,e ,(.$se( #% s/en( ,//%0$&,#e'1 ONE
AND A HALF HOURS %n $#- T*e &,0$&"& &,2s 3% e,+* !"es#$%n5 % /,# %3 ,
!"es#$%n ,e s*%wn $n 4,+2e#s-
2 Outline the means by which the risk of accidents from reversing
vehicles within a workplace can be reduced. (F)
(F)
3 (a) Identify!
(i) ./O mechanical haards associated with moving parts of machinery. (.)
(ii) ./O non" mechanical haards to which a machine operator may be
e#posed.
(.)
(b) Outline a hierarchy of control measures that may be used to reduce the
risk of in&ury from dangerous parts of machinery.
(;)
4 9n relation to electrical safety% e#$l%in the meaning of the following
terms!
(i) 4isolation5 (.)
(ii) 4earthing5 (.)
(iii) 4reduced low voltage5 (.)
(iv) 4overcurrent protection5. (.)
5 Outline the precautions to ensure the health and safety of persons
engaged in paint" spraying in a motor vehicle repair workshop.
(F)
6 An e&plyee i" engaged in general cleaning acti$itie" in a large
$eterinary practice/
(F)
2i3 I(en#$31 FOUR p""i-le %a!ard" t%e cleaner culd encunter #%en
underta.ing t%i" acti$ity/
(;)
2ii3 O"#'$ne t%e precautin" t%at culd -e ta.en t &ini&i"e t%e ri". f
%ar& fr& t%e"e %a!ard"/
(;)
157
7 (a) 2t%te the primary effect on the body of the following types of haardous
substance!
(i) 4irritant5 (,)
(ii) 4corrosive5 (,)
(iii) 4to#ic5 (,)
(iv) 4carcinogenic5. (,)
(b) Descri0e the differences between acute and chronic health effects. (;)
8 Outline the precautions to be taken when using a mobile elevating work
platform ((10/) to reach a high point such as a streetlight.
(F)
, 9n relation to work" related upper limb disorders (0+U6Ds)!
(i) identify the typical symptoms that might be e#perienced by affected
individuals
(;)
(ii) outline the factors that would increase the risk of developing
0+U6Ds. (;)
(;)
1- (a) '#$l%in the following terms in relation to noise e#posure at work!
(i) 4noise" induced hearing loss5 (.)
(ii) 'tinnitus5 (.)
(b) Identify O!" limitations of personal hearing protection as a means of
protecting against the effects of noise.
(;)
11 +ist 'I3*. ways of reducing the risk of fire starting in a workplace. (F)
NEBOSH Ce#$3$+,#e < De+e&4e )==)
Paper A9 Cntrlling #r.place %a!ard"
158
Outline an"#er" and guidance gi$en in t%e NEBOSH exa&iner'" (eprt
Sectin 1
)ue"tin 1
Part 2i3 f t%e +ue"tin #a" generally #ell an"#ered #it% &"t candidate" a-le t utline a
nu&-er f %a!ard" a""ciated #it% t%i" ta"./ *%ey include: cntact #it% &$ing part" f t%e
c%ain"a# 2t%e c%ain in particular3? exp"ure t fu&e" and du"t? &anual %andling %a!ard"?
ni"e and $i-ratin? e@ected particle" and frag&ent"? falling -@ect" 2ulti&ately1 t%e tree it"elf3?
and fire and expl"in %a!ard" fr& t%e fuel/ Better candidate" #ere a-le t extend t%eir
an"#er" t include "&e p""i-ly le"" -$iu" %a!ard" a""ciated #it% %t part" f t%e
c%ain"a#1 une$en andCr #et grund1 t%e u"e f lu-ricating il" and exp"ure t "unlig%t/
Candidate" experienced &re difficulty in an"#ering part 2ii3/ *%ey #ere expected t li"t fi$e
ite&" f per"nal prtecti$e e+uip&ent a""ciated #it% t%i" ta". and1 #%ile t%e &a@rity #ere
a-le t cite ear defender"1 gl$e" and %el&et"1 nly t%e &re a"tute 2r per%ap" t%"e #it%
.n#ledge andCr experience f t%e acti$ity3 alluded t "uc% ite&" a" face $i"r"1 fre"try
-t" and "peciali"ed 2eg .e$lar3 prtecti$e clt%ing de"igned t c%.e t%e c%ain if cntact i"
&ade/
Bea.er re"pn"e" t part 2ii3 tended t cntinue in t%e "a&e $ein in t%e final part f t%e
+ue"tin/ Again1 nly -etter candidate" culd utline a range f "uita-le cntrl &ea"ure"/
Suc% &ea"ure" &ig%t include: prper planning f t%e @-? placing -arrier" and #arning "ign"
t re"trict acce"" t t%e felling area? en"uring t%at t%e c%ain"a# i" "uita-le fr t%e ta".1 t%at
t%e guard i" al#ay" in place and t%at t%e e+uip&ent i" prperly &aintained? u"ing nly
certificated peratr"? pr$iding infr&atin1 in"tructin and training fr t%e @- in %and?
en"uring ade+uate "uper$i"in t c%ec. t%at prcedure" 2relating t "afe felling &et%d"1
refuelling1 exclu"in !ne"1 etc3 are fll#ed? and intrducing a "y"te& f %ealt% "ur$eillance
2eg t l. fr "ign" f %earing l"" andCr %and6ar& $i-ratin "yndr&e3/
Speciali"t .n#ledge f c%ain"a# peratin" #a" nt needed in rder t pr$ide a gd
an"#er t t%i" +ue"tin/ It re+uired candidate" t -e a#are f t%e "rt f #r. in$l$ed 2fr&
"eeing "uc% peratin" n tele$i"in per%ap"31 t "peculate n t%e %a!ard" t%at &ig%t face
peratr"1 and t%en t apply generic cntrl" t t%e "ituatin in rder t prtect again"t t%"e
%a!ard"/ Ar in"tance1 t%er t%an "ugge"ting t%at apprpriate prtecti$e clt%ing "%uld -e
#rn1 candidate" #ere nt expected t .n# "pecifically a-ut .e$lar clt%ing and it" &ean"
f pr$iding prtectin/ Si&ilarly1 a detailed .n#ledge f "afety feature" n c%ain"a#" 2"uc%
a" c%ain catc%er" and anti.ic.-ac. de$ice"3 #a" nt needed/ H#e$er1 candidate" "%uld -e
a-le t apply t%eir .n#ledge f %ealt% and "afety generally t "ituatin" t%at are nt
i&&ediately fa&iliar t t%e& 6 and t%i" #a" ne "uc% exa&ple/
Sectin 9
)ue"tin 9
159
*%i" +ue"tin %a" -een u"ed pre$iu"ly and prduced little difficulty fr t%e &a@rity f
candidate"1 #% #ere a-le t "pecify a $ariety f precautinary &ea"ure"/ Better candidate"
pre"ented a %ierarc%ical range1 fr& a$iding t%e need fr $e%icle" t re$er"e 2ne6#ay and
5dri$e6t%rug%, "y"te&"1 turning circle"1 etc31 t%rug% t%e "eparatin f $e%icle" and pede"trian"
2-arrier"1 "ign"1 etc3 and a"pect" f $e%icle and #r.place de"ign 2audi-le alar&"1 &irrr" n
$e%icle" and at -lind crner"1 refuge"1 lig%ting1 etc31 t prcedural &ea"ure" 2u"e f -an."&en1
"ite rule"1 dri$er training1 etc3/ Once again1 "&e candidate" did nt read t%e +ue"tin #it%
"ufficient care and pr$ided a li"t f "%rt pint" rat%er t%an t%e utline re+uired1 #%ic% &ig%t
%a$e included n t%i" cca"in "&e detail n %# t%e "tated cntrl &ea"ure ac%ie$e" it" ai&/
>"es#$%n ?
*%i" type f +ue"tin n %a!ard" p"ed -y &ac%inery1 and t%e a""ciated &ea"ure" fr
reducing ri".1 i" #ell e"ta-li"%ed at Certificate le$el/ 4e"pite t%i"1 it i" e$ident t%at "&e
candidate" are una-le t di"tingui"% -et#een ,&ec%anical, and ,nn6&ec%anical, %a!ard"1 and
are unfa&iliar #it% t%e general categri"atin f eac% grup/ *%at "aid1 %#e$er1 part 2a3 #a"
generally #ell an"#ered/ 0ec%anical %a!ard" 2ie t%"e fr& &$ing part" f &ac%inery
andCr t%e &aterial -eing #r.ed3 include i&pact1 entangle&ent1 cru"%ing1 "%earing1 e@ectin1
cutting and a-ra"in1 #%erea" a li"t f nn6&ec%anical &ac%inery %a!ard" include" ni"e1
$i-ratin1 electricity1 %a!ardu" "u-"tance"1 radiatin1 extre&e" f te&perature and
ergn&ic i""ue"/ Suc% cncept" are funda&ental t an under"tanding f &ac%inery "afety
and cur"e pr$ider" "%uld en"ure t%at t%ey are clearly gra"ped -y candidate"/
Candidate" tended t "truggle #it% part 2-3 f t%e +ue"tin alt%ug% -etter candidate" dre#
n t%eir .n#ledge f t%e Pr$i"in and 8"e f Br. E+uip&ent (egulatin" 1998 and -a"ed
t%eir an"#er" n t%e re+uire&ent" f (egulatin 11/ *%erefre1 an an"#er t%at referred t
fixed guard"1 t%er type" f guard" r prtecti$e de$ice"1 "afety aid" "uc% a" @ig"1 %lder" and
pu"%6"tic."1 and t%e pr$i"in f infr&atin1 in"tructin1 training and "uper$i"in 6 in t%i"
preferred rder -ut nt &utually exclu"i$e 6 #a" #ell re#arded/
)ue"tin >
*%e +ue"tin ai&ed t te"t candidate", .n#ledge f "&e .ey electrical ter&"/ ,I"latin, refer"
t "%utting ff t%e electrical "upply t an ite& f e+uip&ent r part f an electrical "y"te& and
pre$enting inad$ertent recnnectin in rder1 fr in"tance1 t carry ut &aintenance #r./
,Eart%ing,1 n t%e t%er %and1 i" a &ean" #%ere-y electrical e+uip&ent and cnducti$e ite&"
are cnnected t eart% -y a ca-le r &etal pipe#r. "uc% t%at t%e rute t eart% pr$ide" t%e
pat% f lea"t re"i"tance t a current fl#ing under fault cnditin"/ ,(educed l# $ltage,1
c&&nly u"ed n cn"tructin "ite"1 in$l$e" t%e reductin f &ain" $ltage -y a tran"fr&er
t a l#er1 "afer $ltage 6 typically 11= r ;; $lt"? #%ile ,$ercurrent prtectin, i" a &et%d f
160
pre$enting t%e fl# f exce"" current -y cutting t%e "upply under fault cnditin" -y &ean" f a
fu"e r circuit -rea.er/
"espite the %uestion) or parts of it) havin# appeared on previous papers) it &as poorly ans&ered by
most candidates) &ith only the more able producin# ans&ers to a reasonable standard.
Question :
*%i" +ue"tin pre"ented candidate" #it% a particular "cenari and re+uired t%e& t utline t%e
precautin" t%at "%uld -e ta.en t en"ure t%e %ealt% and "afety f t%"e in$l$ed in t%e acti$ity
de"cri-ed/ Exa&iner" #ere l.ing t candidate" t "ugge"t "uc% precautin" a": "egregatin
f t%e acti$ity1 typically -y &ean" f a "pray -t% fitted #it% lcal ex%au"t $entilatin and
prtected electrical e+uip&ent? "uita-le "trage and fire precautin" fr fla&&a-le paint" and
"l$ent"? t%e pr$i"in and u"e f per"nal prtecti$e e+uip&ent 2clt%ing1 re"piratry
prtectin1 etc3? &nitring e&plyee", exp"ure" t air-rne "u-"tance"? en"uring t%e
exa&inatin and &aintenance f cntrl &ea"ure"? pr$iding apprpriate training t
e&plyee"? and &aintaining #elfare and %ygiene facilitie"/
/ome candidates &ere unable to offer anythin# more than the use of personal protective e%uipment and
the provision of trainin#) &hile others did not ta(e full advanta#e of the (no&led#e that they appeared
to have because they ne#lected to follo& the re%uirement for an outline.
Question ;
In general1 t%i" +ue"tin #a" rea"na-ly #ell an"#ered1 #it% candidate" #% %ad n pre$iu"
.n#ledge f a $eterinary practice a-le t i&agine t%e "cenari andCr t recall t%e &any
ppular tele$i"in prgra&&e" n t%e "u-@ect/ E$en "1 t%ere #ere t%"e #% %ad difficulty in
identifying t%e "rt" f %a!ard t%at &ay ari"e in "uc% a "ituatin and cn"e+uently "truggled t
utline t%e crre"pnding cntrl &ea"ure"/
/uccessful candidates &ere able to identify ha4ards specifically relatin# to cleaners (such as cleanin#
fluids) manual handlin#) slips,trips,falls and sharp ob9ects) and those associated &ith the &or(in#
environment (such as biolo#ical ha4ards) contact &ith animals and those arisin# from the use of
specialised e%uipment).
161
In an"#ering part 2ii31 Exa&iner" #ere l.ing fr precautin" "uc% a" t%e pr$i"in and u"e f
per"nal prtecti$e e+uip&ent 2including $erall" and gl$e"31 t%e u"e f "uita-ly &aintained
and te"ted e+uip&ent1 en"uring t%e ad%erence t prcedure" fr t%e %andling and di"p"al f
"%arp"1 t%e need fr ani&al" t -e .ept in "ecure encl"ure"1 and t%e p""i-le need fr
i&&uni"atin again"t di"ea"e" .n#n t -e tran"&itted -y ani&al"/ Hig%lig%ting t%at t%e
e&plyee #uld need "pecific training in t%e precautin" utlined #uld %a$e gained an
additinal &ar./
Question <
In an"#ering part 2a31 candidate" "%uld %a$e identified t%at irritant" cau"e infla&&atin n
cntact #it% t%e ".in1 eye" r &ucu" &e&-rane"1 and t%at crr"i$e "u-"tance" cau"e t%e
de"tructin f li$ing ti""ue at t%e pint f cntact 6 fr exa&ple1 t%e ".in1 re"piratry tract r
dige"ti$e tract/ *xic "u-"tance" %a$e a pi"nu" effect n -dy rgan" r "y"te&"1 affecting
nr&al &eta-lic functin"1 #%ile carcingen" %a$e t%e a-ility t alter t%e genetic &aterial in
li$ing cell" and t cau"e cancer/ B%ile1 in general1 part 2a3 #a" -etter an"#ered t%an part 2-31
&any candidate" "truggled t explain t%e effect" f -t% txic and carcingenic "u-"tance" n
t%e -dy/
For part (b)) E-aminers e-pected candidates to describe ho& acute health effects appear after a sin#le
or short term e-posure) usually &ith a rapid or immediate response) &hereas chronic effects are
normally produced follo&in# prolon#ed or repeated e-posures to an a#ent) appear #radually) may #o
unreco#nised for lon# periods of time and may be pro#ressive even &ithout further e-posure. /adly) in
most cases) the E-aminers' e-pectations &ere not realised.
Question =
Candidate" "%uld %a$e utlined precautin" "uc% a": t%e need t in"pect t%e e+uip&ent
-efre u"e and t en"ure it i" in a gd "tate f repair? u"ing nly c&petent #r.er"? u"ing
utrigger" and -ra.e"? erecting #arning "ign" and -arrier" t a$id clli"in"? en"uring t%e
platfr& i" nt $erladed? a$iding $er%ead -"tructin"? and #earing a %arne""/ *%ere
"ee&ed t -e cnfu"in in "&e candidate", &ind" -et#een a &-ile ele$ating #r. platfr&
20EBP3 and a t#er "caffld alt%ug% frtunately t%ere are a fe# precautin"1 "uc% a" t%e
prtectin f t%"e at grund le$el1 t%at are c&&n t -t%/ *%"e candidate" #% did .n#
t%e difference1 %#e$er1 %ad a di"tinct ad$antage/
162
B%ile1 n t%e #%le1 an"#er" t t%i" +ue"tin #ere f a rea"na-le "tandard1 "&e candidate"
again failed t gain all t%e &ar." t%at t%ey &ig%t -y pr$iding n &re t%an a -ullet6pinted li"t/
Question 9
Ar part 2i31 candidate" #ere expected t identify typical "y&pt&" "uc% a" pain t t%e -ac.1
nec.1 "%ulder" andCr ar&"1 "#llen @int"1 reduced &-ility and "tiffne""1 cra&p" and &u"cle
fatigue/ *ypically1 "uc% cnditin" #ill affect "leep and nr&al functining/ 0"t candidate"
#ere largely "ucce""ful in t%eir atte&pt" at t%i" part/
In their responses to part (ii)) many candidates concentrated solely on display screen e%uipment issues
and outlined factors such as &or(station layout and the failure to provide sufficient brea(s from the
tas(. Others produced len#thy ans&ers in &hich they repeated the same items in different &ays) thus
losin# time but #ainin# fe& mar(s. +etter candidates too( a broader vie& and referred to additional
factors such as space constraints resultin# in poor &or(in# postures) e-cessive force or a&(&ard hand
movements needed to carry out an operation) the fre%uency &ith &hich tas(s need to be repeated) the
use of vibratin# tools and e%uipment) and the involvement of vulnerable &or(ers such as those &ith
pre*e-istin# medical conditions and pre#nant &omen.
Question 1
Ar part 2a31 a general under"tanding f t%e effect" f ni"e n %earing #a" re+uired/
Ni"e6induced %earing l"" i" nr&ally cau"ed -y prlnged exp"ure t %ig% ni"e le$el"
cau"ing da&age t t%e %air cell" f t%e inner ear and leading t a per&anent t%re"%ld "%ift at
particular fre+uencie"1 #%ic% #r"en" #it% cntinued exp"ure -t% in ter&" f t%e extent f
t%e t%re"%ld "%ift and f t%e fre+uencie" affected/ *innitu"1 n t%e t%er %and1 i" typified -y a
ringing r "i&ilar "und in t%e ear" cau"ed -y $er"ti&ulatin f t%e %air cell"/ It can -e acute
r c%rnic1 per&anent r inter&ittent/ 0"t candidate" pr$ided gd an"#er" t t%i" part f t%e
+ue"tin/
$he main limitations of hearin# protection) for part (b)) &ere correctly identified by the ma9ority of
candidates in terms of poor fit) resistance to use) comfort factors) incompatibility &ith other protective
e%uipment) costly in terms of replacement and maintenance) interference &ith communication) hy#iene
163
problems and the need for constant supervision and attention (unli(e some en#ineerin# solutions to
noise problems).
>"es#$%n 11
*%e final +ue"tin f t%e paper re+uired candidate" t pr$ide a "i&ple li"t and t%u" ena-led
t%"e #it% a gd .n#ledge f t%e "u-@ect t gain &ar." +uic.ly1 t t%e ad$antage f t%"e
running ut f ti&e/ H#e$er1 "e$eral candidate"1 per%ap" in %a"te1 did nt pay "ufficient
attentin t t%e #rding f t%e +ue"tin and included &ea"ure" t%at #ere &re rele$ant t a
"ituatin #%ere a fire %ad already -r.en ut 6"uc% a" t%e pr$i"in f alar&"1 fire6fig%ting
e+uip&ent and e$acuatin "y"te&"/
$he means of preventin# a fire startin# include such issues as the control of smo(in# and smo(in#
materials) #ood house(eepin# to prevent the accumulation of &aste paper and other combustible
materials) re#ular lubrication of machinery) ensurin# that electrical systems are not overloaded) re#ular
inspection of electrical e%uipment for dama#e) ensurin# ventilation outlets on e%uipment are not
obstructed) controllin# hot &or() the provision of proper stora#e facilities for flammable li%uids) the
se#re#ation of incompatible chemicals and implementin# security measures to reduce the ris( of arson.
164
28-8
Question 1 An accident has been attributed to the failure of an employer to implement an appropriate permit-
to-work system.
(i} Identify the key elements of a permit-to-work system. (6)
(ii) Outline FOUR types of work situation that might require a permit
to-work system, giving reasons in EACH case for the requirement. (8)
(iii) Describe the actions that an enforcing authority could take in this
situation. (6)
$he (ey elements of a permit*to*&or( system that should have been identified for part
(i) of the %uestion include6 a description of the tas( to be performed= an indication of the
duration of the validity of the permit= the isolations that need to be made and the
additional precautions re%uired= details and si#nature of the person authorisin# the &or(=
and an ac(no&led#ement of acceptance by the employee carryin# out the tas(. $he
employee &ould then need to indicate on the permit that the &or( has been completed
and the area made safe in order for the permit to be cancelled. /ome candidates
identified the reasons for a permit*to*&or( system rather than its elements) &hile others
referred only to the precautions that mi#ht be necessary to the e-clusion of other
elements.
.ost candidates &ere able to identify four types of &or( situation &here a permit*to*
&or( system mi#ht be re%uired by referrin# to activities such as entry into confined
spaces) hot &or() specialist maintenance &or() &or( on electrical systems) e-cavation
&or( and &or(in# at hei#htM 1o&ever) difficulties sometimes lay in #ivin# ade%uate
reasons of &hy the permit &ould be re%uired in each case.
$he third part of the %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered) &ith candidates describin#
such actions as the #ivin# of verbal or &ritten advice) the issue of an improvement
notice &here there had been a contravention of a statutory provision) the issue of a
prohibition notice if there &ere) in the inspector's opinion) a ris( of serious personal
in9ury and) ultimately) the initiation of criminal proceedin#s for any breaches of health
and safety le#islation. :hile the %uestion &as focused on enforcement actions) it did not
preclude relevant procedural actions) such as inspection of documents and intervie&in#
personnel. /ome credit &as available for these althou#h a #ood ans&er did not depend
on them.
Question 2 Name and describe FOUR classes of safety sign prescribed by the Health and Safety (Safety
Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996.
(8)
$his &as a strai#htfor&ard %uestion desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e of the
different classes of safety si#n. .ost responded &ell by namin# and describin# four
classes from the list of five #iven in /chedule ? (7art II) of the Re#ulations specified.
$hese are6 prohibitory) &arnin#) mandatory) emer#ency escape or first*aid) and fire*
fi#htin#. For a description) candidates &ere e-pected to identify both shape and colours
(bac(#round) fore#round and) &here appropriate) borders) of each class of si#n.
; fe& candidates did not #ive a full description of the class of si#n) omittin# either the
shape or the colour) &hile others #ave inappropriate e-amples such as road si#ns or
ha4ard symbols.
165
uestion 5 (a) Explain how accident data can be used to improve health and
safety performance within an organisation. (4)
(b) Outline TWO proactive monitoring methods that can be used
when assessin# an organisation's health and safety performance. (4)
In ans&erin# part (a)) many candidates e-plained ho& accident data can be used to
identify trends and problem areas in order that resources can be allocated and
appropriate remedial actions ta(en. Cood ans&ers also e-plained ho& accident data
enable comparisons to be made &ith others ('bench mar(in#')) and ho& they can be used
to provide information to employees and to focus and stimulate discussion at safety
committee meetin#s.
;ns&ers to part (b) tended to be limited in content. .ost candidates chose 'inspection'
and 'auditin#' as their t&o proactive monitorin# methods but many provided little by
&ay of an outline. /ome candidates became confused bet&een proactive and reactive
methods and referred inappropriately to accident data analysis and similar reactive
methods. Other proactive methods that could have been outlined are6 safety surveys
(&hich #enerally focus on a particular procedure) such as the introduction of ne&
e%uipment)= safety tours (&hich are unscheduled) less formal inspections to chec( on
#eneral &or(place standards)= safety samplin# (&hich is an or#anised system of
chec(in# defined areas of the &or(place) and often particular health and safety issues)
on a re#ular basis)= benchmar(in# (&here performance is compared &ith that of similar
or#anisations)= the various means of environmental monitorin# (e# air monitorin#) noise
assessments)= and the results of health surveillance.
2uestion 9 Outline the duties placed on employees by:
(i) the ealth and Safety at Wor! etc Act "#$4 (4)
(ii) the %anagement of ealth and &afety at Wor! 'egulations 1999/ 2>
3
E-aminers &ere surprised that many candidates did not appear to possess a basic
(no&led#e of the (ey re%uirements of health and safety le#islation necessary to ans&er
this %uestion. In #eneral) the re%uirements under sections A and ! of the 1ealth and
/afety at :or( ;ct &ere better (no&n) or perhaps came to mind more readily) than those
contained in re#ulation ? of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or(
Re#ulations.
For part (i)) section A of the ;ct re%uires employees to ta(e reasonable care for
themselves and others &ho mi#ht be affected by their acts or omissions) and to co*
operate &ith their employer or other person so far as is necessary to enable them to
comply &ith their o&n statutory duties and re%uirements. /ection ! (&hich in fact
applies to all persons and not 9ust employees) re%uires that no*one shall intentionally or
rec(lessly interfere &ith or misuse anythin# provided in the interests of health) safety or
&elfare.
Re#ulation ? of the '.ana#ement' Re#ulations) on the other hand) re%uires employees
to use all &or( items in accordance &ith the trainin# and instructions that they have
been #ivenM It also re%uires employees to inform their employer (or a specified
166
employee &ith health and safety responsibilities) of &or( situations that could present a
serious and immediate dan#er) as &ell as any shortcomin#s that they mi#ht reasonably
reco#nise in the e-istin# arran#ements for health and safety.
It &as disappointin# to note that a minority of candidates did not #ive sufficient
attention to the &ordin# of the %uestion and provided an outline of the duties of
employers rather than employees.
Question 5 Outline the factors that will determine the level of supervision that a new employee
should receive during their initial period of employment within
an organisation. (
8
)
A number of factors can determine the initial level of supervision that should be given to someone
starting work in an organisation. These include: the age of the employee, as well as his/her
eperience of work in general and of the task to be performed in particular! the nature and
compleity of the task and its inherent risks
"
, the person#s skills and $ualifications for the work!
his/her attitude and aptitude! the systems of work and any specific safety re$uirements applying
to the task! and the employee#s communication skills and any special needs that he/she may have.
%ew candidates touched on the above range of factors in their answers and most concentrated
solely on age, eperience and training. &ome seemed to have misinterpreted the $uestion and,
instead of considering levels of supervision, wrote about factors that might determine the nature of
induction training.
Question ' (a) In relation to employee involvement in health and safety, explain
the differences between informing and !consufting. (")
(b) Outline the health and safety matters on which employers must
consult their employees under the #ealth and $afety
(%onsultation with Employees) &egulations '(()* ())
The (&) guidance on the (ealth and &afety *+onsultation with )mployees, -egulations .//' draws
a clear distinction between #informing# and #consulting#. 0erhaps from a general understanding of
the words, most candidates were able to differentiate between the two and could refer to
1informing# as a one"way process *eg providing information on ha2ards, risks and control
measures, and to #consulting# as a two"way process in which the employer then listens to, and
takes account of, the views of employees before a decision is taken.
The response to part *ii, was poor, with most candidates demonstrating scant knowledge of the
relevant -egulations. The matters on which an employer must consult under these -egulations
include: the introduction of any measure at the workplace that may substantially affect employees#
health and safety! the arrangements for appointing and/or nominating competent persons
"
, the
planning and organisation of health and safety training! the health and safety implications of
introducing new technology! and the information that the employer is re$uired to provide under
other -egulations, such as that relating to risk assessments, preventive measures and emergency
procedures. (ence, employers are obliged not only to provide information but they must also
consult their employees on the appropriateness of the information before it is given.
Question 3 Outline, giving an example of E+%#, the differences between health and safety regulations and
#$% approved codes of practice.
To answer this $uestion candidates needed to be clear in their minds of the essential differences
between health and safety regulations and approved codes of practice. (ealth and safety
regulations are generally made under the (ealth and &afety at 4ork etc Act ./35 by the
&ecretary of &tate after consultation with the (ealth and &afety +ommission. They contain
statutory re$uirements which, if not met by the person on whom they are laid, may lead to
prosecution in the courts and the imposition of a fine or to the issue of an enforcement notice by
the appropriate enforcement authority6
(8)
Approved codes of practice *A+70s,, on the other hand, are approved by the (ealth and &afety
+ommission with the consent of the &ecretary of &tate. They provide practical interpretation of
legal re$uirements in specific areas and, while they do not themselves impose any legal
re$uirement, they may be produced in court as supportive evidence. The duty holder, such as the
employer, must show compliance either with the A+70 or by other, e$ually effective, means.
8any candidates had difficulty in outlining the above differences and some could not produce
appropriate eamples, despite the references in other $uestions on the paper to specific sets of
regulations.
Question 9 *a, :dentify ,-O ill.health conditions that are reportable under the
167
&eporting of In/uries, 0iseases and 0angerous Occurrences
&egulations (&I00O&) '((1* (")
(b) Outline reasons why employers should 2eep records of
occupational ill.health amongst employees. ())
;alid eamples of reportable diseases given by candidates in answers to part *a, included
asbestosis, occupational dermatitis, 7ccupational asthma, tetanus, hand"arm vibration syndrome or
any of the other 3< diseases and conditions listed in &chedule = to -:>>7- .//5. &ome went off on
the wrong track and gave eamples of ma?or in?uries rather than the ill"health conditions re$uired.
-esponses to part *b, were varied, with few candidates gaining the full si marks. 7ther than for
monitoring purposes and, importantly, to prevent recurrences, there are legal reasons for keeping
records of occupational ill"health. :t is a re$uirement under -:>>7- that records of reported
diseases are kept for three years. There may also be a re$uirement under the +ontrol of
&ubstances (a2ardous to (ealth -egulations <@@< if the ill"health were due to eposure to a
ha2ardous substance re$uiring health surveillance6 The information contained in a record may
additionally be re$uired if there is a subse$uent civil claim or if the affected employee is able to
claim state benefit for the condition.
Question / Outline the measures an employer might consider to minimise the ris2 of
violence against employees. (8)
8ost candidates cited in their answers to this $uestion such measures as: physical barriers! good
standards of lighting in vulnerable areas such as car parks! employment of security staff! use of
security e$uipment such as alarms, panic buttons and closedcircuit television! ade$uate staffing
levels! and confrontation training. %ewer recognised the relevance of consultation with police, lone
working arrangements, procedures for home visits, staff selection, reporting of incidents and
procedures for handling money. A number of candidates restricted their answers entirely to a
discussion of violence between workers rather than addressing measures to minimise risk from
eternal threats and, as a conse$uence, gained relatively few marks.
.
Question .@ (a) Explain the meaning of the term !motivation (")
(b) Other than lac2 of motivation, outline SIX reasons why
employees may fail to comply with safety procedures at wor2. ())
&ome good answers were provided to this $uestion. %or part *a,, most candidates were able to
provide a reasonable eplanation of 1motivation#, which is essentially the driving force behind the
way that someone strives to achieve a goal or ob?ective *eg to work safely,.
%or part *b,, candidates were asked to outline si reasons that might account for the failure of
employees to comply with safety procedures. They could have chosen from a number of reasons
including: unrealistic working procedures! lack of management commitment! over"familiarisation
with the tasks to be performed! repetitive work leading to boredom and lack of concentration! peer
group pressure! wilful disregard of laid"down procedures coupled with inade$uate or ineffective
supervision! fatigue and stress! and lack of information, training and consultation
Question .. Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of persons who are
re3uired to wor2 on their own away from the wor2place
8ost candidates provided reasonable answers to this $uestion. They needed, however, to read the
$uestion carefully and appreciate that it referred to persons who were re'uired to work alone
and away fro# the #ain workplace. (he 'uestion was not solely about lone working although
some of the factors are still very relevant
A logical, structured and practical way of answering the $uestion was by looking first at the factors
that would determine the actual level of risk at the work location. These would include such issues
as the type of work to be done and its attendant ha2ards and risks, the e$uipment to be used, the
work environment and the control measures in place. The particular factors in relation to those
working alone at a distant location could then have been identified. The competence and suitability
of the persons involved, the methods of communication with the home base, and emergency and
firstaid procedures would all be relevant in this respect.
The $uestion sought a practical approach to this type of work situation. (owever, a reference to
the re$uirements of the 8anagement of (ealth and &afety at 4ork -egulations ./// " particularly
the need for risk assessment " was creditworthy.
(8
168
+ontrolling wor?place hazards
Question 1
(attery)powered for!)lift truc!s are used to move palletised goods within a warehouse.
(i) Describe FOUR ha*ards associated specifically with battery
powered for!)lift truc!s+ (4)
(ii) Outline the precautions that may be needed to ensure the safety
of pedestrians in the areas where the for!)lift truc!s are operating+ (,)
( i) Outline EIGHT rules to follow when a for!)lift truc! is left
unattended during a drivers' wor! brea! (,)
Dationally) there is a hi#h proportion of accidents involvin# for(*lift truc(s in the
&or(place and this %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e of the control
measures that are needed to reduce the ris( from the use of this form of transport.
7art (i) related to ha4ards specific to battery)powered truc(s and &as not &ell ans&ered.
.any candidates cited #eneral for(*lift truc( ha4ards and concentrated on overturnin#
issues. $he fe& candidates &ho reco#nised that this %uestion &as specific to a particular
type of for(*lift truc( described ha4ards relatin# to batterychar#in# (includin# the
#eneration of hydro#en #as and release of battery acid)) ha4ards associated &ith the
handlin# of batteries) electrical ha4ards &ith the potential for electric shoc( or burns)
and collisions &ith pedestrians due to the near*silent runnin# of the truc(.
In ans&erin# part (ii)) most candidates referred to precautions such as mar(in# of traffic
routes) one*&ay systems) se#re#ation of pedestrians from transport) &arnin# si#ns and
audible alarms) and visibility issues such as ade%uate li#htin#) mirrors) hi#h visibility
clothin# and transparent doorsM Fe& candidates) ho&ever) considered the provision of
safe systems of &or( for loadin#) unloadin# and stac(in#) the enforcement of site rules
on speed restrictions and access) and the trainin# and supervision of staff.
For part (iii)) candidates outlined rules such as the leavin# the for(*lift truc( on a firm)
level surface in a desi#nated area &ith the mast tilted sli#htly for&ard and the for(s
restin# on the floor. $he truc( should not be left until the bra(e has been applied and
po&er s&itched off) &hereupon the (ey (if applicable) should be removed and returned
to a responsible person. .ore able candidates referred to the need to par( the truc( a&ay
from other vehicles and in a position that does not obstruct emer#ency e-its) &al(&ays)
fire*points and so onM /ome candidates did not pay sufficient attention to the action verb
and provided a simple list &hen rather more &as re%uiredM For instance) the rule to
remove the (ey mi#ht have been accompanied by the reason of preventin# unauthorised
use of the truc(.
Question 2 -n relation to the ill)health effects from the use of vibrating hand)held tools+
(i) identify the typical symptoms that might be shown by affected
individuals (4)
(ii) outline the control measures that may be used to minimise the
ris! of such effects+ (4)
For part (i)) typical symptoms are numbness and blanchin# of the fin#ers and s&ollen)
painful 9oints) leadin# to a reduction in both manual de-terity and tactile sensation
.any candidates referred to the physiolo#ical effects of vibration) such as constriction
of blood vessels) rather than the symptoms displayed or described by those affected.
/uch ans&ers did not attract mar(s
;ns&ers to part (ii) &ere #enerally to a better standard) &ith some presented in a
169
hierarchical order. In some cases) it mi#ht be possible to alter the &or( process in order
to eliminate or reduce the use of vibratin# tools (or perhaps to reduce the pressure upon
the tool re%uired by the operator). :ays of reducin# the de#ree of vibration) or chan#in#
its characteristics) should be e-plored by proper selection of e%uipment and,or by #ood
standards of maintenance. Ris( can also be reduced by limitin# the time that operators
are e-posed) by introducin# a health surveillance,health promotion pro#ramme and by
appropriate personal protective e%uipment (such as #loves to (eep hands &arm).
(uestion ) Outline the precautions that #ay be needed when carrying out repairs
to the flat roof of a building. @=A
;lmost all candidates made reference to the more obvious precautions such as the
provision of safe access to the roof (by scaffoldin# and,or ladders)) ed#e protection to
prevent the falls of people or materials) and restrictin# access to the area belo& the &or(
by means of barriers and so forth. +etter candidates &ent on to outline the precautions
that mi#ht be needed to protect employees from fallin# throu#h fra#ile roof*li#hts and
voids) and from harmful contact &ith overhead obstructions and services. ;lso relevant
&ould be the means of transportin# materials to and from the &or( area) the possible
need for nettin# under the roof) protection from the &eather) and the positionin# and use
of ha4ardous e%uipment such as bitumen boilers and #as cylinders.
;ns&ers &ere not as #ood as mi#ht have been e-pected despite the fact that this %uestion
has appeared previously. $oo many candidates made #eneral statements about the need
for ris( assessment * &hich is the mechanism for identifyin# the precautions that should
be ta(en rather than a precaution in its o&n ri#ht. /imilarly) some candidates referred to
a permit*to*&or( system) &hich is a control measure rather than a precaution * the
permit) a#ain) &ould specify the precautions necessary.
(uestion *
(a)
In relation to #achinery safety1 outline the principles of operation of
(i) interlocked guards ($)
(ii) trip devicesM (3)
(b) Other than contact +ith dan,erous parts, identify FOUR types of
danger against which fi*ed guards on #achines #ay pro"ide
protection. (9)
For part (a)) candidates should have referred to an interloc(ed #uard as one that is lin(ed
to the machine controls (by mechanical) electrical) hydraulic or pneumatic means) so that
the machine &ill not operate until the #uard is closed) and &hen the machine is in a
dan#erous condition) the #uard is either prevented from openin# or) if it is opened) the
dan#erous parts of the machine are made safe. ; trip device) on the other hand) operates
&hen a person approaches a dan#er area. $ypical e-amples are trip bars or probes)
pressure mats and photo*sensitive systems (li#ht curtains'). Once the device is tri##ered)
it 'trips' the machine) &hich either stops or other&ise becomes safe. ;ns&ers to this part
of the %uestion &ere disappointin#. :hile most candidates) for part (a)(i)) &ere able to
demonstrate some a&areness of the principles of interloc(ed #uards) fe& referred to the
lin( to machine controls. For part (a)(ii)) many confused trip devices &ith emer#ency
stop buttons or residual current devices (despite there bein# no reference to electricity).
Relatively fe& candidates read part (b) carefully enou#h to ta(e note of the re%uirement
to identify ha4ards other than those caused by contact &ith dan#erous parts. E-aminers
170
e-pected candidates to describe ho& a fi-ed #uard mi#ht help to protect employees by
reducin# noise emissions) by containin# ha4ardous substances such as oil mist or dust)
by providin# shieldin# a#ainst heat or electricity) and by preventin# the e9ection of
particles from the machine.
(uestion - Outline measures that should be taken to #ini#ise the risk of fire fro#
electrical e'uip#ent. (
F
)
In ans&ers to this %uestion) E-aminers e-pected candidates to outline measures such as
the proper selection of e%uipment to ensure its suitability for the tas() pre*use inspection
by the user) establishin# correct fuse ratin#s) ensurin# circuits and soc(ets are not
overloaded) disconnectin# or isolatin# the e%uipment &hen it is not in use) and ensurin#
that electric motors do not overheat (e# by chec(in# that vents are uncovered).
;dditional measures include the need to uncoil cables (particularly e-tension leads) to
prevent the build up of heat and protectin# cables from mechanical dama#e. Importantly)
electrical e%uipment and systems should be sub9ect to re#ular inspection) testin# and
maintenance by competent persons. $his should ensure) for instance) that contacts are
sound) thereby reducin# the li(elihood of electrical arcin#.
$he %uestion specifically re%uired an outline of measures to be ta(en to minimise the
ris( of fire from electrical e%uipment) and not) as some candidates seemed to believe) an
outline of #eneral fire precautions) fire*fi#htin# e%uipment available or the precautions
to prevent the spread of fire.
2uestion 6 (a) Outline the possible risks to health associated with the use of
display screen e'uip#ent (@S!). (9)
(b) Identify the features of a suitable seat for use at a DSE
workstation. (4)
/i#nificant health ris(s associated &ith display screen e%uipment relate to a ran#e of
&or(*related upper limb disorders caused by poor posture and,or repetitive movement.
/uch conditions can cause pain) s&ellin#) soreness or stiffness in fin#ers) &rists) elbo&s
or shoulders. Other ris(s are eye*strain or mi#raine from uncorrected eyesi#ht problems
or poor &or(station layout) fati#ue) stress and) in rare cases) facial dermatitis (&hich is
thou#ht to be more related to the &or(in# environment than the &or(station or
e%uipment itself). .any candidates referred in #eneral terms to pain or strain &ithout
identifyin# the parts of the body affected) &hile others simply stated '&or(related upper
limb disorders' &ith no indication that they understood the meanin# of the term.
In contrast) ans&ers to part (b) &ere to a much hi#her standard) &ith most candidates
identifyin# such factors as stability (or 8five points of contact &ith the floor')) the ability
to ad9ust seat hei#ht and seat bac( (to provide #ood lumbar support)) the provision of
armrests &here appropriate) and the facility to s&ivel) tilt and move the seat &ith ease
&hen re%uired.
Question A (a) @raw a labelled sketch that shows the #ain co#ponents of a
local e*haust "entilation (A!B) syste#. (6)
(b) Outline the statutory re'uire#ents for the e*a#ination and
testing of an A!B syste#. (2)
E-aminers &ere disappointed by the %uality of many of the s(etches provided for part
(a)= some sho&ed no more than a &or(station &ith the semblance of a hood and pipe
above it. In order to #ain all the mar(s available) it &as necessary to include and label
171
the components of an LEV system * the hood) ductin#) air cleanin# device (e# filter)) fan
and e-haust outlet (in that order).
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere e%ually disappointin#. Relatively fe& candidates referred to
the 0ontrol of /ubstances 1a4ardous to 1ealth (0O/11) Re#ulations 3@@3 and the
re%uirements for a competent person to e-amine and test an LEV system at least once
every ? months * or more fre%uently for specified processes * and to maintain records
of the results.
Question ! Outline the ha/ards that #ight be encountered by bar staff working in a
busy town centre public house. (g)
.ost candidates seemed familiar &ith the scenario described in the %uestion and &ere
able to outline ha4ards such as noise) inhalation of tobacco smo(e) manual handlin# of
barrels and crates) the potential for violence from customers) psycholo#ical stress) slips)
trips and falls) bro(en #lass) the use of cleanin# materials) the level and %uality of the
li#htin# provided and the unsocial &or(in# hours. $he hi#h density population around
the bar area could also raise health issues in terms of conta#ious diseases.
;#ain) some candidates did not pay sufficient attention to the 'action verb' and) by
providin# a list instead of an outline) restricted the number of mar(s that could be
a&arded.
Question 9 Outline.
(i) the dangers associated with electricity (9)
(ii) the e#ergency action to take if a person suffers a se"ere electric
shoc(. ()
7art (i) of the %uestion &as not ans&ered as &ell as part (ii). .any candidates referred
to the main dan#er simply as bein# electric shoc( &ithout actually statin# &hy this is
dan#erous and ho& it may affect a person by interferin# &ith heart rhythm. +etter
candidates &ere able to refer to a &ider ran#e of dan#ers) such as burns to tissue) fire
and e-plosion) and secondary effects such as fallin# from a hei#ht as a result of an
electric shoc(. $hey &ere also able to indicate that the severity of the shoc( depends on
the current) resistance and the health of the individual.
For part (ii)) the action on discoverin# a person havin# suffered an electric shoc( should
be to ma(e others a&are of the situation and) at the same time or immediately
after&ards) to turn off the supply. If this is not possible) and the victim is still in contact
&ith) or in close pro-imity to) the live part) then he,she should be pushed clear usin# a
non*conductive implement (such as a broom). First*aid should then be administered)
&hich) dependin# on the condition of the person) may include cardio*pulmonary
resuscitation. If successful) an air&ay should be maintained by placin# the victim in the
recovery position and breathin# should be monitored until medical help arrives.
Question .@ (a) Identify the types of ha/ard against which glo"es could offer
protection. (9)
(b) Outline the proble#s that #ay be encountered when using
protecti"e glo"es at work. (9)
&ome good responses were provided for part *a, of the $uestion, with most candidates identifying
chemical, mechanical and biological ha2ards. 7ther ha2ards that received mention were etremes
of temperature *hot surfaces and cold environments,, wet work and those encountered in more
specialised areas involving, for instance, electricity and radiation.
0art *b, proved a little more difficult and most candidates were able to outline only those
limitations relating to loss of feeling, other tactile issues and the potential for entanglement in
172
machinery. Aetter candidates referred additionally to the possibilities of localised heating of the
hand that opens the pores and increases skin permeability, invisible leaks, a possible increased risk
from chemicals if gloves are worn for too long *ie past their #break"through# time,! allergic
response to the glove material, and the need to remove and refit gloves while carrying out
ha2ardous operations.
Question .. Identify the infor#ation that should be included on a #anufacturer>s
safety data sheet supplied with a ha/ardous substanceC (%)
+andidates familiar with safety data sheets for ha2ardous substances were able to identify a wide
range of issues in their answers to this $uestion. The information that should be contained on a
safety data sheet includes: the name of the substance! its physical properties and chemical
composition! the nature of the ha2ard and the risks presented! relevant standards *eg
occupational eposure standards,! precautions to be taken in its transport, handling and use!
measures to be taken in an emergency *eg spillage or accidental eposure, including first"aid
treatment and fire"fighting measures! and the re$uirements for safe disposal.
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28-;
Paper Al
!he 3anage3ent of safety and health
2uestion ? 3n e#ployer intends to i#ple#ent a progra##e of regular workplace
inspections following a workplace accident.
(i) Outline the factors that should be considered when planning
such inspections. (6)
(ii) Outline %'REE additional proacti"e #ethods that could be used
in the #onitoring of health and safety perfor#ance. (6)
(iii) Identify the possible costs to the organisation as a result of the
accident. (%)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates could have referred to such factors as6
the nature of the ha4ards in the &or(place= the composition and competence of the
inspection team= the areas to be inspected and the routes to follo&= the timin# and
fre%uency of the inspections= the relevant le#islation and standards a#ainst &hich the
results of the inspection &ould be 9ud#ed= the preparation and provision of chec(lists=
and the action that should follo& the inspections (such as the procedures for revie&in#
and prioritisin# any remedial measures found to be necessary). $he means of notifyin#
and consultin# &ith relevant staff prior to the inspection &ould also be relevant. /ome
candidates misunderstood the %uestion and provided ans&ers dealin# &ith the
investi#ation of accidents) &hile others effectively produced inspection chec(lists that
did not address the breadth of the %uestion.
For part (ii)) there &as a number of additional proactive measures that could have been
outlined. $hese include6 audits (involvin# a comprehensive and independent
e-amination of all aspects of an or#anisation's health and safety mana#ement systems
a#ainst stated ob9ectives)= safety surveys (focusin# on particular activities)= samplin#
(involvin# the tar#etin# of specific areas)= tours (&here unscheduled) less formal
&or(place inspections are carried out to chec( on issues such as house(eepin# or the use
of personal protective e%uipment)= benchmar(in# (&here an or#anisation's performance
in certain areas is compared &ith that of similar or#anisations)= and environmental and
health monitorin#. :hile some candidates &ere obviously a&are of these methods) they
tended to list them rather than provide the additional detail needed in response to the
8action' verb that re%uired an outline. $here &ere a fe& candidates &ho confused
proactive and reactive methods (such as accident investi#ation) and based their ans&ers
on the latter) for &hich no mar(s could be a&arded.
7art (iii) re%uired candidates to identify the possible costs to the or#anisation follo&in#
the accident. $hese &ould include6 the cost of lost production= time lost by the
employee,employees involved in the accident= clean*up costs and the possible repair of
dama#ed plant and e%uipment= a possible increase in insurance premiums= the cost of
le#al representation in any subse%uent court proceedin#s and the fine that mi#ht be
imposed= any part of compensation payments as a result of a civil action (ie any 'e-cess'
a#reed &ith the insurance company)= and intan#ible costs such as the effects on the
business ima#e of the or#anisation and the morale of the &or(force as a &hole.
174
2uestion 3 Outline the factors that #ight contribute towards a positi"e safety culture
within an organisation. (%)
Dot surprisin#ly) ans&ers &ere divided into those &here candidates evidently
understood the term 8safety culture' and those &here their understandin# &as limited.
;lthou#h many candidates &ere able to cite factors such as the commitment and
leadership of senior mana#ement) and the competence and trainin# of the &or(force)
fe&er included a ran#e of other relevant factors. $hese could have included6 a clear
policy &ith health and safety bein# #iven obvious e%ual priority to other business
ob9ectives (production) %uality) etc)= the settin# of realistic and achievable tar#ets= the
provision of a #ood &or(in# environment= proactive monitorin# of health and safety
standards= effective communication channels= a8no*blame' culture= and consultation
&ith) and the involvement of) the &or(force.
(uestion 2 (a) !*plain why an organisation should ha"e a syste# for the
internal reporting of accidents. (9)
(b) Identify the reasons why e#ployees #ay fail to report accidents
at work. (9)
.ost candidates #ained at least some mar(s for part (a) of this %uestion) &ith many
producin# ans&ers to a #ood standard. $here are a number of reasons &hy an
or#anisation should have a system for the internal reportin# of accidents. $hese include6
the compilation of accident statistics and the identification of trends= to meet the
re%uirements of the Reportin# of In9uries) "iseases and "an#erous Occurrences
Re#ulations ?BB<= so that an investi#ation may be carried out to prevent a recurrence or
to identify &ea(nesses in the safety mana#ement system= for use in civil claims or to
satisfy insurance re%uirements= to help in the identification and reduction of loss= and to
inform the revie& of ris( assessments.
7art (b) &as #enerally less &ell ans&ered) &ith only the more insi#htful candidates able
to supply the ran#e of information re%uired. 0andidates &ere e-pected to outline such
reasons as6 i#norance of the reportin# procedures= peer pressure= possible retribution by
mana#ement= to preserve the company's or department's safety record (particularly &hen
an incentive scheme is in operation)= to avoid receivin# first*aid or medical treatment
(for &hatever reason)= over*complicated reportin# procedures= and lac( of obvious
mana#ement response to earlier reported accidents.
Question 9 (a) @efine the ter# >negligence>. ($)
(b) Outline the (-5!! standard conditions that #ust be #et for an
e#ployee to pro"e a case of negligence against an e#ployer. (6)
For part (a)) candidates should have defined 8ne#li#ence' as a civil &ron# (tort)
involvin# unreasonably careless conduct (or a breach of the common la& duty of care))
resultin# in loss) dama#e or in9ury.
7art (b) re%uired an outline of the three standard conditions for an employee to prove a
case of alle#ed ne#li#ence a#ainst an employer. $hese are6 firstly) that a duty of care &as
o&ed by the employer (ie that the employee &as actin# in the course of his,her
175
employment)= secondly) that the employer acted in breach of that duty by not doin#
everythin# that &as reasonable to prevent foreseeable harm= and) thirdly) that the breach
led directly to the loss) dama#e or in9ury.
$his &as a %uestion &here many candidates #ained mar(s &ith the more able producin#
#ood) structured ans&ers. 1o&ever) E-aminers did e-press surprise that some
candidates appeared to stru##le &ith an important topic that should have been &ell
covered in their course of study.
Question 6 (a) !*plain the purposes of the =state#ent of intent>section of a
health and safety policyC ($)
(b) Outline the circu#stances that would re'uire a health and safety
policy to be re"iewed. (6)
For part (a)) most candidates #ained one mar( by e-plainin# that the 8statement of intent'
section of a health and safety policy is desi#ned to demonstrate mana#ement
commitment to health and safety. Only a fe&) ho&ever) #ained the second mar( by
referrin# to its other purpose of settin# #oals and ob9ectives.
In part (b)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of such circumstances as6 si#nificant
chan#es in the or#anisation= after the introduction of ne& or chan#ed processes=
follo&in# chan#es in (ey personnel= follo&in# chan#es in le#islation= &here ris(
assessments) monitorin# e-ercises or investi#ations sho& that the policy is no lon#er
effective or relevant= and after a sufficient period of time has elapsed since the previous
revie& to su##est that another one is due.
Question ; Identify EIG'% sources of infor#ation that #ight usefully be consulted when
de"eloping a safe syste# of work. (%)
.ost candidates &ere comfortable &ith this %uestion and a fe& produced ans&ers to a
very #ood standard. ; selection could have been made from sources such as statutory
instruments) ;0O7s and 1/E #uidance) manufacturers' information) European and
other official standards) industry or trade literature) results of ris( assessments) accident
statistics and health,medical surveillance records) the employees involved) and
enforcement a#encies and other e-perts.
; fe& candidates offered several e-amples of the same source) presumably in the hope
that they mi#ht be counted as separate sources. For instance) some ans&ers listed up to
ei#ht pieces of le#islation. Dot only &ere such ans&ers narro& in their approach but
they also made little sense since the particular le#islation to be consulted &ould depend
on the activity for &hich the safe system of &or( &as bein# developed.
(uestion 7 (a) !*plain why young persons #ay be at a greater risk fro#
accidents at work. (9)
(b) Outline the #easures that could be taken to #ini#ise the risks to
young e#ployees. (9)
For part (a) E-aminers re%uired candidates to identify factors such as lac( of (no&led#e)
176
e-perience or trainin#) the individual's sta#e of physical development) and the tendency
of youn# persons to ta(e ris(s and to respond more readily to peer pressure. $he ran#e
of issues in ans&ers to this part of the %uestion &as some&hat limited and some
candidates concentrated on one or t&o topics only) such as overenthusiasm and lac( of
(no&led#e and,or e-perience) &hich conse%uently restricted the number of mar(s that
could be a&arded.
For part (b)) many candidates outlined measures such as induction trainin#) supervision
and mentorin# by an appropriate co*&or(er but only the more able dealt &ith additional
measures such as the completion of ris( assessments &ith youn# persons specifically in
mind) specific health surveillance) clear lines of communication &ith youn# employees)
and placin# restrictions on the types of &or( and the number of hours &or(ed. It should
be noted that reliance on the #eneral ans&er of 8information) instruction) trainin# and
supervision' &as considered insufficient on its o&n and &as not re&arded unless used in
the specific conte-t of the %uestion (ie related to youn# persons).
Question = Outline reasons why an e#ployee #ight re'uire additional health and safety training at
a later stage of e#ploy#ent within an organisation.
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline such reasons as6 the
introduction of ne& processes) e%uipment and methods of &or(= as a result of a 9ob
chan#e involvin# different health and safety re%uirements and,or the allocation of
additional responsibilities= follo&in# the introduction of ne& le#islation= &here ris(
assessments or staff appraisals indicate that additional trainin# is necessary= &here
refresher trainin# is re%uired such as that re%uired for for(*lift truc( operators and first*
aid personnel= follo&in# an accident) enforcement action or insurance impositions= and
to counteract the possibility of employees becomin# complacent and la- in follo&in#
established procedures for health and safety.
$he %uestion referred to an employee Hat a later sta#e of employment &ithin an
or#anisationH. /ome candidates thou#ht that this referred to employees nearin# the end
of their &or(in# life and concentrated their ans&ers solely on issues concerned &ith
advancin# years.
(uestion / (a) In relation to risk assess#ents carried out under the <anage#ent of -ealth and
Safety at )ork 5egulations +&&&1 explain the #eaning of the ter# =suitable and
sufficient>.
(b) Outline the changes in circu#stances that #ay re'uire a risk
assess#ent to be re"iewed. (6)
E-aminers commented that part (a) of this %uestion &as poorly ans&ered and fe&
candidates &ere able to #ive an ade%uate e-planation of the term Hsuitable and
sufficientH in relation to ris( assessment. /uch an assessment should identify all
si#nificant ha4ards and ris(s) enable priorities to be set) allo& the identification of the
protective measures re%uired) be appropriate to the nature of the &or( and be valid over
a reasonable period of time. /ome candidates merely re*&rote the term by sayin# that a
suitable and sufficient ris( assessment is one that is both suitable and sufficient (&hich
