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MC LC :

LI M U3
CHNG I. TNG QUAN V L THUYT IU CH S TN HIU
1.1.GII THIU V IU CH S.4
1.1.1.S khi ca mt h thng thng tin s in hnh...4
1.1.2.M hnh cho h thng thng tin s cho b iu ch v gii iu ch....6
1.1.3.Cc phng truyn dn s ...7
1.2. TNG QUAN V TRNH T IU CH S.9

1.3. CC PHNG PHP IU CH C BN...13


1.3.1. Kha dch bin (ASK-Amplitude Shift Keying)13
1.3.2 Kha dch tn s (FSK-Frequency Shift Keying)16
1.3.3. Kha dch pha (PSK-Phase Shift Keying)..18
1.3.4. QAM-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation..20
1.4. TIU CHUN LA CHN PHNG THC IU CH..20
1.4.1. Hiu qu cng sut .....20

1.4.2.Hiu sut rng bng21


1.4.3. phc tp h thng22
CHNG II :I SU PHN TCH IU CH S S DNG
KHA DCH PHA PSK
2.1. IU CH KHA DCH PHA NH PHN (BPSK)..24
2.2. IU CH PHA VI SAI (DPSK)...26
2.3. IU CH PHA CU PHNG (QPSK)...28
2.3.1. M t v iu ch QPSK.28
2.3.2 Ph v bng thng ca tn hiu QPSK...35
2.3.3 B iu ch v gii iu ch QPSK35
2.4. IU CH OQPSK.37
2.5. IU CH QAM.40

2.5.1. M t iu ch QAM vung40


2.5.2 gii iu chv tch tn hiu QAM vung..40
2.5.3 Xc sut li tn hiu.43
CHNG III : M PHNG MT S LOI IU CH KHA DCH PHA
(PSK) BNG MATLAB
3.1.GII THIU CHUNG V MATLAB44
3.2. M PHNG IU CH BPSK46
3.2.1. S my thu v my pht BPSK.47
3.2.2. BER ca iu ch BPSK c tnh theo l thuyt54
3.2.3. M phng c tnh BER bng Matlab
3.3. M PHNG IU CH QPSK60
3.2.1. S my thu v my pht BPSK..60
3.2.2. BER ca iu ch QPSK theo l thuyt..62
3.2.3. M phng QPSK bng Matlab62
3.4. NHN XT , NH GI KT QU M PHNG68
KT LUN..69
K hiu vit tt70
Ti liu tham kho71
Chng trnh Matlab

LI M U

Cc h thng thng tin s hin ang pht trin rt mnh m trn ton th gii v
thay th hu ht cc h thng thng tin tng t. p ng ngy cng tt hn
nhng nhu cu v cht lng dch v, s phong ph ca cc dch v, h gi thnh,
c bit l s lng thu bao ang tng nhanh cc nh nghin cu p dng rt
nhiu k thut v mt trong s l k thut iu ch s. Mc d c nhiu phng
thc iu ch s, nhng vic phn tch cc phng thc iu ch ny ch yu tu
thuc vo dng kiu iu ch v tch sng.
hiu r hn v cc loi iu ch cng nh cch thc hot ng ca cc loi
iu ch c bit l iu ch kha dch pha ( phasing Shift Keying ) nn em chn
ti i su phn tch cc phng php iu ch s s dng kha dich pha
PSK. Sau mt thi gian tm hiu v cng vi s hng dn ca cc thy gio trong
t b mn v thy gio TS. L Quc Vng trc tip hng dn, n nay em
hon thnh n ny vi ni dung gm ba chng:
- Chng I: Tng quan v l thuyt iu ch s tn hiu
- Chng II: i su phn tch cc loi iu ch kha dch pha PSK
- Chng III: M phng mt s loi iu ch kha dich pha
Em xin by t lng cm n ti cc thy gio gip em c th hon
thnh n tt nghip ny.
Hi Phng, ngy 22 thng 1 nm 2011
Sinh vin : Phm Vn Dng

CHNG I. TNG QUAN V PHNG PHP IU CH


TN HIU S
Trong chng ny em trnh by s lc v vai tr ca iu ch trong mt h
thng thng tin s in hnh, cc loi iu ch c bn, v tiu chun la chn trnh
t iu ch.

