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EE4511 Sustainable Energy

Systems: Part II
Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
9/27/2010 1
Lecture2: Wind Turbine Generator
and Speed Control
Lecture Notes on Sustainable Energy Systems by Dr. Panida Jirutitijaroen
Announcement
Read chapter 6.
This lecture covers materials from section 6.6-
6.8.
Tutorial problems are problems 6.2, 6.4, 6.5,
6.8, 6.12
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Outline
Wind turbine generators
Speed control for maximum power
Review of probability concepts
Average power in the wind
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Inside Wind Turbine
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/multimedia/video_wind_turbines.html
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WIND TURBINE GENERATORS
A simple generator
Synchronous generator
Induction generator
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Electromagnetic Induction
Moving a through a .
Induced voltage across wire.
Faradays law:
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conductor magnetic field
Michael Faraday,
English chemist and physicist, 1791-1867.
Electricity
rocks!
Relative motion
A Simple Generator
Armature = a conductor in the stationary portion of the
machine called stator.
Rotor = permanent magnet in the moving part.
Need mechanical force to move the magnetic field !
Key concept:
Mechanical Input Electrical Output
8
AC Generation
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How fast should the rotor turn?
Rotation Rate
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Suppose we want to generator voltage at 60 Hz frequency,
When a rotor has more poles (p),
How to Create a Magnetic Field
Use permanent magnet, only for small
generator.
Use DC current passing through coil.
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http://www.lanl.gov/news/index.php/fuseaction/1663.article/d/20085/id/13276 http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/magnetminute/permanent.html
Self Induced Magnetic Field
Create rotating magnetic
field in stator, rather than
in rotor.
Coils imbedded in a 3-
phase generator.
Need AC voltage.
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How fast does this magnetic field rotate?
60 degrees
Ans: In this example, same speed as the voltage frequency.
Types of Generator
Synchronous generator
Operate at constant
rotational speed to create
constant voltage frequency.
Need magnetic fields,
Permanent magnet rotor for
small machine.
Almost all wind turbine with
synchronous generator
creates magnetic field by DC
current.
Asynchronous generator
Induction generator
Do not operate at fix speed,
some times called induction
generator.
Magnetic field is induced
from AC voltage.
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Synchronous Generator
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To increase rotational speed in order to
produce 50/60 Hz voltage frequency
To supply DC current
for field winding
An Induction Machine
Require rotating magnetic field,
supplied by AC voltage.
Use (squirrel) cage rotor made
from a number of aluminum
bars shorted together at their
ends, forming a cage.
What will happen to this rotor,
when placed inside a stator
with rotating magnetic field?
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http://jimkitzmiller.net/2009/08/meditation-and-the-hamster-wheel-of-life/
How Cage Rotor Interact with Stator
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Faradays law.
Conductor bars allow
current to flow easily
Lorentz force law
B l i F