did not represent a suitable or sufficient ans&erE).
.ost candidates) for part (b)) &ere able to outline some relevant circumstances) such as
chan#es in process) &or( methods or materials (type or %uantity)) the introduction of
ne& plant or technolo#y) ne& information becomin# available) a chan#e in le#islation)
chan#es in personnel (e# the employment of youn# or disabled persons)) and &hen the
177
results of monitorin# (accidents) ill*health and,or the &or(in# environment) are not as
e-pected. 0andidates &ho provided #ood ans&ers to 2uestion <(b)) and noticed some
common issues) tended to produce e%ually #ood ans&ers here.
(%)
2uestion ?@ (a) Explain the #eaning of the ter# perception> ($)
(b) Outline ways in which e#ployees> perceptions of ha/ards in the
workplace #ight be i#pro"ed. (6)
For part (a)) a reasonable e-planation of 8perception' &as re%uired) such as
the &ay that people interpret and try to ma(e sense of presented information
* for instance) in relation to their surroundin#s. .any candidates appeared to
stru##le to put into &ords somethin# that is perhaps almost intuitive. 0ircular
definitions) such as Hperception is the &ay that people perceive thin#sH) &ere
considered inade%uate in this respect.
$hose &ho found difficulty in definin# 8perception' in the first part of the
%uestion &ere conse%uently hard put to produce an ade%uate ans&er to part
(b). Fe& candidates &ere able to outline more than one or t&o &ays that
employees' perceptions of ha4ards mi#ht be improved. .ost referred in
#eneral terms to motivation or to the need to increase a&areness in the
individual by safety campai#ns or posters and to increase (no&led#e by
means of trainin#. :hile these are hi#hly relevant) candidates &ho
considered the problem in sli#htly more depth su##ested firstly that there
&as a need to identify) perhaps by the use of surveys) the reasons for
employees' misperceptions in order to sho& ho& improvements mi#ht be
achieved and ho& currently held vie&s mi#ht be challen#ed. Other
su##estions included ma(in# ha4ards more obvious (for e-ample) by the use
of si#ns) and addressin# environmental factors) such as li#htin# and noise)
that mi#ht cause distraction or other&ise hinder the perceptual processes.
2uestion ?? Aist the powers gi"en to health and safety enforce#ent officers appointed
under the -ealth and Safety at )ork etc 3ct +&79. (%)
/ection 3@ of the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct ?BA provides the main
source of information to ans&er this %uestion and most candidates &ere able
to list enou#h po&ers available to appointed inspectors to #ain #ood mar(s.
$he po&ers include6 the ri#ht to enter premises) if necessary by enlistin# the
assistance of a police officer= to carry out e-aminations and investi#ations=
to direct that premises or e%uipment be left undisturbed for the purpose of
investi#ations= to ta(e measurements and photo#raphs= to inspect and,or ta(e
copies of documents and records= to ta(e samples= to re%uire a person to
ans&er %uestions and si#n a declaration to the truth of his,her ans&ers= to
ta(e possession of articles and substances= to issue enforcement notices= and
to insti#ate and (e-cept in /cotland) to conduct proceedin#s in a ma#istrates'
court.
Paper: A2
+ontrolling wor?place hazards
(uestion I 3n office building is about to be occupied by new owners.
178
(i) Identify the factors that should be considered by the new owners
when assessing the suitability of lighting within the building. (%)
(ii) Other than lighting1 outline 7O85 factors associated with the
physical working en"iron#ent that #ay affect the health and
safety of e#ployees. (9)
(iii) Outline the re'uire#ents with respect to the welfare facilities that
should be pro"ided in the building. (%)
7art (i) of this %uestion &as reasonably &ell ans&ered by most candidates &ho identified
such factors as6 the tas(s to be underta(en and the e%uipment to be used= the availability
of natural li#ht= the ade%uacy of the e-istin# li#htin# levels includin# that provided for
specific areas such as stairs and corridors= si#nificant contrasts in li#htin# levels bet&een
different areas= the layout of the office) includin# the position of screen dividers in
relation to overhead li#htin# and other areas that may be in shado&= the appropriateness
and condition of the particular type of artificial li#htin# installed (e# fluorescent) spot
li#htin#)= possible #lare created on computer screens and &or(stations= and the provision
of local li#htin# for specific tas(s. $he availability and ade%uacy of emer#ency li#htin#
is another issue that should have been considered. /ome candidates seemed to run out of
ideas %uite %uic(ly and either stopped short or repeated &hat they had already &ritten in
a sli#htly different format.
.any of the ans&ers provided for part (ii) &ere of a surprisin#ly lo& standard. /ome
candidates appeared not to understand the term 8physical &or(in# environment' and
concentrated on such items as machinery) ha4ardous substances and manual handlin#.
Others inappropriately also included aspects of &elfare facilities in their ans&ers) &hich
su##ested that they had not read the third part of the %uestion before attemptin# this part.
Net others seemed not to have the office environment in mind and outlined factors that
&ere more relevant to a factory settin#. E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of factors
such as noise (as a stress factor)) temperature) humidity) air %uality , ventilation) the
condition of floors (e# undama#ed) non*slip)) space constraints) &or(station desi#n
issues and other features of the physical environment in &hich people are re%uired to
&or(.
7art (iii) offered the opportunity to those &ho had e-perienced difficulty &ith the
previous part of the %uestion to re#ain some #round. $o do so they needed to outline
facilities that should be provided. $hese are6 an ade%uate number of &ell ventilated and
lit sanitary conveniences in relation to the numbers of male and female employees=
&ashin# facilities &ith hot and cold runnin# &ater and means of dryin#= a suitable source
of drin(in# &ater (clearly mar(ed &here appropriate)= facilities for ta(in# rest and
refreshment a&ay from the &or(in# areas= accommodation for clothin# not &orn durin#
&or(in# hours= first*aid facilities= rest facilities for pre#nant &omen and nursin#
mothers= and protection for non*smo(ers from the effects of smo(e. $he candidates &ho
found it difficult to #ain hi#h mar(s on this part tended to be those &ho had already listed
&elfare facilities in their ans&ers to earlier parts of the %uestion and presumably thou#ht
it inappropriate to repeat them in this part.
Question 2 Outline the ha/ards that #ight be encountered by a gardener e#ployed
by a local authority parks depart#ent. (%)
179
$his &as a %uestion that re%uired candidates to visualise the &or(in# environment of a
local authority #ardener and to outline the ha4ards associated &ith the &or(. $hey could
have referred to the use of chemicals (e# pesticides)) ha4ards from machinery (e#
la&nmo&ers)) manual handlin#) conditions leadin# to slips) trips and falls) biolo#ical
ha4ards) e-posure to e-treme &eather conditions) and the ha4ards arisin# from stin#in#
insects) vicious do#s and sharp ob9ects (such as bro(en #lass and thorns).
/ome candidates concentrated solely on specific items such as machinery ha4ards and)
althou#h they #ave several e-amples) such ans&ers &ere too narro& to #ain the mar(s
that &ere available. Others) disappointin#ly) sho&ed confusion in their understandin# of
the terms 8ha4ard' and 8ris(' and made little reference to the actual ha4ards involved.
2uestion 5 (a) Outline the possible causes of a du#per truck o"erturn on a
construction site. (6)
(b) Identify the design features of a du#per truck intended to
#ini#ise the risk of1 or se"erity of in?ury fro#1 an o"erturn. ($)
$his previously used %uestion &as fairly &ell ans&ered by most candidates. For part (a)
of the %uestion) E-aminers &ere e-pectin# candidates to outline causes such as
overloadin# or uneven loadin# of the buc(et) cornerin# at e-cessive speed) hittin#
obstructions) drivin# too close to the ed#es of emban(ments or e-cavations) mechanical
defects) inappropriate tyre pressures and drivin# across slopes. $he bald statement of
'drivin# too fast' could not be a&arded a mar( unless it &as specifically connected &ith
cornerin# or manoeuvrin#.
In ans&erin# part (b)) most candidates #ained the mar( allocated for the use of seatbelts
but fe& &ere able to e-pand on this to include other desi#n features such as rollover
protection) the &idth of the &heelbase and the position of the centre of #ravity of the
truc(. .any ans&ers &ent beyond desi#n features into aspects of the &or(in#
environment) &hich &ere not as(ed for.
Question 9 7or E01' of the following agents1 outline the principal health effects 02D
identify a typical workplace situation in which a person #ight be e*posed0
(i) carbon #ono*ide ($) (ii) asbestos (3) (iii) legionella bacteria ($) (i") hepatitis
"irus. ($)
$his %uestion &as intended to test candidates' (no&led#e of the health effects arisin#
from e-posure to various substances that appear in the syllabus.
For part (i)) the principal effects from e-posure to carbon mono-ide are headaches)
dro&siness and possible asphy-iation. E-posure could occur &hen &or(in# near a
vehicle e-haust in an unventilated area (e# vehicle repair premises or under#round car
par() or to a boiler &ith a defective flueM ;ns&ers to part (ii) should have reco#nised
that e-posure to asbestos may cause asbestosis (a fibrotic disease of the lun#)) lun#
cancer or mesothelioma (cancer of the linin# of the lun#). $hose at ris( include persons
en#a#ed in maintenance or demolition &or( &here asbestos is contained in the fabric of
the buildin#.
Le#ionella bacteria) for part (iii)) may cause le#ionellosis) &hich is characterised by flu*
li(e symptoms) pneumonia and) in about ?<O of cases) death. ;ny &or(place that has
untreated &ater tan(s and systems from &hich &ater droplets may be released into the
atmosphere (e# from air*conditionin# systems or coolin# to&ers) poses a ris( to those in
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the vicinity. Lastly) the hepatitis virus affects the liver and may result in 9aundice) fever)
abdominal pain and) ultimately) liver failure. ;ny &or(place situation that e-poses
people to infected persons or to used hypodermic needles presents a particular ris( of the
disease. $he hepatitis ; virus) &hich is normally less serious) is transmitted via the
mouth= hepatitis + and 0 via the blood.
$his &as a %uestion that relied on specific (no&led#e and it &as not possible to ans&er
it &ith #eneralities. $herefore) ans&ers tended to be polarised bet&een candidates &ho
possessed the (no&led#e and those &ho evidently did not. 1o&ever) there &ere some
candidates &ho perhaps could have #ained further mar(s by providin# a little more by
&ay of an outline. For hepatitis) for instance) it &as not enou#h 9ust to state 8hospitals'=
rather) it &as the particular situation &ithin a hospital that &as needed.
Question : Outline the re'uire#ents to ensure the safe e"acuation of persons fro#
a building in the e"ent of a fire. (%)
; #ood ans&er to this %uestion &ould have included an outline of such re%uirements as6
the means for raisin# the alarm= an acceptable distance to the nearest available e-it=
escape routes of sufficient &idth= clear si#nin# of escape routes= the provision of
emer#ency li#htin#= escape routes (ept clear of obstructions &ith fire doors closed to
prevent the spread of smo(e= the provision of fire*fi#htin# e%uipment= the appointment
of fire marshals= procedures for the evacuation of those &ith a physical impairment (in
relation to hearin#) si#ht or mobility)= and the need to practise the evacuation plan at
re#ular intervals.
.any candidates focused their ans&ers on #ood evacuation techni%ues and provided
detailed information on &hat an emer#ency evacuation plan should include. 1o&ever)
they did not address many of the above*mentioned re%uirements) &hich are desi#ned to
ensure that the evacuation plan &or(s effectively. Once a#ain) there &as a si#nificant
number of candidates &ho provided a list and not an outline as re%uired.
2uestion > (a) Outline 3I4 factors to consider when selecting eye protection for
use at work. (6)
(b) Identify O! ad"antage and O! disad"antage of safety
goggles co#pared with safety spectacles. ($)
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) most candidates referred to the need to ensure that
the type of e%uipment is appropriate for the particular ha4ard a#ainst &hich protection is
re%uired (e# chemical) impact) ultraviolet li#ht) molten metal). In this conte-t) reference
&as usually made to the need for the e%uipment to meet %uality and safety standards) in
particular that it bears a 0E mar(. Other factors mentioned included durability) cost) and
maintenance and trainin# re%uirements. Reference mi#ht also have been made to
comfort factors and to compatibility &ith other protective e%uipment and prescription
spectacles.
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere a#ain to a hi#h standard since there are several advanta#es and
disadvanta#es of #o##les from &hich only one of each &as re%uired. ;dvanta#es
include the fact that #o##les provide all*round protection) particularly a#ainst pro9ectiles
and chemicals) and tend not to be easily displaced. "isadvanta#es include the tendency
of #o##les to mist up under certain conditions) the #enerally hi#her cost involved and
the fact that they may be more uncomfortable than spectacles.
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Question A Outline the practical precautions that #ight be needed prior to the repair
of a large ite# of process #achinery. (%)
$his %uestion has appeared previously on t&o occasions but still proved difficult for
many candidates. It is a %uestion &here candidates needed to form a picture in their
minds of the type of operation and then) &or(in# from first principles) apply their
(no&led#e to the situation. 1ence) the repair of a lar#e item of machinery is li(ely to
involve) for instance) access problems) &or(in# at hei#ht) e-posure to process materials
and lubricants) the liftin# of heavy components) and the possibility of hot surfaces)
stored ener#y and inadvertent start*up. .any ans&ers lac(ed the specificity needed to
address these issues but instead relied on the usual #eneralities (ris( assessment) 77E)
information) instruction and trainin#) &ith little or no attempt to sho& their relevance to
the particular scenario described.
1avin# ima#ined the possible problems) the necessary precautions should then have
follo&ed almost intuitively. $herefore) it &ould be necessary to ensure the isolation of
po&er sources and material in#ress by loc(in# off and,or physical disconnection
(probably as part of a permit*to*&or( system)) the safe release of stored ener#y before
&or( commences) ensurin# a safe means of access (ladders) scaffoldin#) etc)) the
provision of correct tools (and suitable) tested liftin# e%uipment &here re%uired))
preventin# unauthorised access by means of barriers and si#ns) the provision of
appropriate personal protective e%uipment (e# #loves) eye protection) harnesses)) and
ensurin# the installation of additional li#htin# and ventilation &here needed. It &ould
also be necessary to ensure the competence of staff and proper supervision to ensure that
the &or( proceeds as planned.
2uestion ! ; decorator uses a hand.held electric sander for the preparation of &ood
prior to painting.
(i) Outline the checks that should be #ade to ensure the electrical
safety of the sander. (9)
(ii) Other than electricity1 identify FOUR ha/ards associated with the
use of the sander. (9)
If candidates had difficulty in ima#inin# the scenario of the previous %uestion) then they
appeared to have less of a problem here and reasonable to hi#h mar(s &ere #ained by
the ma9ority. Cood ans&ers to part (i) referred to the chec(s that should be carried out
routinely as &ell as those made by the user immediately prior to use. $hese include a
visual inspection of the appliance's #eneral condition and the inte#rity of its plu# and
cable) as &ell as that of any e-tension leads and the soc(et from &hich the supply is
ta(en. 0hec(s should also be in place to ensure that the e%uipment meets reco#nised
standards) that it has been sub9ect to portable appliance testin#) that fuses are of the
correct ratin#) that electrical connections are sound and earth continuity achieved) and
that the appliance is of the correct type (e# double*insulated or reduced lo& volta#e).
"ependin# on the type of e%uipment) a further chec( may have to be made to ensure that
it is protected by a residual current device and that the rcd itself has been tested.
Dearly all candidates achieved ma-imum mar(s for part (ii) by referrin# to such ha4ards
as dust) noise) vibration) abrasion) poor er#onomics (related either to e%uipment desi#n
or to the &ay in &hich the &or( is carried out) and,or trailin# cables.
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Question / Outline the possible effects on health fro# e*posure to high le"els of noise. (%)
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere particularly disappointin# #iven both the importance of
the sub9ect in relation to occupational health and the prominence afforded to noise on
courses and in past e-aminations. .any candidates found difficulty in e-pressin# clearly
&hat they meant and some produced short lists that included terms li(e 8deafness' &ith
no further e-planationM Of those &ho did refer to noise*induced hearin# loss) many did
not then #o on to outline the condition in terms of physiolo#ical dama#e to the sensory
hair cells in the inner ear) affectin# sounds &ithin the audible fre%uency ran#e and
pro#ressively &orsenin# &ith continued e-posure.
Relatively fe& candidates differentiated bet&een the acute and chronic effects of noise.
For instance) althou#h most candidates mentioned tinnitus) and reco#nised that it is
characterised by a rin#in# or other sound in the ears) very fe& referred to its temporary
or permanent nature= similarly) there &as little distinction made bet&een temporary and
permanent threshold shift (&ith the latter describin# noise*induced hearin# loss). $his is
despite the fact that most people have e-perienced the acute effects of noise at some
time. Other acute effects include stress and fati#ue) and trauma (e# burst eardrum)
caused by e-posure to sudden loud noise.
2uestion ?@ 3 store#an is re'uired to place bo*es of #etal co#ponents by hand on to
shel"ed racking.
(i) Aist 7O85 types of in?ury to which the store#an #ay be at risk
while carrying out this operation. (9)
(ii) Outline the factors in relation to the task that #ay affect the risk
of in?ury. (9)
$he %uestion &as intended to test candidates' understandin# of various aspects of
manual handlin#. For part (i)) possible in9uries &ould ran#e from cuts) abrasions and
crushin# in9uries to dama#ed or strained li#aments and tendons) as &ell as hernias)
dislocations and fractures of bones) and various forms of spinal in9ury. $his should have
been fairly strai#htfor&ard but some candidates appeared to have read the %uestion &ith
insufficient care and listed the ha4ards and ris( factors that could lead to in9ury) for
&hich no mar(s could be a&arded.
0andidates familiar &ith manual handlin# assessment reco#nised that the four variables
associated &ith manual handlin# ris( are the load) the individual) the environment and
the tas(. $his part of the %uestion addressed the last of these althou#h many ans&ers
attempted to encompass aspects of the other three as &ell. $he tas(*related factors in this
instance &ould involve such factors as manipulation of the load at an e-cessive distance
from the body) e-cessive carryin#) liftin# or lo&erin# distances) e-cessive pullin# or
pushin#) hi#h &or(*rate and,or insufficient rest periods) and the need to adopt
unsatisfactory body positions due) for instance) to space constraints.
(uestion "" <obile tower scaffolds should be used on stable1 le"el ground.
List EIG'% additional points that should be considered to ensure the safe
use of a #obile tower scaffold. (%)
$his last %uestion &as a8list' %uestion that should have provided an opportunity for those
runnin# out of time to #ain mar(s %uic(ly. $here &ere many points that could have been
183
listed) includin# amon#st others6 ensurin# the correct ratio bet&een the hei#ht and base
dimensions of the to&er= the need for dia#onal bracin#) stabilisers and loc(in# &heels=
the provision of toe*boards and #uardrails= ensurin# that the platform is fully boarded=
the prevention of overloadin#= ta(in# account of overhead obstructions and po&er lines=
the provision of a suitable means of access (preferably a fi-ed internal ladder)= and the
need to ensure that the to&er is not moved &hen loaded &ith e%uipment and,or people.
Overall) the %uestion &as ans&ered &ell by most candidates. 1o&ever) some lost the
opportunity to #ain mar(s by includin# in their ans&ers issues relatin# to #round
conditions (&hich &ere precluded by the %uestion) and to types of scaffoldin# other than
mobile to&ers. In addition) one*&ord items in the list (such as 'people') 8e%uipment' or
8hei#ht') &ere insufficient to sho& e-actly &hat point &as to be considered.
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28-9
PaperBB Al
!he 3anage3ent of safety and health
2uestion I 3n e#ployee has been in?ured in a workplace accident. 3 subse'uent
in"estigation by an inspector fro# the -ealth and Safety !*ecuti"e has
disco"ered that no risk assess#ent for the particular acti"ity e*ists.
(i) @escribe the enforce#ent actions that would be a"ailable to the
inspector in such a situation1 e*plaining the grounds for !34-
type of action. (6)
(ii) Outline the factors that the e#ployer should take into account
when selecting indi"iduals to assist in carrying out the re'uired
risk assess#ent. (6)
(iii) Outline the steps that should be used in carrying out the risk
assess#ent1 identifying the issues that would need to be
considered at !34- stage. (%)
In ans&erin# part (i) of this %uestion) candidates could have referred in the first instance
to the possibility of issuin# either an improvement or a prohibition notice. ;n
improvement notice could be issued &here the inspector believes that a statutory
re%uirement is bein# breached (or that there has been a breach that is li(ely to be
repeated or continued) and &ould re%uire remedial action to be ta(en &ithin a #iven
period of time. ; prohibition notice &ould be appropriate &here) in the inspector's
opinion) there is a ris( of serious personal in9ury and &ould prohibit the use of an item of
e%uipment or a process until the action re%uired to reduce the ris( has been ta(en. $he
inspector &ould additionally have the option to prosecute for breaches of health and
safety le#islationM ;lternatively) &here the contravention is considered less serious) the
inspector could choose simply to #ive verbal or &ritten advice on the actions re%uired.
$his part of the %uestion &as #enerally ans&ered &ell by most candidates. $hose)
ho&ever) &ho referred primarily to the po&ers of inspectors (such as the ri#ht of entry to
premises at any reasonable time) #ained little re&ard since the %uestion &as focused on
the various enforcement actions available to the inspector and not on the po&ers that
allo& the actions to be carried out.
For part (ii)) most candidates identified factors such as e-perience or trainin# in ha4ard
identification and carryin# out ris( assessments) (no&led#e of the process or activity)
and #ood communication and reportin# s(ills. +etter ans&ers referred additionally to the
need for the individual to have the ri#ht attitude to carry out the tas() the ability to
interpret le#islation and #uidance) and technical (no&led#e of the plant or e%uipment
involved.
In ans&erin# part (iii)) candidates &ho thou#ht lo#ically about the &ay in &hich an
assessment should be carried out) and essentially adopted the 8<*steps' approach)
inevitably provided better ans&ers. $hey thus outlined the need firstly to define the
activity or operation bein# assessed and then to identify the ha4ards involved and the
number and types of people li(ely to be e-posed. $his &as follo&ed by an evaluation of
the ris() loo(in# at the li(elihood and potential severity of harm) assessin# the ade%uacy
of the e-istin# control measures in preventin# such harm and recommendin# additional
185
control measures &here re%uired. Finally) the results of the assessment &ould need to be
recorded. .ost candidates &ere able to identify the steps re%uired to carry out a ris(
assessment but did not provide sufficient information to satisfy the re%uirement for an
outline. $hose &ho concentrated on the control hierarchy instead of the steps that should
be used in carryin# out the ris( assessment unfortunately #ained little re&ard for their
efforts.
2uestion 2 Outline FOUR ad"antages and 7O85 disad"antages of using
=propaganda> posters to co##unicate health and safety infor#ation to
the workforce. (%)
7osters are commonly used as a medium for passin# on health and safety messa#es to the
&or(force and most candidates &ill have used them or seen them in use. $he %uestion
&as #enerally ans&ered &ell but e-cellence &as achieved only by candidates &ho
thou#ht practically about the issues involved) structured their responses under the
separate headin#s of advanta#es and disadvanta#es) and provided a reasonable outline as
re%uired.
;dvanta#es of posters include their relatively lo& cost) their fle-ibility (allo&in# them to
be displayed in the most apposite positions)) their brevity (allo&in# messa#es to be easily
understood)) their use in reinforcin# verbal instructions or information and in providin# a
constant reminder of important health and safety issues) and their potential to allo&
employees to become involved in their selection and hence in the messa#e bein#
conveyed.
"isadvanta#es include the need to chan#e posters on a re#ular basis if they are to be
noticed) the fact that they may become soiled) defaced and out*of*date) and the
possibility that they mi#ht be seen to trivialise serious matters. ;dditionally) they mi#ht
actually alienate people if inappropriate stereotypes (e# of the 8stupid &or(er') are used)
they provide no direct &ay of assessin# &hether the messa#e has been understood) and
they may be perceived by unscrupulous employers as an easy) if not particularly
effective) &ay of dischar#in# their responsibility to provide health and safety
information) and even of shiftin# the responsibility onto the &or(force for any accidents
that may occur.
Question 5 (a) !*plain the #eaning of the phrase =so far as is reasonably
practicable>. ($)
(b) -tate the general and specific duties of e#ployers under section $
of the -ealth and Safety at )ork etc 3ct +&79. (6)
.ost candidates found little difficulty &ith part (a) and &ere able to offer an ans&er
based on the balance of ris( a#ainst cost (in terms of time) trouble and money)) &ith
some providin# a useful practical e-ample to clarify their e-planation.
7art (b) offered candidates &ith (no&led#e of section 3 of the 1/: ;ct the opportunity
to obtain the full si- mar(s available. Unfortunately) this &as achieved by very fe&.
.ost candidates &ere able to %uote the #eneral duty to ensure (so far as is reasonably
practicable) the health) safety and &elfare of employees but some &ere unable to
186
demonstrate (no&led#e beyond this. +etter candidates) ho&ever) referred to the specific
duties to provide and maintain safe plant and systems of &or() to ensure the safe use)
stora#e) handlin# and transport of articles and substances) and to provide and maintain a
safe &or(place) includin# access and e#ress. Others made proper reference to the
provision of a safe &or(in# environment &ith ade%uate &elfare facilities) and to the
provision of information) instruction) trainin# and supervision. Fe& candidates seemed
a&are) or able to brin# to mind) that section 3 e-tends beyond the first t&o subsections
and continues &ith the re%uirements to prepare and revise a health and safety policy) to
consult &ith employee representatives and to establish a safety committee &hen
re%uired to do so.
It &as disappointin# to find that there &ere so many candidates &ho did not seem to
have a thorou#h #rasp of this mainstay of health and safety la&) from &hich stems the
mass of more specific le#islation.
2uestion (a) Dra+ a flowchart to identify the #ain co#ponents of the health and
safety #anage#ent syste# described in the -S! publication
DSuccessful -ealth and Safety <anage#entD (1/C><). ()
(b) Outline %&O co#ponents of the health and safety #anage#ent
syste# identified in (a). (9)
In ans&erin# part (a) of this %uestion) E-aminers e-pected candidates to dra& a
flo&chart identifyin# the components of the mana#ement system described in 1/C><
(ie 'policy') 'or#anisin# for health and safety') 8plannin# and implementation') 'measurin#
performance') 8revie&in# performance' and 8auditin#'). $o obtain all the mar(s available)
it &as necessary to sho& the components in the correct se%uence and to identify the
appropriate feedbac( loops. ;ns&ers &ere #enerally disappointin# and fe& candidates
sho&ed that they had a reasonable #rasp of the mana#ement model) despite the fact that
the syllabus for the Dational Ceneral 0ertificate is structured accordin# to the model and
that it clearly forms an important part of that syllabus.
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere a#ain of a #enerally poor standard. 0andidates &ho did attempt
the %uestion concentrated for the most part on the 8policy' and 8or#anisin#' components.
In the former case) most emphasised the need for or#anisations to set clear aims and
ob9ectives and) in the latter) to allocate specific responsibilities for health and safety.
Very fe& chose to outline the other components &here) in 8plannin# and
implementation') they mi#ht have referred to the re%uirement to assess ris(s and to
devise safe systems of &or() and) in 8measurin# performance') to the use of active and
reactive monitorin# methods.
Question : Outline the practical #eans by which a #anager could in"ol"e e#ployees in
the i#pro"e#ent of health and safety in the workplace. (%)
;ns&ers to this %uestion should have included outlines of such means as6 involvin#
employees in ris( assessments) accident investi#ations and the development of safe
systems and procedures= encoura#in# ha4ard*spottin# and the reportin# of defects=
settin# up su##estion schemes= or#anisin# trainin# courses and information
187
pro#rammes= supportin# active involvement in safety committee meetin#s= bein#
accompanied by employees or their representatives on safety tours and inspections= and
#ivin# employees responsibilities for mentorin# youn# and ine-perienced &or(ers.
$he %uestion produced a mi-ed response. /ome candidates did not read the %uestion
&ith sufficient care and concentrated on the practical means that the mana#er in
isolation mi#ht ta(e in improvin# health and safety in the &or(place) but &ithout
referrin# to the involvement of the &or(force. Others &ere able to come up &ith no
more than one or t&o su##estions &hile a fe&) despite the use of the &ord 8practical' in
the %uestion) too( an approach that loo(ed more at motivation theory than at the
practical &ays of directly involvin# employees.
Question 6 (a) State the re'uire#ents for reporting an =o"er three.day> in?ury
under the 5eporting of In?uries1 @iseases and @angerous
Occurrences 5egulations +&&6. ($)
(b) ,i"ing reasons in !34- case1 identify (-5!! categories of
persons who #ay be considered a useful #e#ber of an internal
accident in"estigation tea#. (6)
7art (a) re%uired a strai#htfor&ard statement of the relevant (ey re%uirements of
RI""OR ?BB<. .ost candidates &ere able to secure both mar(s available by referrin# to
the re%uirements that a report should be made by the responsible person to the relevant
enforcin# authority &ithin ten &or(in# days of the accident) and that it should be made
by an approved means (e# on form F3<@! or directly to 1/E's Incident 0ontact 0entre).
/ome candidates &asted valuable time in describin# or definin# an
1
over three*day' in9ury) &hile others seemed confused bet&een the re%uirements for an
8over three*day' in9ury and those for a ma9or or fatal in9ury.
In ans&erin# part (b)) candidates could have chosen from a number of possible
cate#ories includin#6 a senior mana#er from another department &ho could act as an
independent chairman= a health and safety practitioner to advise on specific health and
safety issues= an en#ineer or technical e-pert to provide any technical information
re%uired= a senior mana#er from the department &here the accident occurred) &hose
responsibilities &ould include ensurin# that the recommendations of the investi#atin#
team &ere actioned= a local mana#er or supervisor &ith detailed (no&led#e of the site of
the accident and of the systems of &or( in place= and an employee safety representative
&ho) apart from havin# the statutory ri#ht to be involved if trade unionappointed) could
represent the in9ured &or(er and his,her co*&or(ers.
$he actual composition of such an accident investi#ation team &ould) of course) depend
on such factors as the seriousness of the accident and its comple-ities. 1o&ever)
althou#h a number of candidates thou#ht incorrectly that the in9ured person and,or
&itnesses should be part of the team) most &ere able to identify three appropriate
cate#ories of people) even if the reasons for their involvement &ere not al&ays clear.
(uestion 7 Outline the factors to consider when assessing the risks to a long
distance deli"ery dri"er. (%)
$hose candidates &ho adopted a lo#ical approach to this %uestion almost inevitably
188
provided better ans&ers. Cood ans&ers tended to be structured broadly under the four
headin#s of the 9ob) the individual) the vehicle and the load) &ith t&o or three factors
outlined for each. Gob factors &ould include the duration of the 9ourney) the demands of
the route (comple-ity) road conditions) etc)) means of communication and security issues
(e# potential for violence). Individual factors &ould relate to the physical and
psycholo#ical capabilities of the driver to cope &ith the demands of the 9ob) ta(in# into
account the level of trainin# provided. For the vehicle) important factors &ould be
maintenance and brea(do&n provision) and the desi#n and layout of the cab. Lastly) it
&ould be necessary to consider the nature of the load (e# ha4ardous) heavy) etc)) the
means of handlin# materials and the emer#ency procedures in place.
/ome candidates) even thou#h they identified many of the relevant factors) could not be
a&arded the full ran#e of mar(s available because they produced a truncated list that did
not properly outline the relationship bet&een each factor and the correspondin# ris(s.
Question % In relation to the spillage of a to*ic substance fro# a ruptured dru#
stored in a warehouse0
(i) identify %'REE ways in which persons working in close "icinity
to the spillage #ight be har#ed (2)
(ii) outline a procedure in the e"ent of such a spillage. (6)
7art (i) &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith many candidates able to identify the possible
causes of acute or chronic to-ic effects as6 direct contact &ith) and possibly absorption
throu#h) the s(in or mucous membranes (particularly the eyes)= inhalation of fumes or
particles= and) under certain circumstances) in#estion of the material. .ar(s &ere also
available for identifyin# &ays that &ere not specific to the to-ic nature of the substance
but &hich could still be relevant) such as slips. 1o&ever) there &as no indication that the
substance &as flammable as &ell as to-ic and so there &as a limit to &hat &as
considered reasonable.
$he second part of the %uestion re%uired candidates to thin( in practical terms about a
#iven situation. ; procedure for such a spilla#e &ould be to isolate or evacuate the area)
havin# made an initial assessment) and to summon help (from the emer#ency services if
this &ere thou#ht to be necessary). $he spilla#e) if li%uid) should be contained by usin#
absorbent material and,or by bundin#) &ith appropriate personal protective e%uipment
havin# been issued to those involved in carryin# out the procedure. ;t the same time)
any person &ho mi#ht have been harmed by the initial spilla#e should be #iven
appropriate first*aid or medical treatment and) if appropriate) be sub9ect to on#oin#
health surveillance. $he spilled substance and any contaminated absorbent material
should be disposed of in a safe manner. ;lthou#h the actual procedure mi#ht vary
dependin# on the nature of the substance and its to-icity) those providin# #ood ans&ers
to this %uestion considered a lo#ical se%uence of possible actions such as those
describedM
Question & <ost occupational accidents can be attributed in part to hu#an error. Outline ways of
reducing the likelihood of hu#an error in the workplace.
(%)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline &ays of reducin# human
error such as6 the use of s(illed) competent and properly trained employees) and
ensurin# that they are &ell motivated= avoidin# monotonous &or( processes and
189
arran#in# brea(s to counter fati#ue= desi#natin# clear roles and lines of responsibility
and ensurin# ade%uate levels of supervision= establishin# #ood lines of communication
&ith the &or(force and ensurin# the clarity of instructions and information passed on to
them= implementin# policies on alcohol and dru#s (prescribed and other&ise)=
addressin# &or(place environmental issues such as noise) li#ht and heat= and desi#nin#
the &or(place and &or( e%uipment to reduce the opportunity for error (e# automation)
unambi#uous controls,information) monitorin# and confirmation of actions) and
feedbac( loops). $he possibility of human error) and its effects on health and safety)
should also form part of any ris( assessment) &hich should ta(e into account previous
incidents and the results of investi#ation.
;ns&ers to the %uestion varied &idely in %uality. :hile some candidates &ere able to
outline a ran#e of &ays of minimisin# error) others could identify only trainin# and then
proceeded to describe a number of types of safety trainin# that could be introduced. ;
much broader ans&er &as re%uired.
2uestion ?@ (a) Identify the circu#stances under which an e#ployer #ust
establish a health and safety co##ittee. ($)
(b) Give 3I4 reasons why a health and safety co##ittee #ay pro"e
to be ineffecti"e in practice. (6)
For part (a)) mar(s &ere a&arded to those candidates &ho identified that an employer
must establish a health and safety committee &hen re%uested to do so in &ritin# by t&o
or more trade union*appointed safety representatives. .any did not seem to realise that
the safety representatives must be trade union*appointed) &hile a fe& others either
misread the %uestion or became confused and identified the circumstances &here an
employer is obli#ed to produce a health and safety policy.
In ans&ers to part (b)) E-aminers e-pected candidates to identify reasons such as6 a lac(
of mana#ement commitment= no a#enda or terms of reference and,or no minutes of the
meetin#s bein# produced= an uneven balance bet&een mana#ement and employee
representatives= poor chairmanship= no access to the decision*ma(in# processes=
infre%uent meetin#s= inappropriate topics for discussion= and no access to health and
safety e-pertise. /ome candidates obviously had e-perience of health and safety
committees (either effective or ineffective ones) and &ere able to dra& on this e-perience
to #ood effect.
2uestion ?? Aist the factors that #ight be considered when assessin# the health and
safety co#petence of a contractor. (%)
$he last %uestion on the paper &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to
list a #ood ran#e of factors. $hese include) amon#st many others6 the contractor's
previous e-perience &ith the type of &or(= the reputation of the contractor amon#st
previous or current clients= the %uality and content of the contractor's health and safety
policy and ris( assessments= the level of trainin# and %ualifications of staff (includin#
those &ith health and safety responsibilities)= accident,enforcement history= membership
of approval or certification bodies= e%uipment maintenance and statutory e-amination
records= and the detailed proposals (e# method statements) for the &or( to be carried out.
190
Paper A2
Controlling workplace hazards
(uestion " @a#aged corrugated roofing sheets on a single storey factory are to be
replaced. 3ccess to the roof will be "ia a #obile tower scaffold.
Identify the ha/ards that are likely to be encountered during such
work. (6)
(ii) Outline the precautions needed to ensure the safe use of the
#obile tower scaffold. (6)
(iii) Outline the further precautions that #ay be re'uired to control
the ha/ards identified in (i). (%)
For part (i)) the ma9ority of candidates identified the more obvious ha4ards of &or(in# at
hei#ht) falls of materials and e-posure to e-treme &eather conditions. +etter candidates
also referred to ha4ards associated &ith &or( e%uipment (includin# access e%uipment))
manual handlin#) &or( on or near fra#ile material and contact &ith ha4ardous
substances) particularly the possibility of asbestos.
In ans&erin# part (ii)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# to candidates to outline such precautions
as6 ensurin# that the ratio of the hei#ht of the to&er to its base dimensions is appropriate=
the provision of ade%uate dia#onal bracin#= a fully boarded &or(in# platform &ith toe*
boards and #uardrails in place= safe means of access to the platform= means for loc(in#
the &heels of the to&er &hen &or( is in operation= the use of outri##ers= chec(in# that
the condition of the #round on &hich the to&er is sited is suitable (e# level and firm)=
and the erection and inspection of the scaffold by competent persons. $here &as
#enerally a #ood response to this part of the %uestion althou#h) as is often the case) some
candidates provided too little information to achieve the outline re%uired. ; fe& &ere
content to rely on #eneral statements such as Hcarry out a ris( assessmentH) Hprovide a
safe system of &or(H or even Hsee( specialist adviceH) for &hich very fe&) if any) mar(s
could be a&arded.
7art (iii) of the %uestion re%uired candidates to identify further precautions that should be
ta(en to control ha4ards other than those arisin# in connection &ith the use of the to&er
scaffoldM $hese mi#ht include (dependin# on the particular circumstances)6 the provision
and use of roof ladders) cra&lin# boards) protection at roof ed#es and voids) and
harnesses= the provision of hoists) chutes and covered s(ips for the removal of material
stripped from the roof= protection for those &or(in# belo& (e# barriers) nettin#) si#ns)
safety helmets)= isolation of overhead services or ensurin# safe distances= the use of
reduced lo& volta#e or residual current devices for portable electrical tools= and
protection a#ainst e-treme &eather conditions. 7articular precautions &ould be re%uired
if asbestos &ere involved) includin# the avoidance of brea(in# up the sheets) the
provision of respiratory protection and overalls) the need for dampin# do&n) and
ensurin# the safe disposal of &aste.
$hose candidates &ho had identified a &ide ran#e of ha4ards in their ans&ers to part (i)
#enerally built on those responses to #ood effect in the final part. Others) ho&ever) did
little more than repeat the information that they had provided for the previous part of the
%uestion and thus could not e-pect to #ain many mar(s.
Question 2 Outline the factors that #ay affect the le"el of risk fro# #anual handling
acti"ities in relation to0
(i) the load (9)
191
(ii) the indi"idual. (9)
7art (i) of the %uestion e-plored candidates' (no&led#e of the &ays in &hich the nature
of a load can present a ris( of in9ury durin# manual handlin# activities. 0andidates
should have identified matters such as6 the si4e and &ei#ht of the load= the possibility
that the contents mi#ht move and the load become unbalanced= the position of the centre
of #ravity= difficulty in securin# a firm #rasp of the load= and the presence of sharp
ed#es.
7art (ii) re%uired candidates to outline the factors relatin# to the individual carryin# out
the handlin# operation. $hese include6 body si4e and stren#th in relation to the tas( to be
carried out (&hich can be a#e* or #ender*related)= physical handicaps or restrictions
caused by illness) disability or pre#nancy= lac( of trainin# in manual handlin#= and
inappropriate clothin# or foot&ear.
$he %uestion &as concerned only &ith the load and the individual but many ans&ers
also addressed factors connected &ith the tas( and the environment * an indication that
some candidates perhaps had not read the %uestion &ith sufficient care or did not have a
clear picture of the four variables affectin# manual handlin# ris(s.
Question 8 3 shoe repairer is re'uired to tri# soles by hand after gluing the# on to
shoes with a sol"ent.based adhesi"e. Outline the #easures to #ini#ise
the health risks fro# these tasks. (%)
$his %uestion provided a prime e-ample of the importance of ta(in# careful note of the
precise &ordin# of e-amination %uestions. +etter candidates reco#nised firstly that t&o
issues &ere involved * the trimmin# operation and e-posure to solvents. /econdly) they
noted that the %uestion referred only to health ris(s and so) ho&ever #reat the temptation
to address the safety aspects of &ieldin# sharp (nives) it should have been resisted. ;nd
thirdly) the %uestion as(ed for control measures and so ans&ers that merely outlined the
ha4ards and ris(s involved) but not the &ays of controllin# them) could not #ain mar(s.
In relation to minimisin# the health ris(s from solvent e-posure (both from inhalation
and from s(in contact)) the measures mi#ht include6 the use of an adhesive &ith a lo&
to-icity solvent= the installation of a local e-haust ventilation system and ensurin#
ade%uate #eneral ventilation= ensurin# that containers are closed &hen not in use= the use
of appropriate personal protective e%uipment (#loves) overalls) etc) and barrier creams=
and the prohibition of eatin# and smo(in# in the &or( area.
$he health ris(s from the cuttin# operation) other than those associated &ith infected
cuts) are er#onomic in nature. $herefore) the measures re%uired should include6 the
provision of a cutter &ith an 8er#onomically desi#ned' handle (e# shape) surface
material)= ensurin# that the blade is (ept sharp in order to minimise the applied force
&hen used (&hich may interact &ith safety considerations)= a &or(station desi#ned to
reduce t&istin#) reachin# and stoopin#) and provided &ith a #ood standard of li#htin#
and seatin#= and the need to reduce constant pressure on the body by varyin# the tas()
by providin# brea(s a&ay from the &or( or by 9ob rotation.
0ommon to the health ris(s from both solvent e-posure and er#onomic ha4ards &ould
be the need to implement some (ind of health surveillance pro#ramme (dependin# on
the circumstances of employment) in order to identify early si#ns of any ill*health
effects.
192
Question * In relation to electrical safety1 explain the #eaning of the following ter#s0
(i) isolation ($)
(ii) earthing ($)
(iii) reduced low "oltage ($)
(i") o"ercurrent protection. ($)
$he %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e of some (ey electrical terms.
'Isolation' refers to the physical disconnection of the electrical supply to an item of
e%uipment or part of an electrical system (often to allo& maintenance &or( to be carried
out safely) &hereby a si#nificant #ap is created bet&een the disconnected parts in a &ay
that prevents inadvertent reconnection. 'Earthin#') on the other hand) is a means &hereby
electrical e%uipment and conductive items are connected to earth by a cable or other
suitable means such that the route to earth provides the path of least resistance to a
current flo&in# under fault conditions. 8Reduced lo& volta#e') commonly used on
construction sites) involves the reduction of mains volta#e by a transformer to a lo&er)
safer volta#e * typically ??@ or << volts. Lastly) 'overcurrent protection' is a method of
preventin# the flo& of e-cess current by cuttin# the supply under fault conditions by
means of a fuse or circuit brea(er.
$his %uestion) despite the fact that it has appeared on previous e-amination papers) &as
a#ain poorly ans&ered by most candidates &ith very fe& sho&in# any real
understandin# of the protective systems listed.
Question : Outline the factors that #ay reduce the effecti"eness of a local e*haust
"entilation (A!B) syste#. (%)
.any candidates identified a reasonable ran#e of factors that included dama#e to the
system) bloc(ed or incorrect filters) partially bloc(ed ductin# and a reduction in fan
efficiency) but did not then add the additional information re%uired for an 'outline'
ans&er. +etter candidates &ere able to identify a ran#e of reasons for a reduction in the
effectiveness of an LEV system and also to supplement their ans&ers &ith e-amples of
practical situations. $he fact that the %uestion referred to 'effectiveness') and not
'efficiency') allo&ed a &ider ran#e of factors to be included. $he failure to position a
fle-ible ductin# hood sufficiently close to the source of a contaminant) for instance) &ill
reduce the LEV's effectiveness in reducin# airborne levels of the contaminant) even
thou#h the system's efficiency remains the same. Other factors that can affect
effectiveness include process chan#es) unauthorised alterations) incorrect settin#s (e# of
dampers) and the failure to provide an effective system of maintenance) inspection and
testin#.
Question ; Identify the ha/ards associated with the use of a ce#ent #i*er and explain
how they should be controlled. (%)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) E-aminers e-pected candidates to refer to ha4ards such as6
manual handlin# (&hich mi#ht be controlled by the use of mechanical aids) reduced
&ei#hts of loads) the sitin# of materials to reduce t&istin# and,or the provision of
trainin#)= the corrosive and irritant properties of cement (&hich could be countered by
the provision and use of appropriate personal protective e%uipment) safe systems of &or(
and #ood hy#iene practices)= inhalation of the cement dust (a#ainst &hich mas(s mi#ht
be provided)= and machinery ha4ards such as movin# parts) e9ection of materials and
193
noise (&here the control measures &ould include) &here appropriate) the provision of
#uardin#) #o##les and hearin# protection).
;lso relevant are ha4ards associated &ith the po&er supply to the mi-er. If petroldriven)
re%uirements &ould include stora#e facilities for the fuel to protect a#ainst the ris( of
fire) trainin# in refuellin# procedures) and the prohibition of the use of the mi-er in
confined areas to protect employees a#ainst inhalation of fumes. If electrical) a system
of re#ular inspection and testin# of the e%uipment) and the use of residual current
devices to minimise the ris( of shoc() should be in place.
.ost candidates reco#nised movin# parts and cement as ha4ards but only better ans&ers
included er#onomic and fuel,po&er issues. 0andidates should have reco#nised the need
to #ive an e-planation of their su##ested control measures (ie &hat they are intended to
achieve) but) in many cases) little more than a list &as #iven.
Question < Outline the precautions that #ight be needed to ensure the safety of
pedestrians in "ehicle #anoeu"ring areas. (%)
;ns&ers to this %uestion #enerally included references to se#re#ated systems for
vehicular and pedestrian traffic) appropriate road mar(in#s) maintainin# #ood visibility
(mirrors) transparent doors) li#htin#) etc) and audible &arnin#s on vehicles. Other
relevant measures that could have been mentioned include the development and
enforcement of site rules and systems of &or() the provision of refu#es) the &earin# of
hi#h visibility clothin#) a #ood standard of house(eepin#) and trainin# for) and
supervision of) all concerned.
/ome candidates) once a#ain) seemed to misunderstand the re%uirements of the %uestion
and concentrated their ans&ers on the ha4ards involved in the operation rather than on
the precautions to be ta(en. Others) a#ain) produced brief lists &hereas better candidates
#ave reasons for the precautions that they proposed) and thus demonstrated an
understandin# of the issues.
2uestion ! (a) Identify the persons that an e#ployer #ay need to appoint to
co#ply with the lonising 5adiations 5egulations ?BBB. (3)
(b) Outline the means of controlling e*posure to ionising radiation. (6)
;ns&ers to part (a) of the %uestion should have referred to the 8radiation protection
supervisor' and the 8radiation protection adviser') both roles receivin# mention in Unit ?5
of the 0ertificate syllabus. 0redit &as also #iven for a reference to 'classified persons')
althou#h strictly such persons are desi#nated rather than appointed. 1o&ever) this &as
lar#ely academic since very fe& candidates seemed to have any (no&led#e of these
basic re%uirements of the lonisin# Radiations Re#ulations.
For part (b)) candidates should have outlined such means as6 enclosures (ran#in# from a
concrete and,or lead encasement to a #love bo-)= shieldin# by barriers or screens=
se#re#ation by distance= reducin# the e-posure time of the employees involved= the use
of personal protective e%uipment= environmental or personal monitorin# (&ith) for
e-ample) the use of film bad#es)= the correct disposal of radioactive &aste= and trainin#)
supervision and #ood personal hy#iene practices.
;lthou#h ans&ers &ere #enerally to a better standard than for the first part of the
194
%uestion) there &ere many candidates &ho could only repeat the ma-im of 8time)
distance and shieldin#' &ithout further detail) &hich on its o&n &as insufficient to #ain
all the mar(s available. +etter candidates #ave a more complete e-planation of these
control measures and additionally referred to monitorin# issues and &aste disposal.
Question & 3 co#puter user has co#plained of nec( and back pain. Outline the
features associated with the workstation that #ight ha"e contributed
towards this condition. (
F
)
In #eneral) this %uestion &as not ans&ered &ell by most candidates) mainly because they
seemed better prepared to state &hat a "/E &or(station should have than to identify the
features that may have led to the condition described. +etter ans&ers referred to aspects
of poor &or(station layout such as the screen at an incorrect hei#ht or poorly positioned
causin# repeated head movements) the chair at an incorrect hei#ht or the seat bac(
incorrectly ad9usted) the lac( of a document holder) and #lare or reflections on the screen
that force the computer user to adopt an a&(&ard posture to avoid them. Other
possibilities) such as e-posure to drau#hts) poor #eneral or local li#htin# and the sitin# of
ancillary e%uipment (e# printer)) also e-isted.
Question +; (a) In relation to the classification of fires1 ,ive an e*a#ple of a #aterial
(fuel) that falls within !34- of the classes 31 E1 4 and @. (9)
(b) Identify %&O #ethods of heat transfer and e*plain how !34-
#ethod contributes to the spread of fire. (9)
E-aminers &ere concerned that only a fe& candidates appeared to have (no&led#e of the
standard classification of fires and &ere able to #ive relevant e-amples of materials that
fell &ithin the four classes. Reference should be made to course notes or te-ts for the
classes of fire to &hich the %uestion relates.
For part (b)) candidates could have chosen t&o methods of heat transfer from the
follo&in#6 conduction (&here) for e-ample) heat can travel throu#h metal beams bet&een
separate compartments)= radiation (&here heat is radiated throu#h the air from flames or
other heat source and affects material at a distance)= convection (the up&ard transfer of
heat by #ases such as air)= and contact or direct burnin# (&here a heat source comes into
direct contact &ith combustible material causin# i#nition). :hile the physicist &ould
ar#ue that the last of these is a combination of some or all of the other three) rather than
bein# a method of heat transfer in its ri#ht) direct burnin# provides a useful distinction in
fire safety and is therefore accepted in 0ertificate ans&ers.
.any candidates &ere able to identify the re%uired t&o methods of heat transfer but fe&
could e-plain ho& they contribute to fire spread. /ome candidates ans&ered the %uestion
that they &ould perhaps have preferred) or possibly became confused) and identified
i#nition sources rather than methods of heat transfer.
Question ++ Identify EIG'% ways in which a fork.lift truck #ay become unstable
during operation. (
F
)
.ost candidates coped &ell &ith this %uestion) &ith those &ho adopted a structured
approach that considered the load) the environment and the vehicle itself tendin# to
produce more complete ans&ers. $ypical issues mentioned &ere6 insecure) e-cessive or
uneven loadin#= incorrect elevation of for(s &hen travellin#= uneven or unconsolidated
#round= slopes (and incorrect procedures for dealin# &ith them)= obstructions (overhead
and lo& level) or chan#es in level (e# ed#es of loadin# bays)= cornerin# at e-cessive
speeds= sudden bra(in#= poor condition of tyres= and mechanical failure.
/ome candidates missed the opportunity to obtain all the mar(s available by referrin# to
195
three or four issues only) or to issues that &ere virtually the same. Others #ave 8untrained
driver' as a &ay in &hich a for(*lift truc( may become unstable) &hich may increase the
ris( of such an event occurrin# but does not e-plain ho& it happens.
196
28-12
!he $ational #6a3ination (oard in Occupational -afety and "ealth
Paper A1: !he 3anage3ent of safety and health

