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# Willy Sansen 10-05 181

Distortion
in elementary transistor circuits
Willy Sansen
KULeuven, ESAT-MICAS
Leuven, Belgium
willy.sansen@esat.kuleuven.be
Willy Sansen 10-05 182
Why distortion ?
m
c
f
m
c
f
CM
3
Non-linearity :
distortion
Ch1 Ch2 Ch1 Ch2
Mixing up channels !!!
Willy Sansen 10-05 183
Definitions : HD, IM, intercept point, ..
Distortion in a MOST
Single-ended amplifier
Differential amplifier
Distortion in a bipolar transistor
Reduction of distortion by feedback
Distortion in an opamp
Other cases of distortion and guide lines
Willy Sansen 10-05 184
Linear distortion
v
IN
t
v
OUT
t
v
OUT
v
IN
f
High-pass filter
Willy Sansen 10-05 185
Linear distortion
v
IN
t
v
OUT
t
v
OUT
v
IN
f
Low-pass filter
Willy Sansen 10-05 186
Non-linear distortion
v
IN
v
OUT
t
t
v
IN
v
OUT
Q
Rounded or compressed
Quiescent point
Expanded
Willy Sansen 10-05 187
Soft and hard non-linearity
v
IN
v
OUT
t
t
v
IN
v
OUT
Q
Soft non-lin.
v
IN
v
OUT
t
t
v
IN
v
OUT
Q
Hard non-lin.
Willy Sansen 10-05 188
Non-linearity : by power series
v
IN
v
OUT
t
t
v
IN
v
OUT
Q
Soft non-lin.
v
OUT
= a
0
+
a
1
v
IN
+ a
2
v
IN
2
+ a
3
v
IN
3
+ ...
v
IN
(t) v
OUT
(t)
Willy Sansen 10-05 189
How to find a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, ...
y = a
0
+ a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
+
a
0
= y
a
1
=
dy
du
u = 0
a
3
=
d
3
y
du
3
u = 0
6
1
u = 0
a
2
=
d
2
y
du
2
u = 0
2
1
Willy Sansen 10-05 1810
Definition of harmonic distortion HD
y = a
0
+ a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
+
With u = U cos t cos
2
x = 1/2 ( 1 + cos 2x)
cos
3
x = 1/4 ( 3 cos x + cos 3x)
y = a
0
+ a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
+ = a
0
+
(a
1
+ a
3
U
2
) U cos t + U
2
cos 2t + U
3
cos 3t
HD
2
= U
4
a
2
2
a
3
4
3
2
1
4
1
a
2
a
1
a
3
a
1
HD
3
= U
2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1811
Amplitude HD versus input signal
U
HD
10 %
1 %
0.1 %
- 20 dB
- 40 dB
- 60 dB
0.01 0.1 1
HD
2
HD
3
slope 1
slope 2
Low-distortion
region :
slopes 1 and 2
Noise
Willy Sansen 10-05 1812
HD of a resistor
HD
(dB)
Output Voltage (V
ptp
)
slope 1
slope 1
slope 2
slope 2
THD = HD
2
2
+ HD
3
2
+
HD
2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1813
Output spectrum
Freq. (Hz)
Output
amplitude
(dB)
HD
2
HD
3
2f 3f f
Willy Sansen 10-05 1814
Definition of intermodulation distortion IM
y = a
0
+ a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
+
with u = U (cos
1
t + cos
2
t )
y = a
0
+
IM
2
= 2 HD
2
= U
IM
2
at
1

