Lecturer: Meir M.

Barak

Email: barakm@winthrop.edu
Office: Dalton 320
Phone: 6433
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BIOL307: Human Anatomy
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Integumentary system, lecture outlines
Integumentary system
• Characteristics / functions
• Layers (superficial to deep)
1. Epidermis
• Cells
• Layers
• Skin color
2. Dermis (Papillary & reticular regions)
3. Hypodermis
• Accessory organs of the skin
• Hair (structure, color and texture)
• Nails (structure)
• Glands (Sebaceous; Sweat; Ceruminous; Mammary)
• Skin and the sun; Skin cancer
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Integumentary system, levels of organization
Integumentary system
Epidermis epithelial cells tissue
Skin cutaneous membrane
(epithelial + connective
tissues)
organ
Skin &
derivatives
(e.g. sebaceous gland)
integumentary system organ
system

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Integumentary system
Integumentary system
Region
1. Epidermis
epithelial cells

2. Dermis
connective tissue

3. Hypodermis
underlying layer of fat

Skin
Integumentary system
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Epidermis
Dermis
Hypodermis
Superficial
Deep
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Integumentary system
Integumentary system
Characteristics / functions
1. Largest organ (area of 1.5-2 M
2
)
2. Protection from bacteria, UV rays, water
3. Produces Vitamin D
4. Excretes waste (heat)
5. Millions of sensory input
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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Integumentary system
Integumentary system
Epidermis thickness
Ranges 0.1mm to 0.5mm
why can’t it be thicker? Avascular!

Skin thickness (epidermis + dermis):
Ranges between 0.5mm (eyelids)
to 6mm (shoulder blades)
Most skin ~1-2mm

Hypodermis
Thickest layer of integumentary system
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Epidermis
Integumentary system
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

• Dead cells at the surface packed with tough
protein called keratin
• Lacks blood vessels
• Depends on the diffusion of nutrients from
underlying connective tissue
• Sparse nerve endings for touch and pain
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Epidermis
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Epidermis - cells
Integumentary system
• Stem cells - undifferentiated cells. Only in the
deepest layer of the epidermis
• give rise to keratinocytes
Living keratinocytes
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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Epidermis - cells
Integumentary system
• Keratinocytes – (specialized epithelial cells)
produce keratin (protein that hardens and protects
epidermis).
• Life cycle 30-40d
Living keratinocytes
Dead keratinocytes
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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Epidermis - cells
Integumentary system
• Melanocytes – (specialized epithelial cells) contain
melanin (black, brown, yellow, or red pigment )
• Only at deepest layer (20% of cells)
• Inject melanin into keratinocytes
http://goo.gl/bcGEH
• Function?
serve as a shield
against UV, yet
we need sun for
Vitamin D…
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Epidermis - cells
Integumentary system
• Dendritic Cells (Langerhans cells) – star shaped
• Immunologically active - antigen-presenting
• mostly located in stratum spinosum
Dendritic cell
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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Epidermis - cells
Integumentary system
• Merkel cells (Tactile cells)
• Only in the deepest layer of the epidermis
• Sensitive to light touch
Tactile cell
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Thomson Higher Education (C) 2007
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Epidermis
Integumentary system
• Meissner's corpuscles (Tactile corpuscles)
• at epidermal/dermal junction
• function as s sensory receptor for touch
• mostly at fingertips and lips
Thomson Higher Education (C) 2007
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14 Integumentary system
Epidermis layers
stratum basale (basal/germinal layer)

• 1 layer of simple cuboidal stem cells
• Constantly dividing (myogenic)
• New cells push older cells up
(become keratinocytes)
• Melanocytes (20% of cells)
• Merkel cells
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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15 Integumentary system
Epidermis layers
stratum spinosum (spinous layer)

• keratin cells (keratinocytes) shrink
(lack of nutrients)
• Langerhans cells (dendritic cells)
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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16 Integumentary system
Epidermis layers
stratum granulosum (granular layer)

• Around 5 layers
• Little granule of keratin in cytoplasm
• keratinocytes lose their nucleus
• Lipids are released to extracellular
space to form a lipid barrier
(epidermal water barrier)
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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17 Integumentary system
Epidermal water barrier
• Between stratum granulosum spinosum

• Water retention (preventing dehydration)

• Cells above the water barrier die
Dandruff – clumps of dead cells
stuck together by sebum (oil)
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
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Epidermis layers
stratum lucidum (translucent layer)

• Only in palms and soles (thick skin)
• gives rougher texture
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
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19 Integumentary system
Epidermis layers
stratum corneum (cornified layer)

• Flattened dead keratinocytes
• 20 to 30 layers (palms and soles
having the most layers)
• Barrier and protection
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Epidermis layers - summary
Epidermis
Dermis
corneum lucidum granulosum spinosum basale
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc.
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20 Integumentary system
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Skin color
Integumentary system
• Melanin produced by melanocytes
• Eumelanin - brownish black
• Pheomelanin - reddish yellow

