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Depth and Heading Control for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Using Estimated Hydrodynamic Coefficients

Depth and Heading Control for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Using Estimated Hydrodynamic Coefficients

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J oonyoung Kim, Kihun Kim, Hang S . Choi, Woojae Seong, and Kyu-Yeul Lee

Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 15 1-742, Korea

Absfract - Depth and heading control of an AUV are

considered for the predetermined depth and heading angle.

The proposed control algorithm is based on a sliding mode

control using estimated hydrodynamic coefficients. The

hydrodynamic coefficients are estimated with the help of

conventional nonlinear observer techniques such as sliding

mode observer and extended Kalman filter. By using the

estimated coefficients, a sliding mode controller is constructed

for the combined diving and steering maneuver. The

simulation results of the proposed control system are compared

with those of control system with true coefficients. It is

demonstrated that the proposed control system makes the

system stable and maintains the desired depth and heading

angle with sufficient accuracy.

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, intensive efforts are being concerted

towards the development of Autonomous Underwater

Vehicles (AUVs). In order to design an A W, it is usually

necessary to analyze its maneuverability and controllability

based on a mathematical model. The mathematical model

for most 6 DOF contains hydrodynamic forces and moments

expressed in terms of a set of hydrodynamic coefficients.

Therefore, it is important to know the true values of these

coefficients so as to simulate the performance of the AUV

correctly.

The hydrodynamic coefficients may be classified into 3

types; linear damping coefficients, linear inertial force

coefficients, and nonlinear damping coefficients. The linear

damping coefficient is known to affect the maneuverability of

an AUV strongly. Sen [l] examined the influence of

various hydrodynamic coefficients on the predicted

maneuverability quality of submerged bodies and found that

the coefficients of significant effects on the trajectories are

the linear damping coefficients. These coefficients are

normally obtained by experimental test, numerical analysis or

empirical formula. Although Planar Motion Mechanism

(PMM) test is the most popular among experimental tests, the

measured values are not completely reliable because of

experimental difficulties and errors.

Another approach is the observer method that estimates

the hydrodynamic coefficients with the help of a model based

estimation algorithm. A representative method among

observer methods is the Kalman filter, which has been widely

used in the estimation of the hydrodynamic coeflficients and

This work was supported by the NRL program from the Ministry of Science

& Technology of Korea.

state variables. Hwang [2] estimated the maneuvering

coefficients of a ship and identified the dynamic system of a

maneuvering ship using extended Kalman filtering technique.

These estimated coefficients are used not only for a

mathematical model to analyze AUVs maneuvering

performance but also for a controller model to design AUVs

autopilot. Antonelli et al. [3 J estimated vehicle-manipulator

systems velocity using observer and applied it in tracking

control law. Fossen and Blanke [4] designed propeller shaft

speed controller by using feedback from the axial water

velocity in the propeller disc. Farrell and Clauberg [ 5]

reported successful control of the Sea Squirt vehicle which

used an extended Kalman filter as a parameter estimator with

pole placement to design the controller. Yuh [6] has

describes the functional form of vehicle dynamic equations

of motion, the nature of the loadings, and the use of adaptive

control via online parameter identification.

Recently, advanced control techniques have been

developed for A W, aimed at improving the capability of

tracking desired position and attitude trajectories.

Especially, sliding mode control has been successfully

applied to AUV because of good robustness for modeling

uncertainty, variation from operating condition, and

disturbance. Yoerger and Slotine [7] proposed a series of

SISO continuous-time controllers by using the sliding mode

technique on an underwater vehicle and demonstrated the

robustness of their control system by computer simulation in

the presence of parameter uncertainties. Cristi et al. [SI

proposed an adaptive sliding mode controller for AUVs

based on the dominant linear model and the bounds of the

nonlinear dynamic perturbations. Healey and Lienard [9]

described a 6 DOF model for the maneuvering of an

underwater vehicle and designed a sliding mode autopilot for

the combined steering, diving, and speed control functions.

Lea et al. [ 101 compared the performance of root locus, fuzzy

logic, and sliding mode control, and tested using a

experimental vehicle. Lee et al. [l 13designed a discrete-

time quasi-sliding mode controller for an AUV in the

presence of parameter uncertainties and a long sampling

interval.

In this paper, depth and heading control of an AUV are

proposed in order to maintain the desired depth and heading

angle in a towing tank. The proposed control algorithm

represents a sliding mode control using the estimated

hydrodynamic Coefficients. The hydrodynamic coefficients

are estimated based on the nonlinear observer such as Sliding

Mode Observer (SMO) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF).