2
IM
3
at 2
1

2
and
1
2
2
a
2
a
1
a
3
a
1
4
3
IM
3
= 3 HD
3
= U
2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1815
IM components
f
2f
1
-f
2
f
1
f
2
2f
2
-f
1
9 10 11 12
2f
1
f
1
+f
2
2f
2
20 21 22
3f
1
2f
1
+f
2
2f
2
+f
1
3f
2
30 31 32 33 MHz
0 f
2
-f
1
0 1
IM
3
IM
3
IM
3
IM
3
IM
2
IM
2
HD
2
HD
2
HD
3
HD
3
F F
Willy Sansen 10-05 1816
IMcomponents
f
2f
1
-f
2
f
1
f
2
2f
2
-f
1
9 10 11 12
2f
1
f
1
+f
2
2f
2
20 21 22
3f
1
2f
1
+f
2
2f
2
+f
1
3f
2
30 31 32 33 MHz
0 f
2
-f
1
0 1
IM
3
IM
3
IM
3
IM
3
IM
2
IM
2
HD
2
HD
2
HD
3
HD
3
a
1
U
2 x or 6 dB
3 x or 9.5 dB
a
3
U
3
3
4
a
3
U
3
1
4
a
2
U
2
a
2
U
2
a
2
U
2
1
2
IM
3
3 x larger !
Next to Fs !
Willy Sansen 10-05 1817
Output spectrum of amplifier for IM
Output
amplitude
(dB)
Freq. (MHz)
IM
3 IM
3
Ref.: J.Silva-Martinez, Kluwer 1993
Willy Sansen 10-05 1818
Amplitude IM3 versus input signal
V
in
(dB)
Noise
V
out
(dB)
a
1
V
in
4
3
a
3
V
in
3
V
Nout
IM
3
IMFDR
3
DR
N
IP
3
1 dB -1 dB
Compression
point
IP
3
is the IM
3
Intercept point
SFDR
3
Willy Sansen 10-05 1819
Relation IP
3
and IM
3
V
in
V
out
a
1
V
in
4
3
a
3
V
in
3
V
Nout
IM
3
IMFDR
3
DR
N
IP
3
1 dB IP
3
is V
in
where IM
3
= F
IP
3
=
a
1
a
3
3
4
= V
in
IM
3
1
= V
indB
- IM
3dB
2
1
Willy Sansen 10-05 1820
V
in
V
out
a
1
V
in
4
3
a
3
V
in
3
V
Nout
IM
3
IMFDR
3
DR
N
IP
3
1 dB
Relation IMFDR
3
and IP
3
IMFDR
3
= max DR
@ V
Nout
=
4
3
a
3
V
in
3
IMFDR
3
=
a
1
a
3
3
4 1
V
Nin
2
3
=
IP
3
V
Nin
( )
2/3
= (IP
3dB
-V
NindB
)
3
2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1821
V
in
V
out
a
1
V
in
4
3
a
3
V
in
3
V
Nout
IM
3
IMFDR
3
DR
N
IP
3
1 dB
= IP
3dB
- 9.6 dB
-1 dB is x 0.891
V
in1dBc
= 0.109
a
1
a
3
3
4
V
in1dBc
= 0.109 IP
3
The IP
3
and -1 dB compression point
Willy Sansen 10-05 1822
Relationship exercise
V
in
V
out
a
1
V
in
4
3
a
3
V
in
3
V
Nout
IM
3
IMFDR
3
DR
N
IP
3
1 dB
a
1
= 20 a
3
= 0.4
V
in
= 0.45 V
RMS
or 6 dBm
IP
3
= 6 + 25 = 31 dBm
IM
3
= 0.3 % or -50 dB
V
Nin
= 30 V
RMS
(-78 dBm)
IMFDR
3
= 119 = 73 dB
3
2
V
in1dBc
= 21 dBm
Willy Sansen 10-05 1823
Definition of crossmodulation distortion CM
y = a
0
+ a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
+
with u = U cos
1
t + U (1 + m
c
cos
c
t ) cos
2
t
CM
3
= m
c
U
2
= m
c
IM
3
4
3
m
c
f
m
c
f
CM
3
a
3
a
1