*ece3ber 28
!i3e allowed: 2 hrs
Question 1
; health and safety audit of an or#anisation has identified a #eneral lac( of compliance &ith procedures6
(i) *escribe the possible reasons for procedures not bein# follo&ed. (?@)
(ii) Outline the practical measures that could be ta(en to motivate
employees to comply &ith health and safety procedures. (?@)

In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates su##ested a ran#e of possible reasons for health and safety procedures not bein# follo&ed
by employees. In the main) ans&ers concentrated on inade%uate supervision and enforcement of the procedures by mana#ement) a poor
attitude to&ards health and safety #enerally (as an indication of a poor safety culture)) and issues relatin# to &or(in# conditions that may
hinder compliance &ith procedures (such as poor &or(station desi#n and inattention to er#onomic issues). Fe&er candidates included
other possibilities such asP the procedures themselves bein# unrealistic or unclear= literacy and lan#ua#e issues= peer pressure and other
pressures or incentives to cut corners= a failure by mana#ement to consult the &or(force and to provide the necessary information and
trainin#= and the repetitive) tedious or comple- nature of the tas(s bein# performed.

For part (ii). candidates needed to outline practical measures that could be ta(en to motivate employees to comply &ith the procedures.
$hese should have includedP a display of commitment on the part of mana#ement. the provision of a #ood &or(in# environment= 9oint
consultation arid the involvement of employees in dra&in# up and revie&in# the procedures= the settin# of personal performance tar#ets
&ith due reco#nition &hen these are achieved= the provision of information and trainin# includin# tool*bo- tal(s and the use of posters
and notice*boards) the introduction of 9ob rotation= and) finally) the ta(in# of disciplinary action in cases &here there is deliberate failure
to follo& laid do&n procedures.

$here &ere some reasonable responses to this %uestion but many candidates did not #ain all the mar(s that they mi#ht because they did
not provide ade%uate depth to their ans&ers. It &as important in part Qi)) for instance) for candidates to provide sufficient detail to indicate
&hy the particular issue identified mi#ht lead to a procedure not bein# follo&ed.

Question 2 Outline the issues that should be considered to ensure the health and
safety of cleaners employed in a school out of normal &or(in# hours. (!)


+etter candidates considered all aspects of the %uestion and &ere able to structure
their ans&ers accordin#ly. Relevant issues fell into three (ey areasP those relatin# to
cleanin# in #eneral (the use of chemicals and electrical e%uipment. dealin# &ith sharp
ob9ects such as bro(en #lass) manual handlin#) etc)) those particular to the school
situation (e# laboratory and &or(shop ha4ards)= and those associated &ith out*of*
hours &or( (lone &or(in#) communication) supervision) /ecurity) emer#ency
arran#ements) etc).

$his %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith many candidates sho&in# the ability to
apply the (no&led#e that they had ac%uired durin# their studies to a practical situation
that they should have been able to picture in their minds. For some reason) a fe&
candidates ans&ered the %uestion as thou#h it &as concerned entirely &ith the
selection of contractors and conse%uently #ained little re&ard for their efforts.
Question 8 (a) Outline the le#al re%uirements &hereby an employer must
prepare a &ritten health and sdety policy. (3)
197
(b Identify the !")## main sections of a health and safety policy
document and e-plain the purpose and #eneral content of E;01
section. (>)

E-aminers &ere surprised and concerned that this %uestion &as ans&ered %uite
poorly by many candidates.

For 7art (a)) most &ere a&are that an employer must prepare a &ritten health and
safety policy &hen he employs five or more persons. /ome &ere a little imprecise as
to the number involved and there &ere numerous references to Kmore than fiveJ
(&hich is inaccurate even thou#h the difference affects only those or#anisations
employin# five people). ;dditionally) many did not identify the source of the
re%uirement as the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct ?BA) specifically section 3(5).
7art (b) &as intended to test candidatesJ understandin# of health and safety policies
and their structure. .ost candidates correctly identified the three main sections of a
policy but too fe& &ere able to e-plain the purpose and content of the sections that
they had identified. +etter candidates referred firstly to the Istatement of intentJ (&hich
both demonstrates mana#ementJs commitment to health and safety and sets #oals
and ob9ectives for the or#anisation)) then to the Ior#anisationJ section (the purpose of
&hich is to allocate health and safety responsibilities &ithin the company) and finally to
the Iarran#ementsJ section (&hich sets out in detail the systems and procedures to
sho& ho& the policy is to be implemented).

Question 9 :ith reference to the Reportin# of in9uries) "iseases and "an#erous
Occurrences Re#ulations (RI""OR) ?BB<6

(i) e6plain) usin# $:O e-amples) the meanin# of the term
Idan#erous occurrence ()

(ii) state the re%uirements for reportin# a dan#erous occurrence ()
In part (?)) many candidates found difficulty in e-plainin# the term Idan#erous
occurrenceJ. I.ar(s &ere a&arded to those &ho e-plained that a Idan#erous
occurrence is a specified event (as listed in the Re#ulations) that has not resulted in a
reportable in9ury but had the potential to do so. 1o&ever) even &here candidates
stru##led &ith the &ordin# of the definition) most &ere able to provide at least one
valid e-ample R &ith the collapse of scaffoldin# and the collapse) overturnin# or failure
of a lift or crane bein# the most popular. $here are many other e-amples of
dan#erous occurrences listed in schedule 3 to the Re#ulations.

For part (ii)) candidates &ho included in their ans&ers ho& the responsible person
&ould notify the enforcin# authority by the %uic(est practical means (usually telephone
or fa-) and then ma(e a report on the approved form (F3<@!) or by other approved
means (such as reportin# the incident to 1/EJs Incident 0ontact 0entre by telephone
or online) &ithin ten days #ained the mar(s available. /ome of the more
(no&led#eable candidates made specific reference to the fact that if the event actually
led to a reportable in9ury) then it should not be reported separately as a dan#erous
occurrence.

Question :
a) Outline the purpose of employers liability insurance. (3)

b) Outline /IS costs of a &or( p,ace accident that mi#ht be
uninsured (>)
198

In ans&erin# part (a)) candidates should have outlined that the purpose of employers
liability insurance is to satisfy a le#al re%uirement for employers to carry such
insurance so that an employee &ho is harmed due to the fault of his,her employer is
assured of receivin# compensation that the employer mi#ht other&ise have insufficient
resources to pay. "espite a specific reference in Unit ? of the syllabus) fe&
candidates seemed a&are of the re%uirement for) or the purpose of) employers liability
insurance. ;t a time of increases in the number of claims and si4e of a&ards) arid the
conse%uent rise in premiums) this type of insurance is e-ertin# si#nificant pressure on
employers to improve their standards of health and safety. 0ourse providers should
therefore ensure that it receives particular attention on courses.

In part (b)) mar(s &ere available for outlinin# costs associated &ith a &or(place
accident that may riot) dependin# on the policies carried) be covered by insurance.
0ompensation to in9ured employees) as indicated by part (a)) is covered as a le#al
re%uirement althou#h any e-cess a#reed bet&een the employer and the insurance
company &ill have to be paid) as &ill any increase in the insurance premium that could
follo& a serious accident. Other casts that may be incurred relate to6 production
delays) dama#ed #oods and e%uipment= accident investi#ation= loss of e-pertise or
e-perience= hirin# and trainin# replacement staff= loss of #ood&ill and reputation=
clean up operations= and possible fines and associated le#al fees. 1/E research
sho&s that uninsured costs #enerally far e-ceed insured costs. Even so) ans&er to
this part of the %uestion sho&ed that a lar#e number of candidates had little idea of
&hat they mi#ht comprise.

Question ; Outline FOUR (ey differences bet&een civil la& and criminal la&. (!)

0andidates &ere e-pected to outline the essential differences bet&een the t&o main
branches of la& R civil and criminal. $hey could have referred to the different
ob9ectives of the t&o systems (one to provide a remedy and the other to punish)) the
burden of proof re%uired (a balance of probabilities as opposed to beyond all
reasonable doubt)) the parties #enerally involved (t&o individuals rather than the state
and an individual) and the different court structures involved. ; fe& candidates
su##ested differences in the sources of la&) &ith criminal la& #enerally &ritten do&n in
statutes and &ith civil liabilities often defined in common la& by 9udicial precedent.
1o&ever) particularly in health and safety) statute la& has a si#nificant part to play in
determinin# civil liability and so the distinction is not as strai#htfor&ard as some
candidates maintained.

$his %uestion has appeared several times on previous e-amination papers and has
#enerally riot been particularly &ell ans&ered. On this occasion) thou#h) it &as
encoura#in# to find that) on the &hole) candidates &ere rather less confused over the
differences bet&een the t&o types of la&. $here &ere still those) ho&ever) &ho a#ain
displayed a lac( of #ood e-amination techni%ue by producin# lists &hen the %uestion
clearly re%uired an outline) and others &ho referred to relevant issues &ith respect to
each type of la& but &ithout ma(in# it clear to the E-aminers e-actly &hat the
differences &ere.
Question < (a) #6plain) usin# an e-ample) the meanin# of the term Ris( (5)

(b) Outline the content of a trainin# course for staff &ho are re%uired
to assist in carryin# out ris( assessments. (<)
;ns&ers to part (a) of the %uestion &ere #enerally to a reasonable standard &ith most
candidates able to #ive an e-planation of ris( related to the probability or li(elihood of
an occurrence) supportin# their e-planation &ith an appropriate e-ample. Fe&er)
ho&ever) #ained the third mar( available for includin# in their response reference to
199
the potential severity of the conse%uences of an unto&ard event.

For part (b)) an outline of the content of a trainin# course for staff &ho are to assist in
carryin# Out ris( assessments should have included reference to such matters as6 the
le#al re%uirements &ith respect to ris( assessment= the process of identifyin# ha4ards
and evaluatin# ris(s= the identification and selection of appropriate control measures=
the a&areness of the individualJs o&n limitations and the occasions &hen specialist
assistance mi#ht be re%uired= accessin# sources of information such as ;0O7s and
in*house information includin# accident records= report*&ritin# s(ills= the interpretation
of re#ulations and standards= and the means available for disseminatin# the outcomes
of the assessment.

.ost candidates &ere able to identify some elements of the content of an appropriate
trainin# course but there &ere a fe& &ho seemed to thin( that this &as a #eneric
trainin# %uestion and concentrated on matters such as the conditions necessary to
ensure a #ood trainin# environment and the s(ills re%uired by an effective trainer.


Question = :ith reference to the 1ealth and /afety (0onsultation &ith Employees) Re#ulations ?BB>6

(i) e6plain the difference bet&een consultin# and informin# (3)
(ii) outline the health and safety matters on &hich employers must (>)
consult their employees.


$he 1/E #uide to the 1ealth and /afety (0onsultation &ith Employees) Re#ulations
dra&s a clear distinction bet&een Iinformin#J and Iconsultin#J. 7erhaps from a #eneral
understandin# of the &ords) most candidates) &ere able to differentiate bet&een the
t&o and could refer to IJinformin#L as a one*&ay process (e# providin# information on
ha4ards) ris(s and control measures) and to IJconsultin#L as a t&o*&ay process in
&hich the employer listens to) and ta(es account of) the vie&s of employees before a
decision is ta(en.

$he response to part (ii) &as poor) &ith most candidates demonstratin# scant
(no&led#e of the relevant Re#ulations. $he matters on &hich an employer must
consult under these Re#ulations include= the introduction of any measure at the
&or(place that may substantially affect employeesJ health and safety= the
arran#ements for appointin# and,or nominatin# competent persons= the plannin# and
or#anisation of health and safety trainin#= the health and safety implications of
introducin# ne& technolo#y= and the information that the employer is re%uired to
provide under other Re#ulations) such as that relatin# to ris( assessments) preventive
measures arid emer#ency procedures. 1ence) employers are obli#ed not only to
provide information but they must also consult their employees on the appropriateness
of the information before it is #iven.

Civen that this %uestion has appeared in a number of previous e-amination papers)
the overall standard of response on this occasion &as disappointin#.


Question 9 Outline the factors that may increase ris(s to pre#nant employees in the
&or(place. (!)


In ans&erin# this %uestion) the factors that could have been outlined include6 e-posure
to chemicals such as pesticides) lead and those causin# intracellular chan#es
(muta#ens) or affectin# the embryo Qterato#ens)= biolo#ical e-posures (e# hepatitis)=
e-posure to physical a#ents such as ionisin# radiation and e-tremes of temperature=
manual handlin#= er#onomic issues relatin# to prolon#ed standin# or the adoption of
a&(&ard body movements= stress= and issues associated &ith the use and &earin# of
personal protective e%uipment.

$he %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates bein# able to offer
200
outlines in sufficient detail of a &ide enou#h ran#e of factors to #ain reasonable mar(s
Question 1 (a) Identify $:O specific &or( activities for &hich a permit*to*&or(
mi#ht be needed. (3)
(b) Outline the (ey elements of a permit*to*&or( system. (>)


For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to identify t&o situations &here a permit*to*
&or( system mi#ht be considered appropriate) choosin# in particular from &or( in
confined spaces) &or( in flammable atmospheres) &or( on electrical e%uipment) hot
&or() and maintenance &or( on dan#erous process plant or production machinery.

In ans&erin# part (b)) relatively fe& candidates &ere able to outline all the elements of
a permit system) the first of &hich &ould be a description and assessment of the tas(
to be performed (includin# the plant involved and the possible ha4ards). $his &ill
determine the need for) and nature of) other (ey elements R namely) the isolation of
sources of ener#y and inlets) the additional precautions re%uired (e# atmospheric
monitorin#) personal protective e%uipment) emer#ency e%uipment) and the duration of
the permit. ;n essential element of a permit*to*&or( system is) of course) the
operation of the permit itself. +y means of si#natures) the permit should be issued by
an authorised person and accepted by the competent person responsible for the &or(.
On completion of the &or() the competent person &ould need to indicate on the permit
that the area had been made safe in order for the permit to be cancelled by the
authorised person) after &hich isolations could be removed.

$hose candidates &ho &rote at len#th on a sin#le element (e% isolation) to the
e-clusion of almost everythin# else could not e-pect to obtain the mar(s that &ere
available for ans&ers that addressed the breadth of the %uestion

Question 11 Identify EIC1$ measures that can be used to monitor an or#anisations
health and safety performance. (!)


$here are several indicators that an or#anisation can use to assess different aspects
of its health and safety performance and E-aminers &ere loo(in# for ans&ers
containin# a mi-ture of both proactive and reactive measures. Reactive performance
measures include accident and ill*health statistics) incidents of reported near*misses
and dan#erous occurrences) actions ta(en by the enforcement authorities and
insurance claims. 7roactive measures) on the other hand) mi#ht include the results of
inspection and,or environmental monitorin#) the %uality and e-tent of ris(
assessments) safety audit outcomes and the results of medical,health surveillance.
E-aminers had anticipated that most candidates &ould have little difficulty in ans&erin#
this %uestion and &ould #ain #ood mar(s Unfortunately) their e-pectations &ere not
alto#ether realised.
Paper A2
+ontrolling wor?pIace hazards
Question 1 ; lar#e item of process machinery is to be cleaned manually &ith a
flammable solvent before bein# partially dismantled for repair.

(i) Identify FOUR possible health effects from e-posure to the
solvent. ()

(ii) Outline the safety precautions that should be ta(en &hen usin#
such flammable solvents. (!)
(iii) Outline further precautions that mi#ht be needed in order to
ensure the health and safety of those carryin# out the
201
maintenance &or(. (!)


In ans&erin# part (i)) most candidates &ere able to identify four possible health effects
associated &ith the use of solvents. .ost or#anic solvents are associated particularly
&ith dermatitis and narcotic effects that ran#e from headaches and dro&siness
throu#h to unconsciousness and death. 7sycholo#ical chan#es may be e-perienced.
E-posure to solvent vapours may also cause irritation of the mucous membranes of
the eyes and respiratory tract) and absorption into the body may lead to (idney or liver
dama#e.

For part (ii)) E-aminers e-pected candidates to outline safety precautions such as6 the
removal of potential sources of i#nition from the site of the operation6 the provision of
ade%uate ventilation= limitin# the %uantity of solvent in use at any one time= clear
mar(in# of containers6 ensurin# that suitable fire*fi#htin# e%uipment is in place= the
provision of personal protective e%uipment such as #loves) and eye and respiratory
protection= and ensurin# that operatives are informed of) and trained in) the
procedures for the safe use of solvents) especially those concerned &ith the cleanin#
of brushes and disposal of ra#s.

7art (iii) re%uired candidates to ima#ine the problems) other than e-posure to solvents)
that mi#ht be encountered by the maintenance staff &or(in# on the lar#e item of
e%uipment. 1ence candidates should have had in mind issues associated &ith the
machinery itself (mechanical and non*mechanical ha4ards)) access to the site of &or(
and the possible movement of heavy components. Cood ans&ers included reference
to6 the possible need to operate under a permit*to*&or( system= the isolation of
services,po&er to the plant= the release of stored ener#y or securin# movin# parts=
ensurin# hot parts are allo&ed to cool= se#re#ation of the area in &hich the operation
is to be carried out= the provision of safe access for persons and materials (possibly by
providin# scaffoldin# and liftin# e%uipment)= ensurin# #ood levels of li#htin# and
ventilation= the provision of 77E (e# hard hats) harnesses and eye and s(in
protection)= and the use of competent personnel &ho have been made fully a&are of
the precautions and emer#ency procedures necessary and are properly /upervised

.any candidates found it difficult to provide ade%uate outlines for the second and third
parts of the %uestion) &hich should have made clear the purpose of the stated
precautions alon# &ith specific e-amples &here appropriate) /ome candidates
included in their ans&ers to part (ii) precautions unconnected &ith the use of
flammable solvents and &hich &ere more relevant to part (iii). ;s a conse%uence)
&hen they came to ans&er the final part of the %uestion) there &as little more to say.
Question 2 Outline EIC1$ precautions that should be considered to prevent accidents
to children &ho mi#ht be tempted to #ain access to a construction site. (!)

