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Is MBA a must to be successful as a manager?

In favour of the topic

-- MBA is a systematic and holistic discipline which imparts basic business knowledge
and acumen to excel in the professional life.
-- MBA fast tracks the career process of a student with the placement process. Aspiring
entrepreneurs can also improve the pace of their business plans with the help of
entrepreneurship cells.
-- MBA improves your communication skills and provides a vast exposure on industry
and corporate interface.
-- MBA can boost the career of working professionals. Even if they cant afford to take a
sabbatical or break for two years they can always go for part-time MBA or MBA through
distance learning.
Against the topic
--!here are several examples of successful managers and "E#s who have made it large
without a formal MBA degree. $ate %teve &obs of Apple Bill 'ates of Microsoft %ir
(ichard Branson of )irgin 'roup $arry Ellison of #racle are a few among them. *f you
are clear about your aim and have a plan for the same the lack of formal management
education cant deter you from succeeding. !he leadership and management skills cannot
be taught by anyone it comes from within.
-- MBA is one of the most expensive courses. MBA does not guarantee you your dream
+ob or fund re,uired to start your own venture. -ou may find a +ob after your graduation
according to your skill set or can opt for masters or research.
-- MBA has become a common trend and students from the backgrounds of engineering
medical humanities science and commerce and even speciali.ed backgrounds such as
fashion designing or chartered accountancy go for MBA. !his affects the learning they
ac,uired in their graduation as they dont get a scope to practise it further.
*n the conclusion you can mention that though an MBA degree is not necessary to be a
successful manager there is no doubt that MBA can contribute in your successful career
and develop your personality as a whole.
Terrorism, an evil in religious attire
Points in favour of the topic (Pros)
1.!errorism is the emerging issue across the globe at the moment. !he rise of terrorism in
recent years and more terrorist organi.ations coming in open arena has put the nations in
shock. !heir glaring attacks on countries have put the entire world on tenterhooks.
.!errorism and religious terrorism are viewed as victories and exultation in the eyes of
people who are supportive of the religions and who advocate such acts. !he act of the
/0oly 1ar/ is something that occurs after much oppression or is caused by some
elemental hatred that stems from something far more disastrous. !here are various
terrorist groups operating in *ndia 2akistan Afghanistan and *srael and they have been
targeting either the people of other religions or the crowded public places where innocent
people are their primary victims.
!.!errorism is the use of illegitimate force to achieve political ends by targeting innocent
people. 2ublic fear is the key to understand the psychology of terrorism.
".!he word terror implies fear which the entire society suffers from as this is the ob+ect
of any terrorist. !he threat of harm to innocent people is what makes terrorism powerful.
!he glaring examples are the 3455 attack causing the fall of 1orld !rade "entre in 6ew
-ork 78455 attack on Mumbai where hundreds of innocent people died for no fault of
theirs. Attack on the 2arliament in 6ew 9elhi where many innocent security personnel
died. 6othing moved the terrorists. *n this sense it is the same as what makes military
operations powerful - striking terror in the hearts of the enemy. !errorists however are
less concerned with inflicting harm on the victims themselves than in invoking fear in
those who identify with the victims.
#.!he main ob+ective of terrorism is usually to gain publicity for some cause although
there can be other motives too &onathon (. 1hite in his book (eligion and !error raises
the ,uestion of why religious people commit violent acts in the name of their god taking
the lives of innocent victims and entire populations: Many different kinds of
events are labeled acts of terrorism instigating from religious differences and frustrations.
!hese kinds of attacks are an international and worldwide phenomenon and we find that
places like *ndia 2akistan Afghanistan *ra, *srael the ;nited %tates of America etc fall
victim to such attacks all the time.
Points against the topic ($ons)
1.!errorism is an emotionally charged word that is fre,uently used to politically and
socially denigrate somebody or some group. #ne would have to delve deeper in order to
understand why so many men women and even children are driven into such acts of
blatant violence and that there must be some reason why they would resort to such
extremities of violence. 0as it become a norm for these people: *s the war that they wage
against the people of other religions or faith +ust: 2erhaps no one can ever answer these
,uestions. A person would have to be hurt a lot his4her family taken away and be really
desperate before he4she attempts a suicide bombing.
.!he views upon the most widely used definitions in criminal +ustice are simple ones.
All resting upon our history which has provided us with many examples of great acts of
violence that have been conducted in the name of religion or for other religious purposes.
!here have been great acts of martyrdom which are reflected in the psyche of the
terrorism and suicide bomber of today.
!.Many people seem to side with terrorists as they think that they are freedom fighters
fighting for their rights. Acts of terrorism are a never-ending phenomenon. 1hat gives
rise to terrorism re,uired understanding the complex social factors. *t may be important
to note that the means used by terrorists are illegitimate not always their ends which
may be legitimate ends. 0owever the term freedom fighting is often reserved to describe
non-military <illegitimate= means to achieve legitimate ends such as the desire to obtain
concessions or bring about social change. !here is no universally accepted definition of
terrorism. *n fact the nature of terrorism is always changing. 1hat is being called
terrorism now may be described as war liberation freedom fighting or revolutionary
action in future. >reedom fighters and revolutionaries should not be labeled terrorists.
The balancing act% Many people tend to think that terrorism and terrorist acts are caused
by certain organi.ations because of their destructive agenda. *t is however important to
reali.e that a lot of ideas concerning social construction of deviances go behind why a
person becomes a terrorist. >inding ,uick socio-political and religious solutions to nip in
the bud this menace must become the priority of all concerned if the society is supposed
to be saved from this disease.
