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International Journal of Trends in Mathematics and Statistics ISSN:2279 0318

Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh


On A Class of Bicomplex Sequences
Mamta Amol Wagh, Department of Mathematics Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College University of Delhi,
Karampura, Shivaji Marg, New Delhi
Abstract: In this paper we have investigated certain properties of a particular class B of
bicomplex sequences associated with the bicomplex functions which are holomorphic in
the bicomplex space C
2
with a functional analytic view point. B is a subclass of the class
B which has been defined and studied by Srivastava and Srivastava in 2007. B has been
provided with a modified Gelfand algebraic structure and it has been proved that B is an
algebra ideal which is not a maximal ideal of B. Invertible and quasi invertible elements
in B have been studied. A characterization of zero divisors is given and a sufficient
condition for an element to be topological zero divisor has been derived. Algebra
homomorphism between B and B has been investigated.
Keywords: Bicomplex functions, Bicomplex Space, Gelfand Algebra, Quasi invertible
elements, Topological zero divisors.
1. Introduction
Analytic functions and integral functions have always been an important part of analysis.
Most of the studies of such functions are done with the help of their series
representations. Certain important behaviours of such functions can be characterized in
terms of the sequence of coefficients of their series representation. This makes the study
of sequences of their coefficients an important tool for the study of analytic and integral
functions. In this paper, we are going to discuss some of the properties of a class of entire
bicomplex sequences with the functional analytic viewpoint.
2. About C
2
(The Bicomplex Space):
Bicomplex Numbers were introduced by Corrado Segre (1860 1924) in 1892. He
published a paper [S1] in which he defined an infinite set of algebras and gave the
concept of multicomplex numbers. For the sake of brevity, we have confined ourselves to
the bicomplex version of his theory. The space of bicomplex numbers is the first in an
infinite sequence of multicomplex spaces. Refer [P1] for detailed study of bicomplex
numbers.
International Journal of Trends in Mathematics and Statistics ISSN:2279 0318
Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
IJTIMS 159
The set of bicomplex numbers is denoted by C
2
and defined as follows:
C
2
= { ;
0 4 3 2 1 4 2 1 3 2 2 1 1
, , , : C x x x x x i i x i x i x e + + +
or equivalently as
C
2
= { ;
1 2 1 2 2 1
, : C z z z i z e + ;
where i
1
2
= i
2
2
= 1; i
1
i
2
= i
2
i
1
, and C
0
and C
1
denote the sets of real and complex
numbers, respectively.
The binary compositions of addition and scalar multiplication on C
2
are defined
coordinate wise and the multiplication in C
2
is defined term by term.
With these binary compositions, C
2
becomes a commutative algebra with identity.
Algebraic structure of C
2
differs from that of C
1
in many respects. Few of them are
mentioned below:
1. Non-invertible elements exist in C
2
.
2.
Non-trivial idempotent elements exist in C
2
.
3.
Non-trivial zero divisors exist in C
2.
3. Some important definitions
3.1 Idempotent Elements:
Besides 0 and 1, there are exactly two nontrivial idempotent elements in C
2
defined as e
1
= (1 + i
1
i
2
) / 2, e
2
= (1 i
1
i
2
) / 2.
Note that e
1
+ e
2
= 1 and e
1
.e
2
= e
2
.e
1
= 0.
A bicomplex number =
2 2 1
z i z + has a unique idempotent representation, [S3] as
=
1
e
1
+
2
e
2
where
1
=
2 1 1
z i z ,
2
=
2 1 1
z i z + .
3.2 Two Principal Ideals:
The Principal Ideals in
2
C generated by
1
e and
2
e are denoted by
1
I and
2
I
respectively; thus
{ ;
2 1 1
: C e I e = ,
{ ;
2 2 2
: C e I e = .
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Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
160 IJTIMS
Since
2
2
1
1
e e + = , where
1
and
2
are the idempotent components of , therefore
these ideals can also be represented as
{ ;
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1
, : ) ( C z z e z i z I e = { ;
1 1
: C z e z e =
{ ;
1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
, : ) ( C z z e z i z I e + = { ;
1 2
: C z e z e =
Note that { ; 0 I I
2 1
= and
2 2 1
O I I = , the set of all singular elements of
2
C .
3.3 Zero Divisors:
As we have seen, e
1
. e
2
= e
2
. e
1
= 0. Thus zero divisors exist in
2
C . In fact, two
Bicomplex numbers are divisors of zero if and only if one of them is a complex multiple
of e
1
and the other is a complex multiple of e
2
. In other words, two Bicomplex numbers
are divisors of zero if and only if one of them is a member of I
1
~ {0} and the other is a
member of I
2
~ {0}.
3.4 Normof a Bicomplex Number:
The norm in
2
C is defined as
{ ;
2 / 1
2
2
2
1
z z + = =
2 / 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
]
1