$his %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith the ma9ority of candidates able to
outline a hierarchy of measures that started &ith precautions to inhibit entry by the use
of fencin#) &arnin# a#ainst the dan#ers by means of si#ns) and monitorin# usin#
security patrols or closed*circuit television. $his &as follo&ed by reference to the
need) should entry be #ained) to ma(e the site itself safe by isolatin# services)
reducin# hei#hts of stored or stac(ed materials) coverin# or fencin# e-cavations) as
&ell as removin# ladders and denyin# access to scaffoldin#. +etter candidates
considered further precautions such as securin# tools) chemicals) e%uipment and
vehicles) and &or(in# &ith the community by) for instance) visits to local schools to
&arn of construction site dan#ers.

;#ain) some candidates provided a simple list rather than the outline re%uired. Cood
ans&ers included some reference to the reasons for each precaution) particularly in
relation to the behaviour of children and the dan#ers presented.
Question 8 Outline:
202
(i) the various &ays in &hich persons mi#ht be harmed by a fire in
&or( premises ()
(ii) the additional measures that may be re%uired to ensure the safe
evacuation in the event of fire of employees &ith a ran#e of
physical impairments. ()

7art (i) of the %uestion &as &ell ans&ered by most candidates) &ho referred to the
possible harm to persons by to-ic fumes and #ases arisin# as the products of
combustion) suffocation and,or loss of visibility (increasin# the li(elihood of falls)
caused by smo(e) burns by flames or heat) o-y#en deprivation) and crushin# from $he
structural failure or collapse of buildin#s. /ome candidates included reference to
loc(ed fire doors and a shorta#e of fire e-its) &hich &as not really relevant to the
%uestion unless lin(ed to the forms of harm. Others strayed further from the point by
detailin# the causes of fire and methods of fire spread.

/imilarly in ans&erin# part (ii)) candidates sho&ed a #ood understandin# of the
possible measures that are available to ensure the safe evacuation of physically
impaired persons. Cood ans&ers included an outline of measures such as6 the
provision of aural and visual alarms for those employees &ith impaired vision or
hearin#= the positionin# of the disabled &ithin the &or(place to facilitate their
evacuation= the provision of a dedicated lift &here appropriate or purpose*built
evacuation chairs= ensurin# that door&ays and passa#e&ays are sufficiently &ide to
accommodate &heelchairs and that ramps are positioned &here necessary= and the
need to provide trainin# in the evacuation procedures for those involved (both the
disabled persons and the able*bodied persons #iven responsibility for them) coupled
&ith practices at re#ular intervals.

Question 9 (a) Outline the principles of the follo&in# types of machine #uard6
(I) fi-ed #uard (3)
(ii) interloc(ed #uard. (3)
(b) Identify $:O advanta#es and $:O disadvanta#es of a fi-ed
machine #uard. ()

"espite appearin# on several past papers) this %uestion &as) in #eneral poorly
attempted by candidates. It is clear that this area of the syllabus re%uires further
emphasis on courses.
Question 9 contTTT.
For part (a)) there &ere at least some candidates &ho #ained mar(s by correctly
identifyin# that a fi-ed #uard is physically attached to the machine and normally
re%uires a special tool to remove it. Fe&er) ho&ever) specifically mentioned the to
that it provides a physical barrier that has no movin# parts and is not lin(ed to the
controls) motion or ha4ardous condition of the machine. Interloc(ed #uards) on the
other hand) &or( on the principle that a machine cannot start or other&ise become
dan#erous until the #uard is closed) and that &hen the machine is in a dan#erous
condition either the #uard cannot be opened or openin# the #uard causes the machine
to become safe.

0andidates e-perienced further problems &hen they came to deal &ith the advanta#es
and disadvanta#es of a fi-ed #uard in their ans&ers to part (b)) $hey could have
identified that the simplicity of a fi-ed #uard means that it is easy to inspect and
maintain) and the fact that there are no movin# parts leads to increased reliability On
the other hand) the fact that it is not lin(ed to the machine controls means that no
protection is afforded should it be removed and) since it is fi-ed and re%uires a special
tool for its removal) access to the machine) &hen re%uired) is more difficult. ; physical
barrier) particularly if it is solid rather than meshed) may also hamper visual inspection
of the machine or the &or( bein# performed.
203
Question : Outline the ha4ards that may be encountered by refuse collectors
employed to remove &aste from domestic premises and load it into a
refuse vehicleP (!)


:hile there may not have been many candidates &ho &ould have had hands on
e-perience of this operation) even a casual observation of the &ee(ly collection from
their o&n homes mi#ht &ell have alerted candidates to the types of ha4ard that mi#ht
be present. $hese &ould include manual handlin# ha4ards &hich could involve the
liftin# of loads of varyin# &ei#hts (&hich may be heavy and un&ieldy)) and their
manipulation in restricted spaces such as narro& passa#e&ays) the possibility of
slippin# or fallin# because of uneven surfaces) steps) ice or even refuse spilla#e= the
ris( of in9ury from bro(en #lass and other sharp ob9ects= the dan#er of bein# trapped in
the refuse vehicle mechanism or bein# struc( by passin# traffic6 the presence of a
chemical substance in the refuse= biolo#ical ha4ards arisin# from animal droppin#s or
clinical &aste6 and the possibility) ho&ever remote) of violence or abusive behaviour
from dissatisfied householders (or IhouseholdersJ pets))

:hile most candidates referred to many of the above) it &as disappointin# to note that
several could not be a&arded all the mar(s available because they provided only a list
of the ha4ards and did not supply the necessary detail re%uired for an outline) In this
case) a suitable outline of a ha4ard mi#ht include specific relevant e-amples as &ell as
the possible effects of e-posure to the ha4ard.
Question ; (a) Identify $:O respiratory diseases that may be caused by
e-posur to asbestos. (3)
(b) #6plain &here asbestos is li(ely to be encountered in a buildin#
durin# renovation &or() (>)

In ans&erin# part (a)) most candidates cited lun# cancer and asbestosis. Fe&er
referred to mesothelioma) a specific type of cancer associated almost entirely &ith
e-posure to asbestos.
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere also to a reasonable standard &ith candidates identifyin#) for
instance) pipe la##in#) roofin# materials) loft and &all insulation) sprayed coatin#s and
the use of asbestos in ceilin# tiles) panels and te-tured finishes.
Question ; contCCC
$hey mi#ht also have referred to the presence of #as(ets) pac(in# and plu#s made of asbestos*
containin# materials. /ame candidates &ere content to rely on a #eneral statement such as
Kdurin# demolitionJJ) &hich &as really an ans&er to the %uestion of &hen asbestos Is
li(ely to be encountered rather than &here.
Question < Outline the precautionary measures that may be needed to prevent slip
and trip ha4ards in an en#ineerin# factory. (!)


In ans&ers to this %uestion) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of precautionary
measures such as6 the initial desi#n and layout of the &or(place) &ith desi#nated
&al(&ays and non*slip floors= a system of maintenance that ensures the prompt repair
of floor detects such as holes and bumps= procedures for avoidin# and dealin# &ith
spilla#es= the provision of ade%uate li#htin# and hi#hli#ht strips to &arn of a difference
in levels) a #ood standard of house(eepin# (includin# the proper mana#ement of
cables and hoses)= and procedures for reportin# defects and incidents.

$his %uestion &as not &ell ans&ered by many candidates. It is possible that some
&ere unable to visualise the situation of an en#ineerin# factory and yet the types of
precautionary measure to prevent slip and trip ha4ards are) in principle) consistent no
matter &hat the &or(in# environment.

204

Question = ; chainsa& is to be used to fell a tree from #round level. In relation to this tas(6

(i) identify FOUR ha4ards associated &ith the use of the chainsa& ()
(ii) list the items of personal protective e%uipment that should he
used by the chainsa& operative. ()

In ans&erin# part (I) of the %uestion) candidates could have chosen from a &ide ran#e
of mechanical and non*mechanical ha4ards) includin# contact or entan#lement &ith
the chain) noise and vibration) dust and fumes) e9ected particles) hot surfaces) manual
handlin# and er#onomic ha4ards) and bein# struc( by fallin# branches or trees. $he
ma9ority &ere able to provide the four e-amples re%uired.

For part (ii)) reference should have been made to personal protective e%uipment such
as forestry boots) helmets fitted &ith meshed face shields) hearin# protection) and
specialised #loves and clothin# (e# Fevlar) that &ould afford the necessary body and
le# protection. ; #eneral reference to the &earin# of safety boots) #loves and eye
protection) &ithout specific reference to appropriate types in relation to chainsa& use)
&as insufficient to #ain the mar(s available.
Question 9 Outline a procedure for the safe liftin# of a load by a crane) havin#
ensured that the crane has been correctly selected and positioned for the 9ob. (!)

1avin# correctly selected and positioned a crane for a liftin# operation) a number of
precautions should be put in place to ensure that loads are lifted safely. E-aminers
&ere e-pectin# candidates to outline matters such as the correct selection of the slin#
and its inspection for dama#e before use= the use of competent persons to attach the
slin# to the load in order to ensure a correct balance= the provision of an unrestricted
vie& for the crane driver or) &here this is not possible) the use of competent
ban(srnen to maintain effective communication &ith the driver= chec(in# that the area
&here the lift is to ta(e place is (ept clear of employees= and ensurin# that the load is
raised at the correct speed) lo&ered slo&ly to its landin# position and controlled durin#
its passa#e) possibly by the use of ta# lines.


Question 9 contTTTT

0andidates appeared to find this %uestion difficult and the ans&ers provided &ere not
particularly encoura#in#. "ifficulties &ere compounded in many cases &here
candidates did not read the %uestion &ith sufficient care arid spent time and effort in
outlinin# procedures for correctly selectin# the crane and settin# it up) for &hich no
credit could be #iven.
Question 1 (a) *escribe the possible effects of electricity on the body ()
(b) Outline FOUR factors that may affect the severity of in9ury from
contact &ith electricity. ()


Fur part (a). most candidates &ere able to specify tissue burns as a possible effect of
electricity on the body but) for the description re%uired) reference should have been
made to the main sites of dama#e as the entry and e-it points and &ith the possibility
of dama#e to internal or#ans. Other effects that could have been described include
interference &ith nerve,muscle action) leadin# to involuntary #rip and cardiopulmonary
effects) in particular the ris( of fatal in9ury due to disruption of heart rhythm. /ome
candidates produced only va#ue terms such as Itin#lin# and Inumbness) &hich did
not constitute sufficiently ade%uate descriptions of the effects to #ain mar(s.

In ans&erin# part (b)) candidates should have outlined factors such as the volta#e
involved) the path ta(en throu#h the body by the current) the len#th of contact time) the
#eneral health and a#e of the person involved and those factors that can affect the
205
si4e of current passin# throu#h the body. .any candidates lac(ed (no&led#e of basic
electrical theory and confused volta#e and current. In particular) there &as little
understandin# of resistance based on such factors as dryness of the s(in) natural
body resistance) #round conditions and type of foot&ear. ; fe& candidates
concentrated solely on e-plainin# the merits of residual current devices compared &ith
fuses.
Question 11 Identify the information that should be included on a rnanufacturerJs
safety data /heet supplied &ith a ha4ardous substance. (!)


0andidates familiar &ith data sheets &ere able to identity a &ide ran#e of issues in
their ans&ers to this %uestion althou#h many &ere rather limited in scope $he
information that is typically contained on a data sheet includes6 the name of the
substance= its physical properties and chemical composition= the nature of the ha4ard
and the ris(s presented (e% health effects and to-icolo#ical data)= relevant standards
(e% occupational e-posure standards)= precautions to be ta(en in its transport)
handlin# and use (e# 77E and ventilation re%uirements)= measures to be ta(en in an
emer#ency such as spilla#e and accidental e-posure) includin# first*aid treatment and
fire*fi#htin# measures= and environmental factors includin# the re%uirements for safe
disposal.

206
29-8
Question 1
;n or#anisation has introduced a ne& &or( process for &hich a ris(
assessment is re%uired under re#ulation 5 of the .ana#ement of 1ealth
and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB.
(iUOutline the steps that should be used in carryin# out the ris( assessment) identifyin#
the issues that &ould need to be considered at E;01 sta#e.(!)
(ii)E-plain the criteria that must be met for the assessment to be deemed 8suitable and
sufficient'. ()
(iii)Identify the various circumstances that mi#ht re%uire a revie& of the ris(
assessment. (!)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline steps such as6
the need to define the process or tas( that is bein# assessed= identifyin# the ha4ards
involved and determinin# their possible conse%uences= identifyin# the number and types
of person e-posed= evaluatin# the associated ris( by assessin# the li(elihood and severity
of harm that could be caused= evaluatin# the ade%uacy of e-istin# controls and the need
for additional measures to secure compliance &ith le#islation and other standards= and
recordin# the results of the assessment to#ether &ith ma(in# arran#ements for its
monitorin# and revie&. It &as disappointin# to have to report that) althou#h the
completion of ris( assessments is a (ey area in the mana#ement of health and safety)
#ood ans&ers to this part of the %uestion &ere the e-ception rather than the rule
E-aminers commented on a si#nificant amount of confusion and misunderstandin#)
&hich seemed to arise from a lac( of (no&led#e of the sub9ect area.
$he difficulties e-perienced by many candidates &ith the first part of the %uestion often
continued into part (ii)) &here candidates #enerally stru##led to e-plain the criteria to be
met to ensure the suitability and sufficiency of an assessment. $hey &ere e-pected to
refer to such matters as the comprehensive identification of si#nificant ha4ards and
ris(s) the identification and prioritisation of measures needed to reduce the ris( to an
acceptable level) and ensurin# that the assessment remains valid for a reasonable period
of time. /ome candidates &ere obviously confused by the %uestion and commented
solely on issues concerned &ith reasonable practicability and competence= others
produced ans&ers that simply re*defined the &ords 8suitable' and 'sufficient.
;ns&ers to part (iii) of the %uestion tended to be better) possibly because it has appeared
several times previously as a short*ans&er %uestion $ypical circumstances include6 a
chan#e to the process) &or( method or substances in use= the introduction of ne& or
modified plant= the availability of ne& information on ha4ards and ris(s= accidents or
incidents of ill*health= the results of monitorin# and,or auditin#= a chan#e in the
re%uirements of le#islation= action ta(en or advice #iven by an enforcement authority or
insurance company= and a chan#e in personnel) in particular the involvement of youn#
persons) ne& or e-pectant mothers or disabled persons ;lthou#h a fe& candidates
mista(enly believed that there is a le#al re%uirement to revie& assessments annually) the
passa#e of time is another circumstance that may routinely lead to a revie& of a ris(
assessment.
207
Question 2 Outline a procedure designed to ensure the health and safety of "isitors
to work pre#isesC (%)
E-aminers &ere e-pectin# candidates to outline a procedure that included6 the need for
visitor identification (e# &ith bad#es) &ith a routine for si#nin# in and out= prior
notification to those members of staff to be involved in the visit= the provision of
information to visitors on ha4ards and emer#ency procedures= an e-planation of specific
site rules) for e-ample the &earin# of personal protective e%uipment= and the need for
visitors to be escorted by a member of staff.
.ost candidates seemed to be a&are of the precautions to be ta(en &hen visitors arrive
on site) perhaps from personal e-perience) and too( advanta#e of the opportunity to #ain
hi#h mar(sM
Question 8 (a) !*plain the #eaning of the ter# >co#petent person>C ($)
(b) Outline the organisational factors that #ay cause a person to
work unsafely e"en though they are co#petent. (6)
; #ood ans&er to part (a) &ould have e-plained that) to be considered competent) a
person &ould need to possess (no&led#e based on appropriate %ualifications and
trainin#) the s(ills) e-perience and personal %ualities to apply the (no&led#e in a #iven
situation) and) importantly) a clear reco#nition of his or her limitations.
For part (b)) candidates &ere e-pected to outline factors such as mana#ement or peer
#roup pressure) a poor safety culture in the or#anisation) a lac( of resources or
e%uipment) a lac( of clarity in roles and responsibilities) inade%uate supervision and
poor &or(in# conditions.
;ns&ers to the first part of the %uestion &ere reasonable althou#h fe& candidates
referred to the need for a competent person to be a&are of limitationsM In part (b))
E-aminers found that many candidates seemed to confuse or#anisational and individual
factors and concentrated on the latter rather than the former as &as re%uired.
Question 9 2a5e and describe 7O85 classes of safety sign prescribed by the -ealth
and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) 5egulations +&&6
(!)
$he %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e of the different classes of
safety si#n. 0andidates &ere e-pected to name and describe four classes from the list of
five #iven in /chedule ? (7art II) of the Re#ulations specified. $hese are prohibitory)
&arnin#) mandatory) emer#ency escape or first*aid) and fire*fi#htin#. For a description)
candidates &ere e-pected to identify both shape and colour (bac(#round) fore#round
and) &here appropriate) borders) of each class of si#n selected.
$his &as a fairly strai#htfor&ard %uestion that #ave most candidates the opportunity to
#ain reasonable to hi#h mar(s. 1o&ever) E-aminers e-pressed concern that a si#nificant
minority confused both colour and shape of their chosen e-amples.
208
(uestion 6 (a) !*plain the purpose of the =state#ent of intent> section of a
health and safety policy. ($)
(b) Outline the circu#stances that would re'uire a health and safety
policy to be re"iewed. (6)
For part (a)) most candidates #ained one mar( by e-plainin# that the 'statement of intent'
section of a health and safety policy is desi#ned to demonstrate mana#ement
commitment to health and safety. Only a fe&) ho&ever) #ained the second mar(
available by referrin# to its other purpose of settin# #oals and ob9ectivesM
In part (b)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of circumstances such as6 si#nificant
chan#es in the or#anisation= after the introduction of ne& or chan#ed processes or &or(
methods= follo&in# chan#es in (ey personnel= follo&in# chan#es in le#islation= &here
ris( assessments) monitorin# e-ercises or investi#ations sho& that the policy is no lon#er
effective or relevant= and after a sufficient period of time has elapsed since the previous
revie& to su##est that another one is dueM $his part of the %uestion &as #enerally &ell
ans&ered by most candidates) particularly by those &ho had provided #ood ans&ers to
2uestion ?(iii) and noticed some common issuesM
(uestion (a) !*plain1 gi"ing an e*a#ple in !34- case1 the circu#stances
under which a health and safety inspector #ay ser"e. .
an i#pro"e#ent notice (2)
(ii) a prohibition notice. (2)
(b) State the effect on !34- type of enforce#ent notice of appealing
against it ($)
$o serve an improvement notice) an inspector must be of the opinion that there is a
breach of relevant statutory provisions) or that there has been a breach that is li(ely to be
continued or repeated. ; relevant e-ample &ould be the absence of manual handlin#
assessments in contravention of the re%uirements of the .anual 1andlin# Operations
Re#ulations ?BB3.
For a prohibition notice to be served) an inspector must be of the opinion that there is) or
is li(ely to be) a ris( of serious personal in9ury. ($he ris( of in9ury does not have to be
8imminent') as many candidates su##ested) althou#h in practice it often isM) ; relevant
e-ample &ould be a dan#erous machine that lac(s the necessary safe#uards.
For part (b)) the ma9ority of candidates correctly identified that the effect of an appeal
a#ainst an improvement notice is to suspend the notice until the appeal is held) &hereas a
prohibition notice continues in force durin# this timeM
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally to a #ood standard althou#h in part (a) a fe&
candidates &ere confused as to the circumstances under &hich the t&o types of notice
mi#ht be served and some &ere unable to provide suitable e-amples
209
(uestion 6 Outline the specific factors that should be considered when assessing
the risks to e#ployees working on night shifts. (%)
;ns&ers to this %uestion %uite often lac(ed depth and many candidates simply listed
items such as li#htin#) heatin#) &elfare and first*aid provision) and emer#ency
arran#ements. +etter candidates sho&ed &hy they mi#ht be relevant and also outlined
other factors such as6 the effects of fati#ue and the increased li(elihood of human error=
the number of hours &or(ed and the period allo&ed for recovery bet&een shifts= #eneral
&ell*bein# &hen normal routines are disrupted= the level of supervision provided and
access to specialist advice if re%uired= and the possible increased ris( of violent assault
on the &ay to and from &or(M
Question = In relation to the Safety 5epresentati"es and Safety 4o##ittees
5egulations +&771 outline. .
W the rights and functions of a trade union.appointed safety
representati"e (6)
(ii) the facilities that an e#ployer #ay need to pro"ide to safety
representati"es. ($)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline functions such
as6 investi#atin# ha4ards and dan#erous occurrences and e-aminin# the causes of
accidents= investi#atin# complaints from employees= ma(in# representations to the
employer) carryin# out safety inspections) attendin# safety committee meetin#s= and
representin# employees in consultations &ith the enforcin# authority and receivin#
information from its inspectors. In order to carry out these functions) the safety
representative has certain ri#hts) such as access to relevant documents) the use of
appropriate facilities) entitlement to inspect the &or(place at set intervals) and time off
&ith pay for trainin#. $here &ere some #ood ans&ers to this part of the %uestion &here
candidates sho&ed their (no&led#e of the relevant parts of the Re#ulations.
Unfortunately these &ere balanced by some very poor attempts by those &ho seemed
unfamiliar &ith the le#islation.
For part (ii)) reference should have been made to the facilities that a safety
representative mi#ht reasonably re%uire to carry out his,her functions. "ependin# on the
particular circumstances) such facilities mi#ht include a private room) telephone) fa-
machine) photocopier and relevant reference material. /ome candidates seemed unable
to differentiate bet&een 'functions' and 'facilities') and repeated &hat they had already
provided for the first part of the %uestion.
Question / !*plain the differences between -S4 3ppro"ed 0odes of :ractice and
-S! guidance1 gi"ing an e*a#ple of !34-. (%)
Fe& candidates performed &ell on this %uestion. .ost found it difficult to e-plain the
essential differences bet&een the t&o types of document * nor did they seem to be a&are
of the respective roles of the 1/0 and 1/E in their approval and publication
;pproved 0odes of 7ractice are approved by the 1ealth and /afety 0ommission &ith
the consent of the /ecretary of /tate and provide a reco#nised interpretation of ho& an
employer may comply &ith relevant le#islation. ;lthou#h failure to comply &ith the
210
provision of an ;0O7 is not in itself an offence) the failure may be cited in court in
criminal proceedin#s as proof that there has been a contravention of the le#islation to
&hich the provision relates. Employers must either meet the standards contained in the
;0O7 or sho& that they have complied &ith an e%ual or better standard. ; number of
e-amples could have been cited such as the ;0O7s complementin# the :or(place
(1ealth) /afety and :elfare) Re#ulations ?BB3 and the .ana#ement of 1ealth and
/afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB.
Cuidance) on the other hand) is issued by the 1ealth and /afety E-ecutive &ith the
intention of #ivin# advice on #ood practice. $he advice is #enerally more practically
based than that contained in an ;0O7. Cuidance has no le#al standin# in a court of la&.
E-amples of 1/E #uidance documents include those issued on matters such as manual
handlin#) display screen e%uipment and personal protective e%uipment
Question 1 Outline 7O85 duties of !34- of the following persons under the
4onstruction (@esign and <anage#ent) 5egulations +&&90
(i) the planning super"isor (9)
(ii) the principal contractor. (9)
$here &ere fe& candidates &ho approached this %uestion &ith any de#ree of confidence
and there still appears to be confusion in &hat the named duty holders are re%uired to do
under the Re#ulations. 2uite often duties &ere &ron#ly assi#ned and there &as a
suspicion that some ans&ers &ere the result of #uess&or() but seldom inspired. $here
&as also much confusion bet&een the health and safety plan and the health and safety
file.
For the plannin# supervisor) candidates could have outlined such duties as6 coordinatin#
activities bet&een the client) desi#ner and principal contractor) notifyin# the 1ealth and
/afety E-ecutive of the pro9ect &here notification is re%uired= ensurin# the preparation
of the health and safety plan= collatin# information for the health and safety file= and
advisin# the client) &hen re%uested) on the competence of the principal contractor and
desi#ner.
$he principal contractor has a number of 0". duties. $hese include
6
* co*ordinatin# the
activities of all contractors on site= developin# the health and safety plan and ensurin#
compliance &ith it on site= displayin# the statutory notices) providin# health and safety
information to contractors= ensurin# effective consultation &ith employees= controllin#
access to the site= ensurin# the competence of all contractors involved= and passin# to
the plannin# supervisor any information that should be included in the health and safety
file.
Question 11 Identify !I,-( sources of infor#ation that #ight usefully be consulted
when de"eloping a safe syste# of work. (
F
)
.ost candidates found little difficulty &ith this %uestion and identified sources of
information such as statutory instruments) ;0O7s and 1/E #uidance) manufacturers'
information) European and other official standards) industry or trade literature) results of
ris( assessments) accident statistics and health,medical surveillance records) the
211
employees involved) and enforcement a#encies and other e-perts.

Question I @aA
7rovide s8etches to show clearly the nature of the following ha/ards fro# #o"ing parts of #achinery0
W entangle#ent
(ii) crushing
(iii) drawing.in
(i") shear.
(3) (3) ($) (3)
(b) Outline a hierarchy of control #easures that #ay be used to
pre"ent contact with dangerous parts of #achinery. (9)
(c) Identify FOUR non.#echanical ha/ards that #ay be
encountered on woodworking #achines and outline the possible
health and safety effects fro# e*posure in !34- case. (%)
E-aminers &ere particularly disappointed at the %uality of many of the s(etches
provided for part (a) of the %uestion) some of &hich &ere e-tremely difficult to interpret
and did not fulfil the re%uirement for clarityM In particular) candidates should use arro&s
to sho& the direction of movement or rotation of movin# parts of machinery in order to
sho& ho& in9ury mi#ht occurM $here &as also some confusion bet&een shear ha4ards *
&hich are caused by the passin# or slicin# motion of a movin# part of a machine a#ainst
a (usually) stationary part * and cuttin# ha4ardsM
For part (b)) candidates &ere e-pected to outline a hierarchy of control measures that
should have included) in descendin# order) fi-ed #uards providin# a physical barrier)
other #uards or protection devices (such as interloc(ed #uards and trip devices) and
protection appliances (such as 9i#s) holders or push*stic(s). $he %uestion clearly related
to re#ulation ??(3) of the 7rovision and Use of :or( E%uipment Re#ulations ?BB!)
&hich also ma(es reference to the provision of information) instruction) trainin# and
supervision. :hile a recent amendment to the re#ulation no lon#er places these measures
at the bottom of the hierarchy) but rather ma(es them #enerally applicable) they should
nevertheless have received mentionM .any candidates) ho&ever) &rote in #eneral terms
about typical control measures &ithout any su##estion of a hierarchy) &hile others
provided a bulleted list of measures &ith nothin# that fulfilled the re%uirement for an
outlineM
212
7art (c) &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith the ma9ority of candidates findin# little
difficulty in identifyin# four non*mechanical ha4ards that included noise (leadin# to
noise*induced hearin# loss and tinnitus)= vibration (hand*arm vibration syndrome)=
electricity (shoc( or burns)= hot surfaces (s(in burns)= dust (lun# disorders) cancer)
fire,e-plosion)= er#onomic,manual handlin# issues (musculos(eletal disorders)= and
shards,splinters (cuts) infections and eye in9uries)M :ea(er ans&ers often omitted the
possible health and safety effects or &ere insufficiently specific to &ood&or(in#
machines.
2uestion 3 (a) !*plain the #eaning of the ter# =ha/ard>. ($)
(b) Outline the #ain ha/ards associated with de#olition work. (6)
.ost candidates) for part (a)) &ere able to #ive a reasonable definition of 'ha4ard' in
terms of somethin# that has the potential to do harm althou#h a fe& candidates became
confused &ith 8ris(' or 'effect' (for instance) by #ivin# electric shoc() rather than
electricity) as an e-ample of a ha4ard)
7art (b) of the %uestion tested a candidate's ability to outline the various ha4ards that
mi#ht occur durin# a demolition operation. $hese &ould include6 falls from a hei#ht=
trip ha4ards= fallin# debris and premature collapse of the buildin#= use of e-plosives=
noise,vibration and mechanical ha4ards from the use of heavy plant) pneumatic brea(ers
and other po&er tools= dust (particularly asbestos) and fumes= and the e-istence of
services such as electricity) #as and &ater. $here &as a tendency on the part of many
candidates to focus on ris(s or controls rather than the ha4ards involved in the operation
and many ans&ers &ere too brief) or insufficiently related to demolition) to #ain all the
mar(s available.
Question 3 Outline a range of checks that should be #ade to ensure electrical safety
in an office environment (
8
)
/urprisin#ly fe& candidates offered comprehensive ans&ers for the ran#e of chec(s
re%uired to achieve electrical safety in an office environment. ;ns&ers could have
included reference to visual inspections for dama#e to cables) plu#s and soc(ets) the
need to ensure that all fuses are of the correct ratin#) and chec(in# that outlets are not
overloaded and that cables are not in vulnerable positionsM $he e%uipment itself should
be chec(ed to ensure that it is suitable and conforms &ith reco#nised standards (e# 0E
mar(in#)) that it is properly sited to avoid dama#e) that it has been sub9ect to appropriate
portable appliance testin#) and that it has been properly maintained. 0hec(s should also
be made to ensure that there is an effective procedure for reportin# defects or dama#e.
.any candidates provided a simple list or concentrated solely on carryin# out chec(s of
plu#s) cables etc or portable appliance testin# &ithout offerin# information on other
chec(s that &ould be re%uired.
2uestion (a) Describe the diferences between `acute' and `chronic' heath
efects. (
(b) Identify the factors that could affect the level of harm
experienced by an employee exposed to a to*ic substance. (9)
For part (a)) candidates should have e-plained that) in the case of acute health effects)
the adverse effects appear after a sin#le or short term e-posure to the a#ent) and the
213
response is invariably rapid or immediate. In most cases) acute effects recede on
cessation of e-posure (the obvious e-ception bein# 'death')M 0hronic health effects) on
the other hand) usually result from prolon#ed or repeated e-posure to the a#ent. $he
response is normally #radual) often pro#ressive and irreversible) and may #o
unreco#nised for lon# periods of time. $here &ere fe& #ood ans&ers to this part of the
%uestion) &ith many candidates unable to differentiate bet&een the t&o types of health
effectM
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere to a sli#htly better standard) &ith candidates identifyin#
factors such as6 the route of entry of the to-ic substance into the body and the
associated mode of e-posure (e# contact) inhalation etc)= the concentration) physical
state and to-icity of the substance= the level) duration and fre%uency of e-posure= the
effectiveness of the control measures in place= and personal factors such as the a#e)
#ender) health status and susceptibilities of those e-posed.
(uestion - Outline the precautions that #ight be taken in order to reduce the risk of
in?ury when using stepladders. (%)
In ans&ers to this %uestion) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of precautions such as6 the need to ensure that the
stepladder is inspected for defects before use= that it is correctly erected on level #round &ith its chain or rope fully
e-tended= that it is suitable for the tas( to be performed and does not involve carryin# out &or( from the top step= that
it is footed by a second person &hen necessary= that it is correctly positioned to avoid over*reachin#= and that it is not
overloaded.
$he ma9ority of candidates confused stepladders &ith other types of ladder and #ained mar(s perhaps fortuitously
&hen outlinin# precautions that applied to both types of e%uipment.
(uestion (a) !*plain1 using a suitable sketch1 the significance of the >fire
triangle>. (9)
(b) Aist 7O85 types of ignition source that #ay cause a fire to occur1
gi"ing a typical workplace e*a#ple of !34- type. (9)
7art (a) of this %uestion re%uired candidates to e-plain) &ith a clearly labelled dia#ram) that each side of the fire
trian#le represents one of three elements * namely) fuel) o-y#en and a source of i#nition * all three of &hich must be
present for combustion to occur. /urprisin#ly) some candidates made no attempt at this part of the %uestion and) of
those &ho did) a fe& thou#ht that the fire trian#le referred to a &arnin# si#n. Overall) thou#h) most candidates #ained
ma-imum) or close to ma-imum) mar(s.
7art (b) re%uired a list of types of i#nition source to#ether &ith an e-ample of each. 7ossible sources of i#nition that
could have been mentioned included6 electricity (e# arcin# or overheatin# due to faulty &irin#) poor connections or
e-cess current)= chemical reactions (any reaction bet&een chemicals that #ives off heat)= operations involvin# hot &or(
or spar(s (e# &eldin#) cuttin#) #rindin#)= na(ed flame or burnin# material (e# discarded smo(in# materials)= friction
caused by) for instance) inade%uate lubrication of machinery= and hot surfaces) such as those on coo(in# or heatin#
appliances. In ans&erin# this part) a hi#h proportion of candidates confused sources of i#nition &ith methods of heat
transfer.
Question < Outline !I,-( rules to follow when a fork.lift truck is left unattended
during a dri"er>s work break. (%)
E-aminers e*pected candidates to outline rules such as6 returnin# the for(*lift truc( to a desi#nated area= par(in# on
firm) level #round= leavin# the truc( &ith the mast tilted sli#htly for&ard and the for(s restin# on the floor) isolatin#
the po&er &ith the i#nition (ey removed and retained by a responsible person= and par(in# the truc( a&ay from other
vehicles and in a position that does not cause obstruction to traffic routes) fire points or emer#ency e-its. $his %uestion
produced a rather mi-ed response &ith some candidates producin# a chec(list to ensure the safe operation of a for(*lift
truc( &hile other ans&ers &ere very limited in the number of issues identified.
Question = 3n e#ployee is re'uired to install glass.fibre insulation in a loft.
(iF Identify 7O85 ha/ards connected with this acti"ity. (9)
214
(ii) Outline the precautions that #ight be taken to #ini#ise har# to
the e#ployee. (9)
In ans&erin# part (i)) candidates could have identified ha4ards such as6 fibres from the
insulation material (throu#h inhalation or contact)= falls throu#h fra#ile ceilin#s or from
access e%uipment= possible contact &ith live electrical services in the loft= er#onomic
and &or( environment ha4ards from &or(in# in a situation &here space mi#ht be
restricted and &hich may be hot and,or dusty= and biolo#ical ha4ards from &asp nests)
rodent infestation and bird droppin#s. ;ns&ers &ere #enerally sparse and many focused
on the possible effects rather than the ha4ards.
7art (ii) &as better ans&ered &ith most candidates outlinin# precautions such as the
provision and use of respiratory protective e%uipment) and layin# boards across the
9oists to prevent falls throu#h the ceilin#. +etter candidates also referred to the need for
safe access) a #ood standard of li#htin#) fre%uent &or( brea(s) and the provision of
protection for the s(in such as hooded overalls and #loves.
Question 9 3n assess#ent has concluded that the person carrying out a particular
#anual handling task is fit and capable of lifting the loads in"ol"ed.
Outline the factors associated with the task and the work en"iron#ent that
would need to be considered in order to co#plete the assess#ent (!)
Factors that should have been outlined as far as the tas( &as concerned include6 the need
to hold or manipulate the loads at a distance from the trun(= fre%uent or prolon#ed
physical effort &ith insufficient rest or recovery periods= e-cessive pushin# or pullin# of
the loads= e-cessive carryin# or
rai"ingCl#ering
distances= and the need for the person
involved to adopt unsatisfactory body positions.
For the &or( environment factors) candidates should have referred to the structure and
condition of floors and &al(&ays in the &or(in# area) space constraints) li#htin#)
temperature) humidity and ventilation.
$his %uestion &as reasonably &ell ans&ered althou#h) despite its specific &ordin#)
some candidates still addressed factors associated &ith the load and the individual for
&hich no mar(s could be a&arded. Others &ere content to produce a brief) bulletpointed
list rather than the outline that &as re%uired.
Question 1 Other than those associated with the physical en"iron#ent1 outline !I,-(
possible causes of increased stress le"els a#ongst e#ployees. (%)
In ans&er to this %uestion) possible causes of increased stress levels could usefully have
been divided into those relatin# to the &or( or tas( or#anisation and those relatin# to
&or(place interactions. Gob factors mi#ht include6 shift*&or( or unsocial hours=
e-cessive overtime= 9ob insecurity and the fear of redundancy= repetitive or monotonous
&or(= lac( of ade%uate brea(s= lac( of control over the 9ob= &or( load too hi#h or too
lo&= and the tas( not matched to the s(ills of the person. Interactions involve such issues
as harassment) bullyin#) discrimination) fear of violence) poor communication and
#eneral relationships &ith &or( collea#ues. $here are also a ran#e of personal and social
factors) such as illness) financial &orries and family commitments) that could increase
an employee's level of stress at &or() even if some may not be &or(*related.
.ost ans&ers to this %uestion &ere a bit li(e the curate's e## * #ood in parts. 0andidates
are ur#ed to read %uestions &ith #reat care since some included in their ans&ers causes
associated &ith the physical environment) for &hich no mar(s could be a&ardedM
215
(uestion "" Identify !I,-( safe practices to be followed when using a skip for the
collection and re#o"al of waste fro# a construction siteC (%)
;ns&ers to this %uestion sho&ed that) in #eneral) candidates &ere a&are of or could
ma(e some sensible su##estions for ensurin# safety in the use of s(ipsM .ost referred to
the more obvious safe practices of ensurin# the inte#rity of the s(ip) locatin# the s(ip on
firm) level #round a&ay from e-cavations) ensurin# clear access for fillin# and for
removin# from site by vehicle) fillin# by chute or by mechanical means unless items are
to be placed in the s(ip by hand) introducin# controls to prevent overfillin# and the
tippin# of incompatible &astes) and nettin# or sheetin# the s(ip &hen full. +etter ans&ers
referred to the fire ha4ards created by s(ips and the probable need to site a&ay from
buildin#s and to protect a#ainst arson. +etter candidates reco#nised that all construction
&aste is controlled &aste and must be carried by a licensed &aste carrier) under a &aste
transfer note system) to a disposal site capable of acceptin# the &aste.
216
29-8
Question 1
;n or#anisation has introduced a ne& &or( process for &hich a ris(
assessment is re%uired under re#ulation 5 of the .ana#ement of 1ealth
and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB.
(iUOutline the steps that should be used in carryin# out the ris( assessment) identifyin#
the issues that &ould need to be considered at E;01 sta#e.(!)
(ii)E-plain the criteria that must be met for the assessment to be deemed 8suitable and
sufficient'. ()
(iii)Identify the various circumstances that mi#ht re%uire a revie& of the ris(
assessment. (!)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline steps such as6
the need to define the process or tas( that is bein# assessed= identifyin# the ha4ards
involved and determinin# their possible conse%uences= identifyin# the number and types
of person e-posed= evaluatin# the associated ris( by assessin# the li(elihood and severity
of harm that could be caused= evaluatin# the ade%uacy of e-istin# controls and the need
for additional measures to secure compliance &ith le#islation and other standards= and
recordin# the results of the assessment to#ether &ith ma(in# arran#ements for its
monitorin# and revie&. It &as disappointin# to have to report that) althou#h the
completion of ris( assessments is a (ey area in the mana#ement of health and safety)
#ood ans&ers to this part of the %uestion &ere the e-ception rather than the rule
E-aminers commented on a si#nificant amount of confusion and misunderstandin#)
&hich seemed to arise from a lac( of (no&led#e of the sub9ect area.
$he difficulties e-perienced by many candidates &ith the first part of the %uestion often
continued into part (ii)) &here candidates #enerally stru##led to e-plain the criteria to be
met to ensure the suitability and sufficiency of an assessment. $hey &ere e-pected to
refer to such matters as the comprehensive identification of si#nificant ha4ards and
ris(s) the identification and prioritisation of measures needed to reduce the ris( to an
acceptable level) and ensurin# that the assessment remains valid for a reasonable period
of time. /ome candidates &ere obviously confused by the %uestion and commented
solely on issues concerned &ith reasonable practicability and competence= others
produced ans&ers that simply re*defined the &ords 8suitable' and 'sufficient.
;ns&ers to part (iii) of the %uestion tended to be better) possibly because it has appeared
several times previously as a short*ans&er %uestion $ypical circumstances include6 a
chan#e to the process) &or( method or substances in use= the introduction of ne& or
modified plant= the availability of ne& information on ha4ards and ris(s= accidents or
incidents of ill*health= the results of monitorin# and,or auditin#= a chan#e in the
re%uirements of le#islation= action ta(en or advice #iven by an enforcement authority or
insurance company= and a chan#e in personnel) in particular the involvement of youn#
persons) ne& or e-pectant mothers or disabled persons ;lthou#h a fe& candidates
mista(enly believed that there is a le#al re%uirement to revie& assessments annually) the
passa#e of time is another circumstance that may routinely lead to a revie& of a ris(
assessment.
217
Question 2 Outline a procedure designed to ensure the health and safety of "isitors
to work pre#isesC (%)
E-aminers &ere e-pectin# candidates to outline a procedure that included6 the need for
visitor identification (e# &ith bad#es) &ith a routine for si#nin# in and out= prior
notification to those members of staff to be involved in the visit= the provision of
information to visitors on ha4ards and emer#ency procedures= an e-planation of specific
site rules) for e-ample the &earin# of personal protective e%uipment= and the need for
visitors to be escorted by a member of staff.
.ost candidates seemed to be a&are of the precautions to be ta(en &hen visitors arrive
on site) perhaps from personal e-perience) and too( advanta#e of the opportunity to #ain
hi#h mar(sM
Question 8 (a) !*plain the #eaning of the ter# >co#petent person>C ($)
(b) Outline the organisational factors that #ay cause a person to
work unsafely e"en though they are co#petent. (6)
; #ood ans&er to part (a) &ould have e-plained that) to be considered competent) a
person &ould need to possess (no&led#e based on appropriate %ualifications and
trainin#) the s(ills) e-perience and personal %ualities to apply the (no&led#e in a #iven
situation) and) importantly) a clear reco#nition of his or her limitations.
For part (b)) candidates &ere e-pected to outline factors such as mana#ement or peer
#roup pressure) a poor safety culture in the or#anisation) a lac( of resources or
e%uipment) a lac( of clarity in roles and responsibilities) inade%uate supervision and
poor &or(in# conditions.
;ns&ers to the first part of the %uestion &ere reasonable althou#h fe& candidates
referred to the need for a competent person to be a&are of limitationsM In part (b))
E-aminers found that many candidates seemed to confuse or#anisational and individual
factors and concentrated on the latter rather than the former as &as re%uired.
Question 9 2a5e and describe 7O85 classes of safety sign prescribed by the -ealth
and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) 5egulations +&&6
(!)
$he %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e of the different classes of
safety si#n. 0andidates &ere e-pected to name and describe four classes from the list of
five #iven in /chedule ? (7art II) of the Re#ulations specified. $hese are prohibitory)
&arnin#) mandatory) emer#ency escape or first*aid) and fire*fi#htin#. For a description)
candidates &ere e-pected to identify both shape and colour (bac(#round) fore#round
and) &here appropriate) borders) of each class of si#n selected.
$his &as a fairly strai#htfor&ard %uestion that #ave most candidates the opportunity to
#ain reasonable to hi#h mar(s. 1o&ever) E-aminers e-pressed concern that a si#nificant
minority confused both colour and shape of their chosen e-amples.
218
(uestion 6 (a) !*plain the purpose of the =state#ent of intent> section of a
health and safety policy. ($)
(b) Outline the circu#stances that would re'uire a health and safety
policy to be re"iewed. (6)
For part (a)) most candidates #ained one mar( by e-plainin# that the 'statement of intent'
section of a health and safety policy is desi#ned to demonstrate mana#ement
commitment to health and safety. Only a fe&) ho&ever) #ained the second mar(
available by referrin# to its other purpose of settin# #oals and ob9ectivesM
In part (b)) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of circumstances such as6 si#nificant
chan#es in the or#anisation= after the introduction of ne& or chan#ed processes or &or(
methods= follo&in# chan#es in (ey personnel= follo&in# chan#es in le#islation= &here
ris( assessments) monitorin# e-ercises or investi#ations sho& that the policy is no lon#er
effective or relevant= and after a sufficient period of time has elapsed since the previous
revie& to su##est that another one is dueM $his part of the %uestion &as #enerally &ell
ans&ered by most candidates) particularly by those &ho had provided #ood ans&ers to
2uestion ?(iii) and noticed some common issuesM
(uestion (a) !*plain1 gi"ing an e*a#ple in !34- case1 the circu#stances
under which a health and safety inspector #ay ser"e. .
an i#pro"e#ent notice (2)
(ii) a prohibition notice. (2)
(b) State the effect on !34- type of enforce#ent notice of appealing
against it ($)
$o serve an improvement notice) an inspector must be of the opinion that there is a
breach of relevant statutory provisions) or that there has been a breach that is li(ely to be
continued or repeated. ; relevant e-ample &ould be the absence of manual handlin#
assessments in contravention of the re%uirements of the .anual 1andlin# Operations
Re#ulations ?BB3.
For a prohibition notice to be served) an inspector must be of the opinion that there is) or
is li(ely to be) a ris( of serious personal in9ury. ($he ris( of in9ury does not have to be
8imminent') as many candidates su##ested) althou#h in practice it often isM) ; relevant
e-ample &ould be a dan#erous machine that lac(s the necessary safe#uards.
For part (b)) the ma9ority of candidates correctly identified that the effect of an appeal
a#ainst an improvement notice is to suspend the notice until the appeal is held) &hereas a
prohibition notice continues in force durin# this timeM
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally to a #ood standard althou#h in part (a) a fe&
candidates &ere confused as to the circumstances under &hich the t&o types of notice
mi#ht be served and some &ere unable to provide suitable e-amples
219
(uestion 6 Outline the specific factors that should be considered when assessing
the risks to e#ployees working on night shifts. (%)
;ns&ers to this %uestion %uite often lac(ed depth and many candidates simply listed
items such as li#htin#) heatin#) &elfare and first*aid provision) and emer#ency
arran#ements. +etter candidates sho&ed &hy they mi#ht be relevant and also outlined
other factors such as6 the effects of fati#ue and the increased li(elihood of human error=
the number of hours &or(ed and the period allo&ed for recovery bet&een shifts= #eneral
&ell*bein# &hen normal routines are disrupted= the level of supervision provided and
access to specialist advice if re%uired= and the possible increased ris( of violent assault
on the &ay to and from &or(M
Question = In relation to the Safety 5epresentati"es and Safety 4o##ittees
5egulations +&771 outline. .
W the rights and functions of a trade union.appointed safety
representati"e (6)
(ii) the facilities that an e#ployer #ay need to pro"ide to safety
representati"es. ($)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline functions such
as6 investi#atin# ha4ards and dan#erous occurrences and e-aminin# the causes of
accidents= investi#atin# complaints from employees= ma(in# representations to the
employer) carryin# out safety inspections) attendin# safety committee meetin#s= and
representin# employees in consultations &ith the enforcin# authority and receivin#
information from its inspectors. In order to carry out these functions) the safety
representative has certain ri#hts) such as access to relevant documents) the use of
appropriate facilities) entitlement to inspect the &or(place at set intervals) and time off
&ith pay for trainin#. $here &ere some #ood ans&ers to this part of the %uestion &here
candidates sho&ed their (no&led#e of the relevant parts of the Re#ulations.
Unfortunately these &ere balanced by some very poor attempts by those &ho seemed
unfamiliar &ith the le#islation.
For part (ii)) reference should have been made to the facilities that a safety
representative mi#ht reasonably re%uire to carry out his,her functions. "ependin# on the
particular circumstances) such facilities mi#ht include a private room) telephone) fa-
machine) photocopier and relevant reference material. /ome candidates seemed unable
to differentiate bet&een 'functions' and 'facilities') and repeated &hat they had already
provided for the first part of the %uestion.
Question / !*plain the differences between -S4 3ppro"ed 0odes of :ractice and
-S! guidance1 gi"ing an e*a#ple of !34-. (%)
Fe& candidates performed &ell on this %uestion. .ost found it difficult to e-plain the
essential differences bet&een the t&o types of document * nor did they seem to be a&are
of the respective roles of the 1/0 and 1/E in their approval and publication
;pproved 0odes of 7ractice are approved by the 1ealth and /afety 0ommission &ith
the consent of the /ecretary of /tate and provide a reco#nised interpretation of ho& an
employer may comply &ith relevant le#islation. ;lthou#h failure to comply &ith the
220
provision of an ;0O7 is not in itself an offence) the failure may be cited in court in
criminal proceedin#s as proof that there has been a contravention of the le#islation to
&hich the provision relates. Employers must either meet the standards contained in the
;0O7 or sho& that they have complied &ith an e%ual or better standard. ; number of
e-amples could have been cited such as the ;0O7s complementin# the :or(place
(1ealth) /afety and :elfare) Re#ulations ?BB3 and the .ana#ement of 1ealth and
/afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB.
Cuidance) on the other hand) is issued by the 1ealth and /afety E-ecutive &ith the
intention of #ivin# advice on #ood practice. $he advice is #enerally more practically
based than that contained in an ;0O7. Cuidance has no le#al standin# in a court of la&.
E-amples of 1/E #uidance documents include those issued on matters such as manual
handlin#) display screen e%uipment and personal protective e%uipment
Question 1 Outline 7O85 duties of !34- of the following persons under the
4onstruction (@esign and <anage#ent) 5egulations +&&90
(i) the planning super"isor (9)
(ii) the principal contractor. (9)
$here &ere fe& candidates &ho approached this %uestion &ith any de#ree of confidence
and there still appears to be confusion in &hat the named duty holders are re%uired to do
under the Re#ulations. 2uite often duties &ere &ron#ly assi#ned and there &as a
suspicion that some ans&ers &ere the result of #uess&or() but seldom inspired. $here
&as also much confusion bet&een the health and safety plan and the health and safety
file.
For the plannin# supervisor) candidates could have outlined such duties as6 coordinatin#
activities bet&een the client) desi#ner and principal contractor) notifyin# the 1ealth and
/afety E-ecutive of the pro9ect &here notification is re%uired= ensurin# the preparation
of the health and safety plan= collatin# information for the health and safety file= and
advisin# the client) &hen re%uested) on the competence of the principal contractor and
desi#ner.
$he principal contractor has a number of 0". duties. $hese include
6
* co*ordinatin# the
activities of all contractors on site= developin# the health and safety plan and ensurin#
compliance &ith it on site= displayin# the statutory notices) providin# health and safety
information to contractors= ensurin# effective consultation &ith employees= controllin#
access to the site= ensurin# the competence of all contractors involved= and passin# to
the plannin# supervisor any information that should be included in the health and safety
file.
Question 11 Identify !I,-( sources of infor#ation that #ight usefully be consulted
when de"eloping a safe syste# of work. (
F
)
.ost candidates found little difficulty &ith this %uestion and identified sources of
information such as statutory instruments) ;0O7s and 1/E #uidance) manufacturers'
information) European and other official standards) industry or trade literature) results of
ris( assessments) accident statistics and health,medical surveillance records) the
221
employees involved) and enforcement a#encies and other e-perts.