1.1 GII THIU V IU CH S


1.1.1 S khi h thng thng tin s in hnh.
So snh thng tin s v thng tin tng t
c trng c bn ca h thng thng tin s, d l truyn dn bng gc hay bng
knh, l: cc tn hiu c truyn dn v x l l tn hiu s. cng l c
trng phn bit h thng thng tin s v h thng thng tin tng t.
Tn hiu tng t c th nhn v s gi tr, lp y mt di no . V d in
hnh ca tn hiu tng t l tn hiu li ra ca mt micro, chnh l dng in b
iu ch bin bi ting ni ngi s dng. Ngc li, tn hiu s nhn gi tr
trong mt tp hu hn cc gi tr. V d in hnh ca tn hiu s l tn hiu li ra
ca mt my tnh, l cc chui bit.
Thng tin s c nhng u im c bn so vi thng tin tng t l:
Tn hiu s c kh nng chng nhiu tt hn tn hiu tng t: Th
nht, s tham s mang tin ca tn hiu s ch nm trong mt tp hu hn cc gi tr
v t hn s tham s ca tn hiu tng t. Th hai, tn hiu s cung cp kh nng
sa li hiu qu: tp m khng tch ly qua cc b lp, v cc li truyn dn c th
c sa li mt cch hiu qu nh cc phng thc iu khin li, cc k thut m
ha sa sai.
Dung lng cc h thng thng tin s cng ln hn cc h thng thng
tin tng t nh cc k thut m ha ngun, ghp knh s, cc k thut a truy
nhp t khai thc hiu qu ng truyn.
-

An ton thng tin c m bo nh s dng m ha (m mt).

V cc mch s tng i r, nh s pht trin ca cc cng ngh


mch tch hp, cc mch s ngy cng chim u th so vi mch tng t, c v gi
thnh, chc nng
Tuy nhin, Thng tin s cng c nhng nhc im ca n:
4

Yu cu ng b l kh khn ln nht trong hot ng ca mt h


thng thng tin s, t ng b tn s (sng mang), ng b khung, ng b symbol
n ng b bit (ng b ng h). cng l thch thc ln nht khi trin khai
cc cng ngh thng tin mi, nht l i vi thng tin khng dy ni chu nh
hng nng n ca mi trng truyn sng.
Thng tin s cng yu cu bng thng truyn dn ln hn, tt nhin
iu ny khng vnh vin ng. V d, tn hiu thoi tng t yu cu bng thng
truyn dn ti thiu khong 3kHz (300Hz-3400Hz), nhng vn ngun tin ny c
s ha PCM (tc bit li ra 64kb/s) th bng thng truyn dn ti thiu cho tn
hiu ny l 64kHz (gp hn 20 ln trng hp trn). Tuy nhin, nu ngun c
s ha theo k thut ADPCM (tc li ra theo chun G.721-ITU l 32kb/s) th
bng thng ti thiu ch cn mt na, hay m ha thoi trong cc h thng v tuyn
t ong, h thng v tinh tc bit xung ch cn c vi kb/s tc l bng thng
yu cu xp x hoc thm ch nh hn so vi tn hiu tng t. Mt khc, cc k
thut iu ch a mc chng hn M-QAM, M-PSK hay k thut ghp knh
OFDM cng m ra hy vng trong tng lai khng xa h thng thng tin s s s
dng ph tn hiu qu hn thng tin tng t.
Nhng u im ca thng tin s c ngha quan trng hn cc nhc im ca
n, v vy cc h thng thng tin s ngy cng tr nn thng dng. Trong tng lai
khng xa, cc mng vin thng s hon ton s ha.
Hnh 1.1 l s khi ca mt h thng thng tin s in hnh. Thng tin c
th c gi i t mt ngun tng t hay t mt ngun s . B chuyn i tng
t-s (A/D) ly mu v lng t ha tn hiu tng t v biu din cc mu di
dng s (bit 1 hoc 0). B m ha ngun chp nhn tn hiu s v m ha n thnh
dng tn hiu s ngn hn. y gi l m ha ngun, lm gim s d tha do
cng gim tc truyn cn thit . iu ny lm gim bng thng yu cu ca
h thng. b m ha knh nhn tn hiu ra ca b m ha ngun v thc hin m
ha n thnh tn hiu s di hn. S d tha c thm vo mt cch c ch ch
ln tn hiu s m ha nh vy mt s li do tp m hoc nhiu to ra trn sut
ng truyn qua knh c th c hiu chnh li ti my thu.
Ni chung th truyn pht thng tn s thng di cao, b iu ch do nn
cc k hiu s m ha ln mt sng mang. i khi truyn pht thc hin bng c
bn, b iu ch l iu ch bng gc, hay cng gi l b nh dng (formator),
thc hin nh dng cc k hiu s m ha ln mt dng sng thch hp
5