+
C
2
becomes a modified Banach algebra with respect to this norm in the sense that
q s q . 2 .
3.5 Holomorphic functions:
Let X be a domain in C
2
. A function
2
: C X f is said to be holomorphic function if
- e , X a discus , )
2 1
, ; r r D with r
1
> 0, r
2
> 0 and a bicomplex power series
representation in D such that
, ) , ) , )
1 2
1
; ,
k
k
k
f D r r
>
= e

.
H(X) denotes the set of all holomorphic functions on C
2
.
3.6 Entire functions:
International Journal of Trends in Mathematics and Statistics ISSN:2279 0318
Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
IJTIMS 161
A function f of a bicomplex variable is said to be an entire function if it is holomorphic in
the entire bicomplex space
2
C .
3.7 Entire Bicomplex Sequence:
If , ) , )
k
1 k
k
f q o =
>
represents an entire function, the series o
k
is called entire
bicomplex series and the sequence { ;
k
o is called entire bicomplex sequence.
3.8 Quasi Invertible Elements:
If A is an algebra, then an element x of A is said to be left quasi invertible, if there
exists A ye such that
0 x . y x y x y = + = ;
right quasi invertible, if
0 y . x y x y x = + = ,
and quasi invertible if there exists A ye such that
0 x . y x y x y = + = ; and 0 y . x y x y x = + = .
3.9 Gelfand Algebra:
A commutative Banach Algebra with a unity element of norm one is called Gelfand
algebra.
3.10 Topological Zero Divisors:
An element z in a Banach Algebra is called a topological divisor of zero, if there exists a
sequence { ;
n
z in A such that 1 =
n
z and 0
n
zz and 0 z z
n
as n .
4. The existing work
The class B defined by Srivastava and Srivastava [S2] is
B= { ; { ;

< < + = =
> >
k
k
k
k
k
k
k k k
k k e e f f
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
sup , sup : :
Every element of class B is the sequence of coefficients of an entire function and is,
therefore, an entire sequence.
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Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
162 IJTIMS
It has been proved in [S2] that the class B has an alternative form justified by the
following result.
Theorem1: For any bicomplex sequence { ; { ;
1 2
1 2 k k k
e e = + , the following two
conditions are equivalent:
(i)

<
>1
1
sup
k
k
k
k and

<
>1
2
sup
k
k
k
k
(ii) <
>
k
k
k
k
1
sup
Thus we get an alternative definition of the class B
B= { ;

< =
>
k
1 k
k
k
k sup : f : f
4.1 Algebraic structure of B
Binary compositions on B are defined as follows:
Let { ;
k
f = and { ;
k
g q = be arbitrary members of B and
0
C ae
1. Addition : { ;
k
g f o = + where . 1 , > q + = o k
k k k
2. Scalar multiplication : { ;
k
f a = . where . , 1 , .
0
C a k a
k k
e > = |
3. Weighted Hadamard Multiplication : { ;
k
g f = where
1 , > = k k
k k
k
k

B is a commutative algebra with identity, the element { ;
k
k u

= being the identity
element of B.
The normdefined in B
k
k
k
k f =
>1
sup , { ; B f
k
e = .
5. New Results found
We have defined a subclass of the class B as follows:
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Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
IJTIMS 163
B' = { ;

)