Question I @aA
7rovide s8etches to show clearly the nature of the following ha/ards fro# #o"ing parts of #achinery0
W entangle#ent
(ii) crushing
(iii) drawing.in
(i") shear.
(3) (3) ($) (3)
(b) Outline a hierarchy of control #easures that #ay be used to
pre"ent contact with dangerous parts of #achinery. (9)
(c) Identify FOUR non.#echanical ha/ards that #ay be
encountered on woodworking #achines and outline the possible
health and safety effects fro# e*posure in !34- case. (%)
E-aminers &ere particularly disappointed at the %uality of many of the s(etches
provided for part (a) of the %uestion) some of &hich &ere e-tremely difficult to interpret
and did not fulfil the re%uirement for clarityM In particular) candidates should use arro&s
to sho& the direction of movement or rotation of movin# parts of machinery in order to
sho& ho& in9ury mi#ht occurM $here &as also some confusion bet&een shear ha4ards *
&hich are caused by the passin# or slicin# motion of a movin# part of a machine a#ainst
a (usually) stationary part * and cuttin# ha4ardsM
For part (b)) candidates &ere e-pected to outline a hierarchy of control measures that
should have included) in descendin# order) fi-ed #uards providin# a physical barrier)
other #uards or protection devices (such as interloc(ed #uards and trip devices) and
protection appliances (such as 9i#s) holders or push*stic(s). $he %uestion clearly related
to re#ulation ??(3) of the 7rovision and Use of :or( E%uipment Re#ulations ?BB!)
&hich also ma(es reference to the provision of information) instruction) trainin# and
supervision. :hile a recent amendment to the re#ulation no lon#er places these measures
at the bottom of the hierarchy) but rather ma(es them #enerally applicable) they should
nevertheless have received mentionM .any candidates) ho&ever) &rote in #eneral terms
about typical control measures &ithout any su##estion of a hierarchy) &hile others
provided a bulleted list of measures &ith nothin# that fulfilled the re%uirement for an
outlineM
222
7art (c) &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith the ma9ority of candidates findin# little
difficulty in identifyin# four non*mechanical ha4ards that included noise (leadin# to
noise*induced hearin# loss and tinnitus)= vibration (hand*arm vibration syndrome)=
electricity (shoc( or burns)= hot surfaces (s(in burns)= dust (lun# disorders) cancer)
fire,e-plosion)= er#onomic,manual handlin# issues (musculos(eletal disorders)= and
shards,splinters (cuts) infections and eye in9uries)M :ea(er ans&ers often omitted the
possible health and safety effects or &ere insufficiently specific to &ood&or(in#
machines.
2uestion 3 (a) !*plain the #eaning of the ter# =ha/ard>. ($)
(b) Outline the #ain ha/ards associated with de#olition work. (6)
.ost candidates) for part (a)) &ere able to #ive a reasonable definition of 'ha4ard' in
terms of somethin# that has the potential to do harm althou#h a fe& candidates became
confused &ith 8ris(' or 'effect' (for instance) by #ivin# electric shoc() rather than
electricity) as an e-ample of a ha4ard)
7art (b) of the %uestion tested a candidate's ability to outline the various ha4ards that
mi#ht occur durin# a demolition operation. $hese &ould include6 falls from a hei#ht=
trip ha4ards= fallin# debris and premature collapse of the buildin#= use of e-plosives=
noise,vibration and mechanical ha4ards from the use of heavy plant) pneumatic brea(ers
and other po&er tools= dust (particularly asbestos) and fumes= and the e-istence of
services such as electricity) #as and &ater. $here &as a tendency on the part of many
candidates to focus on ris(s or controls rather than the ha4ards involved in the operation
and many ans&ers &ere too brief) or insufficiently related to demolition) to #ain all the
mar(s available.
Question 3 Outline a range of checks that should be #ade to ensure electrical safety
in an office environment (
8
)
/urprisin#ly fe& candidates offered comprehensive ans&ers for the ran#e of chec(s
re%uired to achieve electrical safety in an office environment. ;ns&ers could have
included reference to visual inspections for dama#e to cables) plu#s and soc(ets) the
need to ensure that all fuses are of the correct ratin#) and chec(in# that outlets are not
overloaded and that cables are not in vulnerable positionsM $he e%uipment itself should
be chec(ed to ensure that it is suitable and conforms &ith reco#nised standards (e# 0E
mar(in#)) that it is properly sited to avoid dama#e) that it has been sub9ect to appropriate
portable appliance testin#) and that it has been properly maintained. 0hec(s should also
be made to ensure that there is an effective procedure for reportin# defects or dama#e.
.any candidates provided a simple list or concentrated solely on carryin# out chec(s of
plu#s) cables etc or portable appliance testin# &ithout offerin# information on other
chec(s that &ould be re%uired.
2uestion (a) Describe the diferences between `acute' and `chronic' heath
efects. (
(b) Identify the factors that could affect the level of harm
experienced by an employee exposed to a to*ic substance. (9)
For part (a)) candidates should have e-plained that) in the case of acute health effects)
the adverse effects appear after a sin#le or short term e-posure to the a#ent) and the
223
response is invariably rapid or immediate. In most cases) acute effects recede on
cessation of e-posure (the obvious e-ception bein# 'death')M 0hronic health effects) on
the other hand) usually result from prolon#ed or repeated e-posure to the a#ent. $he
response is normally #radual) often pro#ressive and irreversible) and may #o
unreco#nised for lon# periods of time. $here &ere fe& #ood ans&ers to this part of the
%uestion) &ith many candidates unable to differentiate bet&een the t&o types of health
effectM
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere to a sli#htly better standard) &ith candidates identifyin#
factors such as6 the route of entry of the to-ic substance into the body and the
associated mode of e-posure (e# contact) inhalation etc)= the concentration) physical
state and to-icity of the substance= the level) duration and fre%uency of e-posure= the
effectiveness of the control measures in place= and personal factors such as the a#e)
#ender) health status and susceptibilities of those e-posed.
(uestion - Outline the precautions that #ight be taken in order to reduce the risk of
in?ury when using stepladders. (%)
In ans&ers to this %uestion) E-aminers &ere loo(in# for an outline of precautions such as6 the need to ensure that the
stepladder is inspected for defects before use= that it is correctly erected on level #round &ith its chain or rope fully
e-tended= that it is suitable for the tas( to be performed and does not involve carryin# out &or( from the top step= that
it is footed by a second person &hen necessary= that it is correctly positioned to avoid over*reachin#= and that it is not
overloaded.
$he ma9ority of candidates confused stepladders &ith other types of ladder and #ained mar(s perhaps fortuitously
&hen outlinin# precautions that applied to both types of e%uipment.
(uestion (a) !*plain1 using a suitable sketch1 the significance of the >fire
triangle>. (9)
(b) Aist 7O85 types of ignition source that #ay cause a fire to occur1
gi"ing a typical workplace e*a#ple of !34- type. (9)
7art (a) of this %uestion re%uired candidates to e-plain) &ith a clearly labelled dia#ram) that each side of the fire
trian#le represents one of three elements * namely) fuel) o-y#en and a source of i#nition * all three of &hich must be
present for combustion to occur. /urprisin#ly) some candidates made no attempt at this part of the %uestion and) of
those &ho did) a fe& thou#ht that the fire trian#le referred to a &arnin# si#n. Overall) thou#h) most candidates #ained
ma-imum) or close to ma-imum) mar(s.
7art (b) re%uired a list of types of i#nition source to#ether &ith an e-ample of each. 7ossible sources of i#nition that
could have been mentioned included6 electricity (e# arcin# or overheatin# due to faulty &irin#) poor connections or
e-cess current)= chemical reactions (any reaction bet&een chemicals that #ives off heat)= operations involvin# hot &or(
or spar(s (e# &eldin#) cuttin#) #rindin#)= na(ed flame or burnin# material (e# discarded smo(in# materials)= friction
caused by) for instance) inade%uate lubrication of machinery= and hot surfaces) such as those on coo(in# or heatin#
appliances. In ans&erin# this part) a hi#h proportion of candidates confused sources of i#nition &ith methods of heat
transfer.
Question < Outline !I,-( rules to follow when a fork.lift truck is left unattended
during a dri"er>s work break. (%)
E-aminers e*pected candidates to outline rules such as6 returnin# the for(*lift truc( to a desi#nated area= par(in# on
firm) level #round= leavin# the truc( &ith the mast tilted sli#htly for&ard and the for(s restin# on the floor) isolatin#
the po&er &ith the i#nition (ey removed and retained by a responsible person= and par(in# the truc( a&ay from other
vehicles and in a position that does not cause obstruction to traffic routes) fire points or emer#ency e-its. $his %uestion
produced a rather mi-ed response &ith some candidates producin# a chec(list to ensure the safe operation of a for(*lift
truc( &hile other ans&ers &ere very limited in the number of issues identified.
Question = 3n e#ployee is re'uired to install glass.fibre insulation in a loft.
(iF Identify 7O85 ha/ards connected with this acti"ity. (9)
224
(ii) Outline the precautions that #ight be taken to #ini#ise har# to
the e#ployee. (9)
In ans&erin# part (i)) candidates could have identified ha4ards such as6 fibres from the
insulation material (throu#h inhalation or contact)= falls throu#h fra#ile ceilin#s or from
access e%uipment= possible contact &ith live electrical services in the loft= er#onomic
and &or( environment ha4ards from &or(in# in a situation &here space mi#ht be
restricted and &hich may be hot and,or dusty= and biolo#ical ha4ards from &asp nests)
rodent infestation and bird droppin#s. ;ns&ers &ere #enerally sparse and many focused
on the possible effects rather than the ha4ards.
7art (ii) &as better ans&ered &ith most candidates outlinin# precautions such as the
provision and use of respiratory protective e%uipment) and layin# boards across the
9oists to prevent falls throu#h the ceilin#. +etter candidates also referred to the need for
safe access) a #ood standard of li#htin#) fre%uent &or( brea(s) and the provision of
protection for the s(in such as hooded overalls and #loves.
Question 9 3n assess#ent has concluded that the person carrying out a particular
#anual handling task is fit and capable of lifting the loads in"ol"ed.
Outline the factors associated with the task and the work en"iron#ent that
would need to be considered in order to co#plete the assess#ent (!)
Factors that should have been outlined as far as the tas( &as concerned include6 the need
to hold or manipulate the loads at a distance from the trun(= fre%uent or prolon#ed
physical effort &ith insufficient rest or recovery periods= e-cessive pushin# or pullin# of
the loads= e-cessive carryin# or
rai"ingCl#ering
distances= and the need for the person
involved to adopt unsatisfactory body positions.
For the &or( environment factors) candidates should have referred to the structure and
condition of floors and &al(&ays in the &or(in# area) space constraints) li#htin#)
temperature) humidity and ventilation.
$his %uestion &as reasonably &ell ans&ered althou#h) despite its specific &ordin#)
some candidates still addressed factors associated &ith the load and the individual for
&hich no mar(s could be a&arded. Others &ere content to produce a brief) bulletpointed
list rather than the outline that &as re%uired.
Question 1 Other than those associated with the physical en"iron#ent1 outline !I,-(
possible causes of increased stress le"els a#ongst e#ployees. (%)
In ans&er to this %uestion) possible causes of increased stress levels could usefully have
been divided into those relatin# to the &or( or tas( or#anisation and those relatin# to
&or(place interactions. Gob factors mi#ht include6 shift*&or( or unsocial hours=
e-cessive overtime= 9ob insecurity and the fear of redundancy= repetitive or monotonous
&or(= lac( of ade%uate brea(s= lac( of control over the 9ob= &or( load too hi#h or too
lo&= and the tas( not matched to the s(ills of the person. Interactions involve such issues
as harassment) bullyin#) discrimination) fear of violence) poor communication and
#eneral relationships &ith &or( collea#ues. $here are also a ran#e of personal and social
factors) such as illness) financial &orries and family commitments) that could increase
an employee's level of stress at &or() even if some may not be &or(*related.
.ost ans&ers to this %uestion &ere a bit li(e the curate's e## * #ood in parts. 0andidates
are ur#ed to read %uestions &ith #reat care since some included in their ans&ers causes
associated &ith the physical environment) for &hich no mar(s could be a&ardedM
225
(uestion "" Identify !I,-( safe practices to be followed when using a skip for the
collection and re#o"al of waste fro# a construction siteC (%)
;ns&ers to this %uestion sho&ed that) in #eneral) candidates &ere a&are of or could
ma(e some sensible su##estions for ensurin# safety in the use of s(ipsM .ost referred to
the more obvious safe practices of ensurin# the inte#rity of the s(ip) locatin# the s(ip on
firm) level #round a&ay from e-cavations) ensurin# clear access for fillin# and for
removin# from site by vehicle) fillin# by chute or by mechanical means unless items are
to be placed in the s(ip by hand) introducin# controls to prevent overfillin# and the
tippin# of incompatible &astes) and nettin# or sheetin# the s(ip &hen full. +etter ans&ers
referred to the fire ha4ards created by s(ips and the probable need to site a&ay from
buildin#s and to protect a#ainst arson. +etter candidates reco#nised that all construction
&aste is controlled &aste and must be carried by a licensed &aste carrier) under a &aste
transfer note system) to a disposal site capable of acceptin# the &aste.
226
29-9
Paper A1
The management of safety and health
Queston ?
7ollowing a significant increase in accidents1 a health and safety ca#paign is to be launched within an
organisation to encourage safer working by e#ployees.
(i) Outline how the organisation #ight ensure that the nature of the ca#paign is effecti"ely
co##unicated to1 and understood by1 e#ployees. (!)
(ii) Other than poor co##unication1 describe the organisational factors that could li#it the
effecti"eness of the ca#paign. (?3)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline the (ey re%uirements to
ensure that everybody &ithin an or#anisation (no&s the part that they are to play &ithin a health and
safety campai#n. ;n important prere%uisite is to have clear ob9ectives and tar#ets for the campai#n) and
to be clear on the means of achievin# them. It is also important that (ey responsibilities for aspects of
the campai#n are allocated) and accepted &ith due commitment) in order to avoid mi-ed messa#es.
:hile an outline of the different means of communication should have been included in the ans&er)
many candidates concentrated solely on this point and thus restricted the number of mar(s that they
could have #ained. In this respect) thou#h) a variety of means (posters) emails) toolbo- tal(s) trainin#
sessions) etc) could be used to communicate and reinforce the messa#e) &ith account ta(en of the
lan#ua#e used in order to facilitate understandin# (avoidance of 9ar#on) use of plain En#lish) etc).
$oolbo- tal(s) su##estion bo-es) surveys and informal means of consultation can be used to involve
employees and to provide a feedbac( loop to chec( that employees understand &hat the campai#n is
about and to assess the level of support. It is also important to provide feedbac( to employees on ho&
the campai#n is pro#ressin# so that focus on the campai#n's ob9ectives is maintained.
.any candidates did not read part (ii) of the %uestion &ith sufficient care and referred to
communication problems rather than the ran#e of other or#anisational factors that mi#ht affect the
success of a health and safety campai#n. /uch issues can include6 lac( of senior mana#ement
commitment= production or other pressures ta(in# priority over health and safety= insufficient resources
allocated to the campai#n= and a poor safety culture in #eneral. It should also have been reco#nised that
poor &or(in# conditions are li(ely to induce cynicism to&ards the campai#n amon#st employees. In
addition) poor industrial relations or a lac( of confidence in mana#ement's ability could mean that the
campai#n is not #iven the support of influential members of staff. :or( patterns (e# shift&or() could
also mean that some sections of the &or(force are not fully considered or supported) possibly due to the
non*availability of (ey staff.
Overall this %uestion &as not &ell ans&ered and many candidates either treated it as a #eneral %uestion
on communication or produced an e-planation of ho& accidents could be prevented (ie &hat a health
and safety campai#n should comprise). In addition) many ans&ers &ere too brief to satisfy the
re%uirement for an outline or description. 7oints made should have been supported by sufficient
reasonin# to sho& their relevance to the %uestion.
227