truyn. Thng thng, c mt b khuch i cng sut theo sau b iu ch. Vi


truyn pht tn s cao, iu ch v gii iu ch thng c thc hin tn s
trung tn (IF). Nu vo trng hp ny, mt b nng tn s c chn vo gia b
iu ch v khuch i cng sut. Nu tn s trung gian l qu thp so vi tn s
sng mang, mt s tng ca cc phin bn tn s sng mang c yu cu. Vi cc
h thng khng dy, c mt anten tng cui ca my pht.
Tn hiu
tng t

M ha
ngun

M ha
knh

iu
ch

Khuych i
cng sut

Knh
truyn

Tn hiu
tng t

D/A

Gii m
ha ngun

Gii m
knh

Gii iu
ch

Gii khuych
i cng sut

Tn hiu
s

Hnh 1.1 S khi ca mt h thng thng tin s c bn.

S khi cho trong trong hnh 1.1 ch l cu hnh mt h thng kinh in.
Mt cu hnh h thng thc c th phc tp hn. Vi mt h thng nhiu ngi s
dng, mt khi dn knh c chn vo trc khi iu ch. Vi h thng a trm,
mt khi iu khin a truy nhp c chn vo trc my pht. Cc thit b khc
nh tri tn v m ha cng c th c thm vo h thng. Mt h thng thc
cng c th n gin hn. M ha ngun v m ha knh cng c th khng cn
thit trong mt h thng n gin. Trn thc t, ch c khi iu ch, knh, gii iu
ch, v cc b khuch i l nht thit trong mi h thng truyn thng .

1.1.2.M hnh cho h thng thng tin s cho b iu ch v gii iu ch

iu ch

B lc
knh h(t)

Gii iu
ch
Nhiu
fading
A(t)

Nhiu
cng
n(t)

Hnh 1.2 M hnh ca h thng thng tin s cho vic iu ch v gii iu ch.
T hnh 1.2, tn hiu nhn c ti u vo ca b gii iu ch c th c
vit nh sau:
r (t ) A(t ) s (t )* h (t ) n (t )

(1.1)

Trong * ch php tch chp. Trong hnh 1.2 knh c m t bi 3 yu t.


Th nht l b lc knh. Do thc t l b lc s(t) t b iu ch phi qua my pht,
knh (trung gian truyn pht) v my thu trc khi n c th ti b gii iu ch, b
lc knh do l mt b lc hn hp vi hm truyn l:
H ( f ) HT ( f )H C ( f )H R ( f )

(1.2)

Trong H T ( f ) , H C ( f ) , H R ( f ) l cc hm truyn ca my pht, knh v my


thu. Cng nh vy, p ng xung ca b lc knh l:
h(t ) hT (t )* hC (t )* hR (t )

(1.3)

Trong hT (t ) , hC (t ) v hR (t ) l cc p ng xung ca my pht, knh v my


thu. Nhn t th hai l h s A(t) m ni chung l phc. H s ny biu din fading
trong mt s dng knh, nh l knh v tuyn di ng. Nhn t th ba l nhiu cng
v s hng nhiu n(t).

1.1.3 Nhng phng php truyn dn s


a. Truyn dn s bng gc.
Vi nhng truyn pht khong cch ngn, iu ch bng gc thng c s
dng. iu ch bng gc thng c gi l m ng. Mt chui cc k hiu s
thng c s dng to nn dng sng xung vung vi mt s c im no
biu din mi dng k hiu m khng c s nhp nhng sao cho chng c th
c khi phc trong lc thu. Hnh 1.3 cho mt s dng sng iu ch bng gc.
Dng u tin l iu ch non-return zero-level (NRZ-L) thc hin biu din
mt k hiu 1 bi mt xung vung dng vi di T v k hiu 0 bi mt xung
vung m vi di T.