2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1824
Definitions : HD, IM, intercept point, ..
Distortion in a MOST
Single-ended amplifier
Differential amplifier
Distortion in a bipolar transistor
Reduction of distortion by feedback
Distortion in an opamp
Other cases of distortion and guide lines
Willy Sansen 10-05 1825
i
DS
= K (v
GS
- V
T
)
2
W
L
I
DS
+ i
ds
= K (V
GS
+ v
gs
- V
T
)
2
I
DS
is the DC component
i
DS
is the DC + ac component
i
ds
is the ac component
I
ds
is the amplitude of the ac component
Distortion in a single-MOST amplifier
K = K
Willy Sansen 10-05 1826
DC and ac components
v
IN
i
DS
t
t
v
IN
Q
I
DS
: DC component
i
DS
: DC + ac component
i
ds
: ac component
I
ds
: amplitude of the ac
component
I
ds
I
DS
i
DS
i
ds
Willy Sansen 10-05 1827
I
DS
= K (V
GS
- V
T
)
2
W
L
I
DS
+ i
ds
= K (V
GS
+ v
gs
- V
T
)
2
i
ds
= K (V
GS
+ v
gs
- V
T
)
2
- K (V
GS
- V
T
)
2
i
ds
= 2K (V
GS
- V
T
) v
gs
+ K v
gs
2
Distortion in a single-MOST amplifier
K = K
Willy Sansen 10-05 1828
i
ds
= 2K (V
GS
- V
T
) v
gs
+ K v
gs
2
or i
ds
= g
1
v
gs
+ g
2
v
gs
2
+ g
3
v
gs
3
+
g
1
= 2K (V
GS
- V
T
)
g
2
= K
g
3
= 0
IM
2
= V
gs
=
g
2
g
1
& IM
3
= 0
V
gs
2(V
GS
-V
T
)
Coefficients a
1
, a
2
, a
3
by comparison
W
L
K = K
Willy Sansen 10-05 1829
Normalized current swing
i
ds
= 2K (V
GS
- V
T
) v
gs
+ K v
gs
2
i
DS
= K (v
GS
- V
T
)
2
or y = a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
+ ..
y = =
i
ds
I
DS
y = = u + u
2
I
ds
I
DS
2 v
gs
V
GS
- V
T
+
1
4
2 v
gs
V
GS
- V
T
( )
2
1
4
V
gs
(V
GS
- V
T
)/2
U =
y is the relative current swing !
Willy Sansen 10-05 1830
Numerical example
The peak value of V
gs
is V
gsp
= 100 mV
(then V
gsRMS
= 100 /2 = 71 mV
RMS
)
if V
GS
-V
T
= 0.5 V then V
gsp
/[ 2(V
GS
-V
T
] = 0.1
gives IM
2
= 10 % (HD
2
= 5 %) & IM
3
= 0
The relative current swing U = 0.1/0.25 = 0.4 !
Willy Sansen 10-05 1831
In general
i
ds
= g
m
v
gs
+ K
2gm
v
gs
2
+ K
3gm
v
gs
3
+
g
o
v
ds
+ K
2go
v
ds
2
+ K
3go
v
ds
3
+
g
mb
v
bs
+ K
2gmb
v
bs
2
+ K
3gmb
v
bs
3
+
K
2gm&gmb
v
gs
v
bs
+ K
3,2gm&gmb
v
gs
2
v
bs
+ K
3,gm&2gmb
v
gs
v
bs
2
+
+
K
3gm&gmb&go
v
gs
v
ds
v
bs
More coefficients a
1
, a
2
, a
3
...
Willy Sansen 10-05 1832
Distortion of a MOST diode
i
DS
= K (v
DS
- V
T
)
2
y = =
i
ds
I
DS
y = = u + u
2
I
ds
I
DS
2 v
ds
V
DS
- V
T
+
1
4
2 v
ds
V
DS
- V
T
( )
2
1
4
V
ds
(V
DS
- V
T
)/2
U =
Same as for a MOST transistor amplifier !
Willy Sansen 10-05 1833
The zero HD3 point for smaller L
g
m
V
T
wi
vs
V
GS
g
m