228
Queston 2
Outline the duties placed on e#ployees by0
(i) the -ealth and Safety at )ork etc 3ct 1974 ()
(ii) the <anage#ent of -ealth and Safety at )ork 5egulations 1999! ()
E-aminers &ere surprised that many candidates did not seem to possess the basic (no&led#e of the (ey
re%uirements of health and safety la& necessary to ans&er this %uestion. In #eneral) the duties under
sections A and ! of the 1ealth and /afety at :or( ;ct &ere better (no&n) or perhaps came to mind
more readily) than those contained in re#ulation ? of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or(
Re#ulations.
For part (i)) section A of the ;ct re%uires employees to ta(e reasonable care for themselves and others
&ho mi#ht be affected by their acts or omissions) and to cooperate &ith their employer or other person
so far as is necessary to enable them to comply &ith their o&n statutory duties and re%uirements.
/ection ! re%uires that noone (includin# employees) shall intentionally or rec(lessly interfere &ith or
misuse anythin# provided in the interests of health) safety or &elfare.
Re#ulation ? of the '.ana#ement Re#ulations') on the other hand) re%uires employees to use all &or(
items in accordance &ith the trainin# and instructions that they have been #iven. It also re%uires
employees to inform their employer (or a specified employee &ith health and safety responsibilities) of
&or( situations that could present a serious and immediate dan#er) as &ell as any shortcomin#s that
they mi#ht reasonably reco#nise in the e-istin# arran#ements for health and safety.
It &as disappointin# to note that some candidates a#ain misread the %uestion and provided outlines of
the duties of e#ployers rather than e#ployees. /ince the t&o pieces of le#islation place numerous
duties on employers) such candidates should perhaps have been alerted to their error by the amount of
information that &ould have been re%uired to ans&er such a %uestion.
2uestion 5
<ost occupational accidents can be attributed in part to hu#an error. Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of
hu#an error in the workplace. (!)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to outline &ays of reducin# human error such as6
the use of s(illed) competent and properly trained employees) and ensurin# that they are &ell
motivated= avoidin# monotonous &or( processes and arran#in# brea(s to counter fati#ue= desi#natin#
clear roles and lines of responsibility and ensurin# ade%uate levels of supervision= establishin# #ood
lines of communication &ith the &or(force and ensurin# the clarity of instructions and information
passed on to them= addressin# &or(place environmental issues such as noise) li#ht and heat= desi#nin#
the &or(place and &or( e%uipment to reduce the opportunity for error (e# automation) unambi#uous
and clearly mar(ed controls) monitorin# and confirmation of actions and feedbac( loops)= and
implementin# policies on alcohol and dru#s.
33B
On the &hole this &as a reasonably &ell ans&ered %uestion &ith many candidates able to refer to a
number of the above issues. ; fe&) ho&ever) could identify only trainin# and then proceeded to
describe a number of types of safety trainin# that could be introduced to reduce the li(elihood of
human error in the &or(place. ; much broader ans&er &as re%uired.
Queston 4
Outline the #ain features ofG
(i) a health and safety inspection of a work place ()
(ii) a health and safety audit. ()
E-aminers &ere surprised by the #enerally poor %uality of the ans&ers provided for this %uestion.
.any candidates &ere unable to differentiate bet&een an audit and an inspection and often repeated
&hat they had &ritten for part (i) in their ans&er to part (ii). :hilst the terms may indeed be used rather
loosely in some or#anisations) those &ho have follo&ed a reco#nised course in preparation for the
0ertificate e-amination should have been in no doubt that the t&o monitorin# activities are
si#nificantly different.
Fundamentally) a safety inspection involves the strai#htfor&ard observation of a &or( place) and,or the
activities or e%uipment &ithin it. $his is different from a safety audit) &hich is a thorou#h) critical
e-amination of an or#anisation's safety mana#ement systems and procedures. 1ence) a #eneral safety
inspection) usually carried out by a mana#er or employee representative and often aided by the use of a
chec(list) may be carried out routinely and has the aim of identifyin# ha4ards and assessin# the use and
effectiveness of control measures. ;n audit) on the other hand) is normally a len#thy process carried out
by a trained auditor) often someone from outside the or#anisation. It is a structured way of assessin# the
health and safety performance of an or#anisation by supplyin# ans&ers to a series of preset %uestions)
and often involves a scorin# system such that improvements can be measured.
Queston <
3n e#ployee is clai#ing co#pensation for in?uries recei"ed during an accident in"ol"ing a fork.lift
truck.
Identify the docu#ented infor#ation that the e#ployer #ight draw together when preparing a possible
defence against the clai#. (!)
$he %uestion re%uired candidates to consider a ran#e of documents that mi#ht enable an employer to
defend a civil claim in the situation described. /uch information can be broadly divided into that
relatin# to the circumstances of the accident (&hich mi#ht differ from the description offered by the
claimant) and that re%uired to demonstrate that the employer had done everythin# reasonable to prevent
the accident. For the former) most ans&ers included reference to the accident boo( record) to the
RI""OR form (if applicable) and to an accident investi#ation report) includin# statements made by
&itnesses or supervisors. 'n terms of demonstratin# compliance &ith statutory and common la& duties)
relevant documents mi#ht include6 the or#anisation's health and safety policy= ris( assessments and any
&ritten safe systems of &or( relatin# to the activity= trainin# records= statutory e-amination records (as
re%uired by LOLER)= maintenance records (7U:ER and LOLER)= inspection reports and health and
safety committee minutes= and documents relatin# to previous accidents and corrective actions ta(en.
Information relatin# to the claimant (e# involvement in previous accidents) disciplinary records) etc)
could also be relevant.
$his &as a reasonably &ell ans&ered %uestion althou#h a number of candidates decided that it &as a
simple 'ne#li#ence' %uestion and referred in #eneral terms to the employer's duty of care and to possible
defences based on the standard tests. /uch ans&ers often ne#lected to mention any documents at all.
/ome candidates i#nored the reference to a for(*lift truc() &hich restricted their ans&ers.
Queston >
)ith reference to the -ealth and Safety (4onsultation with !#ployees) 5egulations 1996"
(i) identify the particular health and safety #atters on which e#ployers #ust consult their e#ployees
()
(ii) outline the entitle#ents of representati"es of e#ployee safety who ha"e been elected under the
5egulations. ()
In #eneral) this &as a very poorly ans&ered %uestion &ith fe& candidates sho&in# specific (no&led#e
of the 1ealth and /afety (0onsultation &ith Employees) Re#ulations. Of those candidates &ho
attempted the %uestion (and there &as a si#nificant number of non*responses)) many appeared to be
basin# their ans&ers on their (no&led#e of the /afety Representatives and /afety 0ommittees
Re#ulations ?BAA. +y and lar#e) thou#h) this made little difference to the ans&ers) particularly for part
(i) &here the re%uirements are virtually identical.
For part (i)) the specific matters on &hich employers must consult their employees are6 the introduction
of measures affectin# the health and safety of employees= the arran#ements for appointin# or
nominatin# competent persons under re#ulations A and ! of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at
:or( Re#ulations ?BBB= health and safety information re%uired by la& to be provided to employees=
the plannin# and or#anisin# of any health and safety trainin# that has to be provided= and the
conse%uences of the introduction of ne& technolo#y. Fe& candidates could identify these issues other
than in the va#uest of terms.
$here &as a sli#htly better response to part (ii)) &ith candidates referrin# to entitlements such as6 bein#
provided &ith reasonable facilities and assistance= bein# provided &ith trainin# (&ith covera#e of
associated costs)= bein# #iven time off &ith pay durin# &or(in# hours to underta(e trainin# and to
carry out the stated functions= and bein# provided &ith the information necessary to carry out the
functions (includin# specifically access to records (ept under the re%uirements of the Reportin# of
In9uries) "iseases and "an#erous Occurrences Re#ulations ?BB<). /ince the employer has a duty to
consult &ith representatives) it could ri#htly be said that such persons are entitled to be consulted.
Unli(e their trade union counterparts ) representatives of employee safety have no specific ri#ht to
inspect the &or(place
2uestion 7
Outline reasons for #aintaining good standards of health and safety within an organisation. (!)
$here &ere some #ood ans&ers to this %uestion) balanced by a si#nificant number of very &ea( ones
and) a#ain) some non*attempts. +etter ans&ers &ere structured around the moral) economic and le#al
ar#uments for maintainin# #ood standards of health and safety &ithin an or#anisation.
$he moral ar#ument centres on the need to provide a reasonable standard of care and to reduce the
in9uries) pain and sufferin# caused to employees by accidents and ill*health) &hile le#al ar#uments are
concerned &ith the desire to avoid enforcement action and civil claims. Economic benefits include6 a
more motivated &or(force resultin# in increased production rates= the avoidance of direct costs
associated &ith accidents (e# do&ntime) administrative) investi#ation and first*aid costs) repair of plant
and e%uipment) employin# and trainin# replacement staff) etc)= possibly cheaper insurance premiums=
the avoidance of costs associated &ith le#al action= and maintainin# the ima#e and reputation of the
or#anisation &ith its various sta(eholders.
Queston 8
(a) Explain the #eaning of the ter# >per#it.to.work>. #2$
(b) Outline the specific details that should be included in a per#it.to.work for entry into a confined
space. (>)
;#ain) there &as a &ide ran#e in the %uality of responses to this %uestion. .ost candidates &ere able to
obtain some mar(s althou#h) in the second part of the %uestion) some seemed confused over the details
that should be included in a permit*to*&or(.
In ans&erin# part (a)) most candidates &ere able to su##est that a permit*to*&or( is part of a formal
mechanism for controllin# hi#h ris( activities. Fe& ans&ers included much more detail by &ay of an
e-planation * for instance) the fact that a permit #ives si#ned authority for the activity to ta(e place.
For part (b)) a typical permit for confined space &or(in# should include6 a description of the plant
involved &ith reference to the tas( to be completed and any foreseeable ha4ards and ris(s= the
precautions to be ta(en (e# isolatin# services) atmospheric pur#in# and the removal of contaminants)
pre*entry and on#oin# atmospheric testin#) means of communication) use of respiratory and other
personal protection) etc)= and the emer#ency arran#ements and e%uipment to be provided (e# safety
lines) support staff) resuscitation and other first*aid e%uipment) &elfare facilities) etc). +etter
candidates &ent on to refer to the need to include a reference to the duration of the permit and to the
si#natures for authorisation and receipt) and for hand*bac( and cancellation. :hile many of the #eneral
issues are common to all permits) the particular aspects of confined space &or(in# should have formed
a (ey part of the ans&er.
2uestion B
3 contractor has been engaged to undertake building #aintenance work in a busy warehouse.
Outline the issues that should be co"ered in an induction progra##e for the contractor>s e#ployees.
(!)
$here &ere some %uite reasonable ans&ers to this %uestion &ith many candidates sho&in# a #ood
understandin# of induction re%uirements. In the situation described) the employees of the contractor
should be made a&are of such issues as6 the particular ris(s in the &or(in# area (e# movement of for(*
lift truc(s) fallin# materials) conveyors and the possible presence of asbestos)= #eneral site safety rules
re#ardin# smo(in#) clothin# and 77E) use of electrical e%uipment and so on= re%uirements for permits*
to*&or( and other controls= e-clusion 4ones and traffic routes= arran#ements for the stora#e of
materials= accident reportin# and other emer#ency procedures (e# actions re%uired in the case of fire)=
and the location and use of &elfare facilities includin# first*aid. .ost candidates referred to at least
some of these but surprisin#ly fe& mentioned other relevant issues such as the person on site to report
to if the need should arise and the procedures for si#nin# in and out.
; fe& candidates seemed to misunderstand the purpose of the %uestion and discussed the control
measures that the contractor should put in place) or ho& the contractor's level of competence mi#ht be
assessed) rather than the contents of an induction pro#ramme for those actually carryin# out the &or(.
/uch an induction pro#ramme) &hich &ould normally be provided by the contractor) should address
not only the inherent ris(s to the contractor's employees from the &or( bein# underta(en but also the
additional ris(s posed by the &arehouse activities. Importantly) it should also ta(e into account the
possible ris(s to &arehouse staff from the maintenance &or(. Cood ans&ers demonstrated that all these
aspects had been considered.
Queston 10
#a$ Outline (-5!! work acti"ities that #ay present a particular risk to pregnant wo#en. #6$
(b) Outline the actions that an e#ployer #ay take when a risk to a new or e*pectant #other cannot be
a"oided. (3)
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) candidates could have chosen from such activities as6 manual
handlin# or physically strenuous &or(= tas(s involvin# lon# periods of standin# or sittin#= &or(
involvin# e-posure to biolo#ical a#ents or chemical substances that mi#ht affect the unborn child= &or(
in hyperbaric environments (ie those above normal atmospheric pressure)= tas(s involvin# e-posure to
ionisin# radiation= and unusually stressful &or( includin# e-posure to hi#h levels of noise and hot
environments. Gobs that e-pose people to an increased ris( of in9ury (e# due to slippin# or violent
assault) have particular implications for pre#nant &omen. .any candidates referred to three of the
above but did not provide the additional detail re%uired by an 'outline' %uestion. $hey could) for
instance) have referred to the specific ris(s that such activities pose andlor to the &or( situations in
&hich such activities mi#ht arise * such as radio#raphers e-posed to -*rays and shop assistants &ho
mi#ht be re%uired to stand for lon# periods) &hich can lead to s&ellin# of the feet (oedema)) varicose
veins) di44iness and faintin#. /imilarly) chec(*out staff re%uired to sit for lon# periods &ill be at
increased ris( from thrombosis and embolism.
0andidates havin# (no&led#e of re#ulation ?> of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at :or(
Re#ulations 1999 had little difficulty) for part (b)) in outlinin# actions such as chan#in# the employee's
&or(in# conditions (e# findin# other suitable &or( or introducin# additional brea(s) or chan#in# her
hours of &or(. :here this is not reasonable) the employer &ould need to consider suspendin# the
employee from &or( on full pay for as lon# as is necessary.
:hile ans&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally to a reasonable standard) many &ere too brief to attract
all the mar(s that &ere available. $here are numerous sources of data on this sub9ect for those see(in#
additional information. $he 1/E publication >ew and !*pectant <others at )ork * an !#ployer>s
,uide> (1/C 122$ is of particular relevance.
2uestion 11
List the powers gi"en to health and safety enforce#ent officers appointed under the -ealth and Safety
at )ork etc 3ct ?BA. (!)
$his %uestion attracted the hi#hest avera#e mar( of the short*ans&er %uestions and it is evident that
candidates are &ell versed on the sub9ect of inspectors' po&ers. /ection 3@ of the 1ealth and /afety at
:or( etc ;ct ?BA) to#ether &ith sections 3?) 33) 3< and 5B) provide the information to ans&er this
%uestion and most candidates &ere able to list many of the po&ers that are available to appointed
inspectors.
$he po&ers include6 the ri#ht to enter premises) if necessary by enlistin# the assistance of a police
officer= to carry out e-aminations and investi#ations= to direct that premises or e%uipment be left
undisturbed for the purpose of investi#ations= to ta(e measurements and photo#raphs= to inspect and,or
ta(e copies of documents and records= to ta(e samples= to re%uire a person to ans&er %uestions and si#n
a declaration to the truth of his,her ans&ers= to ta(e possession of articles and substances (and to sei4e
and render them harmless in situations of imminent dan#er)= to issue enforcement notices= and (e-cept
in /cotland) to insti#ate and conduct proceedin#s in a ma#istrates' court.
Paper A2
%ontrollng &or'pla(e ha)ards
Queston ?
In relation to cutting ti#ber using a bench.#ounted circular saw0
(i) outline the #echanical ha/ards to which an operator #ay be e*posed (>)
(ii) identify the guards and protecti"e de"ices designed to pre"ent contact with the saw blade1 and in
!34- case1 e*plain how the operator is protected (>)
(iii) outline 7O85 non.#echanical ha/ards presented by the operation1 identifying the possible health
and safety effects in !34- case. (!)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) many candidates &ere able to identify the mechanical ha4ards
associated &ith the use of machinery but only the more able could relate them to a bench*mounted
circular sa&. $he most obvious and serious ha4ard is the cuttin# ha4ard associated &ith the rotatin#
blade but candidates mi#ht also have referred to entan#lement &ith rotatin# parts (such as the spindle
or parts of the transmission machinery) and the ha4ards created by flyin# particles and e9ection of the
&ood bein# processed. /ome candidates referred to ha4ards such as shearin# and crushin#) &hich
&ould be unli(ely to arise on this type of e%uipment) &hile others identified various non*mechanical
ha4ards that &ere not re%uired for this part of the %uestion.
For part (ii)) very fe& candidates could #ive e-amples of #uards and protective devices that &ere
relevant to circular sa&s) &ith many ans&ers outlinin# only the #eneral hierarchy of safe#uardin#.
+etter candidates referred to6 an ad9ustable or self ad9ustin# #uard for the top of the sa&) e-posin# as
little of the blade as possible= fi-ed #uards over the part of the blade belo& the bench and around the
motor and drive mechanism= protection at the rear of the blade in the form of a rivin# (nife= and the use
of a push stic( to (eep the operator's hands a&ay from the blade at the end of the cut. ;ns&ers to this
part of the %uestion su##ested that many candidates &ere unfamiliar &ith this particular item of &or(
e%uipment) despite the specific reference in the syllabus.
For part (iii)) as for part (i)) some candidates had difficulty in distin#uishin# bet&een mechanical and
non*mechanical ha4ards. 1o&ever) in #eneral) candidates #ave relevant e-amples of non*mechanical
ha4ards) includin# &ood dust) electricity) noise and hot surfaces. $he identification of related health
or safety effects &as
disappointin# &ith only the better candidate referrin# for e-ample to noise*induced hearin# loss) the
possibility of lun# disorders or nasal cancer from e-posure to dust and shoc( or burns from contact
&ith a defective electrical supply to the machine.
2uestion 2
Outline the practical #easures that #ight be taken to reduce the risk of "iolence to e#ployees who deal
with #e#bers of the public as part of their work. (!)
:ith many occupations e-posed to the ris( of violence from members of the public) particularly in the
service industries) there &as a &ide ran#e of practical measures that could have been outlined. +etter
ans&ers loo(ed at measures that encompassed the broad aspects of environment) 9ob factors) individual
protection and #eneral security. Only by addressin# a &ide ran#e of issues) rather than concentratin# on
9ust physical security measures for instance) could hi#h mar(s be obtained.
$he desi#n of public areas) in terms of decor) seatin#) the means of providin# information (e# on
&aitin# times) and the absence of obvious barriers) can help to reduce the build*up of confrontation and
violent episodes. ; balance must be dra&n) ho&ever) bet&een presentin# a calm and 'open'
environment and protectin# staff from any violent incidents that could arise. 1ence) there &ill often be
a need for &ide counters) coded loc(s on doors) 00$V systems) panic buttons and alarm systems.
:hether these are made discreet or obvious &ill depend on the particular circumstances. /ome
situations) particularly those involvin# money) may mean that the ris( is too #reat to avoid the use of
some sort of physical means of separation) such as security screens) bet&een employees and the public.
.any occupations) such as estate a#ents and social &or(ers) involve interaction &ith the public outside
&or( premises. In these cases) measures such as the avoidance of carryin# lar#e amounts of cash)
implementin# appointment systems) client ris( assessment and accurate record*(eepin# may need to be
considered. $he ris(s to lone &or(ers should be #iven particular attention) &ith the need in certain
circumstances to avoid lone &or(in# alto#ether and,or to implement re#ular chec(*in procedures and to
issue personal panic alarms.
In addition to desi#nin# the &or(place and the tas( to minimise the ris( of violent assault) staff &ill
need to be trained in the procedures and possibly in ho& they mi#ht reco#nise the early si#ns of
a##ressive behaviour and avoid) defuse or other&ise deal &ith a violent situation. In certain
circumstances) the employment of security staff and the provision of personal protective e%uipment (e#
bullet* or stab*proof vests) helmets) etc) may be re%uired.
In #eneral) ans&ers tended to be limited) sometimes because candidates seemed to have only one
situation in mind) such as that faced by health service &or(ers. Others referred in va#ue terms to
measures such as Hthe need for strin#ent securityH but &ithout #ivin# any detail or e-amples of &hat
this mi#ht mean.
2uestion 5
Outline the precautions to be taken when e#ployees are working at ground le"el in a workshop where
loads are lifted and transported by #eans of an o"erhead gantry crane. (!)
It became obvious) from references to placin# the crane on flat level #round and to the use of
outri##ers) that some candidates &ere unfamiliar &ith the term '#antry crane'. 0andidates should have
had in mind a crane that normally runs on rails or #irders and is operated from a hi#h*level cab or from
a pendant control at #round level. Fortunately) perhaps) many of the issues relatin# to the use of an
overhead #antry crane in a &or(place are common to all crane operations.
$he use) trainin# and competence of (ey personnel (operator) si#naller) slin#er) are of utmost
importance to #eneral crane safety) as are the re%uirements for maintenance and statutory e-amination
of the crane and liftin# tac(le. ;s far as the actual operation is concerned) candidates should have had
in mind the &or(place situation and referred appropriately to6 &arnin#s of a lift ta(in# place (audible
and,or visual)= e-clusion 4ones= ensurin# that the load is secure) does not e-ceed the safe &or(in# load)
is lifted to the correct hei#ht and is moved at an appropriate speed= and ensurin# that all those &or(in#
in the area have been properly trained and are ade%uately supervised.
In ans&erin# %uestions on 7aper ;3) practical issues should be addressed. It is not sufficient in
%uestions such as this merely to refer to #eneric issues such as ris( assessment and safe systems of
&or( &ithout providin# further detail of the controls that a ris( assessment mi#ht sho& to be necessary
or the elements of a safe system of &or(.
2uestion 4
Outline the control #easures needed to ensure safety during e*ca"ation work on a construction site. (!)
$he principal ha4ards of e-cavation &or( include collapse of sides) falls of persons) materials or
vehicles into the e-cavation) &ea(enin# of ad9acent structures) contact &ith buried services or
contaminated soil) build*up of fumes) in#ress of &ater and contact &ith mechanical plant. 0andidates
considerin# these ha4ards &ould have found themselves in a better position to outline the ran#e of
necessary control measures. ;s it is) many ans&ers &ere limited in breadth and,or depth (no pun
intended) and some &ere no more than short lists of items &ith no indication of ho& the measures
mi#ht improve safety.
0ontrol measures should have addressed the follo&in# issues6 support of sides (shorin#) benchin#) etc)=
detection of services (e# from plans) use of cable,pipe detectors) etc)= stora#e of materials) e%uipment
and spoil a&ay from ed#e= means of preventin# vehicles fallin# into the e-cavation or causin# collapse
(e# stop bloc(s)= means of preventin# people fallin# in (#uard*rails) barriers) crossin# points and
covers)= means of preventin# collapse of ad9acent structures= safe means of access and e#ress= testin#
for) and ventilation of) no-ious fumes= means of pumpin# out &ater= procedures for &or(in# &ith
mechanical plant= and #eneral issues such as inspection) trainin#) supervision and the use of personal
protective e%uipment (e# for protection a#ainst contaminants).
2uestion <
In relation to occupational der#atitis0
(i) identify ()O co##on causati"e agents #2$
(ii) describe the typical sy#pto#s of the condition #2$
(iii) outline specific #easures designed to pre"ent the occurrence of
occupational der#atitis ()
In ans&erin# part (a)) candidates could have chosen from a &ide ran#e of dermatitic substances that
include acids) al(alis) deter#ents) mineral oils) or#anic solvents) metal salts and a variety of specific
substances such as late- and &et cement. $here &ere) ho&ever) too many references to HadhesivesH and
HchemicalsH that &ere too va#ue to identify any particular causative a#ent.
7art (b) &as better ans&ered &ith candidates bein# able to identify symptoms of dermatitis such as
reddenin# of the s(in) soreness) itchiness) fla(in#) crac(in# and bleedin# &ith possible infection and
ulceration. +etter candidates also referred to areas of the s(in most li(ely to be affected) such as
bet&een the fin#ers and sensitive parts such as the forearms. $he actual site affected &ill) of course)
depend on the parts of the body in contact &ith the substance.
For part (c)) candidates &ere e-pected to provide an outline of specific control measures such as a
chan#e of process or a substitution of the material or substance bein# used= a reduction in e-posure= the
provision of personal protective e%uipment (#loves) aprons) etc)= the use of barrier and after*&or(
creams= the provision of ade%uate &ashin# facilities &ith employees bein# encoura#ed to improve their
standards of personal hy#iene= and the provision of information) instruction and trainin# on the causes
and prevention of dermatitis.
Question ;
Describe the physical features of traffic routes within a workplace designed to ensure the safe
#o"e#ent of "ehicles. @=A
In ans&erin# this %uestion) an acceptable description of the physical features of traffic routes &ithin a
&or(place &ould have included reference to0 ade%uate &idth of traffic routes &ith the avoidance of
blind corners= separation of vehicles and pedestrians &ith the provision of barriers and refu#es= a one*
&ay system &ith turnin# circles to reduce the need for reversin#= firm) even and &ell maintained road
surfaces= road&ays unobstructed and si#ned to indicate speed limits) ri#hts of &ay and no entry=
visibility aids such as mirrors) transparent screens across door&ays and li#htin#= traffic calmin#
measures such as road humps= and mar(ed pedestrian crossin# points on vehicle routes.
:ith such a &ide ran#e of features available) mar(s &ere #ained fairly easily. 1o&ever) some ans&ers
contained irrelevant detail on for(*lift truc( stability and procedural controls for activities such as
loadin# operations. $his perhaps indicates the temptation of candidates to ans&er the transport %uestion
that they had hoped to find rather than the one that actually appeared.
Question <
In relation to a workplace fire risk assess#ent1 outline the issues that should be taken into account
when assessing the #eans of escape. @=A
$his %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' ability to identify the issues to be considered in assessin#
the suitability of a means of escape rather than merely to identify its component features. /ome
candidates seemed to include in their ans&er everythin# they (ne& about fire * &ith detailed references
to fire drills) emer#ency procedures) maintenance of fire e-tin#uishers and other issues that &ere
outside the scope of the %uestion.
:hile mar(s &ere available for referrin# to the physical aspects of means of escape such as &idths)
travel distances) protection a#ainst smo(e and fire) li#htin#) si#na#e and specifications for doors
(closers) direction of openin#) #la4in#) etc)* better candidates &ere a&are that an assessment should
consider these issues in relation to the numbers and types of people li(ely to be involved) includin#
visitors and those &ith mobility problems. ;dditionally) the assessment should consider the provision
and sitin# of fire*fi#htin# e%uipment and the ade%uacy of assembly points.
Question =
Outline the precautions to be taken when repair work is to be carried out on the sloping roof of a
building. @=A
$his %uestion &as concerned &ith a &or( activity &here the precautions should have been &ell (no&n
and there &ere indeed many ans&ers that &ere to a #ood standard. Initially an assessment should be
made to #au#e the condition of the roof and to chec( for the presence of fra#ile materials and,or
asbestos. It &ould then be necessary to consider the means of access (e# scaffoldin#)) the use of roof
ladders) cra&lin# boards and fall arrest e%uipment) and ed#e protection to prevent the falls of persons
and materials. Other precautions &ould include provision for transportin# tools and materials to the
roof and for the removal of &aste) barriers at #round level) the use of appropriate personal protective
e%uipment such as hard hats and foot&ear) and the employment of trained and competent personnel.
:ea(er ans&ers tended to be those that provided insufficient detail * for e-ample) mention of H77EH or
Hed#e protectionH should have been accompanied by some e-amples of &hat mi#ht be re%uired and
reference to the purpose that they serve.
2uestion 9
#a$ Identify ()O types of in?ury that #ay be caused by the incorrect #anual handling of loads. (3)
(b) Outline a good handling techni'ue that could be adopted by a person re'uired to lift a load fro# the
ground. (>)
.anual handlin# activities are one of the bi##est causes of occupational in9ury and a &ide ran#e of
specific types of in9ury could have been identified to #ain the t&o mar(s available for part (a). $hese
include prolapsed or slipped discs) torn li#aments) muscular strains) hernias) and cuts and abrasions.
Va#ue descriptions) ho&ever) such as Hbac( painH or Hbad bac(H) &ere considered inade%uate.
For part (b)) most candidates reco#nised the importance of placin# the feet sli#htly apart and close to
the load) bendin# at the (nees) (eepin# the bac( strai#ht (or maintainin# natural curvature)) maintainin#
a #ood #rip) (eepin# the load close to the body &ithout t&istin# and liftin# smoothly usin# the le#
muscles. +etter ans&ers also included the need for an initial assessment of the load and lift prior to
underta(in# the tas(. /ome candidates) ho&ever) appeared to misread the %uestion and identified the
factors that should be included in a manual handlin# assessment and therefore could not be a&arded the
mar(s available.
2uestion ?@
Outline the precautions to be taken to #ini#ise the risks to persons working in cold stores operating at
sub./ero te#peratures. (!)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) most candidates referred to precautions such as the provision of thermal
clothin# and restrictin# the time spent in the cold store) &ith re#ular brea(s and the availability of &arm
drin(s. Only better candidates &ere able to refer to further matters such as precautions a#ainst bein#
loc(ed in the cold store (e# doors capable of bein# opened from the inside and the installation of
alarms)) measures to protect the employees a#ainst the escape of refri#erant #as) the need for pre*
employment e-aminations and continuin# health surveillance) and the provision of information and
trainin# on the ha4ards associated &ith this type of &or(. and the precautions to be ta(en.
; fe& candidates considered that the problem could be solved by raisin# the temperature in the cold
store) a solution that &ould be unli(ely to be appreciated by a cold store o&ner and &hich) not
unsurprisin#ly) #ained no credit from E-aminers.
Queston 11
List the ite#s that should be included on a checklist for the routine "isual inspection of portable
electrical appliances. (!)
In ans&er to this %uestion) chec(lists should have included such items as6 the need to chec( that the
appliance is of a suitable type for the operations to be carried out= that the connectin# plu#s are in
sound condition and soc(ets not overloaded= that any fuses fitted are of the correct ratin#= that the
appliance is operated at reduced volta#e (&here appropriate) and,or protected by a residual current
device= that cables are undama#ed and routed safely= and that the casin# of the appliance is in #ood
condition. ;dditionally) reference should have been made to the need to chec( that a portable appliance
test (7;$) has been carried out and is current) and that the relevant information is recorded. /ome
candidates) ho&ever) merely provided an inventory of the types of electrical appliance that should be
chec(ed &ithout listin# the particular items that should be sub9ect to a visual inspection.
29-12
Paper A1
The management of safety and health
Queston 1
#a$ Explain the meaning of the term 'dangerous occurrence' AN gi!e "WO specific examples of dangerous
occurrences that re'uire notification under the 5eporting of In?uries1 @iseases and @angerous
Occurrences 5egulations (5I@@O5) ?BB<. ()
(b) Identify the reasons why e#ployees #ay fail to report accidents at work. (>)
(c) Outline the key points that should be co"ered in a training session for e#ployees on the reporting of
accidents and incidents. (#$)
7art (a) of this %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to #ain mar(s for their
e-planations of the term 'dan#erous occurrence' and for the e-amples they #ave. 0andidates &ere
e-pected to e-plain that a dan#erous occurrence is a specified event that has not resulted in a reportable
in9ury but had the potential to do so. E-amples of specific dan#erous occurrences could have been
chosen from the many set out in /chedule 3 to RI""OR ?BB<. ;mon# the occurrences more
commonly %uoted &ere the collapse of scaffoldin# and the collapse) overturnin# or failure of a load*
bearin# part of e%uipment such as a lift) hoist) crane) cradle or for(*lift truc(. $here are some
occurrences that are reportable only &hen specified criteria apply and reco#nition of this fact &as
necessary to obtain the available mar(s. $hus) a reference to 'fire' &as not sufficient unless coupled
&ith the fact that it must cause suspension of normal &or( for over 3 hours. /imilarly) candidates
specifyin# 'escape of a flammable substance' should have stated that this applies only &hel? si#nificant
%uantities are involved (the precise criteria &ere not re%uired in this case).
7art (b) &as also reasonably &ell ans&ered althou#h in some cases too fe& reasons &ere #iven to #ain
most or all of the si- mar(s available. 0andidates could have identified reasons such as6 the employee
bein# una&are of the reportin# procedure or no procedure in place= an un&illin#ness to #ive up time or
a lac( of perception of the importance of accident reportin# (perhaps due to lac( of trainin#)= the
possibility of retribution and the fear of bein# disciplined= an actual or perceived lac( of mana#e.ment
response &hen accidents are reported= to preserve the individual's) the department's or the
or#anisation's safety record (particularly if this forms part of a bonus or incentive scheme)= an aversion
to first*aid or medical treatment= a disli(e of or inability to fill in forms= and peer pressure from fello&
employees) possibly as part of a #eneral safety culture problem.
For part (c) of the %uestion) an outline &as re%uired and many candidates did not provide sufficient
detail to obtain the full ran#e of mar(s available. ; fe& seemed not to #rasp the intent of the %uestion
and included in their ans&er information on settin# up and runnin# a trainin# event. Others provided
far more detail of RI""OR re%uirements than employees &ould need to (no&) often at the e-pense of
the internal reportin# procedures and re%uirements that should be covered in a trainin# session for
employees. Cood ans&ers addressed the follo&in# (ey areas6
. the classification of accidents and incidents (e# ma9or) minor) first*aid) near*miss) etc)
. the reasons for reportin# (e# to meet le#al obli#ations= to enable an investi#ation to be carried out that
mi#ht help to prevent the occurrence of similar incidents= to meet insurance re%uirements= to revie&
ris( assessments= and to compile statistics in order to identify trends)
.internal reportin# procedures (e# the accidents and incidents that need to be reported= the method of
reportin#) includin# such issues as the person to report to) e-amples of internal report forms) location of
the accident boo() etc= ho& to complete report forms= and the name of the person responsible for
notifyin# the enforcin# authority)
.follo&*up action (e# the use that the or#anisation mi#ht ma(e of the reports= stressin# a 'no*blame'
culture= and the possibility of an e-ternal investi#ation by an enforcement a#ency or an insurance
company).
.2uestion 3
Outline the factors that #ight cause the safety culture within an organisation to decline. (!)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) factors that candidates outlined included6 lac( of effective communication=
the perception of a #ro&in# blame culture= lac( of leadership and commitment at senior level= lac( of
monitorin# or a failure to implement remedial action= lac( of consultation and employee involvement= a
#enerally poor &or(in# environment= a hi#h staff turnover leadin# to lac( of continuity and loss of
momentum in ma(in# safety improvements= and e-ternal influences such as a do&nturn in the
economy) leadin# to 9ob insecurity &ith the possibility of health and safety bein# seen as less of a
priority.
/ome candidates misunderstood the focus of the %uestion and provided a #eneral 'safety culture' ans&er
that defined the term and sometimes su##ested ho& culture mi#ht be improved. :here candidates did
consider the %uestion set) those &ho &ere more successful &ere those &ho provided a #ood breadth of
issues to#ether &ith sufficient detail to sho& ho& each issue mi#ht affect or#anisational safety culture.
2uestion 5
)ith reference to the <anage#ent of -ealth and Safety at )ork 5egulations 1999"
(i) outline the infor#ation that an e#ployer #ust pro"ide to his e#ployees ()
(ii) identify 7O85 classes of persons1 other than his own e#ployees1 to who# an e#ployer #ust pro"ide health and
safety infor#ation ()
. 7art (i). of the %uestion re%uired an outline of the information on health and safety matters that an
employer must provide to his employees under the re%uirements of re#ulation ?@ of the .ana#ement of
1ealth and /afety at :or( Re#ulations ?BBB. $his includes information on6 the ris(s identified by ris(
assessment (and those notified to him by other employers sharin# the same &or(place)= the preventive
and protective measures that are in place= the or#anisation's emer#ency arran#ements= and the identity
of competent persons nominated to implement the emer#ency procedures. .any candidates su##ested
other types of information that &ere not relevant to this %uestion but &hich mi#ht be needed either
because of a different le#al re%uirement or as part of #ood safety mana#ement.
/imilarly &ith part (ii)) candidates should have confined their ans&ers to those classes of persons
specifically mentioned in the stated le#islation. 0lasses of persons &ho could have been identified
include6 other employers' employees and self*employed &or(ers &or(in# on the premises= the
employer of those other employees and any employer sharin# the same &or(place= temporary staff=
parents of child employees or those on &or( e-perience= and any employment business supplyin# the
employer &ith temporary staff or contract labour.
$his %uestion caused difficulty for a surprisin#ly lar#e number of candidates. Deither part &as
ans&ered &ell or) in most cases) &ith any de#ree of confidence.
Queston 4
Explain the meaning% status and roles of&
(i) health and safety regulations #3$
(ii) '() Appro!ed )odes of *ractice #3$
(iii) '(E guidance+ #2$
*ost (anddates ganed some mar's for ths +ueston ,ut only a fe& demonstrated suff(ent 'no&ledge
to ,e a,le to pro-de #ood e-planations for each of the three parts.
For part (i)) the ma9ority of candidates (ne& that re#ulations contain re%uirements that
lay do&n minimum le#al standards. Fe&er &ere able to move on and e-plain that6 breaches of
re#ulations constitute criminal offences that can lead to enforcement action) &ith the possibility of
prosecution and the imposition of fines= that most health and safety re#ulations are made under the
1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct by the /ecretary of /tate after consultation &ith 1/0= and that they
often implement E0 "irectives that are aimed at protectin# employees and others.
For part (ii)) many candidates referred to the %uasi*le#al status of ;0O7s) e-plainin# that duty holders
must comply &ith the re%uirements of an ;0O7 or be able to sho& that the chosen means of control are
e%ually effective. Fe&er mentioned that ;0O7s are approved by the 1/0 &ith the consent of the
/ecretary of /tate and that their purpose is to provide practical interpretation of le#al re%uirements in
specific areas.
.ar(s &ere available in part (iii) to those candidates &ho e-plained that 1/E #uidance has no formal
le#al standin#) is #enerally more informative and practical than an ;0O7) and is intended to #ive
advice on #ood practice.
Queston 5
Outline the factors that will deter#ine the le"el of super"ision that a new e#ployee should recei"e
during their initial period of e#ploy#ent within an organisation. (!)
; number of factors can determine the initial level of supervision that should be #iven to someone
startin# &or( in an or#anisation. $hese include6 the a#e of the employee) as &ell as his,her e-perience
of &or( in #eneral) and of the tas( to be performed in particular= the nature and comple-ity of the tas(
and its inherent ris(s= the person's s(ills and %ualifications for the &or(= his,her attitude and aptitude=
the systems of &or( and any specific safety re%uirements applyin# to the tas(= and the employee's
communication s(ills and any special needs he,she may have.
:here candidates read and understood the %uestion) they &ere often able to provide ans&ers to a
reasonable standard. 1o&ever) some seemed to misunderstand &hat &as re%uired and &rote about
#eneral supervision matters or detailed trainin# issues.
;s &ith other %uestions on this paper) it is important that candidates pay particular attention to action
verbs and realise that an 'outline' %uestion re%uires somethin# more than a list of bullet points.
2uestion >
(a) Identify ()O #ain functions of first.aid treat#ent. (3)
(b) Outline the factors to consider when #aking an assess#ent of first
aid pro"ision in a workplace. (>)
For part (a)) the t&o main functions of first*aid are6 firstly) the preservation of life andlor the
minimisation of the conse%uences of serious in9ury until medical help arrives= and) secondly) the
treatment of minor in9uries that do not need medical attention.
$he si- mar(s allocated to part (b) &ere available for an outline of factors such as6 the si4e of the
or#anisation and number of employees= the layout of the &or(place= the identified ha4ards and ris(s=
the history of minor and other accidents (and typical need for first*aid treatment)= the distance from the
&or(place to the nearest source of emer#ency medical services= &or(in# patterns and practices such as
shift &or(in# and persons &or(in# a&ay from the &or(place= and the need in some circumstances to
train first*aid personnel in special procedures.
.ost candidates appeared comfortable &ith this %uestion) applyin# the results of their studies) &or(
e-perience and a measure of common sense to #ood effect.
2uestion 7
Outline the reasons why an organisation should #onitor and re"iew its health and safety perfor#ance.
(!)
; number of candidates e-perienced problems &ith this %uestion by appearin# to mista(e the &ords
Hthe reasons &hyH for 'ho&' and proceedin# to outline the various methods by &hich health and safety
performance can be monitored and revie&ed. $he need to read the %uestion carefully and understand its
purpose is advice that cannot be #iven too often.
;mon# the reasons offered by better candidates &ere the follo&in#6 to identify substandard health and
safety practices and conditions (perhaps by means of &or(place inspections)= to identify trends in
relation to different types of incident) or incidents in #eneral (by analysis of relevant incident data)= to
compare actual performance &ith previously set tar#ets= to 'benchmar(' the or#anisation's performance
a#ainst that of similar or#anisations or an industry norm= to identify &hether control measures are in
use and to assess their effectiveness= to be able to ma(e decisions on appropriate remedial measures for
any deficiencies identified= to set priorities and establish realistic timescales= to assess compliance &ith
le#al re%uirements= and to be able to provide a +oard of "irectors or safety committee &ith relevant
information. ;n additional reason for monitorin# and revie&in# health and safety performance is %uite
simply because there is a le#al re%uirement to do so under the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at
:or( Re#ulations ?BBB.
;s &ith other %uestions of this type) candidates needed to outline a number of reasons to #ain #ood
mar(s rather than provide #reat detail on 9ust one or t&o issues. It is never clear to E-aminers &hether
this error is one of e-amination techni%ue or simply lac( of (no&led#e.
2uestion !
(a) !*plain1 using an e*a#ple1 the #eaning of the ter# >risk> (3)
(b) . Outline the key stages of a general risk assess#ent. (>)
7art (a) &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates #ivin# an e-planation based on the
probability,li(elihood of an occurrence. Dot all candidates) ho&ever) referred to the severity of the
conse%uences as a (ey part of the ris( e%uation. It &as interestin# to note that even candidates &ho
provided a #ood e-planation of the term sometimes #ave as an e-ample somethin# that &as in fact the
ori#inatin# ha4ard. For instance) rather than simply identifyin# 'noise') candidates should have referred
to the ris( from e-posure to noise as the chance that it &ill lead to such effects as noiseinduced hearin#
loss.
7roducin# an outline of the (ey sta#es of a #eneral ris( assessment) for part (b)) should not have
presented too much difficulty to candidates &ho &ere a&are of 1/E's '< steps'. $he initial sta#e in any
assessment is to define the tas( and identify both the ha4ards associated &ith the tas( and the classes of
persons at ris( of harm. $he ne-t sta#e is be to evaluate the ris(s arisin# from the ha4ards) to assess the
effectiveness of e-istin# controls and to decide &hether additional measures are re%uired to eliminate
or control Ebe ris(s. Finally) the findin#s of the assessment need to be recorded and communicated) and
a timescale set for its revie& and possible revision.
Queston B
(he nu#ber of absences due to upper li#b disorders in an organisation appears to be increasing.
Outline the possible sources of infor#ation that could be consulted when in"estigating this proble#.
(!)
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally to a reasonable standard &ith some candidates sho&in# a very
#ood #rasp of the sub9ect area.
.ar(s &ere available for outlinin# sources of information such as6 ris( assessments= the results of tas(
analyses and the identification of repetitive actions= the or#anisation's employees and safety
representatives= ill*health reports and the analysis of absence records= the observations of supervisors
and' the complaints that may have been made to them by members of their teams= manufacturers'
information= published information such as 1/E #uidance= the vie&s of specialists such as er#onomists
or occupational health practitioners= and perhaps even information supplied by the social activities co*
ordinator on out*of*&or( activities such as tennis) s%uash) etc.
2uestion ?@
(a) State the legal re'uire#ents whereby e#ployers #ust prepare a written state#ent of their health
and safety policy. (3)
(b) Outline the "arious #ethods for co##unicating the contents of a health and safety policy to a
workforce. (>)
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) candidates &ere e-pected to refer to the employer's duty under
section 3 of the 1ealth and /afety at :or( etc ;ct to prepare a health and safety policy and also to the
e-emption from the re%uirement for the policy to be in &ritin# for those employin# fe&er than five
employees. E-aminers e-pressed some surprise that only a fe& candidates &ere able to provide a
complete ans&er to this part and #ain the t&o mar(s available.
For part (b)) methods that could have been outlined include6 #ivin# employees their o&n personal copy
of the policy or a summary of it= displayin# the policy on noticeboards= e-plainin# the content of the
policy at team briefin#s or tool*bo- tal(s and durin# induction or refresher trainin# courses= referrin# to
the policy in internal ne&sletters) boo(lets) em ails and intranet communications= and ma(in# the
policy an a#enda item at meetin#s of the health and safety committee. In #eneral) this part of the
%ueMtion &as reasonably &ell ans&ered) &ith most candidates obtainin# mar(s for outlinin# at least
some of the above methods.
Queston 11
Outline the benefits of undertaking regular fire drills in the workplace. #8$
It is #enerally accepted that fire drills form an important part of ensurin# the safety of employees at a
&or(place. 0andidates &ere re%uired to outline the benefits of carryin# out these drills and E-aminers
&ere loo(in# for reference to such matters as6 satisfyin# a le#al re%uirement) or one specified in a fire
certificate) to provide instruction to employees on the actions to be ta(en in emer#ency situations=
chec(in# that the alarm can be heard in all parts of the premises= testin# the effectiveness of the
evacuation procedures both #enerally and in relation to specific re%uirements (such as the need to
ensure the safety of disabled employees and visitors)= familiarisin# employees (particularly those ne&
to the underta(in#) &ith the alarms) evacuation procedures) escape routes and assembly points so that)
in the case of a real emer#ency) they &ould (no& the actions to ta(e= and providin# an opportunity for
fire &ardens and others &ith specific functions to practise their desi#nated roles.
$his &as another %uestion that produced a #enerally #ood standard of response) &ith candidates able to
demonstrate an understandin# of the sub9ect from their (no&led#e of underlyin# principles and perhaps
from their &or( e-perience.
! Paper A2
%ontrollng &or'pla(e ha)ards
2uestion ?
(a) )ith reference to #ethods of heat transfer1 e*plain how fire in a work place #ay spread. (!)
(b) Outline #easures that should be taken to #ini#ise the risk of fire fro# electrical e'uip#ent. (!)
(c) !*plain why water should not be used on fires in"ol"ing electrical e'uip#ent and identify ()O
suitable e*tinguishing agents that could be used in such circu#stances. ()
7art (a) of this %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to refer to the methods
of heat transfer. /everal) ho&ever) found difficulty in #ivin# a clear e-planation of ho& each of the
methods actually contributes to the spread of fire. $hey &ere e-pected to e-plain that heat can be
transferred throu#h metal beams or other parts of a structure by conductionG it can be carried by risin#
air currents (con"ection) to cause a build*up of hot #ases under ceilin#s= it can be transferred throu#h
the air by radiation causin# heatin# of material at a distance from a fire= and) perhaps &hat should have
been the most obvious) combustible material in direct contact &ith flames can itself catch fire. $he
purist mi#ht ar#ue that the last of these) direct burnin#) is simply a combination of the other three main
methods but) in fire safety terms) it is .normally treated as a method in its o&n ri#ht.
7art (b) &as not as &ell ans&ered as the first part &ith several candidates referrin# to measures that
&ere relevant to electrical safety but not specifically to minimisin# the ris( of fire from electrical
e%uipment. .easures that could have been outlined include6 ensurin# the suitability of the chosen
e%uipment for the tas( (e# compliance &ith reco#nised standards) intrinsically safe e%uipment in
flammable atmospheres) etc)= circuit overload prevention) for instance by avoidin# the use of multi*
&ay adapters in sin#le soc(ets= the use of correctly rated fuses and thermal cut*outs= s&itchin# off or
isolatin# e%uipment &hen not in use= ensurin# that vents remain uncovered= uncoilin# cables and
e-tension leads= pre*use inspection of e%uipment for visible dama#e to cables) plu#s or connectors= and
a pro#ramme of formal inspection and testin# of e%uipment and electrical systems by a competent
person.
For part (c)) most candidates could e-plain that usin# &ater on an electrical fire can lead to electric
shoc( since &ater is a #ood conductor of electricity. 0arbon dio-ide and dry po&der &ere correctly
identified as suitable e-tin#uishin# a#ents &here electrical e%uipment is involved but references to
halon &ere discounted due to the fact that its use has been banned.
2uestion 2
Outline the issues to consider when undertaking a #anual handling assess#ent of a task that in"ol"es
lifting buckets of water out of a sink. (!)
$he main elements to be considered in a manual handlin# assessment are tas() individual) load and
environment. 0andidates &ho approached the %uestion in this &ay tended to produce better focused
ans&ers that applied each element to a practical and familiar operation. Under the headin# 'tas(') for
instance) there &as a ran#e of issues to be considered such as fre%uency of the activity) vertical and
hori4ontal distances to be lifted,transported) distance of the load from the body) a&(&ard body
movements and so on. Under 'load') mar(s &ere available for considerin# factors such as &ei#ht) the
type,si4e of buc(et and &ater temperature= and under 'environment' for referrin# to &et floors) space
constraints and ambient temperature. Lastly) the 'individual' should be considered in terms of a#e)
#ender) stature and physical capabilities.
$he %uestion related to the assess#ent of a manual handlin# tas(. /ome candidates) ho&ever) chose to
ans&er it in terms of control by outlinin# alternative &ays of fillin# the buc(et or transportin# the &ater
in order to reduce ris(. $his is) of course) the ne-t sta#e of the process that &as not addressed by the
%uestion.
Question 8
(a) Outline the possible causes of a du#per truck o"erturn on a construction site. (>)
(b) Identify the design features of a du#per truck intended to #ini#ise the risk of) or se"erity of in?ury
fro#1 an o"erturn. . (3)
$his previously used %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered. .any of the issues apply e%ually to other
types of vehicles) such as for(*lift truc(s) and reasonable mar(s could be obtained for simply
addressin# these #eneral issues. 0andidates &ho e-celled) ho&ever) &ere those &ho related their
ans&ers specifically to dumper truc(s and to the construction environment. For part (a) of the %uestion)
E-aminers &ere e-pectin# candidates to outline causes such as overloadin# or uneven loadin# of the
buc(et) cornerin# at e-cessive speed) hittin# obstructions) drivin# too close to the ed#es of
emban(ments or e-cavations) mechanical defects) inappropriate tyre pressures and drivin# across
slopes. $he bald statement of 'drivin# too fast' could not be #iven credit unless it &as specifically
connected &ith cornerin# or manoeuvrin# since speed by itself &ould not lead to an overturn.
In ans&erin# part (b)) most candidates #ained credit for referrin# to the use of seat belts and roll*over
protection. ; fe& e-panded on this to include other desi#n features such as a &ide &heelbase and a
truc('s Io& centre of #ravity.
Question 9
; co#pany produces a range of solid and li'uid wastes1 both ha/ardous and non.ha/ardous. Outline
the arrange#ents that should be in place to ensure the safe storage of the wastes prior to their
collection and disposal. (!)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates could have referred to arran#ements such as6 the completion of
ris( assessments that address the nature) properties and %uantities of the &astes li(ely to be stored=
minimisin# the %uantities stored by or#anisin# re#ular collections= ensurin# the separation of
incompatible &astes= providin# appropriate means for containin# the &astes in secure stora#e facilities
(e# protected a#ainst unauthorised persons) &eather) vehicles) etc)= installin# and maintainin# fire
protection and fire*fi#htin# systems in the case of flammable or combustible &astes= installin# bunds
and dra&in# up procedures to deal &ith spilla#es that mi#ht present environmental ris(s= providin# safe
means of transport and access to the stora#e site= ensurin# that &astes are accurately identified and that
&arnin# si#ns are in place &here appropriate= trainin# employees in the precautions to be ta(en= and
ensurin# that they are provided &ith) and use) appropriate personal protective e%uipment) such as
#loves) overalls and eye protection.
/urprisin#ly fe& candidates provided comprehensive ans&ers to this %uestion) &ith many concentratin#
solely on 0O/11*related issues. Others focused e-clusively on collection and disposal issues)
referrin# to matters such as &aste transfer notes and licensed carriers and disposal facilities) despite
these issues havin# been e-plicitly e-cluded by the %uestion.
Queston <
In relation to the oise at )ork 5egulations 1989"
(i) state% in dE (3) ) the first and second action le"els(3)
(ii) outline the re'uire#ents placed on an e#ployer when e#ployees are likely to be e*posed to the
second action le"el or abo"e. (>)
In ans&erin# part (i) of the %uestion) nearly all candidates &ere able to %uote the first action level for
noise as !<d+(;) and the second as B@d+(;). $hey did not) ho&ever) sho& the same de#ree of
confidence in ans&erin# part (ii). Only better ans&ers outlined the re%uirements as6 the completion of a
noise assessment by a competent person) (eepin# a record of the assessment and revie&in# it if it is no
lon#er valid or after si#nificant chan#es have ta(en place= reducin# e-posure to noise by means other
than hearin# protection (e# by the installation of sound*proofin# enclosures and silencers)= the
provision and maintenance of hearin# protection to reduce e-posure to belo& the second action level in
cases &here en#ineerin# control is not reasonably practicable= settin# up and mar(in# ear protection
4ones and enforcin# the &earin# of hearin# protection therein= and providin# information and trainin#
to employees.
2uestion 6
Outline the #easures that #ay be needed to reduce the risk of slip and trip accidents in a large
super#arket. (!)
;lthou#h candidates may have had no direct e-perience of &or(in# in a supermar(et) it is
inconceivable that they &ould not have visited one and so should have been able to apply their
(no&led#e of measures aimed at preventin# slip and trip accidents to this scenario. For a complete
ans&er) thou#h) they should have had in mind not only the customer areas but also other areas of a
supermar(et) as &ell as the activities that mi#ht ta(e place outside openin# hours.
/adly) there &ere fe& &ho rose to the challen#e and most concentrated solely on house(eepin# issues
and cleanin# up spilla#es) &hich) &hile important) formed only part of an ans&er. Other measures that
could have been outlined include6 &or(place desi#n and layout issues (such as displays and &arehouse
stora#e arran#ements)= the provision of non*slip floorin#= a procedure for the identification and repair
of floor defects such as holes and bumps= the provision of an ade%uate standard of li#htin# in all areas=
hi#hli#htin# chan#es of level= the provision of handrails on stairs= the use of procedures for re*stoc(in#
to minimise the need to bloc( aisles= cable and fle-ible hose mana#ement= and the &earin# of suitable
foot&ear by employees.
Queston 7
(a) escribe the possible effects of electricity on the body. #4$
(b) Outline the e#ergency action to take if a person suffers a se"ere electric shock. ()
For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to provide a reasonable description of the effects of electricity
on the body. $hese include6 the cardio*respiratory effects) in particular the ris( of fatal in9ury due to
disruption to heart rhythm= muscular contraction follo&in# contact &ith ;0 current resultin# in an
involuntary #rip on the live conductor) thus prolon#in# current flo& throu#h the body= and tissue burns
&ith the main sites of dama#e bein# the entry and e-it points but &ith the additional possibility of
dama#e to internal or#ans.
$he second part of the %uestion) &hich re%uired an outline of emer#ency actions necessary after
someone has received an electric shoc() &as also &ell ans&ered. "ependin# on the circumstances) the
actions mi#ht include isolation of the victim from the supply) summonin# help) administerin# first*aid
such as cardio*pulmonary resuscitation) treatment of burns and other in9uries) and remainin# &ith the
casualty until medical help arrives.
2uestion !
; co#puter user has co#plained of neck and back pain. Outline the features associated with the
workstation that #ight ha"e contributed towards this condition. (!)
In #eneral) this %uestion &as not ans&ered &ell by many candidates) possibly because they did not read
it &ith sufficient care or because they &ere better prepared to state &hat a "/E &or(station should
have than to identify the features that may have led to the condition described. +etter ans&ers referred
to poor &or(station layout (such as the screen at an incorrect hei#ht or poorly positioned causin#
repeated head movements)) the chair at an incorrect hei#ht or the seat bac( incorrectly ad9usted. the
lac( of or a poorly positioned document holder. and #lare or reflections on the screen that force the
computer user to adopt an a&(&ard posture to avoid them. Other possibilities. such as e-posure to
drau#hts. poor #eneral or local li#htin#) inappropriate stora#e of materials and the poor sitin# of
ancillary e%uipment (e# printer)) also e-isted.
.any ans&ers &ere too va#ue (e# by referrin# to H&ron# type of chairH or by simply listin# the
components of a "/E &or(station). or lac(ed sufficient information to sho& &hy the identified issue
mi#ht cause a problem) to satisfy the re%uirement for an 'outline'.
2uestion B
Outline the control #easures that could be used to #ini#ise the health risks fro# the use of organic
sol"ents in the workplace. (!)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) most candidates made an attempt at applyin# the 0OV11 hierarchy to
solvent e-posure but &ith varyin# levels of success. In this respect) most ans&ers referred to the
possibility of substitutin# the solvent &ith a less volatile or a%ueous alternative and to the provision and
use of local e-haust ventilation. +etter candidates e-panded their ans&ers by referrin# to other control
measures such as6 isolatin# or enclosin# the process &here the solvents are used= reducin# the e-posure
time of employees= usin# suitable anti*spill and labelled containers and means of transference (e#
pumpin# rather than pourin#)= the use of barrier creams and after&or( s(incare products= providin# and
maintainin# personal protective e%uipment such as eye protection. #loves and respiratory protection
e%uipment= prohibitin# food) drin( and smo(in# &here contamination mi#ht e-ist= ensurin# that
employees are #iven appropriate information and trainin#= and encoura#in# hi#h levels of personal
hy#iene.
Queston ?@
(a) In relation to #achine safety1 outline the principles of operation of0
(i) interlocked guards(3)
(ii) trip de"ices. (3)
(b) Other than contact with dangerous parts1 identify ,O-. types of
danger against which fi*ed guards on #achines #ay pro"ide protection. ()
For part (a) (i)) candidates should have referred to an interloc(ed #uard as one that is lin(ed to the
machine controls ,y mechanical) electrical) hydraulic or pneumatic means so that the machine &ill not
operate until the #uard is closed) and &hen the machine is in a dan#erous condition) the #uard is either
prevented from openin# or) if it is opened) the dan#erous parts of the machine are made safe. $he
ma9ority of candidates had a reasonable understandin# of the principles of interloc(in# althou#h some
effectively provided 9ust half an ans&er by considerin# the machine only in its non*operational mode.
; trip device) on the other hand) operates &hen a person approaches a dan#er area. $ypical e-amples
are trip bars or probes) pressure mats or photoelectric systems ('li#ht curtains'). Once the device is
tri##ered) it 'trips' the machine) &hich either stops or other&ise becomes safe. ;ns&ers to this part of
the %uestion &ere to a reasonable standard althou#h some candidates confused trip devices &ith
residual current devices (despite there bein# no reference to electricity).
Relatively fe& candidates read part (b) carefully enou#h to ta(e note of the re%uirement to identify
ha4ards other than those caused by contact &ith dan#erous parts. E-aminers e-pected candidates to
describe ho& a fi-ed #uard mi#ht help to protect employees by reducin# noise emissions) by containin#
ha4ardous substances such as oil mist or dust) by providin# shieldin# a#ainst heat or electricity) and by
preventin# the e9ection of material (e# particles or bro(en mechanical parts) from the machine.
Queston 11
Outline the particular ha/ards that #ay be present during the de#olition of a building. (!)
$his %uestion &as #enerally reasonably &ell ans&ered althou#h fe& candidates developed their
responses to the e-tent re%uired to obtain all the mar(s available.
$he main ha4ards associated &ith this type of &or( include6 falls from a hei#ht= fallin# debris and
premature collapse= use of e-plosives= contact &ith and noise from e%uipment and heavy plant= dust
(possibly includin# asbestos)= hot &or( from metalcuttin# operations= the presence of ha4ardous
materials from previous uses of the buildin#= the presence of cellars or vaults affectin# the stability of
ad9oinin# premises= and the possible presence of services such as electricity) #as and &ater.
2:-8
Paper A 1
The management of safety and health
Queston 1
An independent audit of an organisation has concluded that employees ha!e recei!ed insufficient health and safety
training.
(i) @escribe the factors that should be considered /hen de!eloping an extensi!e programme of health and
safety training within the organisation #12$
(ii) Outline the "arious #easures that #ight be used to assess the effecti"eness of such training. ()
. (-i) 0i!e 7O85 reasons why it is i#portant for an e#ployer to keep a record of the training pro"ided
to each e#ployee ()
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..........
For part (i)) the completion of a trainin# needs analysis is an important first step in the development of
any pro#ramme of trainin# (ie comparin# &hat employees need to (no& &ith &hat they already (no&).
In decidin# &hat employees need to (no&) consideration should be #iven to their responsibilities) the
activities carried out) the ris(s associated &ith those activities and the actions re%uired of employees to
minimise such ris(s. It should have been reco#nised in this conte-t that a senior mana#er) for instance)
&ill have different trainin# needs &ith respect to health and safety from those of a supervisor or a
shopfloor employee. ;n assessment &ould then need to be made of employees' e-istin# (no&led#e)
ta(in# into account their previous e-perience) the levels and types of trainin# already received and any
indications of &here deficiencies may lie (e# from incident data or by observation). From the trainin#
needs analysis &ould emer#e information on the number of employees involved) the types of trainin#
needed and the resources (in terms of financial costs) time and facilities) re%uired to carry out the
pro#ramme. $he factors to be considered at this sta#e &ould include the competence and e-pertise of
in*house staff to provide the re%uired trainin#) the possible need to involve e-ternal sources and the
means of communicatin# the pro#ramme to employees at all levels in order to see( their commitment
to) and their vie&s on) the pro#ramme.
E-aminers commented that many candidates did not ans&er the first part of the %uestion as set but
spent time detailin# the content of a hypothetical trainin# course) or listin# the different types of
trainin# that mi#ht be offered (such as manual handlin# or basic a&areness)) rather than describin# the
factors that &ould need to be addressed in order that such details could be decided.
;ns&ers to part (ii) &ere of a better standard &ith candidates outlinin# such measures as6 post*trainin#
evaluation by trainers) the trainees themselves and their supervisors= accident rates and sic(ness
absences= levels of compliance &ith laid*do&n procedures (such as the &earin# of personal protective
e%uipment)= the results of attitude surveys= and the number and %uality of su##estions made) and
concerns raised) by employees &ith respect to health and safety.
In ans&erin# part (iii)) candidates could have cited a number of reasons for (eepin# individual trainin#
records. $hese mi#ht include6 to provide proof of an employee's e-pected level of competence= to
identify &hen additional or refresher trainin# mi#ht be needed= to enable a revie& of the effectiveness
of any trainin# to be carried out= to assess the pro#ress of the trainin# pro#ramme a#ainst tar#ets= and to
provide evidence to be used in any future accident investi#ations or le#al actions.
Civen the importance of trainin# to health and safety in the &or(place) and the fact that candidates
themselves had 9ust underta(en a form of trainin#) the overall response to this %uestion as a &hole &as
disappointin#. .any candidates appeared confused and uncertain on a lar#e number of the aspects
addressed by the %uestion
Queston 2
Outline the factors to consider when assessing the risks to a long distance deli"ery dri"er. (!)
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$he response to this %uestion) &hich has appeared on a previous occasion) &as #enerally #ood. $hose
candidates &ho adopted a lo#ical approach almost inevitably produced the better ans&ers.
Cood ans&ers tended to be structured broadly under the four headin#s of the 9ob) the individual) the
vehicle and the load) &ith t&o or three factors outlined for each. Gob factors &ould include the duration
of the 9ourney) the demands of the route (comple-ity) road conditions) etc)) means of communication
and security issues (e# the potential for violence). Individual factors &ould relate to the physical and
psycholo#ical capabilities of the driver to cope &ith the demands of the 9ob) ta(in# into account the
level of trainin# provided. For the vehicle) er#onomic factors &ould relate to the desi#n and layout of
the cab but other features of the vehicle) such as tail*lifts) &ould be particularly important. Lastly)
candidates should have considered aspects of the load in terms of its nature (e# ha4ardous) heavy) etc) )
the means of handlin# materials and any emer#ency e%uipment and procedures that are) or should be) in
place.
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.
2uestion 5
(a) Explain the #eaning of the ter# >safe syste# of work> (3)
(b) escribe the enforce#ent action that could be taken by an enforcing authority when a safe syste# of
work has not been i#ple#ented (>)
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In ans&ers to part (a) of this %uestion) there appeared to be a #eneral lac( of understandin# of the term
'safe system of &or(') or at least some difficulty in definin# the term. E-aminers &ere loo(in# either for
an e-planation that pointed to a step*bystep procedure * ta(in# into account ha4ards) controls) essential
e%uipment) personal protective e%uipment and trainin# * or for one based on the inte#ration of people)
e%uipment) materials and the environment to produce an acceptable level of safety. /ome candidates
confused the term 'safe system of &or(' &ith other terms and #ave ans&ers based on an e-planation of
ris( assessment or of the employer's duties under section 3 of the 1/: ;ct= others merely re*&rote the
term usin# other &ords * for instance) by statin# that a safe system of &or( is a &ay of carryin# out a
tas( &ithout ris( * but &ithout e-plainin# e-actly &hat this means in practice.
7art (b)) on the other hand) &as &ell ans&ered by many candidates. Cood ans&ers referred to the issue
of an improved &ithin a #iven time period * or) &hen there is a ris( of serious personal in9ury) a
prohibition notice) &hich prohibits the use of e%uipment or a process until the necessary improvements
in safety have been completed. "ependin# on the circumstances) the enforcin# authority could insti#ate
a prosecution for breaches of health and safety le#islation in a ma#istrates' court) &ith more serious
cases referred to the 0ro&n 0ourt. ;lternatively) the authority may decide that the circumstances
demand no more than the provision of verbal advice) possibly follo&ed by formal &ritten confirmation
or &arnin#
.
2uestion
In relation to the -ealth and Safety (4onsultation with !#ployees) 5egulations 1996"
(i) outline 7O85 types of infor#ation that an e#ployer is O( obliged to disclose to a representati"e
of e#ployee safety ()
(ii) outline the types of facility that an e#ployer #ay need to pro"ide to representati"es of e#ployee
safety. ()
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In ans&erin# part (i)) candidates could have chosen from a number of types of information that an
employer is not obli#ed to disclose. $hey include information that6 does not relate to health and safety=
&ould be a#ainst the interests of national security= &ould contravene a statutory prohibition imposed on
the employer= relates to an individual (unless the individual has consented to it bein# disclosed)= has
been obtained by the employer in connection &ith le#al proceedin#s= and information that &ould
dama#e the employer's business interests. Responses &ere #enerally to a fair standard althou#h some
candidates seemed to have little (no&led#e of the specific re%uirements of the Re#ulations and either
offered very little by &ay of response or relied) not particularly successfully) on #uess&or(
For part (ii)) the Re#ulations themselves re%uire that an employer provides facilities that a
representative of employee safety may reasonably re%uire for the purpose of carryin# out his,her
functions. "ependin# on the particular circumstances) it mi#ht be reasonable for the employer to
provide such facilities as6 a private room &hen the occasion demands= a telephone and fa- machine=
photocopyin# and I$ facilities= and library and stora#e facilities. Fe& candidates provided #ood
ans&ers to this part of the %uestion) &ith many (perhaps because they did not read the %uestion &ith
sufficient care) referrin# to items other than facilities that an employer must provide * such as trainin# and health and safety
information. ; number of ans&ers &ent do&n an entirely different path and provided information
relatin# #enerally to the ri#hts and functions of representatives of employee safety.
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Queston 5
Outline 7O85 ad"antages and 7O85 disad"antages of using >propaganda> posters to co##unicate
health and safety infor#ation to the workforce (!)
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7osters are a commonly used medium for passin# on health and safety messa#es to the &or(force and
many candidates &ill have used them or seen them in use. $he %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered
althou#h some candidates appeared to find more difficulty in reco#nisin# a ran#e of advanta#es of
usin# safety posters in the &or(place) &hereas they &ere much better ac%uainted &ith their
disadvanta#es.
;dvanta#es of posters include their fle-ibility) their brevity) their relatively Io& cost) their use in
reinforcin# verbal instructions or information) their value in providin# a constant reminder of the
importance of health and occur. safety) and the potential to involve employees in their selection and
hence in the messa#e bein# conveyed. $he fact that most posters use #raphical illustrations (often in
cartoon form) means that the messa#e is immediate and is easily understood by all.
"isadvanta#es include the need to chan#e posters on a re#ular basis if they are to be noticed) the fact
that they mi#ht become soiled) defaced and out*of*date) and the possibility that they mi#ht appear to
trivialise serious matters. $here may also be an over*reliance on posters to convey health and safety
information and they may be perceived by unscrupulous employers as an easy) if not particularly
effective) &ay of dischar#in# their health and safety obli#ations and of shiftin# responsibility onto the
&or(force for any accidents that may occur.
2uestion 6
(a) Outline the #ain functions of0
(i) cri#inal law (3)
(ii) ci"il law (3)
(b) Explain the principal differences between co##on law and statute law. ()
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For part (a)) candidates should have identified that criminal la& enforces a code of conduct for society)
normally has a protective function and allo&s the state to ta(e punitive action a#ainst those &ho
commit breaches. 0ivil la&) on the other hand) has the function of enablin# an individual &ho has
suffered harm to #ain appropriate recompense from the perpetrator) or to see( an in9unction to prevent
harm (or further harm) from occurrin#.
7art (ii) re%uired an e-planation of the principal differences bet&een common and statute la&.
/uccessful candidates &ere those &ho e-plained that common la& is not &ritten do&n but is developed
by the courts over time. In the area of health and safety) the common la& tort of ne#li#ence forms the
basis of many civil actions. /tatute la&) on the other hand) is &ritten do&n (codified) in the form of
;cts and Re#ulations) lays do&n re%uirements and assi#ns duties and responsibilities. Failure to
comply &ith statute la& normally (but not al&ays) constitutes a criminal offence but) even &hen it
defines criminal la&) statute la& can also be used in civil actions unless specifically disallo&ed.
"espite these fundamental le#al terms bein# the sub9ect of many previous %uestions) they still cause
much confusion amon#st candidates) &ith the terms often &ron#ly bein# used synonymously.
0andidates need to be able to distin#uish clearly bet&een types of la& (criminal and civil) and sources
of la& (statute and common). In broad terms) the former represents systems in &hich either the state
can prosecute offenders or individuals can see( compensation= the latter provides a code of conduct)
&hether &ritten do&n or developed by case la&) a#ainst &hich people's behaviour can be 9ud#ed.
$utors need to ma(e absolutely certain that these concepts are #rasped by candidates at an early sta#e
of a course.
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.
2uestion A
Outline the personal factors that #ight place an indi"idual at a greater risk of har# while at work. (!)