(a)NRZ

A
-A
(b)Unipolar RZ
A
-A
(c)Bi--L (Manchester)
A
-A

Hnh 1.3 Cc th d v truyn dn s bng gc.


Dng th hai l dng iu ch unipolar return to zero vi mt xung dng
di T/2 biu din k hiu 1 v gi tr 0 biu din cho k hiu 0.
Dng th 3 l dng mc 3 pha (biphase level) hay cn gi l Manchester, sau
khi pht minh ra dng ny, vic iu ch s dng dng sng gm mt xung T/2
dng v xung T/2 m cho 1 v dng sng o ngc cho 0.
b. Truyn dn s thng di.
Mt chui cc k hiu s c s dng lm thay i cc thng s ca mt
tn hiu hnh sin tn s cao gi l sng mang. Ni chung, mt tn hiu hnh sin c 3
thng s: bin , tn s v pha. Vy iu ch bin , iu ch tn s, v diu ch
pha v l ba cng c iu ch c bn trong iu ch thng di.
Hnh 1.4 cho ba dng iu ch sng mang nh phn c bn. l kha dch
bin (ASK), kha dch tn s (FSK), v kha dch pha (PSK).
Trong ASK, b iu ch y ra mt b sng mang cho mi k hiu 1, v
khng tn hiu no cho mi k hiu 0. Trnh t ny cng c gi l kha bt-tt
(OOK).
8

Trong kha ASK thng thng, bin cho k hiu 0 khng thc s l 0.
Trong FSK, vi k hiu 1, mt b sng mang tn s cao hn c pht ra v
vi k hiu 0 mt b sng mang tn s thp hn c pht ra, hay ngc li.
1

FSK

ASK

PSK

Hnh 1.4 Ba trnh t iu ch thng di c bn.


Trong PSK, mt k hiu 1 c pht ra nh mt b sng mang vi 0 ln o
pha trong khi k hiu 0 c pht ra nh mt b sng mang vi pha o 180.
Da trn ba trnh t iu ch c bn , mt lot cc trnh t iu ch c th
c tm thy t cc kt hp ca chng. Chng hn, bng cch kt hp hai tn hiu
PSK (BPSK) vi cc sng mang trc giao, mt trnh t mi gi l kha dch pha
cu phng (QPSK) c th c to ra. Bng cch iu ch c bin v pha ca
sng mang, ta c th thu c mt trnh t gi l iu ch bin cu phng
(QAM),v.v.

1.2 TNG QUAN V TRNH T IU CH


Cc trnh t iu ch lit k trong bng 1v cy c phn loi thnh hai phn
nhm ln: bin c nh v bin khng c nh. Trong lp bin c nh, c 3 lp
con: FSK, PSK v CPM. Trong lp bin khng c nh, cng c 3 lp con: ASK,
QAM v cc iu ch bin khng c nh khc na,

Trong cc trnh t c lit k, ASK, PSK v FSK l cc iu ch c bn,


cn MSK, GMSK, CPM, MHPM v QAM, v.v. l cc trnh t nng cao. Cc trnh
t iu ch nng cao l cc bin th v kt hp ca cc trnh t c bn.
Lp c bin c nh ni chung ph hp vi cc h thng thng tin c cc b
khuch i cng sut hot ng trong vng phi tuyn ca c tuyn u vo-u ra
thu c hiu qu khuch i ti a. Mt v d l TWTA (traveling wave tube
amplifier)-b khuch i ng sng chy trong thng tin v tinh. Tuy nhin, cc trnh
t FSK ni chung trong lp ny l khng thch hp vi ng dng v tinh do chng
c hiu qu ph qu thp so vi cc trnh t PSK. FSK nh phn c s dng
trong cc knh iu khin tc thp ca cc h thng t bo th h th nht,
AMPS (advance mobile phone service of USA) v ETACS (European total access
communication system). Tc truyn c th l 10 Kbps vi AMPS v 8 Kbps vi
ETATC. Cc trnh t PSK, bao gm BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, v MSK c s
dng trong cc h thng thng tin v tinh.
/4-QPSK c quan tm nht bi kh nng trnh di pha t ngt 180 v cho
php gii iu ch vi sai. Trnh t ny c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin
di ng s t bo, nh h thng s t bo M (USDC)(United State digital cellular).
Tn vit tt
BFSK
MFSK
BPSK
QPSK
OQPSK
/4-QPSK
MPSK
SHPM
MHPM
LREC
CPFSK
MSK
SMSK
LRC