$orruption root cause for economic slo&'o&n in In'ia
(or the topic (Pros)
%ufficient material is available in newspapers periodicals books and the electronic
media in support of the topic. Aspirants are advised to read the same and form a
systematic pattern to express their opinion instead of putting forward scattered
1) !ransparency *nternational in its study on the index of corrupt countries in 7?57 placed
*ndia at the 3@th spot out of 5A8 countries. %omalia tops the list. "orruption in all walks
of life in *ndia is making it weak and has adverse impact on growth. As per an estimate
B?C of the public servants in *ndia are corrupt because of which the growth is being
. *n the first D?-DE years following the independence prevailing policies such as
extensive protectionism in industry licence ra+ etc had led to all pervasive corruption and
slow economic growth. "hakravarthi (a+agopalachari had this apprehension and he used
to say that the system of licence ra+ would remain at the core of corruption and would
pull back the economic growth.
!. >ormer ;nion home secretary 6 6 )ohra submitted a report on corruption in politics
and its criminali.ation in 533D. 2oliticians have nexus with criminals. !his criminal
network is running a parallel system and satisfying selfish ends of vested interests. More
than 5?? M2s are facing corruption and criminal charges. 2ublic money which is meant
to be utili.ed for the growth of economy and for welfare of the public has been misused
to satisfy the greed of such networks.
". 2eople have to pay bribe to get a +ob done in a public office. !axes and bribes are
common between state borders. 9espite abolition of some taxes and others being made
centralised transporters have to pay bribes to cross state borders. !his not only results in
loss of public money but valuable time is also lost owing to stoppages at various check
and entry points. About 8? percent of these <forced= stoppages on roads are made by
concerned authorities such as government regulators police forest sales F excise
octroi and weighing F measuring department for extorting money. !he loss in
productivity due to these stoppages is a national concern. !he number of truck trips could
increase by D? to @?C if forced delays are avoided. According to a 1orld Bank report
the travel time for a 9elhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by about two days per trip if the
corruption and associated regulatory stoppages to extract bribes are eliminated.
#. )arious government officials and politicians in connivance with criminals tend to grab
public properties illegally. !his land and property is meant for infrastructural or
community development. !hese activities hamper the growth of the economy.
). "orrupt construction contractors in association with corrupt politicians and public
works department officers get contracts and deliver poorly constructed roads buildings
bridges. 6ews of building bridge collapses are very common.
*. "orruption caused problems in government-funded pro+ects are rampant. #nly @?C of
grain meant for the poor reaches its intended target. !he 1orld Bank study finds that the
public distribution programs and social spending contracts have become futile due to
corruption. !here are alleged corruption in the governments flagship schemes such as
M'6(E'A <Mahatma 'andhi 6ational (ural Employment 'uarantee Act= and 6(0M
<6ational (ural 0ealth Mission= and benefits of these programs are not often reached for
whom they are intended. !housands of crores of rupee are being wasted owing to all-
pervasive corruption.
+. Mineral resources are the backbone to the prosperity of the country. But corrupt
practices are followed in awarding of mining licences and transportation of cash-rich
minerals impacting the growth of the economy.
,. According to a report corrupt officials in *ndia are making the country poorer by more
than (s 3???? crore every year <more than 5C of the '92=. !hese politicians corrupt
officials and business associates have huge amount of black money deposited in %wiss
1-. "orruption leads to bureaucratic delay and inefficiency and also results in lower
economic growth for a given level of income. *f corruption level comes down '92
growth rate may go up.
Against the topic <"ons=G *t is difficult to furnish points against the topic. -ou cannot say
that *ndia is a corruption free or very less corrupt country nor can you deny the facts
placed in support of reports and data. 0ence you must present things like causes
remedies and other favourables making it a point that things are not flimsy or
contradicting your own points.
1. !he history of corruption in *ndia is not new. Even during the regime of East *ndia
"ompany in the 5Ath century it was a serious issue. !o make *ndia corruption free it is
important to explore the root causes of corruption which include excessive regulations
complicated taxes and licensing systems numerous government departments infested
with bureaucracy and discretionary powers and monopoly by government controlled
institutions. !hese features cater to corruption and the lack of transparent laws and
processes put public at the receiving end. 0owever corruption varies from state to state
and place to place. !hose who have the knowledge of rules and regulations find it easier
to keep the corrupt away from indulging in corruption while for others it is difficult.
. *ndia has widespread illiteracy. !o weed out corruption and to put the wheel of growth
on the right track education is the basic re,uirement. %uitable law re,uires to be passed
to make it a fundamental right as well as fundamental duty of the state to impart
!. !he fight against corruption to accelerate the growth has time and again been taken up
by eminent social workers activists like Anna 0a.are Arvind He+riwal 6'#s etc.
)arious stringent bills to rein in corruption like *ndian 2enal "ode 5B8? !he 2revention
of "orruption Act 53BB 2revention of Money $aundering Act 7??7 and the proposed
&an $okpal Bill etc are already there. )arious departments and organi.ations such as
"entral )igilance "ommission "B* $okayukta etc. exist to prevent corrupt practices.
". Although it is a fact that corruption should be curbed at times it speeds up the
processes also. 2eople find it difficult to get their +obs done in countries where corruption
does not exist. *t takes days to get the visa for countries and years to get the green card in
the ;%A. %ince no one takes bribe in ;%A the process goes on its own pace.
#. !here are thousands of public servants and other officials who have never taken bribes
in their life. !hey work for the betterment of their organi.ations and the country. !hey
have never been corrupt but always remained at the receiving end of their corrupt seniors
and +uniors and are trapped in one or the other. %uch good officials need to be protected
to avoid further spread of corruption.
). *ndia has co-existence of the private and public sectors. 1hile the private sector is
surging ahead and has been providing low-cost products and services the public sector
controlled by the government has been moving slow. !his is despite the fact that the
private sector has to face all the red tapism has to bribe officials and politicians I still it
can work faster and contributes more to the economy.