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7ersonal factors that may place an individual at #reater ris( of harm at &or( include6 a #enerally poor
attitude to &or() authority and,or ris() often coupled &ith Io& motivation= issues relatin# to physical
capabilities or development (such as lac( of stature) stren#th and,or stamina) and to mental capabilities
(such as poor reasonin# s(ills)= poor perception of ris() perhaps influenced by alcohol or dru#s= a#e*
related behavioural factors associated &ith immaturity= and innate or health conditions affectin#
physical or mental capacity. Further factors relate to the levels of trainin# and e-perience of the
individual.
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally to a reasonable standard althou#h some candidates did not pay
sufficient attention to the &ordin# of the %uestion and included factors other than those that could be
classed as personal (e# those relatin# to a particular 9ob that a person does or the type of or#anisation in
&hich they &or() &hile others did not provide sufficient detail to obtain all of the mar(s that &ere
available. ; simple list of factors &ith no indication of ho& they mi#ht affect ris( &as not enou#h.
Queston 8
#a$ Outline the re'uire#ents of section 2#3$ of the -ealth and Safety at )ork etc 3ct ?BA in relation to an
e#ployer>s duty to prepare a health and safety policy. (3)
(b) Identify the purposes of !34- of the following sections of a health and safety policy docu#ent0
(i) >state#ent of intent> (3)
(ii) >organisation> (3)
(iii)>arrange#ents>. (3)
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In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) candidates should have outlined that an employer has a duty to
prepare a &ritten statement of his #eneral policy &ith respect to health and safety to#ether &ith the
or#anisation and arran#ements for carryin# out the policy. ;n e-ception to the re%uirement for the
policy to be in &ritin# e-ists in cases &here there are fe&er than five employees.
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere to a reasonable standard thou#h some &ere lac(in# in depth and these
conse%uently #ained fe&er mar(s. $he 'statement of intent' should both demonstrate mana#ement's
commitment to health and safety and set #oals and ob9ectives for the or#anisation= the purpose of the
section of the policy on 'or#anisation' is to identify health and safety responsibilities and reportin# lines
&ithin the company= and the section on 'arran#ements' is intended to set out in detail the specific
systems and procedures that aim to assist in the implementation of the #eneral policy.
Queston 9
Outline the possible effects on health and safety of poor standards of housekeeping in the workplace. (!)
.ost candidates had little difficulty in providin# reasonable ans&ers to this %uestion and #ained mar(s
for notin# that slips) trips) falls) fallin# ob9ects and fires are &ell (no&n effects associated &ith poor
house(eepin#. $here may also be an increased ris( of ill*health &here ha4ardous substances are
involved or &here rubbish attracts rodents and other pests. /pecific reference could have been made to
bloc(ed fire e-its and internal transport issues. .ore able candidates &ere able to su##est that poor
stora#e of materials can lead to musculo*s(eletal problems and that a #enerally untidy &or(place
introduces the possibility of increased levels of stress in the &or(force) leadin# to a lo&erin# of morale
&hich) in itself) can result in a reluctance to adhere to accepted health and safety procedures.
Queston 10
(a) Identify ,O-. types of emergency procedure that an organisation #ight need to ha"e in place #4$
.
(b) Explain why "isitors to a workplace should be infor#ed of the e#ergency procedures. ()
$he emer#ency procedures that companies mi#ht need to have in place) in ans&er to part (a)) include
those for evacuation in case of fire) for accidents) for dan#erous incidents such as a chemical spilla#e)
for a security or intruder alert and in the event of an e-plosive device bein# suspected or discovered on
site. $his part of the %uestion &as &ell ans&ered &ith the ma9ority of candidates able to identify at least
three of the above types of procedure
For part (b)) many candidates reco#nised the need for visitors to be informed of the procedures so that
they can act appropriately in the event of an emer#ency) thereby minimisin# the ris( to themselves as
&ell as to other persons. Relatively fe&) ho&ever) mentioned that the provision of such information &ill
assist the employer in complyin# &ith the re%uirements of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at
:or( Re#ulations ?BBB that relate to ensurin# the safety of persons other than employees &or(in# on
the premises. $he #eneral duty o&ed to persons other than employees under section 5 of the 1/: ;ct
is also of relevance) as is the employer's common la& duty of care.
2uestion ??
.
5eplace#ent or repair of da#aged plant and e'uip#ent is a cost that an organisation #ay face
following a workplace accident.
List !I,-( other possible costs to the organisation following a workplace accident. (!)
$here &ere many possible responses to this %uestion and candidates could have chosen from a lon# list
of possible costs. $hey include costs. associated &ith lost production) dama#e to materials) first*aid)
investi#ation and remedial action) additional administration incurred) replacement staff) increases in
insurance premiums as &ell as criminal and civil actions (the imposition of fines) parts of compensation
payments not covered by insurance and le#al representation). $here may also be intan#ible costs
follo&in# an accident arisin# from a poor corporate ima#e and a possible detrimental effect on
employee morale resultin# in reduced productivity.
$he %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered and) since only a list &as re%uired) it presented an
opportunity for candidates to #ain mar(s relatively %uic(ly. .ost too( advanta#e of this opportunity
.
.
Paper A2
%ontrollng &or'pla(e ha)ards
Queston 1
#a$ Identify "WO occasions /hen a thorough examination of a for12lift truc1 is re3uired under the
Lifting Operations and Lifting E3uipment .egulations 1998! #2$
(b) Outline a range of circumstances that #ay cause a fork.lift truck to beco#e unstable. ! (!)
(c) Other than those associated with instability1 identify 7IB! ha/ards presented by a diesel.powered
fork.lift truck AN describe the precautions that #ight be necessary in !34- case. (#$)
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) candidates could have identified occasions such as6 before its first
use by an employer= at t&elve monthly intervals (or si- monthly if the truc( is to be used for liftin#
persons)= in accordance &ith an e-amination scheme dra&n up by a competent person= or follo&in#
circumstances that mi#ht have compromised the safety of the liftin# e%uipment. .any candidates
demonstrated a lac( of (no&led#e of the re%uirements Bf the Re#ulations. /ome su##ested that a
thorou#h e-amination &ould be re%uired follo&in# an accident but ne#lected to add the proviso that
this &ould be the case only if the accident mi#ht have affected the safety of the truc('s liftin#
mechanism.
In contrast) most candidates coped &ell &ith part (b). +etter ans&ers adopted a structured approach that
considered the load) the environment and the vehicle itself. $ypical issues mentioned &ere6 insecure)
e-cessive or uneven loadin#= incorrect tilt and,or elevation of for(s &hen travellin#= uneven or
unconsolidated #round and chan#es in level= slopes (and incorrect procedures for dealin# &ith them)=
obstructions (overhead and Io& level)= cornerin# at e-cessive speeds= sudden bra(in#= poor condition
of tyres) and mechanical failure.
7art (c) of the %uestion &as also reasonably &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to identify five
relevant ha4ards (and their correspondin# precautions). $hey included6 vibration (e# sprin# mounted
seats)= noise (&earin# ear defenders or fittin# silencers on e-hausts)= diesel fumes (the provision of
ventilation or prohibitin# indoor use)= fallin# materials (provision of a protective ca#e)= collisions (the
use of barriers and,or speed restraints)= and environmental and health ha4ards associated &ith the use of
diesel oil (control of spilla#es and the &earin# of #loves). 0andidates &ho mentioned fire and
e-plosion &ere perhaps una&are that diesel oil) unli(e petrol) presents little ris( in this respect.
2uestion 2
Outline the factors to consider /hen assessing the ade3uacy of lighting /ithin an open2plan office. (!)
$he factors most commonly referred to in ans&ers &ere the types of tas( bein# underta(en (in
particular the use of display screen e%uipment)) the availability of natural li#ht and the problems caused
by #lare. Fe&er candidates outlined the characteristics of #eneral li#htin# (type) colour and intensity) in
relation to1 for instance) floor area and office layout= or the provision) suitability and ad9ustability of
local li#htin# in relation to specific tas(s. E-aminers commented that candidates #enerally tended to
produce rather shallo& ans&ers that avoided specific issues and did little more than re*phrase the
%uestion. ;t the other e-treme) some candidates discussed in #reat detail such items as &indo& si4es
and emer#ency li#htin# but at the e-pense of more central issues.
.
2uestion 5
7or !34- of the following agents1 outline the principal health effects 3@ identify a typical workplace
situation in which a person #ight be e*posed0
(i) isocyanates (3)
(ii) asbestos (3)
(iii)leptospira bacteria (3)
(i") lead. (3)
Overall) this %uestion &as not particularly &ell ans&ered. Outlines of health effects and references to
&or(place situations tended to be e-tremely va#ue) if they &ere identified at all. 1o&ever) for a
minority of candidates &ho had #ained (no&led#e of the four specified a#ents) all of &hich are
referenced in the 0ertificate syllabus) mar(s &ere relatively easy to obtain.
Isocyanates are a respiratory sensitiser and may also cause dermatitis. 7ersons carryin# out &or(
involvin# the use of isocyanate*based printin# in(s) adhesives or paints &ould be at ris(.
E-posure to asbestos may cause asbestosis) lun# cancer or mesothelioma (a rare cancer that is
associated almost e-clusively &ith asbestos). 0arryin# out maintenance &or( on) or the demolition of)
a buildin# &here asbestos is contained in the fabric of the structure could lead to the inhalation of
airborne fibres..
;n infection caused by e-posure to the leptospira bacterium is called leptospirosis) &ith symptoms that
resemble influen4a (fever) chills) muscular aches and pains) etc). In rare cases) a severe form of the
condition (no&n as :eil's disease can develop and this is characterised by symptoms that include
bruisin# of the s(in) anaemia) sore eyes) nose bleeds and 9aundice. /erious dama#e to internal or#ans
can result) &hich often proves fatal. $he bacterium is carried by animals) particularly rats and cattle)
and e-posure to the urine of infected animals can put people such as se&er &or(ers) farm &or(ers and
vets at particular ris(. :hile there &ere some #ood accounts #iven for this part of the %uestion)
E-aminers &ere disturbed to find that many candidates confused 'leptospira' &ith 'Ie#ionella'.
$he health effects of e-posure to lead are many and varied but principally include anaemia) fertility
problems and dama#e to the (idneys) the nervous and muscular systems and) particularly in children)
the brain. /i#ns and symptoms of lead poisonin# include irritability) lethar#y) memory and
concentration problems) muscle and 9oint pain) '&rist drop' and a blue line on the #ums. $hose en#a#ed
in any activity that involves lead and produces fume) vapour or dust (such as in battery manufacture)
lead crystal #lass*ma(in# or the removal of lead paint) are at ris(.
2uestion
(a) )ith reference to the >fire triangle>1 outline ()O #ethods of e*tinguishing fires. ()
(b) (tate the ways in which persons could be har#ed by a fire in work pre#ises. ()
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally to a #ood standard. For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to
outline t&o methods of e-tin#uishin# fires by choosin# from6 starvation (by removin# the fuel)=
smotherin# (by eliminatin# the o-y#en supply &ith the use of foam or carbon dio-ide)= coolin# (&ith
&ater)= and interferin# chemically &ith the combustion process (by usin# a dry po&der e-tin#uisher).
Dot all candidates) ho&ever) referred in their ans&ers to the fire trian#le to sho& &hich of the three
elements of combustion (o-y#en) heat and fuel) &as affected by their chosen methods.
0andidates also coped &ell &ith part (b) althou#h) in some cases) ans&ers &ere too unspecific (e#
Hbein# trapped in a buildin#H does not e-plain ho& harm occurs). In a fire situation) people may be
harmed by bein# burned) by inhalin# to-ic fumes) by the effects of smo(e and by a depleted o-y#en
supply. +etter candidates also referred to the possibility of bein# in9ured by a structural failure of a
buildin#) or by bein# crushed or sufferin# some other type of in9ury in attemptin# to escape.
2uestion <
Other than those relating to the physical en"iron#ent1 outline the options that #ight be a"ailable to an
organisation to reduce stress le"els a#ongst its e#ployees. (!)
Options that are available to an or#anisation to reduce stress levels amon#st its employees include6
those related to &or(,life balance (such as the or#anisation of shift patterns) discoura#in# the &or(in#
of e-cessively lon# hours and introducin# fle-ible &or(in# arran#ements)= introducin# 9ob rotation and
increasin# &or( variety= dra&in# up clear 9ob descriptions and ta(in# steps to match individuals to the
descriptions= see(in# the vie&s of employees and involvin# them in decisions= introducin# and
implementin# policies to cover harassment) discrimination) violence and the investi#ation of
complaints= and ensurin# ade%uate levels of supervision &ith supervisors trained to reco#nise the
symptoms of stress so that ameliorative action can be ta(en or) in more e-treme cases) so that those
affected mi#ht be offered counsellin#.
$here seemed to be little understandin# amon#st candidates of the mana#ement of stress and many
confined their ans&ers to its causes. /ome did not read the %uestion &ith sufficient care and included
options that &ere directly related to the physical environment rather than those associated &ith the
or#anisational) 9ob and individual stress factors.
2uestion >
(a) 7or !34- of the following types of non.ionising radiation1 identify an occupational source and
state the possible ill.health effects on e*posed indi"iduals0
(i) infrared radiation(3)
(ii) ultra"iolet radiation. (3)
(b) Identify the general #ethods for protecting people against har#ful e*posure to non.ionising
radiation. ()
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) better candidates &ere able to cite typical sources of infrared
radiation as fire) furnaces or lasers) and of UV li#ht as the sun or &eldin# operations. Others appeared
to confuse the t&o types of radiation &hile a fe& considered -*rays and micro&aves to be infrared
radiation. Ill*health effects caused even more difficulty. +urns to the s(in and eye dama#e are common
to both types of radiation and #eneral (no&led#e of the effects of the sun (sunburn and s(in cancer) and
of standin# by a fire (heatin# effects on the s(in and the body in #eneral) should have helped those &ho
had identified these particular sources.
$here &as a little more certainty in identifyin#) for part (b)) methods for protectin# people a#ainst
e-posure. $hese mi#ht include shieldin# by a physical barrier) increasin# the distance bet&een the
source and the person) reducin# the duration of e-posure) usin# appropriate personal protective
e%uipment (such as clothin# and eye protection) and the use of protective s(in creams. Fno&led#e of
ho& to avoid the harmful effects of the sun in a non*occupational settin# should have enabled
candidates to come up &ith at least some of the possible means of protectin# a#ainst non*ionisin#
radiation.
2uestion 7
Outline the precautions that #ay be needed when carrying out repairs to the flat roof of a building. (!)
;lmost all candidates made reference to the more obvious precautions that include the provision of safe
access to the roof (scaffoldin# and,or ladders)) ed#e protection to prevent the fall of persons or
materials) and restrictin# access to the area belo& the &or( by means of barriers and so forth. +etter
candidates &ent on to outline the precautions that mi#ht be needed to protect employees from fallin#
throu#h fra#ile roofli#hts and voids and from harmful contact &ith overhead obstructions and services.
;lso relevant &ould be the means of transportin# materials to and from the &or(in# area) the possible
need for nettin# under the roof) protection from the &eather) and the positionin# and use of ha4ardous
e%uipment such as bitumen boilers and #as cylinders.
$his %uestion has appeared on previous e-amination papers and althou#h ans&ers &ere #enerally
reasonable) they &ere not as #ood as mi#ht have been e-pected. .any candidates lost the opportunity
for mar(s either because they did not supply the necessary detail to satisfy the re%uirement for an
'outline' or because they concentrated on ha4ards rather than precautions.
2uestion 8
#a$ List 7O85 specific types of in?ury that #ay be caused by the incorrect #anual handling of loads. #4$
(b) Outline the factors in relation to the load that will affect the risk of in?ury. ()
7art (a) of the %uestion as(ed for a list of specific in9uries that mi#ht be caused by the incorrect manual
handlin# of loads. $hese &ould include spinal disc compression or slipped discs) torn li#aments or
strained or sprained tendons) hernias) dislocations and fractures) muscular strains) cuts and abrasions)
and crushin# and impact in9uries. :hile there &ere some #ood ans&ers to this part of the %uestion) too
many candidates referred in va#ue and #eneral terms to bac() muscular and hand in9uries &hen a more
specific ans&er &as re%uired.
7art (b) tested candidates' (no&led#e of ho& the nature of a load can affect the ris( of in9ury durin#
manual handlin# activities. $hey should have identified matters such as the si4e and &ei#ht of the load)
the possibility that the contents mi#ht move and the load become unbalanced) the &ei#ht distribution
(the centre of #ravity not bein# in the centre of the load)) difficulty in securin# a firm #rasp of the load)
and the presence of sharp ed#es or very hot or cold surfaces. ;#ain) better candidates &ere able to
provide a focused ans&er &ith sufficient detail to demonstrate a clear understandin# of the issues.
Other ans&ers) ho&ever) &ere e-tremely brief (sometimes no more than four &ords) and a fe&
identified controls instead of ris( factors.
2uestion B
3n e#ployee is to use a petrol.dri"en chainsaw to fell a tree fro# ground le"el. Outline the ha/ards
faced by the e#ployee in carrying out this task. (!)
$his %uestion did not re%uire a detailed (no&led#e of chainsa& operation but provided a scenario that
all candidates should have been able to picture in their minds %uite easily. $he %uestion &as #enerally
&ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to outline a number of ha4ards associated &ith this tas(
includin#6 e-posure to fumes and dust= manual handlin#= noise and vibration= contact &ith possibly
dermatitic lubricatin# oils= flyin# bar( and fra#ments= uneven #round that could cause slips and falls=
fire,e-plosion ha4ards associated &ith refuellin# and stora#e= and ha4ards arisin# from adverse &eather
conditions. ; surprisin# number of candidates) ho&ever) omitted reference to the principal ha4ards of
the tas( relatin# to contact &ith movin# parts of the chainsa& and bein# crushed by the fallin# tree.
2uestion ?@
In relation to electrical safety1 e*plain the #eaning of the following ter#s0
(i) isolation ($)
(ii) earthing(3)
(iii) reduced Iow "oltage ($)
(i") o"ercurrent protection. (3)
$his %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e of some (ey electrical terms. "espite the
%uestion havin# appeared on a number of previous e-amination papers) it &as a#ain poorly ans&ered.
$he conclusion is that many candidates have a poor #rasp of the fundamental principles relatin# to
electrical safety) and perhaps to electricity in #eneral.
'Isolation' refers to the physical disconnection of the electrical supply to an item of e%uipment or part of
an electrical system (often to allo& maintenance &or( to be carried out safely) &hereby a si#nificant
#ap is created bet&een the disconnected parts in a &ay that prevents inadvertent reconnection. ; simple
reference to Hs&itchin# offH &as insufficient to #ain mar(s.
'Earthin#') on the other hand) is a means &hereby electrical e%uipment and conductive items are
connected to earth by a cable or other suitable means such that the route to earth provides the path of
least resistance to a current flo&in# under fault conditions.
'Reduced Io& volta#e') commonly used on construction sites) involves the reduction of mains volta#e by a
transformer to a lo&er) safer volta#e * typically ??@ volts. In this case) any shoc( volta#e can be restricted to << volts
by means of a transformer that is 'centre*tapped to earth'.
Lastly) 'overcurrent protection' is a method of preventin# the flo& of e-cess current by cuttin# the
supply under fault conditions by means of a fuse or circuit brea(er.
2uestion ??
Identify the infor#ation that should be included on a #anufacturer>s safety data sheet supplied with a
ha/ardous substance. (!)
.ost candidates seemed familiar &ith manufacturers' safety data sheets &ith respect to ha4ardous
substances and &ere able to identify a &ide ran#e of issues in their ans&ers to this %uestion. $he
information that must be provided on a data sheet is specified in /chedule to the 0hemicals (1a4ard
Information and 7ac(a#in# for /upply) Re#ulations 3@@3 and includes6 the name of the substance= its
physical properties and chemical composition= the nature of the ha4ards presented= to-icolo#ical
information (e# health effects)= environmental effects= relevant standards (e# &or(place e-posure
limits)= precautions to be ta(en in handlin#) stora#e and transport= e-posure controls and personal
protective e%uipment= measures to be ta(en in an emer#ency (e# spilla#e or accidental e-posure)
includin# first*aid treatment and fire*fi#htin# measures= and the re%uirements for disposal.
2:-8
Paper A 1
The management of safety and health
Queston 1
An independent audit of an organisation has concluded that employees ha!e recei!ed insufficient health and safety
training.
(i) @escribe the factors that should be considered /hen de!eloping an extensi!e programme of health and
safety training within the organisation #12$
(ii) Outline the "arious #easures that #ight be used to assess the effecti"eness of such training. ()
. (-i) 0i!e 7O85 reasons why it is i#portant for an e#ployer to keep a record of the training pro"ided
to each e#ployee ()
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For part (i)) the completion of a trainin# needs analysis is an important first step in the development of
any pro#ramme of trainin# (ie comparin# &hat employees need to (no& &ith &hat they already (no&).
In decidin# &hat employees need to (no&) consideration should be #iven to their responsibilities) the
activities carried out) the ris(s associated &ith those activities and the actions re%uired of employees to
minimise such ris(s. It should have been reco#nised in this conte-t that a senior mana#er) for instance)
&ill have different trainin# needs &ith respect to health and safety from those of a supervisor or a
shopfloor employee. ;n assessment &ould then need to be made of employees' e-istin# (no&led#e)
ta(in# into account their previous e-perience) the levels and types of trainin# already received and any
indications of &here deficiencies may lie (e# from incident data or by observation). From the trainin#
needs analysis &ould emer#e information on the number of employees involved) the types of trainin#
needed and the resources (in terms of financial costs) time and facilities) re%uired to carry out the
pro#ramme. $he factors to be considered at this sta#e &ould include the competence and e-pertise of
in*house staff to provide the re%uired trainin#) the possible need to involve e-ternal sources and the
means of communicatin# the pro#ramme to employees at all levels in order to see( their commitment
to) and their vie&s on) the pro#ramme.
E-aminers commented that many candidates did not ans&er the first part of the %uestion as set but
spent time detailin# the content of a hypothetical trainin# course) or listin# the different types of
trainin# that mi#ht be offered (such as manual handlin# or basic a&areness)) rather than describin# the
factors that &ould need to be addressed in order that such details could be decided.
;ns&ers to part (ii) &ere of a better standard &ith candidates outlinin# such measures as6 post*trainin#
evaluation by trainers) the trainees themselves and their supervisors= accident rates and sic(ness
absences= levels of compliance &ith laid*do&n procedures (such as the &earin# of personal protective
e%uipment)= the results of attitude surveys= and the number and %uality of su##estions made) and
concerns raised) by employees &ith respect to health and safety.
In ans&erin# part (iii)) candidates could have cited a number of reasons for (eepin# individual trainin#
records. $hese mi#ht include6 to provide proof of an employee's e-pected level of competence= to
identify &hen additional or refresher trainin# mi#ht be needed= to enable a revie& of the effectiveness
of any trainin# to be carried out= to assess the pro#ress of the trainin# pro#ramme a#ainst tar#ets= and to
provide evidence to be used in any future accident investi#ations or le#al actions.
Civen the importance of trainin# to health and safety in the &or(place) and the fact that candidates
themselves had 9ust underta(en a form of trainin#) the overall response to this %uestion as a &hole &as
disappointin#. .any candidates appeared confused and uncertain on a lar#e number of the aspects
addressed by the %uestion
Queston 2
Outline the factors to consider when assessing the risks to a long distance deli"ery dri"er. (!)
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$he response to this %uestion) &hich has appeared on a previous occasion) &as #enerally #ood. $hose
candidates &ho adopted a lo#ical approach almost inevitably produced the better ans&ers.
Cood ans&ers tended to be structured broadly under the four headin#s of the 9ob) the individual) the
vehicle and the load) &ith t&o or three factors outlined for each. Gob factors &ould include the duration
of the 9ourney) the demands of the route (comple-ity) road conditions) etc)) means of communication
and security issues (e# the potential for violence). Individual factors &ould relate to the physical and
psycholo#ical capabilities of the driver to cope &ith the demands of the 9ob) ta(in# into account the
level of trainin# provided. For the vehicle) er#onomic factors &ould relate to the desi#n and layout of
the cab but other features of the vehicle) such as tail*lifts) &ould be particularly important. Lastly)
candidates should have considered aspects of the load in terms of its nature (e# ha4ardous) heavy) etc) )
the means of handlin# materials and any emer#ency e%uipment and procedures that are) or should be) in
place.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
M
.
2uestion 5
(a) Explain the #eaning of the ter# >safe syste# of work> (3)
(b) escribe the enforce#ent action that could be taken by an enforcing authority when a safe syste# of
work has not been i#ple#ented (>)
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMM
In ans&ers to part (a) of this %uestion) there appeared to be a #eneral lac( of understandin# of the term
'safe system of &or(') or at least some difficulty in definin# the term. E-aminers &ere loo(in# either for
an e-planation that pointed to a step*bystep procedure * ta(in# into account ha4ards) controls) essential
e%uipment) personal protective e%uipment and trainin# * or for one based on the inte#ration of people)
e%uipment) materials and the environment to produce an acceptable level of safety. /ome candidates
confused the term 'safe system of &or(' &ith other terms and #ave ans&ers based on an e-planation of
ris( assessment or of the employer's duties under section 3 of the 1/: ;ct= others merely re*&rote the
term usin# other &ords * for instance) by statin# that a safe system of &or( is a &ay of carryin# out a
tas( &ithout ris( * but &ithout e-plainin# e-actly &hat this means in practice.
7art (b)) on the other hand) &as &ell ans&ered by many candidates. Cood ans&ers referred to the issue
of an improved &ithin a #iven time period * or) &hen there is a ris( of serious personal in9ury) a
prohibition notice) &hich prohibits the use of e%uipment or a process until the necessary improvements
in safety have been completed. "ependin# on the circumstances) the enforcin# authority could insti#ate
a prosecution for breaches of health and safety le#islation in a ma#istrates' court) &ith more serious
cases referred to the 0ro&n 0ourt. ;lternatively) the authority may decide that the circumstances
demand no more than the provision of verbal advice) possibly follo&ed by formal &ritten confirmation
or &arnin#
.
2uestion
In relation to the -ealth and Safety (4onsultation with !#ployees) 5egulations 1996"
(i) outline 7O85 types of infor#ation that an e#ployer is O( obliged to disclose to a representati"e
of e#ployee safety ()
(ii) outline the types of facility that an e#ployer #ay need to pro"ide to representati"es of e#ployee
safety. ()
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMM
In ans&erin# part (i)) candidates could have chosen from a number of types of information that an
employer is not obli#ed to disclose. $hey include information that6 does not relate to health and safety=
&ould be a#ainst the interests of national security= &ould contravene a statutory prohibition imposed on
the employer= relates to an individual (unless the individual has consented to it bein# disclosed)= has
been obtained by the employer in connection &ith le#al proceedin#s= and information that &ould
dama#e the employer's business interests. Responses &ere #enerally to a fair standard althou#h some
candidates seemed to have little (no&led#e of the specific re%uirements of the Re#ulations and either
offered very little by &ay of response or relied) not particularly successfully) on #uess&or(
For part (ii)) the Re#ulations themselves re%uire that an employer provides facilities that a
representative of employee safety may reasonably re%uire for the purpose of carryin# out his,her
functions. "ependin# on the particular circumstances) it mi#ht be reasonable for the employer to
provide such facilities as6 a private room &hen the occasion demands= a telephone and fa- machine=
photocopyin# and I$ facilities= and library and stora#e facilities. Fe& candidates provided #ood
ans&ers to this part of the %uestion) &ith many (perhaps because they did not read the %uestion &ith
sufficient care) referrin# to items other than facilities that an employer must provide * such as trainin# and health and safety
information. ; number of ans&ers &ent do&n an entirely different path and provided information
relatin# #enerally to the ri#hts and functions of representatives of employee safety.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMM
Queston 5
Outline 7O85 ad"antages and 7O85 disad"antages of using >propaganda> posters to co##unicate
health and safety infor#ation to the workforce (!)
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7osters are a commonly used medium for passin# on health and safety messa#es to the &or(force and
many candidates &ill have used them or seen them in use. $he %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered
althou#h some candidates appeared to find more difficulty in reco#nisin# a ran#e of advanta#es of
usin# safety posters in the &or(place) &hereas they &ere much better ac%uainted &ith their
disadvanta#es.
;dvanta#es of posters include their fle-ibility) their brevity) their relatively Io& cost) their use in
reinforcin# verbal instructions or information) their value in providin# a constant reminder of the
importance of health and occur. safety) and the potential to involve employees in their selection and
hence in the messa#e bein# conveyed. $he fact that most posters use #raphical illustrations (often in
cartoon form) means that the messa#e is immediate and is easily understood by all.
"isadvanta#es include the need to chan#e posters on a re#ular basis if they are to be noticed) the fact
that they mi#ht become soiled) defaced and out*of*date) and the possibility that they mi#ht appear to
trivialise serious matters. $here may also be an over*reliance on posters to convey health and safety
information and they may be perceived by unscrupulous employers as an easy) if not particularly
effective) &ay of dischar#in# their health and safety obli#ations and of shiftin# responsibility onto the
&or(force for any accidents that may occur.
2uestion 6
(a) Outline the #ain functions of0
(i) cri#inal law (3)
(ii) ci"il law (3)
(b) Explain the principal differences between co##on law and statute law. ()
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMM
For part (a)) candidates should have identified that criminal la& enforces a code of conduct for society)
normally has a protective function and allo&s the state to ta(e punitive action a#ainst those &ho
commit breaches. 0ivil la&) on the other hand) has the function of enablin# an individual &ho has
suffered harm to #ain appropriate recompense from the perpetrator) or to see( an in9unction to prevent
harm (or further harm) from occurrin#.
7art (ii) re%uired an e-planation of the principal differences bet&een common and statute la&.
/uccessful candidates &ere those &ho e-plained that common la& is not &ritten do&n but is developed
by the courts over time. In the area of health and safety) the common la& tort of ne#li#ence forms the
basis of many civil actions. /tatute la&) on the other hand) is &ritten do&n (codified) in the form of
;cts and Re#ulations) lays do&n re%uirements and assi#ns duties and responsibilities. Failure to
comply &ith statute la& normally (but not al&ays) constitutes a criminal offence but) even &hen it
defines criminal la&) statute la& can also be used in civil actions unless specifically disallo&ed.
"espite these fundamental le#al terms bein# the sub9ect of many previous %uestions) they still cause
much confusion amon#st candidates) &ith the terms often &ron#ly bein# used synonymously.
0andidates need to be able to distin#uish clearly bet&een types of la& (criminal and civil) and sources
of la& (statute and common). In broad terms) the former represents systems in &hich either the state
can prosecute offenders or individuals can see( compensation= the latter provides a code of conduct)
&hether &ritten do&n or developed by case la&) a#ainst &hich people's behaviour can be 9ud#ed.
$utors need to ma(e absolutely certain that these concepts are #rasped by candidates at an early sta#e
of a course.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMM
.
2uestion A
Outline the personal factors that #ight place an indi"idual at a greater risk of har# while at work. (!)