Tn vit tt tng
M t
ng
Kha dch tn (FSK)
FSK
Kha dch tn nh phn
Kha dch tn M mc
Kha dch pha
PSK
Kha dch pha nh phn
4PSK
iu ch pha cu phng
SQPSK
Offset QPSK, Staggered QPSK
/4 iu ch pha cu phng
iu ch pha M mc
iu ch pha lin tc (CPM)
Single-h (ch s iu ch) phase
modulation
Multi-h (ch s iu ch) phase
modulation
Rectangular pulse of length L
Continuous phase shift keying
FFSK
Kha dch pha ti thiu, fast FSK
Serial minimum shift keying
Raised cosine pulse of length L

10

LSRC
GMSK
TFM
ASK
OOK
MASK
QAM
QORC
SQORC
QOSRC
Q2PSK
IJF-OQPSK
TSI-OQPSK
SQAM
XPSK

Spectrally raised cosine pulse pff length L


Kha dch pha cc tiu
Tamed frequency modulation
Cc loi iu ch kt hp (Pha v bin )
iu ch bin
ASK
iu ch bin nh phn
MAM
iu ch bin M mc
iu ch cu phng
Cc iu ch bin khng c nh
Quadrature overlapped raised cosine
modulation
Staggered QORC
Quadrature overlapped squared raised
cosine modulation
Quadrature quadrature phase shift keying
Intersymbol-interference/jitter-free
OQPSK
Two-symbol-interval OQPSK
iu ch cu phng vung gc
Crosscorrelated QPSK
Bng 1.1. Cc trnh t iu ch

11

Cc loi iu ch s

Bin khng i
FSK

BFSK
(N)

PSK

CPM

BPSK
(N)

MFSK
(N)

ASK

MPSK
(N)

QPSK
(D)

OQPSK

Bin thay i

OOK
(N)

MHPM

QPSK
(D)

SQORC

MMM
MAM
(N)MMM
M

QORC

IREC
(CPFSK)

QOSRC
IJF OQPSK

SHPM

LREC

Xung lc

QAM
M

LRC
LSRC

TSI OQPSK
SQAM
XPSK

GMSK

h = 0.5
MSK
(D)(N)

TFM

(D)(N)

(D) C s khc bit gia m ha v gii m


(N) Khng c s khc bit

Hinh 1.5 Cy iu ch s
Cc trnh t PSK c bin c nh nhng chuyn pha khng lin tc t k hiu
ny sang k hiu khc.
MSK v GMSK l hai trnh t quan trng trong lp PCM. MSK l mt trng
hp ca CPFSK, nhng n cng c th nhn c t OQPSK vi dng xung hnh
sin m rng, MSK c hiu qu v cng sut v hiu qu v ph rt tuyt. B iu
ch v gii iu ch ca chng cng khng qu phc tp. MSK c s dng
trong tn la cng ngh truyn thng chuyn su ca NASA (NASA's Advanced
Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS)). GMSK c xung tn s Gauss. Vy
n c th c hiu qu dng ph tt hn c MSK. GMSK c s dng trong h

12

thng d liu gi s dng t bo (CDPD) v h thng GSM chu u (global system


for mobile communication).
HMPM c ch c bit t khi c t l li tt hn so vi single-h CPM bng
cch bin i c chu k h s iu ch h.
Cc trnh t bin khng c nh ni chung, nh ASK v QAM, thng l
khng ph hp vi cc h thng c cc b khuch i cng sut khng tuyn tnh.
Tuy nhin QAM, vi biu chm sao tn hiu rng, c th thu c hiu qu s
dng ph c bit cao. QAM c s dng mt cch rng ri trong cc
MODEM s dng trong cc mng in thoi, nh cc modem my tnh. QAM cn
c xem xt cho cc h thng v tinh. Trong trng hp ny, tuy nhin, phn hi
trong cng sut u vo v u ra ca TWTA phi c cung cp m bo tnh
tuyn tnh ca khuch i cng sut.