Because the system to be controlled is highly nonlinear, a

MTS 0-933957-28-9 429

sliding mode control is constructed to compensate the effects

of modeling nonlinearity, parameter uncertainty, and

disturbance.

Section I1 describes

the nonlinear observers for estimation of the hydrodynamic

coefficients. Section 111 presents a sliding mode control for

depth and heading control. Section IV shows simulation

results. Finally, section V presents the conclusions.

This paper organized as follows:

11. ESTIMATION OF THE HYDRODYNAMIC

COEFFICIENTS

The coefficients of significant effects on the dynamic

performance of an AUV are found to be the linear damping

coefficients. Especially, ten coefficients among the linear

damping coefficients are considered as highly sensitive

parameters and represented in [ I ] as M,. A4&, N, N&. Ny, Z, ,

Z, , Y,,, Y, and Y,. In this paper, in order to estimate the

sensitive coefficients, the estimate system based on a

nonlinear observer is constructed as illustrated in Fig. 1.

The nonlinear observer block is composed of SMO and EKF,

which is designed based on the AUVs 6 DOF equations of

motion. Based on the measured signal of the AUVs motion,

two nonlinear observers are developed for estimating the

sensitive coefficients. The AUV block represents the real

plant and includes a 6 DOF model of NPS AUV I1 [9]. The

value of the sensitive coefficients from this block is used as

true value and compared with the estimated ones.

In order to design a nonlinear observer, AUVs equations

of motion are needed. The observer model for this paper

includes 6 DOF AUVs equations of motion and the

augmented states for the sensitive coefficients. The observer

Fig. I . Configuration of the estimate system.

Y

I

I Top

I

I

Roar vlow ,

~

l i do vlow =

I

I

Fig. 2. Coordinate system.

~

430

model describes surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch, and yaw

motions and its coordinate system is shown in Fig. 2. The

general 6 DOF observer model is as follows:

m[u - v r +wq - x G( q 2 +r 2 ) +y G( p q - i ) + z, ( pr +q) ] = x

m[V+ ur - wp +x, ( pq +i ) - y,(p2 + r 2 ) +zG( qr- b) ] = Y

m[W - uq +vp +x, ( pr - q) +y , (qr +P) - ZG ( p 2 +q)] =z

1,j7 +( I , - I , )qr +I, ( pr - q ) - I , ( q - r 2 )

Iy4 +U, - I , ) P - I,(qr +P ) +I , ( pq -

+1, ( p2 - r 2 ) - m[x,(W - uq +vp) - z,(u - vr +wq) ] = M

I, + +U, - I r ) P9 - I , b2 - q 2 ) - IyI( P + 4)

+I, (qr - b) +m[x,(V +ur - wp) - yG(u - vr +wq)J= N

- I , ( pq +i ) +mbG (W - uq +vp) - zG (i +ur - ~ p ) ] = K

(1)

In the above equation, X, Y, Z, K, M, and N represent the

resultant force and moment with respect to x , y, and z axis,

respectively, and their detailed expressions are described in

[9]. In order to estimate the sensitive coefficients, these

coefficients have to be modeled as extra state variables.

Consequently, equation (1) is transformed into augmented

state-space form.

U

r;

w

P

4

i

e

~

P

i

x+x,

Y +Y,

z+z,

K + K ,

=[MI-{/

M+M,

N + N ,

p +qsin +r cos4 tan B

qcos4 - r sin4

(qsin 4 +r cos4)sece

0

where Mi s the inertia matrix and extra state, 4 denotes,M,,

M&, N,, Nh Nv, Z, , Z,, Yh, Y, and Y,, respectively. X,, Y,,

Z,, K,, M,, and N, denote the components of the inertial

force and moment. The detailed expressions are shown in

APPENDIX. Nonlinear observers are designed based on

the above (2).

A. Sliding Mode Observer

The Sliding Mode Observer (SMO), which is developed

on the basis of the sliding surface concept [12], can set the

gain value according to the uncertainty range of the plant

model. The SMO is known to be robust under parameter

uncertainty and disturbance. Besides, it can be easily

applied to the nonlinear system. To estimate the 10

sensitive coefficients, the SMO is designed based on the

observer model of (2).

i, =h(i, t)

where state variable x represents U, v, w, p , q, r, 4, 0, and

v, and additional states 4 represents the sensitive

coefficients. The output variables are chosen as U, v, w, p , q,

r, 4, 0, and v, respectively. L means the nonlinear gain

value, which is determined by satisfying the sliding condition.

Detailed derivation of the SMO is described in [13].