g
m

I
DS
= g
m

g
msat
= WC
ox
v
sat
HD
3
= 0 at V
GS
= V
T
?
V
GS
si
Willy Sansen 10-05 1834
Derivatives of gm
Ref. Fager JSSC Jan. 2004, 24-33
W = 60 m
L = 0.6 m
V
DS
= 2 V
Willy Sansen 10-05 1835
A differential pair is symmetrical
v
Od
v
IN
t
t
0
R
L
I
B
rounded:
compressed
v
Id
symmetrical:
no 2nd order
Willy Sansen 10-05 1836
y = =
i
Od
I
B
v
Id
V
GS
-V
T
1
4
v
Id
V
GS
-V
T
( )
2
I
B
V
GS
- V
T
1 -
v
Id
is the differential input voltage
i
Od
is the differential output current (g
m
v
Id
) or
twice the circular current g
m
v
Id
/2
I
B
is the total DC current in the pair
Note that g
m
= = K (V
GS
- V
T
)
Distortion in MOST differential pair
W
L
Willy Sansen 10-05 1837
y = = U 1 - U
2
I
Od
I
B
1
4
V
Id
V
GS
- V
T
U =
IM
3
= U
2
3
32
U - U
3
1
8
1 - x 1 -
x
2
Distortion in MOST differential amplifier
y = =
i
Od
I
B
v
Id
V
GS
-V
T
1
4
v
Id
V
GS
-V
T
( )
2
1 -
IP
3
= 4 (V
GS
- V
T
) 3.3 (V
GS
- V
T
)
2
3
IM
2
= 0
U is the relative current swing
Willy Sansen 10-05 1838
Distortion in linear region
V
DS1
= R
D
I
D
0.2 V
I
DS1
=
1
V
DS1
(V
GS1
-V
T
)
g
m1
=
1
V
DS1
is constant
Ref. Alini,JSSC, Dec.92, pp.1905-1915
Low distortion !
Willy Sansen 10-05 1839
Definitions : HD, IM, intercept point, ..
Distortion in a MOST
Single-ended amplifier
Differential amplifier
Distortion in a bipolar transistor
Reduction of distortion by feedback
Distortion in an opamp
Other cases of distortion and guide lines
Willy Sansen 10-05 1840
I
CE
= I
S
exp( )
I
CE
+ i
ce
= I
S
exp ( )
V
BE
kT
e
/q
V
BE
+ v
be
kT
e
/q
1 + y = exp( )
v
be
kT
e
/q
exp (u) = 1 + u + + + if u << 1
u
2
2
u
3
6
Distortion in a bipolar transistor amplifier
I
CE
DC component
i
CE
DC + ac component
i
ce
ac component
I
ce
amplitude of
the ac component
Willy Sansen 10-05 1841
is the non-linear equation
y u + + + ...
u
2
2
u
3
6
U =
V
be
kT
e
/q
y is the relative current swing !
a
1
= 1
a
2
= 1/2
a
3
= 1/6
IM
2
= U =
IM
3
= U
2
= ( )
2
a
2
a
1
V
be
kT
e
/q
1
2
3
4
a
3
a
1
V
be
kT
e
/q
1
8
Distortion in a bipolar transistor amplifier
Willy Sansen 10-05 1842
Numerical example
1. Relative current swing is 10 %
y
p
= 0.1 gives IM
2
= 5 % (HD
2
= 2.5%)
IM
3
= 0.125 % (HD
3
= 0.04 %)
As a result V
bep
= y
p
(kT
e
/q)= 2.6 mV
p
(1.8 mV
RMS
)
IP
3
= 8 (kT
e
/q) = 74 mV
p
or 50 mV
RMS
or -13 dBm
2. V
bep
= 100 mV
then y
p
= 0.1/0.026 4 (must be << 1 !!)
gives IM
2
= ?? Too high distortion !!
Willy Sansen 10-05 1843
y = = u + +
I
d
I
D
U =
Same as for a Bipolar transistor amplifier !
V
d
kT
e
/q
y u + + + ...
u
2
2
u
3
6
u
2
2
u
3
6
i
D
= I
S
exp( )
v
D
kT
e
/q
Distortion in a diode
Willy Sansen 10-05 1844
Distortion in bipolar differential amplifier
y = = tanh
i
Od
I
B
y = U - U
3
I
Od
I
B
1
3
V
Id
2kT
e
/q
U =
IM
3
= U
2
1
4
V
Id
2kT
e
/q
tanh x =
e
x
- e
-x
x - x
3
1
3
e
x
+ e
-x
U is the relative current swing
IP
3
= 4 kT
e
/q
IM
2
= 0
Willy Sansen 10-05 1845
C= C
0
( 1 + a
1
V + a
2
V
2
+ ... )
For poly-poly caps : a
1
20 ppm/V
a
2
2 ppm/V
2
R= R
0
( 1 + a
1
V + a
2
V
2
+ ... ) [ JFET with large V
P
]
For diffused resistors : a
1
5 ppm/V
a
2
1 ppm/V
2
Distortion in a resistor or capacitor
Willy Sansen 10-05 1846
Non-linearity depletion capacitance
V
IN
0 -V
B
C
j
C
0
C
j
=
C
0
1 -
v
IN

C
j
= C
0B
(1 + x)
-1/2
= C
0B
(1 - 1/2 x + 3/8 x
2
- 5/16 x
3
+ ..)
v
IN
= V
B
+ v
in
C
j
=
C
0
1 +
V
B

1
1 +
V
B
+
v
in
x
Willy Sansen 10-05 1847
Definitions : HD, IM, intercept point, ..
Distortion in a MOST
Single-ended amplifier
Differential amplifier
Distortion in a bipolar transistor
Reduction of distortion by feedback
Distortion in an opamp
Other cases of distortion and guide lines
Willy Sansen 10-05 1848
Distortion reduction by feedback
a
1
a
2
a
3
d
1
d
2
d
3
F

v u
v
y
y
u = v - Fy
y = a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
y = d
1
v + d
2
v
2
+ d
3
v
3
elim. u
elim. y
coeff v
2
: d
2
coeff v : d
1
coeff v
3
: d
3
-
Willy Sansen 10-05 1849
Distortion reduction by feedback
a
1
a
2
a
3
d
1
d
2
d
3
F

v u
v
y
y
Loop gain 1+T = 1+a
1
F
u is (1+T) times smaller than v :
v is reduced by loop gain (1+T)
u = v - Fy
a
1
1 + T
a
3
(1 + T) - 2F a
2
2
(1 + T)
5
d
1
=
d
2
=
d
3
=
a
2
(1 + T)
3