Ma.e a positive approach to conclu'e / 2 % Bawa "hair of !ransparency *nternational
*ndia stated J"orruption is a hydra-headed monster and governments have to make
efforts to tackle it from all sides. !his can only happen if all stakeholders work togetherK
!he efforts being taken by the watchdog to create awareness about corruption among
people and steps being implemented to curb the menace have to be intensified to achieve
a higher growth rate and improve the image of the country. *ndia re,uires transparent and
effective policy implementation with more employment and business opportunities to
curb corruption and move fast on the path of growth.
Problems in Aa'haar implementation sha'o& utilities
ntroducing Aadhaar is passing through a grave crisis of implementation. 1hile the pro+ect
is an ambitious drive on the part of the government to provide an identity to every
resident it is facing numerous problems so far as implementation is concerned. >irst let
us discuss what Aadhaar is all about.
Aadhaar is a 57-digit uni,ue identification number that every resident of *ndia <regardless
of citi.enship= is entitled to get after he4she furnishes his demographic and biometric
information. 9emographic information includes the name age gender and address while
biometric information includes some biological characteristics such as fingerprints eye
scan <*ris scan= etc. 6o information pertaining to race religion caste language income
or health should be collected.
!he Aadhaar number will serve as a proof of identity sub+ect to authentication. 0owever
it should not be construed as a proof of citi.enship or domicile. !he Aadhaar number is
issued after verification of information collected from individuals. "ollected information
is stored in a database the "entral *dentities 9ata (epository. !his repository will later be
used to provide authentication services to service providers.
!he government set up an office of ;ni,ue *dentification Authority of *ndia <;*9A*= in
7??3 within the 2lanning "ommission. *n 7?5? the government introduced the 6ational
*dentification Authority of *ndia Bill in 2arliament to give statutory status to this office.
Points in favour of the topic (Pros)
5. !he implementation of Aadhar has been a sub+ect of severe criticism from various
,uarters such as ;nion ministers bureaucrats policy experts activists and even a few
state governments. 2rocedures for data collection and potential errors therein concerns
over privacy etc are being ,uestioned. Besides the existence of an older exercise the
6ational 2opulation (egister <62(= led by the home ministry is also posing a threat to
the pro+ect. !hough every right-thinking person accepts the need for creating a systematic
database of our citi.enry the path to be taken for this has created a vertical divide.
7. ;*9A*s process of using multiple registrars and enrolment agencies to collect
individual data as well as its system of relying on Lsecondary information via existing
identification documents has become a core debatable issue. !he (egistrar 'eneral of
*ndia <('*= while compiling the 6ational 2opulation (egister pushed for a method of
public scrutiny in which individual data is collected directly and put up before the public
to weed out any fraud. !he method used in 62( helped villagers in 'u+arats border
areas expose Lstrangers <from 2akistan= on the rolls when the data was put up for public
scrutiny. !his reinforced the belief that the 62( process despite being long and
painstaking is more foolproof. ('* and census commissioner 9r " "handramouli found
the data collection for Aadhaar faulty. According to him J#ur ob+ection is to the data
collection by other registrars who have a different orientation from ours. >rom a security
point of view they are not acceptable.M *t was felt that both programs could pool their
data and share information. But the home ministry has refused to use ;*9 data for 62(.
D. !he agencies say the Aadhaar numbers will be issued in about 3? days but in most
cases it takes between four to six months. Many agencies are asking for additional data
but they are not communicating to the people that everything is not mandatory and they
dont have to fill up everything in the form.
@. !here are many issues with ;*9s biometric data collection. $abourers and poor
people the primary targets of the Aadhaar process often do not have clearly defined
fingerprints because of excessive manual labour. Even old people with Jdry handsM have
faced difficulties. 1eak *ris scans of people with cataract have also posed problems. *n
many cases agencies have refused to register them defeating the very aim of inclusion of
poor and marginali.ed people.
E. Activists also ,uestion ;*9A*s authority to collect biometric data. 0uman rights and
;*9 activist 'opal Hrishna is critical about Aadhaar -- J!here is ambiguity about
biometric data. *t is not clearly defined in the 6ational *dentification Bill. ;*9A* also
provides for storing biometric data like fingerprints forever while even the 2risoners Act
provides that this data should be destroyed on ac,uittal.M
;sha (amanathan activist and legal expert fumes -- J!he whole thing is illegal. Every
statutory organisation can only act within a given mandate and citi.ens rules do not
provide for it. !he "iti.enship Act has nothing on biometric data.M %he further says J!he
whole emphasis is on enrolment with no planning on how this is going to be used.M
;*9A*s system of using introducers to identify and provide numbers to homeless and
those without documents is another grey area.
8. !he public distribution system will be the worst affected. 'oing by the system of
present fair price shops <>2%= each of them has a specified number of households
registered to it. >2% shops store grains only for registered households. !he >2% owner
would not know how many migrants and for what periods would come in and demand
their ,uota. 0ence for lack of stock he would turn away migrant workers who demand
grains. !herefore the >2% system is incompatible with the ;*9-linked portability of
A. Aadhaar therefore is engraved with the following risk factorsG a= the pro+ect would
necessarily entail the violation of privacy and civil liberties of peopleN b= it remains
unclear whether biometric technology O the cornerstone of the pro+ect I is capable of the
gigantic task of de-duplication. ;*9A*s Biometrics %tandards "ommittee has noted that
retaining biometric efficiency for a database of more than one billion persons Jhas not
been ade,uately analysedM and the problem of fingerprint ,uality in *ndia Jhas not been
studied in depthMN c= there has been no cost-benefit analysis or feasibility report for the
pro+ectN and finally the so called benefits of the pro+ect in the social sector such as in the
public distribution system are not realistic.
Points against the topic ($ons)
5. !he identity of a citi.en in the wake of infiltrations from neighbouring countries may
be described as the Jmissing linkM in *ndia/s efforts to rise as a superpower. Aadhaar may
be termed as the technology-linked identity drive in right direction.