< =
>
k
1
1 k
k
1 k
1
k sup : e f : f
The elements of B are the sequences with members in A
1
, where A
1
is the auxiliary
space.
5.1 Algebraic Structure of B'
Note first that B' is closed with respect to the binary compositions induced on B' as a
subset of B, owing to the consistency of idempotent representation and the algebraic
structure of bicomplex numbers. Norm in B' is defined as follows:
{ ; '. B e . f , sup f
1 k
1
k
1
1 k
e = =
>
Theorem2: B' is a Gelfand subalgebra of B.
Proof: We only check the completeness. Let
{ ;
p
f be an arbitrary Cauchy sequence in
B' , where { ; B e z f p
pk p
' e = >
1
, 1 , z
pk
e C
1
.
Since
{ ;
p
f is a Cauchy sequence in B' , therefore it is a Cauchy sequence in B.
And since B is complete, therefore - f e B such that
p
f f as p .
0
p
f f as p .
1 1 2 2
0, 0
p p
f f f f as p
Now, since ' B f
p
e , 1 p , 0 f
p
2
> and hence 0 f
2
.
So that
1
1
e . f f = . In other words, ' B f e . Hence ' B is complete.
Thus B' is a commutative Banach algebra but the identity of B, viz.
{ ;
k
u k

= does not
belong to B' . However, there is a localized identity, viz.
{ ;
1
'
k
u k e

= , which belongs to
B' . Finally B' is Gelfand algebra since,
1 k k sup ' u
k k
1 k
= =

>
.
International Journal of Trends in Mathematics and Statistics ISSN:2279 0318
Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
164 IJTIMS
Theorem3: B' is an algebra ideal of B which is not a maximal ideal.
Proof: It is clear by definition that { ; B f
k
e = and { ; ' B e g
1 k
1
e q = ,
{ ;
1
1
. . . e k f g g f
k k
k
q = = ={ ;
1
1 1
. . . e k
k k
k
q .
Further, ' B g f e since,
< q s q
> > >
k
1
1 k
k
1 k
1 k
k
1
k
1 k k
1 k
sup . k sup . . k k sup .
Therefore, B' is an algebra ideal in B.
Now, we shall prove that B' is not a maximal ideal.
Let
'
1
B be the collection of all those sequences which contain complex multiple of e
1
at
the first coordinate. We shall show that
'
1
B is an algebra ideal of B and
'
c '
1
B B .
Let { ; B f
k
e = and { ;
'
e =
1
B g
k
, i.e., { ; ,..... , ,
3 2 1
ze g = , z e C
1
.
Then { ;
k
g . f , = , where
{ ;
'
e q q = ,
1 3 3 2 2 1 1
1
B ,..... k , k , e z k
k k k
k
.
Thus
'
1
B is an algebra ideal in B. Obviously,
'
c '
1
B B . Hence B' is not a maximal
ideal.
5.2 Invertible and quasi invertible elements in B'
In this section, we first give a characterization of invertible elements in B' . A sufficient
and a necessary condition for an element to be quasi invertible is derived.
Theorem 4: Let
{ ;
1
1 k
f e = be a bicomplex sequence in B' formed by nonzero complex
multiples of
1
e . Then f is invertible in B' iff - some M > 0 such that
1
1
, 1
k
k
k M k

s > . (1)
The inverse of
{ ;
1
1 k
f e = , in case it exists, is { ;
1 k
g z e = , where
2
1
1
, 1
k
k
k
z k k

= > .
International Journal of Trends in Mathematics and Statistics ISSN:2279 0318
Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
IJTIMS 165
Proof: Suppose that the bicomplex sequence
{ ;
1
1 k
f e = is invertible in B' .
Therefore, there exists some bicomplex sequence { ;
1 k
g z e = in B' such that
u f g g f ' = = , the localized identity in B' .
1 1 1
1
e k e . z e . . k
k
k k
k
=
, ) 0
1
1
=

e k z . . k
k
k k
k
k
k
k
k z

1
2
1
.