Rotor wants to spin in the
same direction as the rotating
magnetic field in the stator!
Wait! If the rotor spins at synchronous
speed no relative motion no current
induced no force acted on the rotor
An Induction Motor
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Induced voltage in stator winding
Force crated on the rotor try to spin
catching up with the synchronous
speed
Induction machine operating as a motor spins at a rate slower than
synchronous speed.
Slip
A difference between synchronous speed (Ns)
and rotor speed (Nr) is called slip.
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As load increase rotor slow down.
After breakdown torque, rotor will stop.
When the rotor is forced to rotate in the
same direction as the load, the break
operates.
An Induction Generator
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Induced voltage in stator winding Force crated on the rotor try to spin
catching up with the synchronous
speed
When the wind speed is sufficient, the rotor spins faster than synchronous
speed, causing the 3-phase voltage induced in the stator winding
Induction machine operating as a generator spins at a rate faster
than synchronous speed.
Comparison
Synchronous generator
In case of a large generator,
DC current has to be
supplied to create
permanent magnetic field.
Require slip rings and
brushes, adds to
maintenance routine
required by the machine.
Asynchronous generator
Very common for wind
turbine.
Do not require separate
circuit (exciter) for magnetic
field.
Do not require slip rings and
brushes.
Less maintenance cost.
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Change in Wind Speed
Synchronous generator
Gearbox needs to be
adjusted to maintain
constant voltage frequency.
Asynchronous generator
Slip varies according to the
wind speed, helps to absorb
shocks to mechanical
equipment.
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What Strong Wind Can Do
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3FZtmlHwcA
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SPEED CONTROL FOR MAXIMUM
POWER
Variable rotor speeds
Pole-changing induction generators
Multiple gearboxes
Variable slip induction generator
Indirect grid connection systems
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Variable Rotor Speed
For maximum efficiency, turbine blades should
change their speed as wind speed changes.
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Rotation speed changes as wind speed changes Three-step rotational speed adjustment
Challenge is to design machine that accommodate
variable motor speed at fixed generator speed!
Pole Changing Induction Generator
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http://www.electrical-
contractor.net/forums/ubbthreads.php/ubb/showflat/Forum/15/topic/000083/Number/0/site_id/1
External connections that switch number of poles,
no change to rotor.
Inside the stator, consists of
many permanent magnets
http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/stator.htm
Multiple Gearbox
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http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/powtrain.htm
Gearboxes in wind turbine do not typically change
gear. Two gearboxes with separate generators for low
wind speed and high wind speed gear.
1.5 MW
gearbox for
1.5MW wind
turbine
Variable slip induction generator
Use slip as an adjustable resistance to vary
speed.
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Adjustable resistor
Opti Slip
Circuit attached on
rotor with electronic
control system
Optical fiber link to adjust resistor
Indirect grid connection systems
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Potential harmonics
REVIEW OF PROBABILITY CONCEPT
Typical wind statistics
Probability concept
Weibull distribution
Rayleigh distribution
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Wind Speed Data (m/s)
monitoring
surface melt
over large
areas of the ice
sheet margin
in Greenland
http://www.geus.dk/departments/quaternary-marine-
geol/icemon/station-nuuk-uk.htm
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Typical Wind Speed Histogram
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Probability Measure
A probability needs to satisfy the following
properties:
1. 0 P(an event) 1
2. P(all possible events) = 1
A probability is defined as a quantitative
measure. In this case, a relative frequency
of fractions of time.
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Probability Density Function
Discrete function. Continuous function.
A function that gives probabilities associated
with all possible values.
0.1
0.2
0.3 0.3
0.1
1 2 3 4 5
1 . 0 1 Pr v
v f
1 2 3 4 5


3
2
3 2 Pr dv v f v
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Wind speed
Wind speed
Wind Speed P.D.F.
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Weibull Distribution
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k = shape parameter
c = scale parameter
When k=2, called
Rayleigh distribution.
Waloddi Weibull,
Swedish engineer and scientist,
1887-1979
Amazing, right?
I know.
Rayleigh Distribution
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c = scale parameter
John William Strutt, third Baron Rayleigh, Lord Rayleigh,
Winner of The 1904 Nobel Prize in Physics,
1842 -1919
See how
beautiful
the
curve is!
AVERAGE POWER IN THE WIND
Power in the wind
Discrete wind speed histogram
Average wind speed calculation
Wind speed probability density function
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Power in the Wind
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= Air density (kg/m)
??
Average Wind Speed Calculation
Total speed divided by the total time of that speed. For
example, for 10-h period,
3 hr, no wind
3 hr, 5 mph
4 hr, 10 mph
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Probability that the speed is vi!!
Avg. Wind Speed in Probabilistic Terms
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Example 6.9
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Find the average wind speed and average power in the
wind (W/m).
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(average power per area)
Wind Speed P.D.F.
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Discrete histogram continuous function, called Probability
density function
Mathematically
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Normalized from 8760 to 1
Discrete VS Continuous
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Summary
Wind turbine generators
Speed control for maximum power
Review of probability concepts
Average power in the wind
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Interesting Websites
http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/core.htm
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Next Lecture
Start working on problem 6.2.
Review todays lecture.
Read chapter 6 now!!
Next lecture will cover section 6.8-6.9.
Average power in the wind
Simple estimates of wind turbine energy
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