7. !he ;*9 Aadhaar 2ro+ect has two different dimensions. !he first one is that it is linked
to national security and the other one is developmental concerns. Both the factors are
e,ually important.
D. %o far the recipient of benefits under various government sponsored schemes has to
establish his identity and eligibility many times by producing multiple documents for
verification. !he verification of such documents is done by multiple authorities. An
Aadhaar-enabled bank account can be used by the beneficiary to receive multiple welfare
payments as opposed to the one scheme one bank approach.
@. Aadhaar will be able to reduce the involvement of middlemen who siphon off part of
the subsidy. *n the new system the cash will be transferred directly to individual bank
accounts and the beneficiaries will be identified through Aadhaar. !he government has
firmly planned to transfer benefits under various schemes directly into the bank accounts
of individual beneficiaries. !he M6(E'% <&anani %uraksha -o+ana *ndira Awas -o+ana
and 9hanalaksmi scheme= wages scholarships pensions and health benefits in E5
districts were proposed starting &anuary 5 7?5D and to be later extended to 5B states by
April 5 7?5D and the rest by April 5 7?5@.!here are around D@ schemes that have been
identified in @D districts to implement the 9"! <9irect "ash !ransfer= programme.
0owever !he 0indu reports <?7-?5-7?5D= that the scheme was successfully launched in
7? districts in six states. 6evertheless it can be termed as a good beginning.
%o far the government subsidies contained products like food grains fertili.ers water
electricity services education healthcare etc by providing them at a lower than market
prices to beneficiaries. !his has led to operational inefficiencies. An Aadhaar-enabled
9"! system will improve the situation and would ensure timely payment directly to
intended beneficiaries reducing transaction costs and leakages. 9"!s will provide poor
families the choice of using the cash as they wish. 0aving access to cash will also relieve
some of their financial constraints.
E. Aadhaar number shall also help to eliminate the duplicate cards and fake cards for non-
existent beneficiaries in the schemes.
Aadhaar will ,ualitatively restructure the role of the state in the social sector. !he ;*9
pro+ect is aimed to expand *ndia/s social security system and to ensure targeting with
precision. Addressing the 6ational 9evelopment "ouncil <69"= on &uly 7@ 7?5? 2rime
Minister 9r. Manmohan %ingh clarified the use of Aadhaar Jto reduce our fiscal deficit in
the coming yearsP we mustPreduce the scale of untargeted subsidies. !he
operationalisation of the ;ni,ue *dentification 6umber %cheme P provides an
opportunity to target subsidies effectively.M
!he ;*9A* claims that ;*9 will help the government shift from a number of indirect
benefits into direct benefits. $et us hope that Aadhaar serves its well-intended purposes.
0o gen'er bias in portra1ing &omen in a's
(or the topic (Pros)
1. Anthropological evidence has revealed that even the humans and the hominids of
ancient times had separate roles for men and women in their societies and this relates to
the concepts of epistemology. !here were certain things that women were forbidden to do
and similarly men could not partake in some of the activities that were traditionally
reserved for women. !his has given birth to the gender role stereotypes that we find
. 1e sometimes assign certain ,ualities to certain people without thinking. >or example
many men are blamed for undermining women and stereotyping them for traditional
roles and this could be said to be the same for menN men are also stereotyped in many of
their roles. !his leads to social constructionism since the reality is not always depicted by
what we see by our eyes. !hese ideas have also been carried on in the world of
advertising and the differences shown between male and females are apparent in many
advertisements we see today.
!. 'ender differences and attractions have been a part of the normal lives of humans ever
since anyone can remember. (oles and debates on such differences and their portrayal
have established their appropriateness.
". Advertisers have substantially reduced the stereotyping in ad pictures and since the
voice of female is not so harsh it is used to convey the message although the amount of
male speech relative to female speech is gradually being increased.
#. #ne/s normative interpretation of such advertisements depends on one/s ideological
perspective and tolerance for the pace of change. *t is encouraging to find that the
advertising indicates the use of gender-neutrality is commonplace. Advertisers prefer to
speak to people in their own language and this reflects the popular culture in
). !he opinion and views are based more on the interpretation people conclude from their
understanding of roles in real life that they see than by their observations of males and
females in advertisements.
Against the topic ($ons)
1. *t has been noted by viewing various advertisements that women are shown as being
more concerned about their beauty and figure rather than being shown as authority
figures in adsN they are usually shown as the product users.
!his has led to common belief that most of the advertisements and their contents are
sexist in nature.
. !here is a tendency in many countries including the ;nited %tates to portray women
as being subordinate to men as alluring sex ob+ects or as decorative ob+ects. !his is not
right as it portrays women as the weaker sex being only good as ob+ects.
!. Many of the ads do not show gender biases in the pictures or the graphics but some
bias does turn up in the language of advertisements. 1ithin language bias is more
evident in songs and dialogue than in formal speech or when popular culture is involved.
>or example bias sneaks in through the use of idiomatic expressions <man/s best friend=
and when the language refers to characters that depict traditional sex roles.
Advertisements are greatly responsible for eliciting such views for the people of our
". "hildren also see advertisements portraying women and they are also the ones who
create stereotypes in their minds about the different roles of men and women. All these
facts combine to give result to the different public opinions that become fact for many of
the members of the society.
#. !here has been a lot of attention given to the portrayal of gender in advertising by both
practitioners as well as academics and much of this has been done regarding the portrayal
of women in advertising which shows a gender bias.
$onclusion2 !his continues in a vicious circle as the media tries to pick up and pro+ect
what the society thinks and the people in the society make their opinions based on the
images shown by the media. 2eople therefore should not base too much importance
about how the media is trying to portray the members of the societyN rather they should
base their opinions on their own observation of how people interact together in the real
3houl' business lobb1ing be ma'e legal in In'ia?
