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* Copy the listed diseases, and then place a C next to it if you think its


[Extra Credit: Tell what pathogen or lifestyle factor is responsible for the disease listed]
1. Atherosclerosis - N
Lifestyle Factor: Excessive intake of fatty foods
2. Influenza - C
Etiological Agent: Influenza Virus A ! "
#ode of $rans%ission: &irect "ontact through dro'let infection (e.g. coughing or sneezing )ithout
covering one*s %outh and+or nose, or -y articles freshly soiled )ith discharge if nose and throat of
infected 'ersons.
.. Asth%a / N
$he causes of asth%a sy%'to%s can vary for different 'eo'le. 0till one thing is consistent )ith asth%a:
)hen air)ays co%e into contact )ith an asth%a trigger the air)ays -eco%e infla%ed narro) and fill
)ith %ucus.
1. 2ing)or% / C
3athogen: a skin and scal' disease caused -y several different kinds of fungi
4. 3olio / C
3athogen: a cri''ling and 'otentially deadly infectious disease caused -y a virus (3oliovirus, that
s'reads fro% 'erson to 'erson invading the -rain and s'inal cord and causing 'aralysis
5. Lung "ancer / N
Lifestyle factors: s%oking6 'assive s%oking6 'rolonged ex'osure to as-estos6 ex'osure to radon gas6
fa%ilial 'redis'osition6 lung disease6 'rior history of lung cancer6 air 'ollution (e.g. vehicles industry
and 'o)er 'lants,
7. 8eart Attack / N
Lifestyle factors: high -lood 'ressure high cholesterol o-esity s%oking and a sedentary
lifestyle. 0tress is also -elieved to raise the risk and exertion and excite%ent can act as triggers for an
9. &iarrhea / N
3athogen: !acteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) Campylobacter spp. Shigella spp. or Salmonella
spp. are the %ost co%%on causes
Lifestyle factor: $hese -acteria are in )ater conta%inated -y hu%an or ani%al stools. &rinking )ater
)ater used to )ash food or irrigation )ater %ay -e affected. :hen the traveller drinks this )ater or eats
conta%inated food he or she is likely to get diarrhea.
"o%%on sources of -acteria that cause diarrhea are undercooked or ra) foods conta%inated
food or conta%inated )ater (including ice cu-es,
;. 0troke / N
"auses of ischemic stroke (caused -y a -lood clot that -locks -lood flo) to the -rain,
8ardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis,. $his is caused -y high -lood 'ressure dia-etes high
cholesterol and s%oking.
Atrial fi-rillation or other irregular heart rhyth%s.
"ertain heart valve 'ro-le%s including having an artificial heart valve a re'aired heart valve heart
valve disease such as %itral valve 'rola'se or narro)ing (stenosis, of a heart valve.
Infection of the heart valves (endocarditis,.
A 'atent fora%en ovale )hich is a congenital heart defect.
!lood/clotting disorders.
Infla%%ation of -lood vessels (vasculitis,.
8eart attack.
8eart failure.
Lo) -lood 'ressure (hy'otension, %ay also cause an ische%ic stroke although less co%%only
0o%e surgeries (such as endarterecto%y, or other 'rocedures (such as carotid artery stenting, that are
used to treat narro)ed carotid arteries %ay cause a -lood clot to -reak loose resulting in a stroke
"auses of hemorrhagic stroke <caused -y -leeding inside the -rain (called intracere-ral he%orrhage, or
-leeding in the s'ace around the -rain (called su-arachnoid he%orrhage,=
Infla%%ation in the -lood vessels )hich %ay develo' fro% conditions such as sy'hilis Ly%e
disease vasculitis or tu-erculosis.
!lood/clotting disorders such as he%o'hilia.
8ead or neck in>uries that result in da%age to -lood vessels in the head or neck.
2adiation treat%ent for cancer in the neck or -rain.
"ere-ral a%yloid angio'athy (a degenerative -lood vessel disorder,
1?. 3neu%onia / C
"ausative Agents: Diploccocus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae -acteria
#ode of trans%ission: &ro'let infection
11. 8e'atitis / C
#ode of $rans%issions: 8e'atitis A/ fecally conta%inated )ater or food6
8e'atitis !/ sexually trans%itted or -y -lood 'roducts
12. &ia-etes / N
Factors: $y'e 1 dia-etes is an autoi%%une disease. An autoi%%une disease results )hen the -ody@s
syste% for fighting infection (the i%%une syste%, turns against a 'art of the -ody. A 'erson )ho has
$y'e 1 dia-etes %ust take insulin daily to live.
$he %ost co%%on for% of dia-etes is $y'e 2 dia-etes. A-out ;? to ;4 'ercent of 'eo'le )ith dia-etes
have ty'e 2. $his for% of dia-etes is associated )ith older age o-esity fa%ily history of dia-etes
'revious history of gestational dia-etes 'hysical inactivity and ethnicity. A-out 9? 'ercent of 'eo'le
)ith ty'e 2 dia-etes are over)eight.
1.. Aonorrhea / C
"ausative Agent: Neisseria gonorrheae -acteria
#ode of $rans%isson: &irect contact -et)een the infectious %ucous %e%-ranes
11. Alzhei%er*s &isease / N
/ Auto'sy can only confir% the diagnosis
14. #eningitis / C
3athogen: <viral %eningitis= Enteroviruses6 (rare cases, other viruses such as hu%an
i%%unodeficiency (8IV, or %u%'s
<-acterial %eningitis= Streptococcus pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis %ost co%%on
(others, grou' ! 0tre'tococci6 Listeria monocytogenes
15. Athletes Foot
3athogen: Tinea pedis fungi
17. E'ile'sy /B
Factors: Cften doctors do not kno) )hat causes e'ile'sy. Less than half of 'eo'le )ith e'ile'sy kno)
)hy they have it.