= , since, by hypothesis, each


1

k
is non zero.
Now, g belongs to B' , so that <
>
k
k
1 k
z k sup .
Thus there exists M > 0, such that 1 k , M z k
k
k
> < .
1 k , M
1
. k
k
1
k
> <


.
Hence (1) holds.
Conversely, let (1) hold. Define
{ ;
2
1 1
,
k
k k
k
k
g z e z

= =
Note that g is well defined since 1 k , 0
k
1
> = . Further, ' g B e , since
M
1
k sup
1
k sup
k
k sup z k sup
k
1
k
1 k
k
1
k
1 k
k
1
k 2
k
1 k
k
k
1 k
<

=

>

>

> >
, due to (1).
Also,
{ ;
1 1
1
e z e k g f
k k
k
= =
)
`


1
k
1
k 2
k
1 k
e
1
k k ={ ;
1
e k
k
= u
Hence, g is the inverse of f in B and f is therefore invertible.
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5.3 Quasi-invertible elements in B'
We have given a sufficient condition and a necessary condition for an element of B' to
be quasi invertible.
Theorem 5: An element { ; '
1
1
B e f
k
e = , 1
1
=
k
k
k is quasi invertible if

1
1
1
k
k
k
is bounded
and only if

1
1
1
k
k
k
k
k
k
is bounded.
The quasi inverse of f, if it exists, is the sequence { ;
1
1
e g
k
= defined as
1 ,
1
1
1
1
>

= q k
k
k
k
k
k
(2)
Proof: Assume that

1
1
1
k
k
k
is bounded (3)
We shall prove that g defined by (2) belongs to B' and is the quasi inverse of f.
First, note that
1
1
1
1

= q
k
k
k k
k
k
k
k k
=
1
1
.
1
1

k
k
k
k
k
k
Since ' B f e and (3) holds, we conclude that ' B g e .
Further { ;
k
g f g f g f = + = , say, where
1 k
1
k
1 k
1 k
1
1 k
1
k
e . . k e e q q + = ,
International Journal of Trends in Mathematics and Statistics ISSN:2279 0318
Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
IJTIMS 167
={ ;
1
1 1 1 1
. . e k
k k
k
k k
+ = {0}, due to (2)
Therefore f is quasi invertible and g is the quasi inverse of f.
Conversely, assume that f is quasi invertible.
Therefore, there exists an element { ;
1
1
e g
k
= in B' such that
0 = + = g f g f g f
0
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
= + e k e e
k k
k
k k

, ) 0 1
1 1 1
= +
k
k
k k
k
, ) 0 1
1 1 1
= q +
k
k
k
k
k
k
k k k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k k k q =
1 1 1
1
Now (3) implies that
k
k
k
1
1 = 0.
Hence we get
1
1
1

k
k
k
k
k
k
=
k
k
k q
1
Since ' B ge , we get the desired condition.
Corollary 5.1: An element { ; '
1
1
B e f
k
e = , 1
1
=
k
k
k is quasi invertible if and
only if

1
1
1
k
k
k
k
k
k
is bounded.
Proof: Note only that boundedness of

1
1
1
k
k
k
k
k
k
implies the boundedness of

1
1
1
k
k
k
in the light of the fact that B f ' e and 1
1
=
k
k
k .
5.4 Zero divisors and Topological zero divisors in B'
Zero divisors in B'
International Journal of Trends in Mathematics and Statistics ISSN:2279 0318
Volume 3, issue 5, 2014 Amol Wagh
168 IJTIMS
Theorem 6: Two elements { ;,
1
e f
k
o = and { ;
1
e g
k
| = of B' are divisors of zero if
and only if
k
o = 0 for k in a proper subset P of the set N of indices and
k
| = 0 for k in
the compliment of P in N.
Proof: Suppose that
k
o = 0 for k in a proper subset P of the set N of indices and
k
| = 0
for k in the compliment of P in N. Obviously, f and g are non zero.
We have to show that f and g are zero divisors.
Note that, { ;
1
e g f
k
= , where
k k
k
k
k | o = , by definition.
By hypothesis, for every index 1 > k
if 0 = o
k
, then 0 = |
k
.
Hence, 1 , 0 > = k
k
0 = g f .
Conversely,
If f and g are divisors of zero, then obviously
k
o cannot be zero for every index
k. Further,
0 0
1
= = e k g f
k k
k