The topic / *t is always better to have clarity on the topic as it allows a clear flow of
ideas. $obbying in fact are the attempts made by certain corporate groups to influence
the direction of legislative policy of a country4state in such a manner so as to bring
benefits to them and safeguard their interests. !he ob+ective can be achieved by
influencing legislators members of 2arliament and create a lobby to bring forth and get
the favourable legislations passed.
A lobbyist may be an individual or a group of individuals working for their employer or
as an agent to them. %uch people can be leaders of labour unions corporate
representatives legislators bureaucrats and leading advocates exercising influence in
legislative circles or other private interest groups.
*ndia does not have any clear regulation for or against lobbying especially when it comes
by the name of lobbying. But it is not legal either. $obbying has now become a well-
established service industry although known by different names such as public relations
external affairs managers environment management experts etc. )arious established
associations federations confederations of industry F commerce etc function as
lobbyists to get policies framed in favour of corporates.
9ilip "herian a known lobbyist and founder of 2erfect (elations states that lobbying
functions as a bridge between companies and the government. 0e speaks in no
ambiguous tone J1e help our clients understand the policy environment of the country.
1e help them identify key players and their positions in the policy area. !he key players
could be political parties bureaucrats the central government panchayat etc.M
!he lobbying industry has been placing its demand for clear and transparent laws in
countries like *ndia where no clarity on the issue is available. %o it is high time that *ndia
should decide on making lobbying either legal or illegal by framing a detailed and clear
1hen you speak in favour of the topic i.e. lobbying should be made legal in *ndia the
key points may beG
1. 1henever there have been some big leaps in policy framing in *ndia favouring
corporates in one or the other the issue of lobbying has always come up. 1hether it was
Enron I the 9abhol power pro+ect in Maharshtra foreign investment in corporate sector
big defence purchases infrastructure development and now foreign direct investment
<>9*= in multi brand retail all have been shadowed by the issue of lobbying. !he person
or the company lobbying for certain favour cannot do so till the government legislative
bodies I 2arliament or state legislatures I have not considered some path to move on.
$obbying would only smoothen the process.
. )arious chambers of commerce such as >*""* and "** 6ational Association of
%oftware and %ervices "ompanies and private firms like )aishnavi "orporate
"ommunications owned by 6iira (adia and 9!A Associates managed by 9eepak !alwar
are among top lobby groups. !hese organi.ations however maintain that they are not
lobby groups and work to exercise influence to engage with the government on the policy
issues. 1hen so much of lobbying is done by the registered and legal firms and
companies in the guise of some or other name and it is a well known fact making
lobbying legal will add to the governments income by levying good amount of fee and
charges on the same. 1here does the amount being paid now on lobbying go I is
anybodys guess. A transparent legislation will definitely solve this ambiguity and loss of
!. !he ;% and some European countries have made lobbying legal with specific
conditions like ,uarterly disclosures on amount spent and the manner in which the same
has been spent or so. !his provides vital information and transparency to lobbying
practices. !he furor raised in 2arliament over the issue of lobbying by 1almart in the
;%A could come up due to its disclosures. "orporate giants such as 1alMart
9ell 02 Qualcomm Alcatel-$ucent Morgan %tanley and 2rudential >inancial have been
eyeing the *ndian market for a long time and have spent millions of dollars to have their
business interest move at a faster pace in the growing *ndian economy. 1ith the potential
growth more and more companies will engage lobbyists who can directly interact with
politicians and bureaucrats and push their agenda. $obbying whether legal or illegal will
continue to remain integral to *ndian businesses and politics. 9oing away with it or
making it illegal is not an option. *t will be better to make business lobbying legal of
course with certain specific clauses to ensure transparency.

". Making lobbying legal will bring forward open debates and discussions on all the
forums. *t will be possible to understand which option is better. $obbyists and
representatives of their companies will openly participate in such debates with the pros
and cons on the performance and product.
#. At present only the section A of the 2revention of "orruption Act may be invoked to
call lobbying illegal. !his section is not very sound. !hink of the money spent on
lobbying in a single year. *f lobbying is made legal at least a part of it will find its way to
the government coffer. At present it forms a part of unaccounted money going into the
pockets of politicians bureaucrats and other influential lot the cost of which will
eventually be recovered from the common people in the country.
). Apart from saving millions of dollars the country may see rampant corruption in the
name of lobbying fading away.
*. %ince *ndia is in the process of establishing a larger institutional framework the
government needs creative inputs from various experts. As long as lobbying does not lead
to /policy or regulatory capture/ it should be allowed.

+. !he *ndian government itself has a lobby firm presenting its case with American
lawmakers while a number of *ndian companies and entities also indulge in lobbying
activities in the ;% through their respective lobbyists. At various platforms like in the
;6 1orld economic summits in sports in #lympics "ommonwealth
'ames etc countries lobby their stake. $obbying in fact brings more competitiveness
and improvement in ,uality as things are to be explained and highlighted in comparison
to any other stake holder. *ndia would gain a lot by making lobbying legal.
4hen 1ou spea. against the topic, the .e1 points ma1 be2
1. !he common man of *ndia who is otherwise reeling under the pressure of corruption
and unemployment will be left penniless once lobbying is made legal. All the ma+ors will
lobby for their interests in the economy will facilitate the entry riding the common man
who hardly earns his bread and butter. !hose who have more power and pelf will become
greater lobbyist and will ensure that their interests are not compromised.
. 6ational interests will be cornered as lobbyists will have one-line motto of watching
their own interest and will not at all be concerned about the countrys interest as they will
not be from this country.
!. $obbyists will make corruption legal. 2oliticians and influential people will still garner
their share from lobbyists at the cost of the nation.
". $egislators who are law makers if influenced by lobbyists may get inclined towards
serving them becoming oblivious of the national interests.
#. $obbying in defence production and purchases might put national security at stake.