• Accumulate in the keratinocytes of stratum basale
& stratum spinosum

• People of different skin colors have the same
number of melanocytes; but…
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Skin color
Integumentary system
Dark skinned people
1. produce more melanin
2. melanin granules in keratinocytes more spread out
3. melanin breaks down slower
4. melanized cells seen throughout the epidermis

Light skinned people
1. produce less melanin
2. melanin clumped near keratinocyte nucleus
3. melanin breaks down more rapidly
4. little seen beyond stratum basale
Skin color
Stratum corneum
Epidermis
Light skin
Stratum corneum
Epidermis
Dermis
Dark skin
Melanized cells
of stratum basale
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Evolutionary theory of skin color
• Homo s. originated in
tropics & originally
produced greater amounts
of melanin

• Humans that migrated to
less sunny areas produced
less melanin = lighter skin

• Everyone have same
number of melanocytes, but
they produce variably in
response to UV sunlight
Integumentary system
Wikipedia
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Dermis
Integumentary system
Dermis
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis
Thickness: 0.2mm (eyelids) to 4mm (palms & soles)
• Extensive blood supply
• Innervation
• Air follicles
• Nail roots
• Smooth muscles (Arrector pili muscle)
• Sweat glands & sebaceous glands
http://goo.gl/CePjP
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Dermal papillae
Integumentary system
Dermal papillae = fingerprints
Whorl Loop Arch
Wikipedia
Even identical twins will have different fingerprints!
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Lack of fingerprints
Integumentary system
Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis
http://goo.gl/BV5Vj
A rare congenital disorder
Lack of fingerprints & sweat glands (often suffer
from heat stroke), thin hair, brittle nails, mottled skin.
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Dermis
Integumentary system
1. Papillary region (superficial zone 20%)
• Areolar connective tissue
• Highly innervated & vascularized
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Dermis
Integumentary system
2. Reticular region (deep zone, 80%)
• Dense irregular connective tissue
• Mostly thick collagen fibers
• Stretch marks = tears in the collagen fibers
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Hypodermis
Integumentary system
http://goo.gl/BV5Vj
Subcutaneous tissue
• Adipose & areolar connective tissue
• Binds skin to underlying tissues
(but allows skin movement)
Hypodermis
Not part of the skin but of the integumentary system
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Accessory organs of the skin
Integumentary system
1. Hair (dead keratinized cells)
2. Nails (dead keratinized cells)
3. Glands
http://goo.gl/CePjP
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1. Hair
Integumentary system
• Made of dead keratinized cells (similar to skin
but more compact)
• grows from an oblique tube in the skin called a
hair follicle
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Hair follicle
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• Number of scalp hairs does not differ much from
person to person or even between sexes (around
100,000 hairs on the scalp)

Differences in appearance due to
1. Texture (cross section)
I. straight hair is round
II. wavy hair is oval
III. curly hair is relatively flat
1. Hair
straight hair
Wavy hair
Eumelanin
Pheomelanin
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Differences in appearance due to
2. Pigmentation
I. Eumelanin - black and brown
II. Pheomelanin - pink to red hue
1. Hair
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Many people's hair whorls in either a clockwise
or counterclockwise direction

Most people have clockwise scalp hair-whorls

May differ in identical twins!
http://goo.gl/7blO6
1. Hair, hair swirl
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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Hair is divisible into three zones along its length
1. Bulb: hair origin, living cells
2. Root: hair in the follicle
3. Shaft: above the skin surface

• Dermal papilla: blood supply (nutrition)
• Hair matrix: growth center (dividing cells)
1. Hair
root
bulb
shaft
Hair matrix
Dermal papilla
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Three layers of the hair in cross section
1. Hair
Medulla: loosely arranged cells & air spaces
Cortex: keratin with injected melanin
Cuticle: overlapping keratin shingles
Medulla
cortex
Cuticle
Connective tissue root sheath
Epithelial root sheath
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1. Hair
Integumentary system
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc
Hair follicle: diagonal tube that surrounds the hair
• Epithelial root sheath (deep): extension of epidermis
• Connective tissue root sheath (superficial): derived
from dermis but denser than adjacent connective
tissue
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Arrector pili muscle (smooth muscle)
Attaches to every hair
Contraction = hair stands (Goosebumps) why?

Wikipedia
Where is
the muscle?
1. Hair
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Sebaceous gland
Apocrine sweat gland
Piloerector muscle
1. Hair
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Glands
Old club hair
New hair
New hair
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Anagen
Growing phase (6–8 years)
90% of scalp follicles at any given time
1. Hair, hair cycle
Copyright © The McGraw-
Hill Companies, Inc
Stem cells multiply,
pushing the dermal
papilla deeper
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Club hair (detached
from matrix)
Dermal papilla
Degeneration
of lower follicle
Catagen
Degenerative phase (2–3 weeks)
Hair growth ceases
1. Hair, hair cycle
Copyright © The McGraw-
Hill Companies, Inc
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Telogen
Resting phase (1–3 months)
1. Hair, hair cycle
Copyright © The McGraw-
Hill Companies, Inc
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Wikipedia
Any type of hair loss can be acute or chronic

