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You are on page 1of 48

Systems: Part II

Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

9/27/2010 1

Lecture2: Wind Turbine Generator

and Speed Control

Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Announcement

Read chapter 6.

This lecture covers materials from section 6.6-

6.8.

Tutorial problems are problems 6.2, 6.4, 6.5,

6.8, 6.12

9/27/2010 2 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Outline

Wind turbine generators

Speed control for maximum power

Review of probability concepts

Average power in the wind

9/27/2010 3 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Inside Wind Turbine

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/multimedia/video_wind_turbines.html

9/27/2010 4 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 5

WIND TURBINE GENERATORS

A simple generator

Synchronous generator

Induction generator

9/27/2010 6 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Electromagnetic Induction

Moving a through a .

Induced voltage across wire.

Faradays law:

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 7

conductor magnetic field

Michael Faraday,

English chemist and physicist, 1791-1867.

Electricity

rocks!

Relative motion

A Simple Generator

Armature = a conductor in the stationary portion of the

machine called stator.

Rotor = permanent magnet in the moving part.

Need mechanical force to move the magnetic field !

Key concept:

Mechanical Input Electrical Output

8

AC Generation

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 9

How fast should the rotor turn?

Rotation Rate

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 10

Suppose we want to generator voltage at 60 Hz frequency,

When a rotor has more poles (p),

How to Create a Magnetic Field

Use permanent magnet, only for small

generator.

Use DC current passing through coil.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 11

http://www.lanl.gov/news/index.php/fuseaction/1663.article/d/20085/id/13276 http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/magnetminute/permanent.html

Self Induced Magnetic Field

Create rotating magnetic

field in stator, rather than

in rotor.

Coils imbedded in a 3-

phase generator.

Need AC voltage.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 12

How fast does this magnetic field rotate?

60 degrees

Ans: In this example, same speed as the voltage frequency.

Types of Generator

Synchronous generator

Operate at constant

rotational speed to create

constant voltage frequency.

Need magnetic fields,

Permanent magnet rotor for

small machine.

Almost all wind turbine with

synchronous generator

creates magnetic field by DC

current.

Asynchronous generator

Induction generator

Do not operate at fix speed,

some times called induction

generator.

Magnetic field is induced

from AC voltage.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 13

Synchronous Generator

9/27/2010 14 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

To increase rotational speed in order to

produce 50/60 Hz voltage frequency

To supply DC current

for field winding

An Induction Machine

Require rotating magnetic field,

supplied by AC voltage.

Use (squirrel) cage rotor made

from a number of aluminum

bars shorted together at their

ends, forming a cage.

What will happen to this rotor,

when placed inside a stator

with rotating magnetic field?

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 15

http://jimkitzmiller.net/2009/08/meditation-and-the-hamster-wheel-of-life/

How Cage Rotor Interact with Stator

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 16

Faradays law.

Conductor bars allow

current to flow easily

Lorentz force law

B l i F

Rotor wants to spin in the

same direction as the rotating

magnetic field in the stator!

Wait! If the rotor spins at synchronous

speed no relative motion no current

induced no force acted on the rotor

An Induction Motor

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 17

Induced voltage in stator winding

Force crated on the rotor try to spin

catching up with the synchronous

speed

Induction machine operating as a motor spins at a rate slower than

synchronous speed.

Slip

A difference between synchronous speed (Ns)

and rotor speed (Nr) is called slip.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 18

As load increase rotor slow down.

After breakdown torque, rotor will stop.

When the rotor is forced to rotate in the

same direction as the load, the break

operates.

An Induction Generator

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 19

Induced voltage in stator winding Force crated on the rotor try to spin

catching up with the synchronous

speed

When the wind speed is sufficient, the rotor spins faster than synchronous

speed, causing the 3-phase voltage induced in the stator winding

Induction machine operating as a generator spins at a rate faster

than synchronous speed.

Comparison

Synchronous generator

In case of a large generator,

DC current has to be

supplied to create

permanent magnetic field.

Require slip rings and

brushes, adds to

maintenance routine

required by the machine.

Asynchronous generator

Very common for wind

turbine.

Do not require separate

circuit (exciter) for magnetic

field.

Do not require slip rings and

brushes.

Less maintenance cost.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 20

Change in Wind Speed

Synchronous generator

Gearbox needs to be

adjusted to maintain

constant voltage frequency.