). *ndia is a vast country and has a lot of complexities and problems. !he lobbying
company has no perception of the diversity and the nature of problems. !he government
might simply gamble on the tactics of the lobbyist and that might become harmful in
*. !here is no mechanism in *ndia to bring accountability to lobbying and publicly reveal
the lobbying positions of companies and the money spent. %elf-regulation in lieu of a
formal legislation is often proposed by industry players. *n *ndia nobody knows the
lobbying position of companies leave alone looking for consistencies in lobbying
positions and their impact on issues on sustainable development. Making it legal will add
to the woes of *ndian businesses.
The efforts ma'e so far in In'ia%
!he 2lanning "ommission has set up an expert group to look into the processes that
comprise lobbying. Arun Maira member of 2lanning "ommission stated J1e will be
considering various interests of all the stakeholders involved. !his expert group
comprises industries and government secretaries. !here is an on-going dialogue with the
industry associations for their views. 1e want lobbying to be transparent and
representative. 1e are looking at the best benchmarks for processes of lobbying in other
countries. 0owever this is a very large issue and the final solution is far down the road.M
0owever given the political exigencies of framing policies and complex nature of polity
this task will re,uire the consummate skills of great statesmen.
5bama6s &in is goo' for In'ia
#bama has won the ;% 2residential election second time in a row. *ndo-;% relations
have been running fine with the exception that he has been tough on outsourcing and visa
regulations causing problems for *! professionals. 0e is a democrat and vouches for
peace. 0e has been supportive to *ndia on various issues and *ndia hopes for warmer
relations in future.
#nce you have the understanding of the topic you may proceed to speak in an effective
manner to give your view point. 9o not enter the fish market you may take the lead or be
the second to speak have a little louder voice so that you are audible enough. 9ont get
bully at all.
Points in support of the topic2
5. #bama has given more appointments and places in his administration and political
appointments to *ndian Americans. !his trend is expected to continue and would mean
that voice of *ndia is more prominent in #bama administration.
7. #n his visit to *ndia #bama endorsed *ndias claim to have a permanent seat in the ;6
%ecurity "ouncil.
D. >inancial markets favour stability over change and unpredictability !he B%E %ensex
surged 37 points when the news of Barack #bama winning the ;% election broke out
showing its positive impact on the *ndian economy.
@. #bama/s re-election is not going to change a lot for *ndia as it remains an attractive
market. 0igher trade expansion is expected as #bama would definitely like to push for
American investment in *ndia. ;%*B" 2resident Bernankes visit to *ndia further paved
the path of strengthening of bilateral trade between the two countries and could
potentially lead to the opening of *ndian bank branches in the ;% and vice versa.
E. *ndia can expect more of the continued policy on various issues as %unil Mittal of
Bharti Enterprises has gone on record to say there will be Kcontinuity for *ndia.K
8. #bama is expected to remain non-interfering on the *ndo-2akistan issues as he has
been so far. !he indication to this is a steep decline in ;%-2ak ties on various issues
especially fighting terrorism. *ndia will be interested in America/s independent policies
towards curtailing terror in 2akistan and Afghanistan.
A. L#bamacare an acronym for the 0ealthcare Bill proposed by 2resident #bama during
his first term is now likely to sail through and soon will become a historic law with
health coverage offered to every American. !his would open a wide door of business
opportunity for *ndian *! companies. !his might in all likelihood compel the ;%
government to continue large outsourcing contracts due to financial reasons. !he key
economic driver of #bamacare vision is to reduce the trillion dollar healthcare burden on
the exche,uer. #ne method likely to be employed is the government-supported
encouragement in larger usage of generic medicines for the ;% population. !his could
benefit the competitively priced *ndian generic drug manufacturers who could dominate
the supply chain.
B. #bamas second term signifies a continuity of policy both in 6ew 9elhi and
1ashington. #bama is not expected to take any decision which will hurt *ndia. 0e fully
understands the importance of *ndias role in Asia. !he ;% cannot afford to alienate and
antagoni.e *ndia. !aking into account the totality of *ndo-;% relations #bamas victory
is a positive factor for stability continuity and inter-dependence.
3. #bamas predecessors Bush and "linton were instrumental in bringing upward swing
in *ndo-;% relations. *ndia was enabled to enter the world of civil nuclear commerce
during the Bush regime. !he trend of better relations would continue it is expected.
5?. #bama is regarded by *ndia as a well-deposed leader and there has already been a
substantial upgrading of relations in his first term. *ndia would like the ;% foreign policy
in the *ndian subcontinent to move on the expected lines as there are many pressing
issues demanding immediate attention. #ne of them is early withdrawal of ;% and other
foreign forces from Afghanistan. !he ;% has already made it known that these troops will
be effectively withdrawn by 7?5@.
Points against the topic (5bama7s &in is goo' for In'ia)2
5. #bamas win may not be good for *ndia as a number of decisions taken by him would
affect *ndia adversely. !here is a lot of concern in *ndias business circles about #bamas
views on business outsourcing. *ndian *! companies garner around E? per cent of the
revenue from the ;% market. #bama is a known protectionist and has been opposing
outsourcing vehemently during his election campaign also. !his forced *ndian *!
companies during his first term as 2resident to hire more in the ;%. !his reduced the
operating margins substantially since an employee in the ;% is about three to four times
costlier than he is in *ndia.
7. )isa issues are also concerns for *ndia *nc. !he tough visa regulations with higher fee
and longer processing period might continue to hurt *ndian technology workers. !his
problem cannot be solved unless comprehensive immigration reforms in the ;% are
carried out. !his will be a long and difficult process.
D. *ndia has a ma+or role to play in the international action plan for rehabilitation of
Afghanistan to shape its future both internally and between *ndia and its strategic
partners of which the ;% is the most prominent. *n case any uncertainty to the
withdrawal of ;% forces persists it would mean regional uncertainty.
@. *ndia will have to monitor the ;% role in "hina. #bama is already pushing "hina to let
their currency appreciate so American goods can become cheaper for billions of "hinese
to buy. *t will affect *ndian economic interests as well.