1
F
-
Willy Sansen 10-05 1850
IM
2f
= V =
d
2
V
(1 + T)
2
d
1
a
2
a
1
1
(1 + T)
a
2
a
1
=
V
(1 + T)
1
(1 + T)
a
3
a
1
2T
(1 + T)
2
a
2
a
1
-
V
2
(1 + T)
2
IM
3f
= V
2
d
3
d
1
3
4
=
(
) [
]
3
4
2
Distortion components with feedback
reduction in
current swing
expansion
compression
reduction by loop gain
reduction in
current swing
Willy Sansen 10-05 1851
1
(1 + T)
a
3
a
1
2T
(1 + T)
2
a
2
a
1
-
V
2
(1 + T)
2
IM
3f
= V
2
d
3
d
1
3
4
=
(
) [
]
3
4
2
Distortion components with feedback : examples
MOST : a
3
= 0 : a
2
dominant
Diff. pair : a
2
= 0 : a
3
dominant
Bipolar : a
1
= 1 a
2
= 1/2 a
3
= 1/6 : a
2
dominant
a
3
a
1
- 2 a
2
2
T
1
a
1
2
a
3
T
1
a
1
a
3
a
1
1 -
2 a
2
2
(
)
For large T :
=
Willy Sansen 10-05 1852
IM
2f
=
V
in
(1 + T)
2
1
2
1
(1 + T)
=
U
2
Emitter resistor to reduce distortion IM
2f
1
kT
e
/q
V
in
(1 + T)
1
kT
e
/q
U = is the relative current swing
T = g
m
R
E
=
V
RE
kT
e
/q
a
2
IM
2f
decreases linearly with T for constant U !
a
1
2
=
1
Willy Sansen 10-05 1853
IM
3f
=
Null for T = 0.5
Emitter resistor to reduce distortion IM
3f
1 - 2T
(1 + T)
2
U
2
8
V
in
(1 + T)
1
kT
e
/q
U =
is the relative current swing
IM
3f
also decreases with T for constant U
for large T !!
a
2
a
1
2
=
1 a
3
a
1
6
=
1
Willy Sansen 10-05 1854
Null in IM
3
if
a
3
(1 + T) = 2f a
2
2
a
3
(1 + T) = 2T
0.01
T
R
E
IM
%
1
0.1
0.01
0.1 1 10 100
1 10 100
1k
a
1
1
a
2
2
T =
- 1
a
1
a
3
2a
2
2
T = 0.5
IM
2
IM
3
Same slopes !
Null in IM
3
by R
E
(Bipolar trans. I
CE
= 1 mA)
Willy Sansen 10-05 1855
V
in
T
1
kT
e
/q
U = =
R
E
I
CE
V
in
IM
2fT
= =
U
2T
V
in
kT
e
/q
2 (R
E
I
CE
)
2
IM
3fT
= = (
U
2
4T
Emitter resistor R
E
reduces distortion for large T
=
kT
e
/q
2 T
2
V
in
1
V
in
2
kT
e
/q
4 (R
E
I
CE
)
3
kT
e
/q
4 T
3
V
in
1
=
)
2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1856
IM
2f
=
1
(1 + T)
U
4
Source resistor R
S
to reduce distortion
is the relative current swing
T = g
m
R
S
=
V
RS
(V
GS
-V
T
)/2
V
in
(1 + T)
1
(V
GS
-V
T
)/2
U =
IM
3f
=
T
(1 + T)
2
3U
2
32
a
2
a
1
4
=
1
a
3
= 0