1.3 CC PHNG PHP IU CH C BN


1.3.1. Kha dch bin (ASK-Amplitude Shift Keying):
Tn hiu ASK c th c xc nh bi cng thc:
s t A.m t cos2 f ct

0t T

(1.4)

Trong :
A: l hng s
m t : Nhn gii tr bng 1 hoc 0

f c : Tn s sng mang

T: Thi gian tn ti mt bit


Bn cht ca phng php iu ch bin l bin ca sng mang c
chuyn i gia 2 mc vi tc c xc nh trc bi tc bt ca tn hiu
nh phn c truyn. V mt ton hc, iu ch ASK tng ng vi vic nhn
tn hiu sng mang vi tn hiu nh phn.
Hnh 1.6 minh ha qu trnh iu ch bin mt sng mang vi tn hiu nh
phn 10111001. Nu ngun s c M trng thi hoc mc, v mi mt mc i din

13

cho mt chu k T, th dng sng iu ch tng ng vi trng thi th i l Si t


theo kiu kha dch bin s l:

m(t)

Sng mang
s(t)

Hnh 1.6. iu ch bin tn hiu nh phn 10111001

Si (t)=Di (t).A 0 .cos0 t

(1.5)

Trong Di t l mc th i ca dng sng nhiu mc c rng T. Gi s s


mc gii hn l 2, nh l i vi tn hiu s nh phn v nh vy tn s sng mang
tng quan n rng T ca dng sng vung nh phn nh sau:
0 2n / t

(1.6)

Mt ph cng sut c biu thc nh sau:

sin 2 T f f 0

P A / 16 . f f 0 f f 0
2T f f 0
2

sin 2 T f f 0

2T f f 0

(1.7)

Ph gm 2 thnh phn. Phn th nht gm cc hm Delta Dirac bao hm cc


thnh phn ph gin on cch nhau nhng khong tn s 1/T. Nhng thnh phn
tn s gin on ny bin mt nu nh chui nh phn c gi tr trung bnh bng 0,
14

hoc vi tn hiu M mc khi mi mc M hu nh bng nhau. iu cho php ph


ca tn hiu iu ch s c chn trong khi thit k h thng bng cch chn thch
hp chui tin c truyn i. Phn th hai l ph lin tc m dng ca n ch ph
thuc vo c tnh ph ca xung tn hiu. i vi trng hp n gin s nh phn
c biu th trong phng trnh (1.7), xung ca thnh phn ph gin on ch tn
ti tn s sng mang do c cc im 0 ca ph cch nhau nhng khong tn s
1/T.
Nng lng
tn hiu

f
0
Hnh 1.7. Ph tn hiu ASK 2 trng thi
Ph v trn hnh cha 95% cng sut ca n trong rng bng 3/T . rng
bng c th gim bng cch dng xung cosin-tng. Kt qu l cc im 0 ca ph
xut hin nhng khong f 0 n / T , y n = 1, 2, ... Do tt c cc thnh phn
ph gin on bin mt, tr trng hp f = f 0 v f =f0 1/T. Ph ca xung cosintng c bp sng chnh rng hn lm cho rng bng ASK
Vic khi phc li tn hiu s c thc hin bi mch gii iu ch. Ti y tn
hiu thu c li c nhn mt ln na vi sng mang cng dng.
i vi phng php ASK, tng tc truyn ta tng s mc iu ch M,
ng thi phi tng cng sut ca tn hiu ln rt nhiu nu mun duy tr mt t l
li bit no . iu ny khng mang li hiu qu kinh t, v thit k mt b
khuch i cng sut c h s khuch i ln, tuyn tnh l rt kh thc hin. Hn
na, vi tn hiu ASK tin tc phn nh qua bin ca tn hiu, v vy kh nng
chng nhiu s rt km do bin ca tn hiu b nh hng ca can nhiu, tp m
v hin tng iu bin k sinh dn ti xc xut thu li ca h thng tng ln. V
vy, phng php iu ch ASK khng c p dng rng ri nhiu trong cc h
thng truyn dn v ch c p dng trong cc h thng truyn s liu thp.