B, Extended Kalman Filter

The Extended KaLman Filter (EKF) can estimate the

state variables optimally in nonlinear stochastic cases that

include the plant perturbation and sensor noise. In

particular, unknown inputs or parameters can be estimated by

converting them into extra state variables [14]. The EKF is

designed utilizing the observer model of (2).

r .-.

i, =h(2, t)

where state and output variables are equal to those of the

SMO. The gain matrix, K is determined from the Riccati

equations [15]. The ten sensitive coefficients, which is

represent by 6 , are estimated from (4).

In order to estimate the sensitive coefficients associated

with horizontal and vertical motions, simulation is conducted

for combined diving and steering motion of the AUV. The

sensitive coefficients fromthe AUV block in Fig.1 is used as

true value and compared with the estimated ones. The

estimation performance of the SMO and the EKF is

compared when the AUV undergoes combined diving and

steering. The motion scenario is as follows: the AUV has

the initial speed of 1.832 m/sec and the ruddedelevator angle

is applied to 0.35 rad from the start. The rudder and

elevator works within -0.4 to 0.4 rad.

Figure 3 compares the estimation results of the SMO and

the EKF for the ten sensitive coefficients. The steady-state

error is compared in TABLE I. In the figures, thick solid

line represents the true value adopted from [ 9] and

dashedholid line represent the SMOEKF result. In general,

the EKF shows a good estimation performance, but Y,, Y,

and Yv, which are associated with sway motion, have steady-

state error. It is well known that the SMO is a robust

observer under parameter uncertainty and disturbance, but it

has large steady-state error and fluctuation at the transient

period. Based on a series of simulation, it is concluded that

the EKF estimates the sensitive coefficients with sufficient

accuracy. Although the nonlinear observers have been used

off-line in order to analyze system identification, those can

be implemented online for estimating the state variables and

control of an AUV.

TABLE I

STEADY-STATE ERROR (Yo)

.................. ..... .........

9

4.068

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Bo 100

Tlme (sec)

4.038

4.04 i !

...............

- EKF

0 10 20 30 40 50 80 70 80 Bo 100

4.044

Time (sec)

4.005

\ - Tw 1

.........

nme (sec)

- ............. ...............................

4.015

4. M 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Bo 100

Tlme (sec)

x l oJ

1

,

- 51

43 1

4.12

I / ' " r ' ;-True '

11') - SMO "

........... i - EKF

......... ......

............................ ' I J

I

4.15' ' ' ' ' ' '

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

nme (sec)

0.06 I

......................................

P

' 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 0 5 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0

Time (sec)

.....

.................................

o,06i > _ I ---i

'.... ..'..... ' ' ' ' ' ' '

- ..

8 , , , , , , , ! , ' J

Time (sec)

0 10 20 30 40 50 50 70 80 90 100

.................................................

0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0

4.2

nme (sec)

Fig. 3. Estimation results of the SMO and EKF.

111. CONTROLLER DESIGN

Although an AUV system is difficult to control due to

high nonlinearity and motion coupling, sliding mode control

has been successfully appiied to underwater vehicles. In

this paper, sliding mode control [9] is adopted for an AUV

with the uncertainties of system parameters. Especially,

when designing a sliding mode controller, the estimated

hydrodynamic coefficients in section I1 are applied in the

controller model.

It is well known that sliding mode control provides

effective and robust ways of controlling uncertain plants by

means of a switching control law, which drives the plant's

state trajectory onto the sliding surface in the state space.

Any system is described as a single input, multi-state

equation.

i ( t ) =Ax( t ) +bu(t) +sf (t )

/e\

x ( t ) E R""', A E R""", b E R""'

where 6f ( t ) is a nonlinear function describing disturbances

and unmodelled coupling effects. The sliding surface is

defined as

0 =s Tz

~

432

where sT represents sliding surface coefficient and 2 the

state error, i .e. 2 =x - x d . It is important that the sliding

surface is defined such that as the sliding surface tends to

zero, the state error also tends to zero. Sliding surface

reaches zero in a finite amount of time by the condition.

6. =--r)sgn(a) (7)

where q represents nonlinear switching gain.

and (7), we obtain

From ( 5)

ST(AX +bU +sf - i d) =-Sgn(0)

(8)

and control input is determined as follows:

U =-(sTb)-'sTAX +(sTb)-'[-sTSf +ST&

- rlsgn(d1

(9)

If the pair ( A, b) is controllable and (s'b) is nonzero,

then it may be shown that the sliding surface coeficients are

the elements of the left eigenvector of the closed-loop

dynamics matrix ( A- b k T) corresponding to a pole at the

origin

ST[ A - bkT] =0 (10)

where the linear gain vector, kT is defined (sTb)-' sTA

and can be evaluated from standard method such as pole

placement. It should be mentioned that one of the

eigenvalues of (A - bk') must be specified to be zero.