0 =
k k
, 1 k > .
If
k
o is not zero for every k,
k
| will be zero for every k which implies that g will be
zero which is a contradiction. Hence,
k
o should be zero at some indices. Similar
argument for
k
| proves that
k
| cannot be zero for all indices. Hence
k
o vanishes on a
proper subset P of N and
k
| vanishes in the compliment of P.
Note: The theorem does not guarantee that every non zero element of B' is a zero
divisor. For instance, in case of ' B f e , { ; k , , e f
k k
= o o = 0
1
, there does not
exist any non-zero element in B' which on multiplication with f gives zero and thus there
is no zero divisor for the element f.
5.5 Topological Zero Divisors in B'
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IJTIMS 169
Theorem7: An element { ; B e f
k
' e =
1
1
is a topological zero divisor in B' if
0 lim
1
=

k
k
k
k (4)
Proof: Take a complex sequence { ;
p
z such that 1 1 > = p , z
p
, that is, the
sequence formed by the points on the unit circle.
Consider, a sequence { ;
pk p
g = , where , )
pk 1 pk p
p
pk
, e z p o o =

being the
Kronecker delta. Elaborately speaking,
{ ; , ) { ;
{ ; , ) { ;
{ ; , ) { ;
. .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
...... , 0 , 0 , 3 , 0 , 0
......... , 0 , 0 , 2 , 0
.... .......... , 0 , 0 , 1
1 3 3
3
3 3
1 2 2
2
2 2
1 1 1
1
1 1
e z g
e z g
e z g
k k
k k
k k
o = =
o = =
o = =

Note that B g , p
p
' e > 1 and
, )
pk p
p k
k
p
z p k sup g o =

>1
, )
p
p p
z p p

= 1 = =
p
z
Further
, )
pk p
p
k
k k
k
p p
z p k k sup f g g f o = =

>
1
1
p k
p
z p
1
=
, p
k
1 p
= , ) 1 z
p
=
0 , as p , by (4)
6. Transformation on B
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In this section we have given a natural correspondences between elements of B and B'
and some of its properties have also been studied.
Let { ; B f
k
e =
Define B B T ' :
1
as , ) { ; , ) { ; B e T f T
k k
' e = =
1
1
1 1

And B B T ' ' :
2
as , ) { ; , ) { ; B e T f T
k k
' ' e = =
2
2
2 2

Some Properties of T
1
1. T
1
is a algebra homomorphism.
Let
0
, C b a e and { ; { ; B g , f
k k
e q = = .
Then { ;
k k
. b . a g b f a q + = + and hence
, ) g . b f . a T +
1
{ ; { ;
1
2
1
1
e b e a
k k
+ =
, ) , ) g bT f aT
1 1
+ = .
Again, { ;
k k
k
. . k g . f q =

and hence
, ) g . f T
1
{ ;
1
1 1
e . . . k
k k
k
q = , ) , ) g T f T k
k
1 1
. =
Thus, T
1
is algebra homomorphism.
2. T
1
is idempotent transformation.
Note that , ) { ; , )
k
T f T
2
1
2
1
=
= { ; , ) , )
1
1
1 1 1
e T T T
k k
=
, ) { ; , ) f T e e e T
k k 1 1
1
2 1
1
1
0 = = + =
Hence T
1
is idempotent transformation.
3. T
1
is not one to one.
Obviously, , ) , ) g T f T
1 1
= does not necessarily imply that g f =
4. T
1
is onto.
Let { ; B e z f
n
' e =
1
be any sequence, then
{ ;
2 1
e w e z g
n n
+ = , <
>
n
k
k
w k
1
sup
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IJTIMS 171
belongs to the class B such that , ) , ) { ; f e z e w e z T g T
n n n
= = + =
1 2 1
.
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[L1] Larsen, R. : Functional Analysis an Introduction
Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973.
[S1] Segre C. : Le Rappresentazioni Reali Delle forme complesse e Gli
Enti Iperalgebrici
Math. Ann., 40, 1892, 413-467.
[S2] Srivastava, Rajiv K. : On a class of Entire Bicomplex sequences.
& Srivastava, Naveen K. South East. Asian J. Math & Math. Sc. 5(3), 2007, 47-68.
[S3] Srivastava, Rajiv K. : Certain topological aspects of Bicomplex space,
to appear in Bull. Pure & Appl. Math. Dec., 2008
[P1] Price, G. Baley : An Introduction to Multicomplex spaces and functions
Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1991.