(V
GS
-V
T
)/2
4 T
2
V
in
1
=
V
in
(V
GS
-V
T
)/2
4 (R
S
I
DS
)
2

(V
GS
-V
T
)
2
/4
32T
3
V
in
2
3
=
3V
in
2
(V
GS
-V
T
)/2
32 (R
S
I
DS
)
3
Willy Sansen 10-05 1857
I
out
M2
R
M1
V
G
+
-
I
out
(V
GS
-V
T
)
(V
GS
-V
T
)
(W/L) (W/L)
Same I
out
& same V
G
:
Same gain !
Same output noise !
Same distortion ?
Current source with series R
IM
2f
IM
2
=
V
R
V
GST1
1 -
( 1 + )
2
V
R
V
GST1
Willy Sansen 10-05 1858
Source & Emitter Follower
v
in
v
out
I
B V
B
R
S
U =
V
in
V
En
L
V
in
(V
GS
- V
T
)/2
1
g
m
r
DS
If v
BS
= 0 !!
C
L
v
in
v
out
I
B V
B
R
S
C
L
U U
U =
V
in
V
E
V
in
kT
e
/q
1
g
m
r
o
=
=
Willy Sansen 10-05 1859
v
in
v
OUT
I
B V
B
v
OUT
= v
IN
- v
GS
KW/L
I
B
v
GS
= V
T
+
v
OUTF
= |2
F
| +v
OUT
- |2
F
|
v
IN
= v
OUT
+ V
T0
+ [ v
OUTF
] +
KW/L
I
B
V
T
= V
T0
+ [ v
OUTF
]
Distortion Source follower with substrate effect
C
L
Willy Sansen 10-05 1860
V
OUT
V
IN
= 0
slope 1
= 0.8 V
1/2
slope 1/n
0
v
IN
= u
2
+ u + B
u
2
= v
OUT
+ |2
F
|
B = V
GS0
- |2
F
| - |2
F
|
KW/L
I
B
V
GS0
= V
T0
+
V
T0
= 0.6 V ; V
GS0
= 0.9 V; 2
F
= 0.7 V; B = -0.47 V; 1/n = 0.73
a
1
= 0.765; a
2
= 0.02; a
3
= -0.0035
V
INp
= 1 V
p
; HD
2
= 1.32 %; HD
3
= -0.114 %
2 3 V
0
2
V
1
1
1.37
0.9 2.27
1
Distortion Source follower - Example
Willy Sansen 10-05 1861
Increasing the IP
3
by feedback
M1
V
id
/2 -V
id
/2
2I
bias
-i
out
i
out
M1 M1
V
id
/2 -V
id
/2
I
bias
-i
out
i
out
M1
I
bias
R R
2R
IP
3
3.3 (V
GS
-V
T
)(1+g
m1
R)
2
HD
3
/n
2
n= 1+g
m1
R
HD
3
= - 60 dB for V
id
= 1 V requires V
GS
-V
T
= 0.38 V and g
m1
R = 3 !!!
Willy Sansen 10-05 1862
Increasing the IP
3
by feedback
2R
More FB with opamps
2R
Willy Sansen 10-05 1863
Distortion cancellation
V
id
/2 -V
id
/2
I
B2
I
B1
i
out
M1
i
out
M2
M1
Parameters :
= I
B2
/ I
B1
0.25
v = V
GST1
/ V
GST2
1.6
V
GST
= V
GS
-V
T
IM
3
0 if v =
-1/3
then i
out
= g
m1
V
id
(1 -
2/3
)
Willy Sansen 10-05 1864
Distortion cancellation
IM
3

i
DS
I
B
= U - U
3
U =
V
id
V
GS
- V
T
1
8
IM
3
= U
2
3
32
V
id
V
GS1
- V
T
3
32
)
2
(
1 - v
3
1 - v
IM
3
0 if v
00
=
-1/3
at which point i
out
= g
m1
V
id
(1 -
2/3
)
i
out
= 2 (i
DS1
- i
DS2
)
Willy Sansen 10-05 1865
Compensation of IM3
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75
= 0.20
v
00
= 1.71
= 0.25
v
00
= 1.6
= 0.33
v
00
= 1.44
v
1 - v
3
1 - v
Willy Sansen 10-05 1866
Output signal vs current ratio
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

1 -
2/3
0.25
v
00
= 1.6
x 0.6
Willy Sansen 10-05 1867
Definitions : HD, IM, intercept point, ..
Distortion in a MOST
Single-ended amplifier
Differential amplifier
Distortion in a bipolar transistor
Reduction of distortion by feedback
Distortion in an opamp
Other cases of distortion and guide lines
Willy Sansen 10-05 1868
Miller CMOS opamp with Feedback
GBW = 10 MHz & A
vc
= 10
Z
L
= 100 k//5pF
R
2
+
-
R
1
v
IN
v
OUT
Z
L
A
v
A
v0
f
BW
= 1 kHz
GBW
= 10 MHz
10
1 MHz
Willy Sansen 10-05 1869
Distortion in input stage
a
1
a
2
a
3
d
1
d
2
d
3
F

v u
v y
u = v - Fy
y = B
1
(a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
)
y = d
1
v + d
2
v
2
+ d
3
v
3
elim. u
elim. y
coeff v
2
: d
2
coeff v : d
1
coeff v
3
: d
3
B
1
y
-
1+T = 1 + B
1
a
1
F
Willy Sansen 10-05 1870
IM
2f
= V =
d
2
V
(1 + T)
2
d
1
a
2
a
1
1
(1 + T)
a
2
a
1
=
V
(1 + T)
1
(1 + T)
a
3
a
1
2T
(1 + T)
2
a
2
a
1
-
V
2
(1 + T)
2
IM
3f
= V
2
d
3
d
1
3
4
=
( ) [
]
3
4
2
Distortion in input stage
1+T = 1 + B
1
a
1
F
Same as before but with different Loop gain :
Willy Sansen 10-05 1871
Distortion in input stage with LPF
a
1
a
2
a
3
d
1
d
2
d
3
F