The resulting sliding control law using a 'tunh' function is

given as

U =-kTX - (sTb)-*sTSf +( sTb) - ' sTi

(J J )

-q(sTb)-' tanh(a/cD)

where Q, is the boundary layer thickness and it acts as a

low-pass filter to remove chattering and noise. The choice

of the nonlinear switching gain, and the boundary layer

thickness, Q, is selected to eliminate control chattering.

A. Depth Control

linearized diving system dynamics are developed as follows:

In order to design a controller in the vertical plane, the

P P -

( I ~ --L~M,)~=(-L~uM~)~ 2 2 - ( zG we

+ ( - L u P 3 2 - M6) SS

2

e = q

z =-ue

In (12), the values of Gq and Gh are taken from the

estimated ones in section 11. Then the dynamic model for

depth control yields the state equation as

The sliding surface^is defined as

os =28.18?+14.378h-Z (14)

when the poles are placed at [0 -0.25 -0.261. Finally, the

depth control law is determined as

S, =2.3531q +0.00628 - 0.16982,

(15)

+2.3 tanh(a, /4).

For implementation of the above depth control law an AUV

has to be equipped with the pitch rate, pitch angle, and depth

sensors.

B. Heading Control

follows:

The linearized steering system dynamics are given as

P P s

2 2 2 2

- (- L4Nv) i -f- ( I , - - L N, )i =( E L3ui, )v+ ( E L%i r)r

@ = r

(16)

In (16), the values of ~,~,f &,$v,$,,and $&are taken

from the estimated ones. Then the dynamic model for

heading control yields the state equation as

[;]=[I:;:: 1:;:; ! ] [ j +[ - o ; 52/ 5r . 0.145

(17)

The values to place the poles of the steering system at [O

-0.41 -0,421 become

(18)

CT, =0.15V +1.657 +@

and the heading control law is as follows:

6, =0. 5260~ +0.1621r +4. 3465~,

(19)

+1.5 -(ar / 0.05)

In order to implement the above heading control law, it is

necessary to measure the signals of v, Y , and v/ .

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

Numerical simulations have been performed in order to

show the effectiveness of the proposed control system. The

simulation program, which is developed using MATLAB 6.0

with SIMULINK 4.0 environment, is shown in Fig. 4. The

controller block is composed of a sliding mode controller for

the depth and heading control. The AUV data of input and

output as the true plant are taken from NPS AUV I1 [9].

The depth and heading controls are simulated with the full

nonlinear equation and the sliding mode controller developed

in (15) and (19). The responses of control law using the

estimated hydrodynamic coefficients are compared with

those of control law with true coefficients.

Figure 5 shows the desired depth, tracking trajectory, and

other controlled variables for the depth control simulation.

The desired depth is given 1 m down from the initial depth

during the first 50 secs, and then returning back to the initial

depth after 50 sec. From these figures, the performance of

the control law using estimated coefficients is similar to that

of the control law with true coefficients. Especially, the

proposed control system has accurate tracking performance

and almost no drift in sway direction as can be seen from Fig.

5 (d). Also, sliding mode control shows the robustness on

the presence of parameter uncertainty.

Figure 6 shows the response of the heading control.

The heading control simulations are performed together with

depth control in order to prevent the vertical motion

occurring from the coupling. In order to follow the desired

path, we define the line of sight [9] in terms of a desired

heading angle. The proposed heading control follows the

desired heading angle and is compared with the control law

with true coefficients. The desired path is chosen 1 m

towards y-direction during the first 50 secs, and then

returning to the initial position. The proposed control law

follows the desired path accurately similar to the depth

control law.

I

i

433

(c) Pltch angle

E. 4 5

- Desired Depth

- Estimate

-1

-4

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

@) El mtorangl e (d) Horizontal dedation

P

ii -20 -0.1

o i o 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -O20 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 6 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0

Time (sac) nme (sec)

Fig. 5. Simulation results of depth control.

(a) Hodzontal trajactoty

Desired Path

- Estimate

(a) Hodzontal trajactoty

DeSiredPath 11

I

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

(b) Rudderangle

40

(c) Yaw angle

-5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

(d) Vertical de\latlm

0.01

0.m -

O

Fig. 6. Simulation results of heading control.