Possible causes:
• Genetics
• Chemotherapy or cancer treatments (why?)
• Hormonal imbalance (Hyper/hypothyroidism)
• Infections (e.g. fungal)
• Severe stress
• Medications
http://goo.gl/0SgTw
1. Hair, hair loss
Made of dead keratinized cells (similar to skin but
more compact)


Nail plate: hard part of the nail
• Free edge: overhangs the fingertip
• Nail body: visible attached part of nail
• Nail root: extends proximally under overlying skin
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2. Nails
free edge nail body nail root
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
cuticle (eponychium)
2. Nails
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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Nail bed
Eponychium
(cuticle)
• Nail bed: the skin beneath the nail plate
• Cuticle: (eponychium) a layer of tissue
that covers the nail root
nail matrix
2. Nails
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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Lunule
Nail matrix
• Nail matrix: growth zone
• Lunule (little moon): a thicker layer
at nail base
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Remember: all glands are epithelial derivatives
3. Glands
Two kinds of sweat glands

1. Merocrine (eccrine) sweat glands
• Most numerous skin glands (3-4 million in adults)
• Watery perspiration - cool the body
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3. Glands, sweat
Secretory cells
Lumen
Myoepithelial
cells
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Merocrine sweat gland
and duct
Two kinds of sweat glands

2. Apocrine sweat glands
• In groin, axilla, and bearded area (males)
• Ducts lead to nearby hair follicles
• Produce thicker milky sweat that contains fatty acids
• These are the glands that produce the ‘smell’ of sweat
• Asians have very few of these or lack them totally
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3. Glands, sweat
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
• Sebum: oily secretion
• Open into hair follicle
• Holocrine gland
• Keeps skin/hair from becoming dry, brittle, and
cracked
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3. Glands, sebaceous
Sebaceous gland Hair follicle
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
• Only in external ear canal
• Holocrine gland
• Earwax (cerumen): secretion + sebum + dead
epithelial cells
 keep eardrum pliable
 waterproofs the canal
 kills bacteria
 makes guard hairs of ear sticky
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3. Glands, ceruminous
• Milk-producing
• Develop only during pregnancy and lactation
• Modified apocrine sweat gland
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3. Glands, mammary
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The skin and the sun
Integumentary system
http://goo.gl/KiAr4i
UV = Ultraviolet radiation (visible wavelengths ~400-700)
Sunscreen
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The skin and the sun
Integumentary system
Truck driver William
Edward McElligott
Photographer: The New
England Journal of Medicine
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Degrees of burn injuries
Integumentary system
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
First degree Second degree
Partial-thickness burns
Third degree
Full-thickness burns
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Rickets (osteomalacia in adults)
Under-mineralized bones in children

Insufficient sunlight insufficient vitamin D
http://goo.gl/AKLrS
Integumentary system
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Rickets (osteomalacia in adults)
The osteoid (red) is too
thick and covers most
bone surfaces
Vitamin D is mandatory for calcium absorption
in the intestine and also reduces urinary loss of
calcium and phosphate (UV light is essential).
Integumentary system
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The myth of vampires and porphyria
Integumentary system
• Enzyme deficiency - Porphyrins  heme (blood?)
• Porphyrins accumulate in skin & react with
sunlight to damage the skin
• Garlic can aggravate their symptoms

Source for vampire legends?? Probably not

1. Have enough heme to produce blood
2. A group of rare disorders (not all affect skin)
3. ‘Originally’ vampires were not ‘afraid’ from the sun
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Skin cancer
Integumentary system
Induced by the ultraviolet rays of the sun

• one of the most common cancers
• most often on the head and neck
• most common in fair-skinned and the elderly

• one of the easiest to treat + high survival rates if
detected & treated early

http://goo.gl/KiAr4i
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Basal cell carcinoma
Integumentary system
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
• Most common type
• Least dangerous because it seldom metastasizes
• Forms from cells in stratum basale
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Squamous cell carcinoma
Integumentary system
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
• arise from keratinocytes from stratum spinosum
• chance of recovery good with early detection

• Tends to metastasize to lymph nodes
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Malignant melanoma
Integumentary system
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
• Arises from melanocytes
• Often in a preexisting mole
• Less than 5% of skin cancers, but deadliest form
• Metastasizes rapidly
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Overview questions
1. Which epidermal cells reside only in the deepest layer of the
epidermis?
2. If you cut just your outer epidermal layers, would you bleed?
3. Which type of cells are keratinocytes and melanocytes?
4. Why is the epidermal water barrier so important? Between
which layers is it located?
5. Where can you find the stratum lucidum layer?
6. Which 2 features of the integumentary system can be different
even in identical twins?
7. What are nails and hair made from?
8. Which 2 types of sweat glands exist? What are the differences
between them?
9. What is the evolutionary origin of mammary glands?
10. Are both UVA and UVB dangerous to our skin? Why?
11. Why is sunlight important to our bones?

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