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7ersonal factors that may place an individual at #reater ris( of harm at &or( include6 a #enerally poor
attitude to &or() authority and,or ris() often coupled &ith Io& motivation= issues relatin# to physical
capabilities or development (such as lac( of stature) stren#th and,or stamina) and to mental capabilities
(such as poor reasonin# s(ills)= poor perception of ris() perhaps influenced by alcohol or dru#s= a#e*
related behavioural factors associated &ith immaturity= and innate or health conditions affectin#
physical or mental capacity. Further factors relate to the levels of trainin# and e-perience of the
individual.
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally to a reasonable standard althou#h some candidates did not pay
sufficient attention to the &ordin# of the %uestion and included factors other than those that could be
classed as personal (e# those relatin# to a particular 9ob that a person does or the type of or#anisation in
&hich they &or() &hile others did not provide sufficient detail to obtain all of the mar(s that &ere
available. ; simple list of factors &ith no indication of ho& they mi#ht affect ris( &as not enou#h.
Queston 8
#a$ Outline the re'uire#ents of section 2#3$ of the -ealth and Safety at )ork etc 3ct ?BA in relation to an
e#ployer>s duty to prepare a health and safety policy. (3)
(b) Identify the purposes of !34- of the following sections of a health and safety policy docu#ent0
(i) >state#ent of intent> (3)
(ii) >organisation> (3)
(iii)>arrange#ents>. (3)
............................................................................................................................
.....................
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) candidates should have outlined that an employer has a duty to
prepare a &ritten statement of his #eneral policy &ith respect to health and safety to#ether &ith the
or#anisation and arran#ements for carryin# out the policy. ;n e-ception to the re%uirement for the
policy to be in &ritin# e-ists in cases &here there are fe&er than five employees.
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere to a reasonable standard thou#h some &ere lac(in# in depth and these
conse%uently #ained fe&er mar(s. $he 'statement of intent' should both demonstrate mana#ement's
commitment to health and safety and set #oals and ob9ectives for the or#anisation= the purpose of the
section of the policy on 'or#anisation' is to identify health and safety responsibilities and reportin# lines
&ithin the company= and the section on 'arran#ements' is intended to set out in detail the specific
systems and procedures that aim to assist in the implementation of the #eneral policy.
Queston 9
Outline the possible effects on health and safety of poor standards of housekeeping in the workplace. (!)
.ost candidates had little difficulty in providin# reasonable ans&ers to this %uestion and #ained mar(s
for notin# that slips) trips) falls) fallin# ob9ects and fires are &ell (no&n effects associated &ith poor
house(eepin#. $here may also be an increased ris( of ill*health &here ha4ardous substances are
involved or &here rubbish attracts rodents and other pests. /pecific reference could have been made to
bloc(ed fire e-its and internal transport issues. .ore able candidates &ere able to su##est that poor
stora#e of materials can lead to musculo*s(eletal problems and that a #enerally untidy &or(place
introduces the possibility of increased levels of stress in the &or(force) leadin# to a lo&erin# of morale
&hich) in itself) can result in a reluctance to adhere to accepted health and safety procedures.
Queston 10
(a) Identify ,O-. types of emergency procedure that an organisation #ight need to ha"e in place #4$
.
(b) Explain why "isitors to a workplace should be infor#ed of the e#ergency procedures. ()
$he emer#ency procedures that companies mi#ht need to have in place) in ans&er to part (a)) include
those for evacuation in case of fire) for accidents) for dan#erous incidents such as a chemical spilla#e)
for a security or intruder alert and in the event of an e-plosive device bein# suspected or discovered on
site. $his part of the %uestion &as &ell ans&ered &ith the ma9ority of candidates able to identify at least
three of the above types of procedure
For part (b)) many candidates reco#nised the need for visitors to be informed of the procedures so that
they can act appropriately in the event of an emer#ency) thereby minimisin# the ris( to themselves as
&ell as to other persons. Relatively fe&) ho&ever) mentioned that the provision of such information &ill
assist the employer in complyin# &ith the re%uirements of the .ana#ement of 1ealth and /afety at
:or( Re#ulations ?BBB that relate to ensurin# the safety of persons other than employees &or(in# on
the premises. $he #eneral duty o&ed to persons other than employees under section 5 of the 1/: ;ct
is also of relevance) as is the employer's common la& duty of care.
2uestion ??
.
5eplace#ent or repair of da#aged plant and e'uip#ent is a cost that an organisation #ay face
following a workplace accident.
List !I,-( other possible costs to the organisation following a workplace accident. (!)
$here &ere many possible responses to this %uestion and candidates could have chosen from a lon# list
of possible costs. $hey include costs. associated &ith lost production) dama#e to materials) first*aid)
investi#ation and remedial action) additional administration incurred) replacement staff) increases in
insurance premiums as &ell as criminal and civil actions (the imposition of fines) parts of compensation
payments not covered by insurance and le#al representation). $here may also be intan#ible costs
follo&in# an accident arisin# from a poor corporate ima#e and a possible detrimental effect on
employee morale resultin# in reduced productivity.
$he %uestion &as #enerally &ell ans&ered and) since only a list &as re%uired) it presented an
opportunity for candidates to #ain mar(s relatively %uic(ly. .ost too( advanta#e of this opportunity
.
.
Paper A2
%ontrollng &or'pla(e ha)ards
Queston 1
#a$ Identify "WO occasions /hen a thorough examination of a for12lift truc1 is re3uired under the
Lifting Operations and Lifting E3uipment .egulations 1998! #2$
(b) Outline a range of circumstances that #ay cause a fork.lift truck to beco#e unstable. ! (!)
(c) Other than those associated with instability1 identify 7IB! ha/ards presented by a diesel.powered
fork.lift truck AN describe the precautions that #ight be necessary in !34- case. (#$)
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) candidates could have identified occasions such as6 before its first
use by an employer= at t&elve monthly intervals (or si- monthly if the truc( is to be used for liftin#
persons)= in accordance &ith an e-amination scheme dra&n up by a competent person= or follo&in#
circumstances that mi#ht have compromised the safety of the liftin# e%uipment. .any candidates
demonstrated a lac( of (no&led#e of the re%uirements Bf the Re#ulations. /ome su##ested that a
thorou#h e-amination &ould be re%uired follo&in# an accident but ne#lected to add the proviso that
this &ould be the case only if the accident mi#ht have affected the safety of the truc('s liftin#
mechanism.
In contrast) most candidates coped &ell &ith part (b). +etter ans&ers adopted a structured approach that
considered the load) the environment and the vehicle itself. $ypical issues mentioned &ere6 insecure)
e-cessive or uneven loadin#= incorrect tilt and,or elevation of for(s &hen travellin#= uneven or
unconsolidated #round and chan#es in level= slopes (and incorrect procedures for dealin# &ith them)=
obstructions (overhead and Io& level)= cornerin# at e-cessive speeds= sudden bra(in#= poor condition
of tyres) and mechanical failure.
7art (c) of the %uestion &as also reasonably &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to identify five
relevant ha4ards (and their correspondin# precautions). $hey included6 vibration (e# sprin# mounted
seats)= noise (&earin# ear defenders or fittin# silencers on e-hausts)= diesel fumes (the provision of
ventilation or prohibitin# indoor use)= fallin# materials (provision of a protective ca#e)= collisions (the
use of barriers and,or speed restraints)= and environmental and health ha4ards associated &ith the use of
diesel oil (control of spilla#es and the &earin# of #loves). 0andidates &ho mentioned fire and
e-plosion &ere perhaps una&are that diesel oil) unli(e petrol) presents little ris( in this respect.
2uestion 2
Outline the factors to consider /hen assessing the ade3uacy of lighting /ithin an open2plan office. (!)
$he factors most commonly referred to in ans&ers &ere the types of tas( bein# underta(en (in
particular the use of display screen e%uipment)) the availability of natural li#ht and the problems caused
by #lare. Fe&er candidates outlined the characteristics of #eneral li#htin# (type) colour and intensity) in
relation to1 for instance) floor area and office layout= or the provision) suitability and ad9ustability of
local li#htin# in relation to specific tas(s. E-aminers commented that candidates #enerally tended to
produce rather shallo& ans&ers that avoided specific issues and did little more than re*phrase the
%uestion. ;t the other e-treme) some candidates discussed in #reat detail such items as &indo& si4es
and emer#ency li#htin# but at the e-pense of more central issues.
.
2uestion 5
7or !34- of the following agents1 outline the principal health effects 3@ identify a typical workplace
situation in which a person #ight be e*posed0
(i) isocyanates (3)
(ii) asbestos (3)
(iii)leptospira bacteria (3)
(i") lead. (3)
Overall) this %uestion &as not particularly &ell ans&ered. Outlines of health effects and references to
&or(place situations tended to be e-tremely va#ue) if they &ere identified at all. 1o&ever) for a
minority of candidates &ho had #ained (no&led#e of the four specified a#ents) all of &hich are
referenced in the 0ertificate syllabus) mar(s &ere relatively easy to obtain.
Isocyanates are a respiratory sensitiser and may also cause dermatitis. 7ersons carryin# out &or(
involvin# the use of isocyanate*based printin# in(s) adhesives or paints &ould be at ris(.
E-posure to asbestos may cause asbestosis) lun# cancer or mesothelioma (a rare cancer that is
associated almost e-clusively &ith asbestos). 0arryin# out maintenance &or( on) or the demolition of)
a buildin# &here asbestos is contained in the fabric of the structure could lead to the inhalation of
airborne fibres..
;n infection caused by e-posure to the leptospira bacterium is called leptospirosis) &ith symptoms that
resemble influen4a (fever) chills) muscular aches and pains) etc). In rare cases) a severe form of the
condition (no&n as :eil's disease can develop and this is characterised by symptoms that include
bruisin# of the s(in) anaemia) sore eyes) nose bleeds and 9aundice. /erious dama#e to internal or#ans
can result) &hich often proves fatal. $he bacterium is carried by animals) particularly rats and cattle)
and e-posure to the urine of infected animals can put people such as se&er &or(ers) farm &or(ers and
vets at particular ris(. :hile there &ere some #ood accounts #iven for this part of the %uestion)
E-aminers &ere disturbed to find that many candidates confused 'leptospira' &ith 'Ie#ionella'.
$he health effects of e-posure to lead are many and varied but principally include anaemia) fertility
problems and dama#e to the (idneys) the nervous and muscular systems and) particularly in children)
the brain. /i#ns and symptoms of lead poisonin# include irritability) lethar#y) memory and
concentration problems) muscle and 9oint pain) '&rist drop' and a blue line on the #ums. $hose en#a#ed
in any activity that involves lead and produces fume) vapour or dust (such as in battery manufacture)
lead crystal #lass*ma(in# or the removal of lead paint) are at ris(.
2uestion
(a) )ith reference to the >fire triangle>1 outline ()O #ethods of e*tinguishing fires. ()
(b) (tate the ways in which persons could be har#ed by a fire in work pre#ises. ()
;ns&ers to this %uestion &ere #enerally to a #ood standard. For part (a)) most candidates &ere able to
outline t&o methods of e-tin#uishin# fires by choosin# from6 starvation (by removin# the fuel)=
smotherin# (by eliminatin# the o-y#en supply &ith the use of foam or carbon dio-ide)= coolin# (&ith
&ater)= and interferin# chemically &ith the combustion process (by usin# a dry po&der e-tin#uisher).
Dot all candidates) ho&ever) referred in their ans&ers to the fire trian#le to sho& &hich of the three
elements of combustion (o-y#en) heat and fuel) &as affected by their chosen methods.
0andidates also coped &ell &ith part (b) althou#h) in some cases) ans&ers &ere too unspecific (e#
Hbein# trapped in a buildin#H does not e-plain ho& harm occurs). In a fire situation) people may be
harmed by bein# burned) by inhalin# to-ic fumes) by the effects of smo(e and by a depleted o-y#en
supply. +etter candidates also referred to the possibility of bein# in9ured by a structural failure of a
buildin#) or by bein# crushed or sufferin# some other type of in9ury in attemptin# to escape.
2uestion <
Other than those relating to the physical en"iron#ent1 outline the options that #ight be a"ailable to an
organisation to reduce stress le"els a#ongst its e#ployees. (!)
Options that are available to an or#anisation to reduce stress levels amon#st its employees include6
those related to &or(,life balance (such as the or#anisation of shift patterns) discoura#in# the &or(in#
of e-cessively lon# hours and introducin# fle-ible &or(in# arran#ements)= introducin# 9ob rotation and
increasin# &or( variety= dra&in# up clear 9ob descriptions and ta(in# steps to match individuals to the
descriptions= see(in# the vie&s of employees and involvin# them in decisions= introducin# and
implementin# policies to cover harassment) discrimination) violence and the investi#ation of
complaints= and ensurin# ade%uate levels of supervision &ith supervisors trained to reco#nise the
symptoms of stress so that ameliorative action can be ta(en or) in more e-treme cases) so that those
affected mi#ht be offered counsellin#.
$here seemed to be little understandin# amon#st candidates of the mana#ement of stress and many
confined their ans&ers to its causes. /ome did not read the %uestion &ith sufficient care and included
options that &ere directly related to the physical environment rather than those associated &ith the
or#anisational) 9ob and individual stress factors.
2uestion >
(a) 7or !34- of the following types of non.ionising radiation1 identify an occupational source and
state the possible ill.health effects on e*posed indi"iduals0
(i) infrared radiation(3)
(ii) ultra"iolet radiation. (3)
(b) Identify the general #ethods for protecting people against har#ful e*posure to non.ionising
radiation. ()
In ans&erin# part (a) of the %uestion) better candidates &ere able to cite typical sources of infrared
radiation as fire) furnaces or lasers) and of UV li#ht as the sun or &eldin# operations. Others appeared
to confuse the t&o types of radiation &hile a fe& considered -*rays and micro&aves to be infrared
radiation. Ill*health effects caused even more difficulty. +urns to the s(in and eye dama#e are common
to both types of radiation and #eneral (no&led#e of the effects of the sun (sunburn and s(in cancer) and
of standin# by a fire (heatin# effects on the s(in and the body in #eneral) should have helped those &ho
had identified these particular sources.
$here &as a little more certainty in identifyin#) for part (b)) methods for protectin# people a#ainst
e-posure. $hese mi#ht include shieldin# by a physical barrier) increasin# the distance bet&een the
source and the person) reducin# the duration of e-posure) usin# appropriate personal protective
e%uipment (such as clothin# and eye protection) and the use of protective s(in creams. Fno&led#e of
ho& to avoid the harmful effects of the sun in a non*occupational settin# should have enabled
candidates to come up &ith at least some of the possible means of protectin# a#ainst non*ionisin#
radiation.
2uestion 7
Outline the precautions that #ay be needed when carrying out repairs to the flat roof of a building. (!)
;lmost all candidates made reference to the more obvious precautions that include the provision of safe
access to the roof (scaffoldin# and,or ladders)) ed#e protection to prevent the fall of persons or
materials) and restrictin# access to the area belo& the &or( by means of barriers and so forth. +etter
candidates &ent on to outline the precautions that mi#ht be needed to protect employees from fallin#
throu#h fra#ile roofli#hts and voids and from harmful contact &ith overhead obstructions and services.
;lso relevant &ould be the means of transportin# materials to and from the &or(in# area) the possible
need for nettin# under the roof) protection from the &eather) and the positionin# and use of ha4ardous
e%uipment such as bitumen boilers and #as cylinders.
$his %uestion has appeared on previous e-amination papers and althou#h ans&ers &ere #enerally
reasonable) they &ere not as #ood as mi#ht have been e-pected. .any candidates lost the opportunity
for mar(s either because they did not supply the necessary detail to satisfy the re%uirement for an
'outline' or because they concentrated on ha4ards rather than precautions.
2uestion 8
#a$ List 7O85 specific types of in?ury that #ay be caused by the incorrect #anual handling of loads. #4$
(b) Outline the factors in relation to the load that will affect the risk of in?ury. ()
7art (a) of the %uestion as(ed for a list of specific in9uries that mi#ht be caused by the incorrect manual
handlin# of loads. $hese &ould include spinal disc compression or slipped discs) torn li#aments or
strained or sprained tendons) hernias) dislocations and fractures) muscular strains) cuts and abrasions)
and crushin# and impact in9uries. :hile there &ere some #ood ans&ers to this part of the %uestion) too
many candidates referred in va#ue and #eneral terms to bac() muscular and hand in9uries &hen a more
specific ans&er &as re%uired.
7art (b) tested candidates' (no&led#e of ho& the nature of a load can affect the ris( of in9ury durin#
manual handlin# activities. $hey should have identified matters such as the si4e and &ei#ht of the load)
the possibility that the contents mi#ht move and the load become unbalanced) the &ei#ht distribution
(the centre of #ravity not bein# in the centre of the load)) difficulty in securin# a firm #rasp of the load)
and the presence of sharp ed#es or very hot or cold surfaces. ;#ain) better candidates &ere able to
provide a focused ans&er &ith sufficient detail to demonstrate a clear understandin# of the issues.
Other ans&ers) ho&ever) &ere e-tremely brief (sometimes no more than four &ords) and a fe&
identified controls instead of ris( factors.
2uestion B
3n e#ployee is to use a petrol.dri"en chainsaw to fell a tree fro# ground le"el. Outline the ha/ards
faced by the e#ployee in carrying out this task. (!)
$his %uestion did not re%uire a detailed (no&led#e of chainsa& operation but provided a scenario that
all candidates should have been able to picture in their minds %uite easily. $he %uestion &as #enerally
&ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to outline a number of ha4ards associated &ith this tas(
includin#6 e-posure to fumes and dust= manual handlin#= noise and vibration= contact &ith possibly
dermatitic lubricatin# oils= flyin# bar( and fra#ments= uneven #round that could cause slips and falls=
fire,e-plosion ha4ards associated &ith refuellin# and stora#e= and ha4ards arisin# from adverse &eather
conditions. ; surprisin# number of candidates) ho&ever) omitted reference to the principal ha4ards of
the tas( relatin# to contact &ith movin# parts of the chainsa& and bein# crushed by the fallin# tree.
2uestion ?@
In relation to electrical safety1 e*plain the #eaning of the following ter#s0
(i) isolation ($)
(ii) earthing(3)
(iv) reduced Iow "oltage ($)
(i") o"ercurrent protection. (3)
$his %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e of some (ey electrical terms. "espite the
%uestion havin# appeared on a number of previous e-amination papers) it &as a#ain poorly ans&ered.
$he conclusion is that many candidates have a poor #rasp of the fundamental principles relatin# to
electrical safety) and perhaps to electricity in #eneral.
'Isolation' refers to the physical disconnection of the electrical supply to an item of e%uipment or part of
an electrical system (often to allo& maintenance &or( to be carried out safely) &hereby a si#nificant
#ap is created bet&een the disconnected parts in a &ay that prevents inadvertent reconnection. ; simple
reference to Hs&itchin# offH &as insufficient to #ain mar(s.
'Earthin#') on the other hand) is a means &hereby electrical e%uipment and conductive items are
connected to earth by a cable or other suitable means such that the route to earth provides the path of
least resistance to a current flo&in# under fault conditions.
'Reduced Io& volta#e') commonly used on construction sites) involves the reduction of mains volta#e by a
transformer to a lo&er) safer volta#e * typically ??@ volts. In this case) any shoc( volta#e can be restricted to << volts
by means of a transformer that is 'centre*tapped to earth'.
Lastly) 'overcurrent protection' is a method of preventin# the flo& of e-cess current by cuttin# the
supply under fault conditions by means of a fuse or circuit brea(er.
2uestion ??
Identify the infor#ation that should be included on a #anufacturer>s safety data sheet supplied with a
ha/ardous substance. (!)
.ost candidates seemed familiar &ith manufacturers' safety data sheets &ith respect to ha4ardous
substances and &ere able to identify a &ide ran#e of issues in their ans&ers to this %uestion. $he
information that must be provided on a data sheet is specified in /chedule to the 0hemicals (1a4ard
Information and 7ac(a#in# for /upply) Re#ulations 3@@3 and includes6 the name of the substance= its
physical properties and chemical composition= the nature of the ha4ards presented= to-icolo#ical
information (e# health effects)= environmental effects= relevant standards (e# &or(place e-posure
limits)= precautions to be ta(en in handlin#) stora#e and transport= e-posure controls and personal
protective e%uipment= measures to be ta(en in an emer#ency (e# spilla#e or accidental e-posure)
includin# first*aid treatment and fire*fi#htin# measures= and the re%uirements for disposal.
2:-;
Paper A1
The management of safety and health
0eneral +o33ents
;s &ith previous reports E-aminers' made three common comments as to &hy candidates missed
mar(s.)
0andidates do not al&ays read the %uestion &ith sufficient care and thus ans&er a related) but different)
%uestion than the one they have actually read. $his ris(s missin# most or all of the mar(s available for a
%uestion.
;ttention is still not paid to action verbs) &ith candidates listin# bullet points rather than #ivin# a
proper outline.
$o #ain all the mar(s available in a %uestion candidates must provide sufficient breadth in their ans&er)
ie an outline of a couple of points in a >*mar( %uestion &ill not suffice.
Question 1
(a) Outline the benefits to an organisation of ha"ing a health and safety co##ittee. ()
(b) Outline the reasons why a health and safety co##ittee #ay pro"e to be ineffecti"e in practice. (!)
(c) Identify a range of #ethods that an e#ployer can use to pro"ide health and safety infor#ation
directly to indi"idual e#ployees. (!)
7art (a) of this %uestion &as not &ell ans&ered &ith many candidates concentratin# on the functions of
a health and safety committee rather than the benefits of havin# such a committee in place. +enefits
&hich could have been outlined included6 it demonstrates mana#ement commitment and compliance
&ith the le#al re%uirement to consult &ith employees= it facilitates consultation and communication
&ith the &or(force via employee representatives= it provides a means of recordin# discussions that
have ta(en place on health and safety matters and it may help to foster a positive health and safety
culture by encoura#in# employee involvement and o&nership.
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere to a better standard &ith most candidates able to #ain some of the mar(s
available. E-aminers e-pected candidates to identify reasons such as6 a lac( of mana#ement
commitment= no terms of reference for the committee= no a#enda andlor minutes of the meetin#s bein#
produced= an uneven balance bet&een mana#ement and employee representatives= poor chairmanship=
no access to the decision ma(in# processes= infre%uent meetin#s= inappropriate topics for discussion
and no access to health and safety e-pertise.
7art (c) &as &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to offer a ran#e of valid methods such as notice
boards= team briefin#s= trainin# sessions includin# induction and tool bo- tal(s= ne&s letters and the
inclusion of messa#es &ith &a#e,pay slips= posters) competitions and si#ns= and one to one briefin#
such as in appraisal sessions.

Queston 2
Outline the circu#stances that #ay gi"e rise to a need for a health and safety policy to be re"iewed. (!)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) candidates could have outlined circumstances such as6 si#nificant chan#es
in the or#anisation= after the introduction of ne& or chan#ed processes or &or( methods= follo&in#
chan#es in (ey personnel= follo&in# chan#es in le#islation= &here ris( assessments) monitorin#
e-ercises or investi#ations sho& that the policy is no lon#er effective or relevant= follo&in#
enforcement action and after a sufficient period of time has elapsed since the previous revie& to
su##est that another one is due.
.ost &ere able to refer to some of the above circumstances but only the better ans&ers contained more
complete outlines and so #ained most of the mar(s available.
Queston 3
(a) Explain /hy it is important for an organisation to set targets in terms of its health and safety
performance+ #2$
(b) Outline (I4 types of target that an organisation might typically set in relation to health and safety+
(>)
In ans&erin# part (a)) fe& candidates appeared to understand the importance of settin# tar#ets in terms
of health and safety performance. /ome did su##est that it #ave evidence of mana#ement commitment)
but fe& &ere then able to hi#hli#ht the importance of tar#ets in motivatin# staff by providin# them &ith
somethin# tan#ible to aim for or the important part they can play in facilitatin# the measurement and
revie& of performance.
0andidates had more success in ans&erin# part (b) and identified tar#ets such as reduced,4ero
accidents) 4ero 1/E enforcement and reduced sic(ness absence.
+etter ans&ers outlined additional tar#ets such as improved audit scores= a reduction in the number of
civil claims= an increase in the reportin# of near miss incidents or minor accidents= an increase in the
number of employees trained in health and safety and the achievement of a 1ealth W /afety /tandard
(e# O1/;/ 18001$!
Cenerally) ho&ever) this %uestion &as not &ell ans&ered &ith a number of candidates havin#
une-pected difficulty &ith both parts.
2uestion
(a) @efine the ter# >negligence>. (3)
(b) Outline the general defences a"ailable to an e#ployer in a case of alleged negligence brought by
an e#ployee. (>)
In ans&erin# part (a)) candidates should have defined 'ne#li#ence' as a civil &ron# (tort) involvin#
unreasonably careless conduct (or a breach of the common la& duty of care)) resultin# in loss) dama#e
or in9ury. .any %uoted Hcareless conduct or breachH but then ne#lected to add a reference to the
resultant loss) dama#e or in9ury.
7art (b) re%uired an outline of the #eneral defences available to an employer accused of alle#ed
ne#li#ence. $hese &ould include that there &as no duty o&ed to the employee since the case referred to
somethin# &hich did not ta(e place durin# the course of employment= that if such a duty &ere o&ed)
there &as no breach in that &hat happened &as not foreseeable and in the event everythin# reasonable
had been done= that the loss) dama#e or in9ury &as either non*e-istent or not caused by any breach= that
the claimant voluntarily accepted the ris( (volenti non fit in9uria) or that the case &as out of time.
0andidates should have been mindful of the fact that this part of the %uestion re%uired an outline and as
such) brief ans&ers such as Hno dutyH or Hno breachH could not be a&arded all the mar(s available.
2uestion <
)ith reference to the 5eporting of In?uries1 @iseases and @angerous Occurrences 5egulations 1995"
(i) state the legal re'uire#ents for reporting a fatality resulting fro# an accident at work to the rele"ant
enforcing authority#5$
(ii) outline (-5!! categories of work.related in?ury (other than fatal in?uries) that are reportable. (5)
.ost candidates provided reasonable ans&ers to part (i) of the %uestion) identifyin# the re%uirement to
notify the enforcin# authority by the %uic(est practicable means and then to report the death formally
&ithin ten days by an approved means (e# on form F3<@! or by contactin# 1/E's Incident 0ontact
0entre). Dot many) ho&ever)
mentioned that the responsible person under the Re#ulations has the duty to notify the accident and
fe&er still (ne& that delayed deaths) up to one year after the ori#inal accident) have to be reported
&hether or not they have been previously reported under another cate#ory.
For part (ii) candidates could have outlined cate#ories of &or( related in9uries such as ma9or in9uries
involvin# for e-ample amputation) fracture or hospitalisation for over 3 hours= in9uries that result in
the in9ured person bein# a&ay from &or() or unable to do normal &or() for more than three days) and
in9uries to non*employees &ho are ta(en to hospital for treatment.
2uestion >
3n e#ployer has agreed to accept a young person on a work e*perience place#ent for one week.
Outline the factors that the e#ployer should consider prior to the place#ent. (!)
In ans&erin# this %uestion) factors &hich could have been outlined included6 individual factors such as
a#e and maturity= physical and psycholo#ical capability and special needs= ris(s from the
9ob,environment) such as chemicals) radiation) machinery or noise= the completion of a youn# person's
ris( assessment= arran#ements for instruction and trainin# before the youn# person starts &or(= and the
level of supervision to be provided includin# the appointment of a specific mentor.
In order to #ain #ood mar(s on this %uestion) candidates needed to provide an outline of a ran#e of
factors. /ome candidates) ho&ever) &rote in #reat detail on one or t&o factors only and so restricted the
number of mar(s that could be a&arded.
Queston A
(a) @raw a flowchart to identify the #ain co#ponents of the health and safety #anage#ent syste# in
-S!>s DSuccessful -ealth and Safety <anage#entD (-S,66). ()
(b) Outline ()O co#ponents of the health and safety #anage#ent syste# identified in (a). ()
In ans&erin# part (a) of this %uestion) E-aminers e-pected candidates to dra& a flo& chart identifyin#
the components of the mana#ement system described in 1/C >< (ie HpolicyH) Hor#anisin# for health
and safetyH) Hplannin# and implementationH) Hmeasurin# performanceH) Hrevie&in# performanceH and
Hauditin#H). $o obtain all the mar(s available) it &as necessary to sho& the components in the correct
se%uence and to identify the appropriate feed bac( loops. /ome ans&ers &ere #enerally disappointin#
&hich sho&ed there are still candidates &ho do not have a reasonable #rasp of the mana#ement model.
;#ain in part (b) there &as a variation in the standard of response provided &ith the
better candidates #ivin# #ood outlines of their chosen components. For HpolicyH) emphasis should have
been placed on the need for or#anisations to set clear aims and ob9ectives &hile in Hor#anisationH) they
&ould be e-pected to allocate specific responsibilities for health and safety. In Hplannin# and
implementationH) candidates mi#ht have referred to the re%uirement to assess ris(s and to devise safe
systems of &or( and in Hmeasurin# performanceH to the use of active and reactive monitorin# systems.
2uestion !
)ith reference to the 4onfined Spaces 5egulations 1997"
(i) define the #eaning of >confined space>1 gi"ing ()O workplace e*a#ples()
(ii) identify 7O85 >specified risks> that #ay arise fro# work in a confined space. ()
In ans&erin# part (a)) most candidates provided an acceptable e-planation of the term 'confined space'
definin# it as any space) &hich by virtue of its enclosed nature) presented a reasonably foreseeable
specified ris(. Even candidates &ho stru##led to recall the definition &ere able to #ive #ood e-amples
such as chambers) tan(s) vats) silos) pits) trenches) pipes) se&ers) flues and &ells.
For part (b)) fe&er candidates &ere #enerally able to identify &ith confidence*specified ris(s arisin#
from &or( in a confined space. $hese &ould include6 serious in9ury due to fire or e-plosion from
flammable substances such as methane) lea(s from ad9oinin# plant) or o-y#en enrichment= loss of
consciousness due to rise in body temperature (from boilers) furnaces or physical labour)= loss of
consciousness or asphy-iation caused by the presence of #as) fume or vapour= loss of consciousness or
asphy-iation from lac( of o-y#en= dro&nin# due to increase in the level of li%uid and asphy-iation due
to a free*flo&in# solid such as coal dust) #rain or sand.
Queston 9
Outline the ways in which e#ployers #ight #oti"ate their e#ployees to co#ply with health and safety
procedures. (!)
E-aminers &ere loo(in# for su##estions on ho& employees mi#ht be motivated to &or( safely.
;ns&ers should have included &ays of improvin# employees' (no&led#e of the conse%uences of not
&or(in# safely by6 trainin# and the provision of information= sho&in# the commitment of the
or#anisation to safety by providin# resources and a safe &or(in# environment= involvin# employees in
health and safety decisions throu#h consultation and team meetin#s= and reco#nisin# and re&ardin#
achievement. .ost candidates &ere able to outline some of the above althou#h the better ans&ers
emphasised that positive motivation * employees &or(in# safely because that is ho& they &ant to &or(
* tends to be more effective than ne#ative motivation * employees &or(in# safely for fear of disciplinary
action. +oth) ho&ever) have their place in a &ellbalanced system.
2uestion 10
#a$ Identify the particular re3uirements of regulation 3 of the 5anagement of 'ealth and (afety at Wor1
.egulations 1999 in relation to an employer's duty to carry out ris1 assessments+ #3$
(b) Outline the factors that should be considered when selecting indi"iduals to assist in carrying out
risk assess#ents in the workplace. (<)
7art (a) &as #enerally not &ell ans&ered &ith fe& candidates #ainin# all three mar(s available. /ome
candidates mista(enly set off do&n the road of describin# the Hfive stepsH. $he particular re%uirements
that should have been identified &ere6 that assessments should be suitable and sufficient= that they
should be revie&ed if no lon#er valid or there have been si#nificant chan#es= that the si#nificant
findin#s of an assessment should be recorded if there are < or more employees and that particular
assessments &ere re%uired in the case of youn# persons or fire.
In ans&erin# part (b)) relevant factors &hich should have been outlined included the individuals' past
e-perience and trainin# in ha4ard identification and in carryin# out ris( assessments) their e-perience
of the process or activity carried out in the &or(place and their (no&led#e of the plant and e%uipment
involved) their ability to understand and interpret re#ulations and standards) their communication s(ills
and their attitude and commitment to the tas(.
2uestion 11
Outline the chec1s that could be made in assessing the health and safety competence of a contractor+ (!)
H$he last %uestion on the paper &as #enerally &ell ans&ered &ith most candidates able to outline a
#ood ran#e of chec(s that included) amon#st many others6 the contractor's previous e-perience &ith the
type of &or(= the reputation of the contractor &ith previous or current clients= the %uality and content of
his health and safety policy and ris( assessments= the level of trainin# and %ualifications of his staff
(includin# those &ith health and safety responsibilities)= accidenUenforcement history= membership of
approval or certification bodies= e%uipment maintenance and statutory e-amination records= and the
detailed proposals (e# method statements) for the &or( to be carried out.
Paper A2
+ontrolling wor?place hazards
Ceneral 0omments
0andidates still do not pay attention to the action HverbH * a list &ill not suffice &here an 'outline' is
re%uired= further #uidance is #iven on pa#e ?< (E-amination techni%ue). ;ns&ers provided by some
candidates posed a %uestion rather than provided an ans&er. 7oor time mana#ement &as evident as
%uestions B) ?@ and ?? appeared hurried. 0andidates are not penalised for bad En#lish and , or poor
spellin#) ho&ever if a script cannot be read due to poor hand&ritin# it cannot be mar(ed effectively.
Queston ?
3n auto#ated piece of e'uip#ent designed to lift bo*es weighing $;kg fro# a con"eyor and place the#
on to pallets has failed and is likely to be out of action for se"eral weeks. @uring this ti#e1 the task will
be carried out #anually.
(i) Outline the factors that should be considered when undertaking a #anual handling assess#ent of the
task. (!)
(ii) Outline the #easures that #ay be needed in order to reduce the risk of in?ury to e#ployees carrying
out the #anual handling task. #12$
$he main elements to be considered in a manual handlin# assessment are tas() individual) load and
environment. 0andidates &ho approached the %uestion in this &ay tended to produce better*focused
ans&ers that applied each element to the practical tas( outlined. Under the headin# Htas(H for instance)
there &as a ran#e of issues to be considered such as fre%uency of the activity) vertical and hori4ontal
distances to be lifted,transported) distance of the load from the body) a&(&ard body movements and so
on. Under HloadH) mar(s &ere available for considerin# factors such as the si4e and &ei#ht of the
bo-es) their stability and the ease &ith &hich a #ood #rip mi#ht be #ained and under HenvironmentH for
referrin# to the condition of the floor) space constraints) temperature and the standard of li#htin#
provided. Lastly) the individual &ould have to be considered in terms of a#e) #ender) stature and
physical capability.
7art (ii) of the %uestion re%uired candidates to outline practical measures to reduce the ris( of in9ury to
employees carryin# out the manual handlin# tas( and &as #enerally ans&ered more successfully than
the first part. $hese &ould include6 improvin# the tas( layout and &or( routine so that ade%uate rest
periods &ere provided= reducin# the &ei#ht of the loads and usin# t&o persons &here this &as possible=
ensurin# that due attention &as #iven to the selection of those involved includin# their physical
capabilities= providin# appropriate information and trainin# on good liftin# practice= ensurin# that the
floors and &al(&ays &ere in #ood condition and (ept free from obstruction and that the standards of
heatin#) ventilation and li#htin# provided &ere ade%uate.
$his %uestion &as ans&ered reasonably &ell by most candidates.
2uestion 3
Outline the precautions necessary for the safe storage and handling of s#all containers containing
fla##able sol"ents. (!)
7recautions that should be considered &hen storin# and handlin# flammable solvents in small
containers include selectin# containers that are suitable for the purpose= labellin# the containers clearly
&ith information about their contents= mar(in# the stora#e area in &hich they are held= ensurin# that
empty containers are ti#htly closed and stored outside the buildin# or in a store constructed of fire
resistin# materials= ta(in# measures to prevent vapour build*up and to prevent or reduce the impact of
spilla#es by usin# nonspill caps or bundin# the area &here the containers are held= removin# li(ely
sources of i#nition and limitin# the %uantities stored and the amounts in use.
$his %uestion has appeared on previous e-amination papers and althou#h it re%uired nothin# more than
an outline of &hat should have been &ell (no&n practical precautions) the standard of response
provided &as disappointin# &ith many candidates becomin# entan#led in the various re%uirements of
the 0ontrol of /ubstances 1a4ardous to 1ealth Re#ulations 3@@3 (0O/1 1)) "an#erous /ubstances
and E-plosive ;tmospheres Re#ulations 2002 ("/E;R) and 0hemical (1a4ard Information and
7ac(a#in# for supply) Re#ulations 3@@3 (01I7). ; fe& for some reason or other did not seem to #rasp
the relevance of the %uestion and provided ans&ers relatin# to manual handlin#.
2uestion 3
#a$ Identify ()O respiratory diseases that #ay be caused by e*posure to asbestos. (3)
(b) Identify the co##on sources of asbestos in buildings that should be considered when conducting an
asbestos sur"ey of work pre#ises. (>)
In ans&erin# part (a)) most candidates &ere able to %uote lun# cancer and asbestosis thou#h fe&er
referred to mesothelioma. 1o&ever) a #eneral reference to HcancerH &as considered too va#ue to merit
a mar( &hile other references to HasthmaH and Hliver failureH &ere also not accepted.
;ns&ers to part (b) &ere also to a reasonable standard &ith candidates identifyin#) for instance) pipe
la##in#) roofin# materials) loft and &all insulation) sprayed coatin#s) the use of asbestos in ceilin# tiles)
panels and te-tured finishes and the presence of #as(ets) pac(in# and plu#s made of asbestos*
containin# materials.
On the &hole this %uestion &as reasonably &ell ans&ered by most candidates= thou#h some did spend
time to no purpose by e-plainin# the different types of asbestos in #reat detail.
Queston 4
#a$ Outline the (-5!! le"els of inspection that should be included in a #aintenance and inspection
strategy for portable electrical appliances. #6$
(b) Identify the reasons for keeping centralised records of the results of portable appliance testing
within an organisation. (3)
For part (a)) the first level of inspection &ould be that carried out by the operator before the appliance
is used and &ould consist of an informal chec( of the condition of the appliance and its cable and plu#.
$his chec( &ould be supplemented by a more formal visual inspection by an appointed person &hich
&ould follo& a set do&n procedure and include other matters such as the correctness of the ratin# of
the fuses fitted. Finally the strate#y &ould include the periodic combined inspection and testin# of the
appliance by a competent person.
Identifyin# the three levels of inspection proved difficult for many candidates &ho &ere able to refer
only to the formal portable appliance test.
For part (b)) fe& &ere able to offer more than that the (eepin# of centralised records &ould
demonstrate compliance by the employer. ;dditionally) such records could be used for settin# the
fre%uency for appliance testin#) to verify &hether unlabelled e%uipment had been tested or had merely
lost its label and to provide a record of past faults on all appliances that had been recorded.
$his ne& %uestion proved troublesome to many candidates.
Queston <
; #anufacturing co#pany is to relocate to pre#ises that re'uire refurbish#ent before e'uip#ent and
staff can be #o"ed. Outline the sanitary and washing facilities that should be considered when
planning the refurbish#ent. (!)
$his %uestion &as desi#ned to test candidates' (no&led#e of the standard of sanitary conveniences and
&ashin# facilities re%uired in &or( premises. $he initial consideration &ould be to ensure that the
number of both sanitary conveniences and &ashin# facilities &as ade%uate for the number to be
employed. $he conveniences &ould need to be separate for men and &omen thou#h a sin#le
convenience &ould be acceptable if it &as in a separate room &hose door could be loc(ed from the
inside. $he facilities should be &ell lit and ventilated &ith &alls and floors &hich are easy to clean. It
mi#ht also be necessary) to specifically accommodate for employees &ith special needs.
;s for the &ashin# facilities) they should have hot and cold runnin# &ater) soap or other cleansin#
a#ent and means of dryin# such as paper to&els or a hot air dryer. "ependent on the nature of the &or()
sho&ers may need to be provided.
It &as disappointin# to note that the standard of response provided by many candidates &as not to a
#ood standard. /ome seemed to have difficulty in understandin# the term Hsanitary and &ashin#
facilitiesH and &rote of other &elfare facilities such as drin(in# &ater) clothin# loc(ers) first aid and)
stran#ely) pre#nant &omen.
2uestion 6
:ro&q