V. CONCLUSIONS

A sliding mode control using the estimated

hydrodynamic coefficients is proposed in this paper to

maintain the desired depth and heading angle. The

hydrodynamic coefficients are estimated based on the

nonlinear observer such as SMO and EKF. Especially, the

EKF has a good estimation performance and estimates the

coefficients with sufficient accuracy. Using the estimated

coefficients, a sliding mode controller is designed for the

diving and steering maneuver. The control system using

estimated hydrodynamic coefficients is compared with the

control system with true coefficient. It is demonstrated that

the proposed control system #is stable and follows the desired

depth and path accurately. It means that the sliding mode

control shows the robustness under parameter uncertainties.

The proposed estimation method is believed to reduce the

PMM test for measuring the hydrodynamic coefficients. In

addition, the proposed control system makes the AUV stable

and controllable in the presence of parameter uncertainties

and external disturbances.

REFERENCES

D. Sen, A study on sensitivity of maneuverability

performance on the hydrodynamic coefficients for

submerged bodies, J. ofship Research, vol. 44, no. 3,

pp. 186- 196, Sept. 2000.

W. Y. Hwang, Application of system identification to

ship maneuvering, MIT Ph.D. Thesis, 1980.

G. Antonelli, F. Caccavale, S . Chiaverini, and L.

Villani, Tracking control for underwater vehicle-

manipulator systems with velocity estimation, IEEE J.

Oceanic Eng., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 399-413, J uly 2000.

T. I. Fossen, and M. Blanke, Nonlinear output

feedback control of underwater vehicle propellers

434

using feedback from estimated axial flow velocity,

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 241-255,

April 2000.

J. Farrell, and B. Clauberg, Issues in the

implementation of an indirect adaptive control

system, IEEE A Oceanic Eng., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 31 1-

318, July 1993.

J. Yuh, Modeling and control of underwater vehicles,

IEEE Trans. Syst,, Man, Cybern., vol. 20, pp. 1475-

1483, 1990

D. R. Yoerger, and J. J. E. Slotine, Robust trajectory

control of underwater vehicles, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.,

vol. OE-10, no. 4, pp. 462-470, 1985.

R. Cristi, F. A. Papoulias, and A. J. Healey, Adaptive

sliding mode control of autonomous underwater

vehicles in the dive plane, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., vol.

15, no. 3, pp. 152-160, July 1990.

A. J . Healey, and D. Lienard, Multivariable sliding

mode control for autonomous diving and steering of

unmanned underwater vehicles, IEEE J. Oceanic

Eng., vol. 18, no. 3. pp. 327-339, 1993.

[lo] R. K. Lea, R. Allen, and S. L. Meny, A comparative

study of control techniques for an underwater flight

vehicle, International J of System Science, vol. 30,

no. 9, pp. 947-964, 1999.

[ l l ] P. M. Lee, S. W. Hong, Y. K. lim, C. M. Lee, B. H. Jeon,

and J. W. Park, Discrete-time quasi-sliding mode

control of an autonomous underwater vehicle, IEEE A

Oceanic Eng., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 388-395, July 1999.

[12] J. J . E. Slotine, J. K. Hedrick, and E. A. Misawa, On

sliding observers for nonlinear systems, ASME J. of

Qnami cs, Measurement, and Control, vol. 109, pp.

[13] R. A. Masmoudi, and J. K. Hedrick, Estimation of

vehicle shaft torque using nonlinear observers, ASME

J. of Dynamics, Measurement, and Control, vol. 114,

[14] L. R. Ray, Stochastic decision and control parameters

for IVHS, 1995 ASME IMECE Advanced Automotive

Technologies, pp. 114-1 18, 1995.

[15] M. Boutayeb, H. Rafaralahy, and M. Darouach,

Convergence analysis of the extended Kalman filter

used as an observer for nonlinear deterministic

discrete-time systems, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control,

vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 581-586, 1997.

245-252, 1987.

pp. 394-400, 1992.

APPENDIX

M =

0

n - - L X, P 3

2

0 ~ - - L ~ Y , P

2

0 0

0 -mzG - - L ~ K+ P

2

m G 0

P

2

0 - - L4N,

... ...

0 0

0

P

m - - L ~ Z ,

2

0 I , - - LsKb

P

2

- mG - - L4Yp

0

P

2

- f 2 L4Mw - I v

0 - I , - ~ L ~ N ,

2

... ...

013x6

m G 0

0 --L4T P :

- f L4Zg 0

-1, 2

I) - - LMg 2 -1,

-1, 2

2

2

- I , --L5K, P i 0,,,3

I , - - LN, P 5

P s

... ... ... ...

13x13

435

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