Asynchronous generator

Slip varies according to the

wind speed, helps to absorb

shocks to mechanical

equipment.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 21

What Strong Wind Can Do

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3FZtmlHwcA

9/27/2010 22 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

SPEED CONTROL FOR MAXIMUM

POWER

Variable rotor speeds

Pole-changing induction generators

Multiple gearboxes

Variable slip induction generator

Indirect grid connection systems

9/27/2010 23 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Variable Rotor Speed

For maximum efficiency, turbine blades should

change their speed as wind speed changes.

9/27/2010 24 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Rotation speed changes as wind speed changes Three-step rotational speed adjustment

Challenge is to design machine that accommodate

variable motor speed at fixed generator speed!

Pole Changing Induction Generator

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 25

http://www.electrical-

contractor.net/forums/ubbthreads.php/ubb/showflat/Forum/15/topic/000083/Number/0/site_id/1

External connections that switch number of poles,

no change to rotor.

Inside the stator, consists of

many permanent magnets

http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/stator.htm

Multiple Gearbox

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 26

http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/powtrain.htm

Gearboxes in wind turbine do not typically change

gear. Two gearboxes with separate generators for low

wind speed and high wind speed gear.

1.5 MW

gearbox for

1.5MW wind

turbine

Variable slip induction generator

Use slip as an adjustable resistance to vary

speed.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 27

Adjustable resistor

Opti Slip

Circuit attached on

rotor with electronic

control system

Optical fiber link to adjust resistor

Indirect grid connection systems

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 28

Potential harmonics

REVIEW OF PROBABILITY CONCEPT

Typical wind statistics

Probability concept

Weibull distribution

Rayleigh distribution

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 29

Wind Speed Data (m/s)

monitoring

surface melt

over large

areas of the ice

sheet margin

in Greenland

http://www.geus.dk/departments/quaternary-marine-

geol/icemon/station-nuuk-uk.htm

9/27/2010 30 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Typical Wind Speed Histogram

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 31

Probability Measure

A probability needs to satisfy the following

properties:

1. 0 P(an event) 1

2. P(all possible events) = 1

A probability is defined as a quantitative

measure. In this case, a relative frequency

of fractions of time.

9/27/2010 32 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Probability Density Function

Discrete function. Continuous function.

A function that gives probabilities associated

with all possible values.

0.1

0.2

0.3 0.3

0.1

1 2 3 4 5

1 . 0 1 Pr v

v f

1 2 3 4 5

3

2

3 2 Pr dv v f v

9/27/2010 33 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Wind speed

Wind speed

Wind Speed P.D.F.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 34

Weibull Distribution

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 35

k = shape parameter

c = scale parameter

When k=2, called

Rayleigh distribution.

Waloddi Weibull,

Swedish engineer and scientist,

1887-1979

Amazing, right?

I know.

Rayleigh Distribution

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 36

c = scale parameter

John William Strutt, third Baron Rayleigh, Lord Rayleigh,

Winner of The 1904 Nobel Prize in Physics,

1842 -1919

See how

beautiful

the

curve is!

AVERAGE POWER IN THE WIND

Power in the wind

Discrete wind speed histogram

Average wind speed calculation

Wind speed probability density function

9/27/2010 37 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Power in the Wind

9/27/2010 38 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

= Air density (kg/m)

??

Average Wind Speed Calculation

Total speed divided by the total time of that speed. For

example, for 10-h period,

3 hr, no wind

3 hr, 5 mph

4 hr, 10 mph

9/27/2010 39 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Probability that the speed is vi!!

Avg. Wind Speed in Probabilistic Terms

9/27/2010 40 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Example 6.9

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 41

Find the average wind speed and average power in the

wind (W/m).

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 42

(average power per area)

Wind Speed P.D.F.

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 43

Discrete histogram continuous function, called Probability

density function

Mathematically

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 44

Normalized from 8760 to 1

Discrete VS Continuous

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 45

Summary

Wind turbine generators

Speed control for maximum power

Review of probability concepts

Average power in the wind

9/27/2010 46 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

Interesting Websites

http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/core.htm

9/27/2010 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen 47

Next Lecture

Start working on problem 6.2.

Review todays lecture.

Read chapter 6 now!!

Next lecture will cover section 6.8-6.9.

Average power in the wind

Simple estimates of wind turbine energy

9/27/2010 48 Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen

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