v u
v y
u = v - Fy
y = B
1p
(a
1
u + a
2
u
2
+ a
3
u
3
)
y = d
1
v + d
2
v
2
+ d
3
v
3
elim. u
elim. y
coeff v
2
: d
2
coeff v : d
1
coeff v
3
: d
3
y
B
1 f
p
-
1+T = 1 + B
1p
a
1
F
Willy Sansen 10-05 1872
IM
2f
=
V
(1 + T)
2
a
2
a
1
1
(B
1p
a
1
F)
2
a
2
a
1
=
V
1
(1 + T)
a
3
a
1
V
2
(1 + T)
2
IM
3f
=
3
4
Distortion in input stage with LPF
diff.pair
=
a
3
a
1
3
4
1
(B
1p
a
1
F)
3
V
2
f
f
f
p
f
p
40 dB/dec
60 dB/dec
IM
3f
=
Single trans.
a
2
2
a
1
2
3
4
2
(B
1p
a
1
F)
3
V
2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1873
Distortion in output stage
A
1
d
1
d
2
d
3
F

v u
v y
u = v - Fy
y = A
1
b
1
u+A
1
2
b
2
u
2
+A
1
3
b
3
u
3
y = d
1
v + d
2
v
2
+ d
3
v
3
elim. u
elim. y
coeff v
2
: d
2
coeff v : d
1
coeff v
3
: d
3
y
b
1
b
2
b
3
-
1+T = 1 + A
1
b
1
F
Willy Sansen 10-05 1874
IM
2f
=
V
(1 + T)
2
b
2
b
1
A
1
(A
1
b
1
F)
2
b
2
b
1
=
V
Distortion in output stage
f
f
=
b
2
2
b
1
2
3
4
2 A
1
2
(A
1
b
1
F)
3
V
2
IM
3f
=
Single trans.
2T
(1 + T)
2
b
2
b
1
V
2
(1 + T)
2
(
)
3
4
2
x A
1
x A
1
2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1875
IM
2f
Two-stage opamp a & b
f
f
p
V
T
2
a
2
a
1
f
p
f
V
T
2
b
2
b
1
a
1
T = a
1
b
1
F
IM
3f
f f
p
V
2
T
3
a
3
a
1
V
2
T
3
b
3
b
1
a
1
2
3
4
( )
2
f
p
f
( )
3
( )
a
1
a
3
- 2 a
2
2
a
1
a
3
( )
b
1
b
3
- 2 b
2
2
b
1
b
3
3
4
Willy Sansen 10-05 1876
IM
2f
Three-stage opamp a & b & c
f
f
p
V
T
2
a
2
a
1
f
p
f
V
T
2
c
2
c
1
a
1
b
1
T = a
1
b
1
c
1
F
IM
3f
f f
p
V
2
T
3
a
3
a
1
V
2
T
3
c
3
c
1
a
1
2
b
1
2
3
4
( )
2
f
p
f
( )
3
( )
a
1
a
3
- 2 a
2
2
a
1
a
3
( )
c
1
c
3
- 2 c
2
2
c
1
c
3
3
4
Willy Sansen 10-05 1877
Distortion in an opamp at low frequencies
1
2
3
4
V
OUT
= 1 V
M1
M1
M2
M2
M4
+ -
C
c
M3
GBW = 10 MHz
A
v0
= 10.000
BW = 1 kHz
A
vc
= 10
V
in
=
0.1 mV
V
m
=
10 mV
Z
L
I
DS1
= 6 A
g
m1
= 60 S
I
DS3
= 120 A
g
m3
= 1.2 mS
R
L
= 100 k
C
L
= 5 pF
C
c
= 1 pF
Willy Sansen 10-05 1878
Low-distortion amplifier
A
v
A
v0
f
BW
= 1 kHz
GBW
= 10 MHz
10
A
v
A
v0
f
v
out
v
m
R
L
(C
L
+C
c
)
1 MHz
256 kHz
A
v2
A
v1
30 MHz
g
m1
g
m3
C
L
+C
c
C
c
0.3
v
in
= constant