E. !he ;% policy on *ran imposing tighter sanctions has created problems not for *ran
alone but also for its trading partners including *ndia. Besides *rans role in Afghanistan
cannot be ignored as it has much to contribute to the restoration of peace in that country
a close neighbor of *ndia.

8. !he delicate issues related to *ndo-;% foreign policies and too much of protectionism
being shown by Mr. #bama are bound to concern *ndia deeply as it cannot escape the
long-term conse,uences of sour relations arising out of mishandled foreign policy by
either of the countries.
$onclu'e &ith a silver lining2 *ndo-;% relations have however improved and can be
rated well-e,uated during the first term of #bama as the ;% 2resident. !hey will improve
further and will bring about global economic recovery and *ndia *nc has expressed the
hope that issues on outsourcing to *ndia will be resolved. *n an inter-connected global
economy #bama the geo-strategic importance of *ndia in Asia and its leadership
role in the B(*"% group of developing countries. America will expectedly offer the olive
branch to *ndia to maintain a counter balance to the growing influence of "hina as an
emerging %uperpower.
(8I in retail % a boon or a bane
9et to .no& the topic2 A number of dos and donts have already been discussed in
order to gear you up for '9. 0owever it is always imperative to understand the topic in
its right perspective before you place your views on it. $et us think what do we know
about this hot and fiercely debatable topic and once we have clarity of the same we may
proceed to present our strong opinion based on facts. "aptioned topic has two parts and it
is suggested to split it in two parts to make your presentation lucid and effective on the
1e should have an idea about what is >9* in retail and whether it is beneficial <boon= or
harmful <bane= for *ndia
4hat is (8I in retail
>oreign direct investment <>9*= refers to capital inflows from abroad that are invested to
enhance the production capacity of the economy. 0owever >9* in retail is different from
the investment in corporate manufacturing or infrastructure sectors. (etail can be single
or multi brand and may be described as a sale to the ultimate consumer at a margin of
profit. 1hile the >9* in single-brand retailing was allowed earlier >9* in multi-brand
retailing is being allowed nowN meaning a retail store with a foreign direct investment can
sell multiple brands under one roof. %o it is the link between the producer4manufacturer
and the individual consumer. *ndia had to open up the retail trade sector to foreign
investment as she is a signatory to the 1orld !rade #rgani.ations 'eneral Agreement on
!rade F %ervices which include wholesale and retail services.
4hether it is beneficial (boon) or harmful (bane) for In'ia2 !he aspirant has to
remember and be very cautious that he4she has to follow one path I either pros <boon= or
cons <bane= of >9* in multi-brand retail. *t will put the aspirant in a pi,uant situation if
he4she speaks in an ambiguous tone and ideas. *f one idea fact etc overrides the earlier
one the credit earned may be lost.
Pros (benefits)
a= *ndian retail sector is highly fragmented with around 3A percent of its business being
run by the unorgani.ed retailers. !he organi.ed retail is in its infancy. 1ith the entry of
>9* the retail sector will become organi.ed.
b= >oreign investment in food-based retailing would ensure ade,uate flow of capital into
the country and its productive use multiplying the same. *t will promote the welfare of
farmers by agriculture growth and thereby increasing their income level.
c= *ntermediaries known with different names in different parts of the country flout the
business ethics. 2rices lack transparency due share of farmer is not paid to him.
(egulated markets also have developed monopolistic character. *ndian farmers at present
reali.e only 54Drd of the final price paid by the consumer as against the 74Drd price
reali.ed by the farmers in the countries with a greater share of organi.ed retail. >9* will
assist in reducing the dominance of value chain by intermediaries.
d= >9* in retail will make the consumer happy as well. *n the absence of intermediaries
the consumer will end up paying less for a better product. Besides in the unorgani.ed
sector consumer has to argue and fight a lot in case he has to return some faulty product
to the retailer. !his process will be standardi.ed.
e= *t will serve as an antidote to inflation. !he producer will get direct payment from the
retailer and the same will be higher than what he was getting earlier due to the foul play
by the intermediaries.
f= *n accordance to the provisions made any company going for E5C partnership in
retail will have to tie-up with a local partner. !his will improve the income levels of all
concerned and will make economy flourish with ,uality branded products at a lower
g= >9* will improve the investment in logistics of the retail chain leading to an efficient
market mechanism. *ndia is one of the biggest producers of fruits and vegetables <More
than 5B? million M!= it does not have a strong integrated cold-chain infrastructure with
only around E@?? cold storages which have total capacity of about 7@ million M!. !he
irony is that B?C of the capacity is used only for preservation of potatoes. !he perishable
horticultural commodities find it difficult to link to distant markets including overseas
market. >9* will become catalyst in avoiding this distress sale and erosion F wastage in
,uality and ,uantity of the produce.
h= >9* in the retail sector will spur competition as the current scenario is of low
competition and poor productivity. *ndia will flourish in terms of ,uality standards and
consumer expectations.
$ons ('ra&bac.s)
>9* is all not goodie-goodie. 0owever if an aspirant speaks against >9* he should be
careful to leave room for positive thoughts.
a= !he unorgani.ed retail sector is the largest source of employment after agriculture and
has deep penetration in rural *ndia. *t generates more than 5?C '92 of *ndia. !here is all
probability that there will be a great +ob loss in this sector. !he worst affected would be
the rural youth.
b= !he foreign big guns like 1al-Mart coming with huge investment may not procure
material from the domestic producers and might import the same from international
market. !his will add to the woes of already crumbling *ndian producers.
c= !he present 29% <2ublic 9istribution %ystem= on which a large urban and rural
population depends will also receive a setback and it will be difficult to procure and
redistribute the material once the dependence on >9* increases.
d= !he fear is rampant on the existence of micro small and medium enterprises with the
introduction of >9* in *ndia. !hey will lose their existence.
e= >oreign capital will penetrate in the country and will seek ways to multiply itself with
unthinkable application for profit. *n the long run given the socio-economic structure it
may cast doom and widen the gap between the rich and the poor.