0o%eti%es another 'ro-le% such as a head in>ury -rain tu%or -rain infection or stroke causes
lo) oxygen during -irth
head in>uries that occur during -irth or fro% accidents during youth or adulthood
-rain tu%ors
genetic conditions that result in -rain in>ury such as tu-erous sclerosis
infections such as %eningitis or ence'halitis
stroke or any other ty'e of da%age to the -rain
a-nor%al levels of su-stances such as sodiu% or -lood sugar
19. Didney 0tones / N
Lifestyle factors: Bot drinking enough )ater (secondary to excessive intake of salty food,6 #edical
conditions (e.g. gout and infla%%atory -o)el disease such as "rohn@s disease,6 can run in fa%ilies as
stones often occur in fa%ily %e%-ers over several generations6 (rare cases, a 'erson for%s kidney
stones -ecause the 'arathyroid glands 'roduce too %uch of a hor%one )hich leads to higher calciu%
levels and 'ossi-ly calciu% kidney stones
1;. 0ickle cell / N
Factor: caused -y a genetic a-nor%ality in the gene for he%oglo-in )hich results in the 'roduction of
sickle he%oglo-in
2?. "old / C
3athogens: 2hinoviruses // causing 1?E to 1?E of colds
"oronaviruses // causing 2?E of colds
2es'iratory syncytial virus (20V, // res'onsi-le for 1?E of colds
21. E%'hyse%a / N
Lifestyle factors: 0%oking6 Al'ha/1 Antitry'sin &eficiency6 second/hand s%oking6 Air 'ollution is also
-elieved to contri-ute to e%'hyse%a although ho) %uch is unkno)n
22. #easles / C
3athogen: 2u-eola virus
#ode of $rans%ission: &ro'let trans%ission or direct contact
2.. $u-erculosis / C
"ausative Agent: ycobacterium tuberculosis -acteria
#ode of $rans%ission: Air-orne dro'let
21. AI&0 / C
"ausative Agent: 2etrovirus <8u%an $/cell Ly%'hotro'hic Virus . (8$LV/.,=
#ode of $rans%issions: 0exually contact -lood trans%ission and direct contact (e.g. trans'lacental
24. #uscular &ystro'hy / N
Factor: An inherited genetic %istake 'revents the -ody fro% %aking a 'rotein that hel's -uild %uscles
and kee' the% strong
25. 0y'hilis / C
"ausative Agent: Treponema pallidum -acteria (s'irochete,
#ode of $rans%ission: sexually trans%itted
27. 8er'es / C
3athogen: 8er'es 0i%'lex Virus $y'e 1 (80V/1, or 8er'es 0i%'lex Virus $y'e 2 (80V/2,
#ode of trans%ission: can -e s'read to or fro% the genitals anus or %outh during sexual activities or
through any direct contact )ith her'es sores
29. 8e%o'hilia /B
3athogen: 8e%o'hilia is a rare inherited -lood clotting (coagulation, disorder caused -y inactive or
deficient -lood 'roteins (usually factor VIII,. Factor VIII is one of several 'roteins that ena-le the -lood
to clot. 8e%o'hilia %ay -e classified as %ild %oderate or severe.
$here are three %a>or ty'es of he%o'hilia: he%o'hilia A (also kno)n as classical he%o'hilia factor
VIII deficiency or antihe%o'hilic glo-ulin <A8A= deficiency,6 he%o'hilia ! ("hrist%as disease or
factor IF deficiency,6 and he%o'hilia " (factor FI deficiency,. 8e%o'hilia A and ! are inherited as F/
linked recessive genetic traits )hile 8e%o'hilia " is inherited as an autoso%al recessive genetic trait.
$herefore )hile he%o'hilia A and ! are fully ex'ressed in %ales only he%o'hilia " affects %ales and
fe%ales in eGual nu%-ers.
2;. "hicken 'ox / C
"ausative Agent: Varicella/Hoster Virus
#ode of trans%ission: &irect contact or dro'let trans%ission
.?. 8odgkin*s &isease / N
"ause: $he exact cause of 8odgkin@s disease is unkno)n as is true for %ost ty'es of cancer. 0tudies
have found an increased risk of 8odgkin@s disease in 'eo'le )ho have had the E'stein/!arr virus.
Cther risk factors %ay include an 8IV infection a fa%ily history of 8odgkin@s ly%'ho%a and 'revious
che%othera'y or radiation ex'osure. 3eo'le )ho have su''ressed i%%une syste%s due to certain
%edications or %edical conditions %ay also -e at risk.
.1. !u-onic 3lague / C
3athogen: !ersinia pestis -acteria
#ode of $rans%ission: 'ri%arily affects )ild rodents. It is s'read fro% one rodent to another -y fleas.
8u%ans -itten -y an infected flea usually develo' a -u-onic for% of 'lague )hich is characterized -y a
-u-o i.e. a s)elling of the ly%'h node draining the flea -ite site.
If the -acteria reach the lungs the 'atient develo's 'neu%onia ('neu%onic 'lague, )hich is then
trans%issi-le fro% 'erson to 'erson through infected dro'lets s'read -y coughing. Initial sy%'to%s of
-u-onic 'lague a''ear 7I1? days after infection.
.2. E-ola / C
3athogen: E-ola virus
#ode of $rans%ission: introduced into the hu%an 'o'ulation through close contact )ith the -lood
secretions organs or other -odily fluids of infected ani%als