f
nd
GBW
Willy Sansen 10-05 1879
Distortion in an opamp at low frequencies
1
2
3
4
V
OUT
= 1 V
M1
M1
M2
M2
M4
+ -
C
c
V
node
at 100 Hz ?
M3
GBW = 10 MHz
A
vc
= 10
V
in
=
0.1 mV
V
m
=
10 mV
Z
L
U
1
= g
m1
V
in
/I
DS1
= 5 10
-4
I
DS1
= 6 A
I
DS3
= 120 A
U
3
= g
m3
V
m
/I
DS3
= 0.1
Willy Sansen 10-05 1880
Distortion generation by nonlinear output stage :
Distortion reduction by feedback :
T = 1000 IM
2f
= 2.5 %/1000 = 0.0025 % Negligible !
U
3
= g
m3
V
m
/I
DS3
= 0.1
IM
2
= U
3
/4 = 0.25 0.1 = 2.5 %
Distortion in an opamp at low frequencies
Willy Sansen 10-05 1881
Distortion in an opamp at high frequencies
1
2
3
4
V
OUT
= 1 V
M1
M1
M2
M2
M4
+ -
C
c
V
node
at 100 kHz ?
M3
GBW = 10 MHz
A
vc
= 10
V
in
=
10 mV
V
m
=
10 mV
Z
L
U
1
= g
m1
V
in
/I
DS1
= 5 10
-2
I
DS1
= 6 A
I
DS3
= 120 A
U
3
= g
m3
V
m
/I
DS3
= 0.1
Willy Sansen 10-05 1882
Distortion generation by nonlinear output stage :
Distortion reduction by feedback :
T = 10 IM
2f
= 2.5 %/100 = 0.25 %
U
3
= g
m3
V
m
/I
DS3
= 0.1
IM
2
= U
3
/4 = 0.25 0.1 = 2.5 %
Distortion in an opamp at high frequencies
Distortion generation by nonlinear input stage :
U
1
= g
m1
V
m
/I
DS1
= 0.05
IM
3
= U
1
2
/10 = 0.0025/10 = 0.025 % Negligible !
Willy Sansen 10-05 1883
Miller CMOS OTA Measured Distortion
HD
2
(dB)
Freq.
(Hz)
Willy Sansen 10-05 1884
1.8 V Low distortion CMOS Opamp
Ref.Hernes Kluwer 2003
GBW 3 GHz
C
L
= 8 pF
f
P
= 380 MHz
at 0.38 Vpeak
SR 900 V/s
f
P
=
2 Vpeak
SR
Large V
GS4
-V
T
Willy Sansen 10-05 1885
HD2 & HD3 vs Amplitude
large distortion
Slope 1
Slope 2
Willy Sansen 10-05 1886
HD2 & HD3 vs Frequency
HD
2
HD
3
dB dB
Hz Hz
Willy Sansen 10-05 1887
Definitions : HD, IM, intercept point, ..
Distortion in a MOST
Single-ended amplifier
Differential amplifier
Distortion in a bipolar transistor
Reduction of distortion by feedback
Distortion in an opamp
Other cases of distortion and guide lines
Willy Sansen 10-05 1888
Other cases of distortion and guide lines
Distortion caused by limited SR
Distortion of a switch
Distortion at high frequencies :
Volterra series instead of power series
Distortion in continuous-time filters
Guide lines
Willy Sansen 10-05 1889
Guide lines for low distortion
Scaling such that voltage amplitudes
are limited
Scaling such that relative current swings
are limited
Feedback
All fully differential
Willy Sansen 10-05 1890
Distortion comp. IM
2
IM
3
x U
p
x U
p
2
U
p
= V
ref
=
Bipolar 1/2 1/8 kT
e
/q
MOST 1/4 0 (V
GS
-V
T
)/2
Bip. diff.pair 0 1/4 2kT
e
/q
MOST diff.pair 0 3/32 (V
GS-
V
T
)
V
ref
V
ip
Distortion components
Willy Sansen 10-05 1891
Distortion comp. IM
2
-IM
3
x U
p
x U
p
2
U
p
= V
ref
=
Bipolar 1/2T 1/4T kT
e
/q x T
MOST 1/4T 3/32T (V
GS
-V
T
)/2 x T
Bip. diff.pair 0 1/4T 2kT
e
/q x T
MOST diff.pair 0 3/32T (V
GS
-V
T
) x T
V
ref
V
ip
Distortion components with Feedback (T > 5)
Willy Sansen 10-05 1892
References
Circuits, Kluwer Ac. Publ. 1998
W.Sansen : Distortion in elementary transistor circuits
IEEE Trans. CAS II Vol 46, No 3, March 1999, pp.315-324
J. Silva-Martinez, etal : High-performance CMOS continuous-time
filters, Kluwer Ac. Publ. 1993
B. Hernes, T. Saether : Design criteria for low-distortion in
feedback opamp circuits, Kluwer Ac. Publ. 2003
G. Palumbo, S. Pennisi : Feedback amplifiers, Kluwer Ac. Publ. 2002
Willy Sansen 10-05 1893