A positive thought to conclu'e / Allowing >9* in multi-brand retail will bring about
supply chain improvement investment in technology manpower and skill development
upgradation in agriculture sector. !he government will be benefitted via greater '92 and
tax income. !he organi.ed sector will lay stress on producing more and thus generate
more employment in production as well as retail industry.
Activism is necessar1 for survival of 'emocrac1
The topic / !here are three key words on which the entire topic revolves. !hese areG
activism survival democracy. 6ow let us analyse each of them.
Activism / *t is the activity that awakens the sleeping people about something going
wrong and enlightens them what remedies are to be taken to get the things in order. !he
goal can be achieved by common people themselves or with the help of the arms of
constitutional forces I 2arliament4legislative assemblies executive bodies I
administration and the +udiciary.
3urvival / A country that got freedom after so many struggles and formed a great
"onstitution for making the country a welfare state by ensuring liberty e,uality and
fraternity. *t has to be checked that the said values are not dying and their growth and
betterment are being ensured for the survival of a free and vibrant society.
8emocrac1 / !he form of government that the visionaries and constitution makers of our
country adopted while declaring *ndia a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic
which will function as the government of the people for the people and by the people. *t
has to be ensured that the government functions as per the guidelines and does not
Points for the topic (Pros) % 1hen you speak for the topic make fre,uent entries avoid
fish market speaking and every time with the point that presents the voice effectively.
-ou may have the following points up your sleeve but remember not to render your own
point crossed by your subse,uent statement.
1. "onstant vigil is the price to be paid for survival of democracy. !he enlightened
citi.ens of the society print and electronic media social activists reformers I all are the
parts of activism in a democratic system. More than 8? years have gone by since we
adopted democracy. #ur constitution clearly mentions that every citi.en regardless of
gender caste creed shall be e,ual before law and no discrimination shall be made on
such grounds. But the daunting realities have contradictory stories to unfold. *ndia with
its thousands of sub-castes stands divided on the basis of social divisions at every nook
and corner. 2eople children women are being suppressed. !he need of social uprising
arises here. !hese are the activists who raise a voice against such atrocities and let the
world know about the same. !hey educate the people garner their support and try to get
wrong doings rectified. 1ith all this activism sometimes things get better and sometimes
the activists are crushed to be replaced by more activists fighting for a +ust cause so that
the promises granted in the "onstitution are kept.
. %afety and empowerment of women who are catalysts of economic growth and social
+ustice in a great democracy like *ndia are lacking despite all the rhetoric and formation
of laws. 1hile the constitution gives all the rights to women their plight is deplorable in
most cases. 1omenfolk do not feel safe while moving from one place to another. !hey
are not safe even in the big cities like 9elhi Mumbai 0yderabad Mangalore etc where
thousands of women work shoulder to shoulder with men. !ragic incidents of gang rape
kidnapping chain snatching and even atrocities by the defenders of law regularly take
place. !hese are the social activists who cry foul get the public opinion formed gather in
thousands and make the government bow before the constructive activism for the lapses
committed by it. %ome ghastly incidents <story of )asant 9hoble a policeman of Mumbai
who got women paraded in front of cameras calling them prostitutes two girls who were
caught by police simply for awakening the society against unnecessarily of
Mumbai and the recent gang rape in 9elhi= shake the society to its roots and get instant
social activism sprung up with such intensity where entire nation became united. !his is
the power of activism which infuses life in a dying democracy. %leeping leaders and
lawmakers come to life and fierce debates and discussions for the survival of democratic
system begin all over the country.
!. !his is because of activism that corruption and corrupt practices are catching the
attention of people at large and irregularities are being highlighted across the media. !he
demand for L&an $okpal Bill by the civil society agitations by Anna 0a.are and
revelations by Arvind He+riwal and his team and other activities have revived the
democracy in *ndia. #ne can now hope for a better future.
". 5ne7s right is other7s 'ut1 / unless this doctrine is meticulously followed the
survival of democracy is difficult. !his is the activism that inspires the society to move
on the right path leaving its sluggishness. 2rint and electronic media people from all
walks of life with a hope to build a better society without sacrificing the tenets of
democracy are the parts of activism.
Points against the topic ($ons) / 1hen you wish to speak against the topic you in fact
would like to speak against the Lactivism and not against the survival of democracy. %o
before proceeding to speak think of the points you could place against the activism and
the alternate remedy.
1. Activism whether in print speech electronic media may instigate violence which is
harmful for the society and economy. 1hen this happens many people get in+ured and
there is a loss of national property as well. !his in fact is detrimental to the survival of
. Any activity in favour of an issue may result in confronting activities. !his may flare
up the path of confrontation as sometimes happened in cases like reservation in +obs
religious issues etc. Activism in sensitive manner that can trigger violence should be
nipped in the bud.
!. 9emocratic values are granted by the "onstitution and there are the government
agencies to ensure that those are duly implemented.
". 1e cannot leave the house open and unlocked and expect safety as well. 6ecessary
precautions for our own security are re,uired. "onstant vigil in democracy means to
remain watchful and not to take to streets on all the issues. 2rotests in every issue only
prove that we have no trust in the system we adopted for our well being.
#. All the dharnas road blocks and gatherings hamper the everyday life and cause
problems to the society. %o we have to be aware of it for our benefit. Any issue can be
addressed within the ambit of the existing social administrative and +udicial frameworks.
$onclu'e &ith some optimism2 9emocratic values should lead to the welfare of people.
%ince the choice is always between the means and the end the end is more important. $et
the activism with its non-violent nature make its voices heard consistently to attain the
end of preservation of democracy which works for the people.