1.3.2 Kha dch tn s (FSK-Frequency Shift Keying)

15

FSK c th xem nh tn hiu trc giao. Cc s tn hiu ch yu u c s


dng cho truyn s liu tc thp. L do d dng rng ri cc modem s liu l
tng i d dng to tn hiu v dng gii iu ch khng kp hp. Nh tn gi,
tin tc s c truyn i mt cch n gin bng cch dch tn s sng mang mt
lng nht nh tng ng vi mc nh phn 1 v 0.

m(t)
Sng mang 1
S1(t)

Sng mang 2
S2(t)

Hnh 1.8. iu ch tn s tn hiu nh phn 10111001.


trnh vn thay i v bin , vi FSK dng hai tn hiu sng mang c
cng bin tn v c nh, mt cho bit 1 v mt cho bit 0. S khc bit gia 2
sng mang l tn s. Hot ng iu ch tng ng vi s tng hp cc ng ra
ca hai b iu ch ASK ring bit: Mt thc hin trn sng mang th nht dng
phn gc tn hiu (mc 1) v mt thc hin trn sng mang th hai vi phn b
ca tn hiu d liu (mc 0)
Pha ca tn hiu FSK c th lin tc hoc khng lin tc. FSK pha lin tc c
th t c bng cch bt trng thi ca gc pha phi c mt tng quan nht
16

nh vi tn hiu iu ch. V mt ton hc c th suy ra yu cu bng thng vi


phng php FSK nh sau:
S FSK (t ) cos1t.S1 (t ) cos2t.S 2 (t )

(1.8)

Trong : 1 v 2 l tn s gc ca hai sng mang


S2 (t ) l phn b ca tn hiu d liu gc S1 (t )

S 2 (t ) 1 S1 (t )

(1.9)

Nu gi s d liu tun hon vi tn s c bn 0 th:


S FSK (t ) cos1 t 1/ 2 2 / cos0t 1/ 3cos0t ...

cos2t 1/ 2 2 / cos0t 1 / 3cos0t ...

(1.10)

Suy ra:
S FSK t 1/ 2cos1t 1/ cos 1 0 t cos 1 0 t 1/ 3...

1/ 2cos2t 1/ cos 2 0 t cos 2 0 t 1 / 3...

(1.11)

C th suy ra Ph ca tn hiu FSK mt cch n gin l tng hai sng mang


iu ch ASK ring bit tn s gc 1 v 2 .
Nng lng
tn hiu

Khong dch tn
Hnh 1.9. Bng thng tn hiu FSK
Vi FSK v tn hiu nh phn 0 v 1 iu ch ln cc sng mang ring r,
nn bng thng ti thiu cho mi sng mang bng mt na tc bit, ngha l thnh
phn tn s c bn ln nht cho mi sng mang bng mt na so vi ASK. Do
nu ch thu thnh phn tn s c bn th bng thng tng cng bng 4f 0 cng vi
khong dch tn fs. Tuy nhin v f0 bng mt na so vi ASK nn bng thng tng
17

cng bng vi bng thng tng ca ASK cng vi khong dch tn. Tng t, nu
thu c hi bc 3 th bng thng bng 6 f0 cng vi khong dch tn fs.
Nhng u im ca FSK so vi ASK l: Tnh cht bin khng i ca tn
hiu sng mang khng gy lng ph cng sut v to kh nng min tr i vi tp
m.

1.3.3. Kha dch pha (PSK-Phase Shift Keying)


Trong phng php iu ch PSK, tn s v bin ca sng mang c gi
khng i trong khi pha ca n dch theo mi bit dng d liu truyn.
C hai loi PSK thng c dng, loi th nht dng hai tn hiu sng mang
i din cho bit 1 v bit 0, hai sng mang ny khc pha nhau 180 0. V tn hiu
ny ch l nghch o ca tn hiu kia nn loi ny c gi l phase-coherent PSK
(PSK pha phi hp). iu bt tin ca loi ny l ti my thu i hi phi c sng
mang tham chiu so pha vi tn hiu thu, do cn phi thc hin ng b pha
gia my thu v my pht. Kt qu dn n mch gii iu ch phc tp hn.
Loi PSK th 2 gi l PSK vi sai (differential PSK). Vi loi ny s dch
chuyn pha xy ra ti mi bit hay mi symbol, khng cn quan tm ti chui bit 0
hay 1 ang c truyn. Gi s vi iu ch 2-PSK vi sai th mt s dch pha 90 0
tng tng vi tn hiu hin hnh ch nh 0 l bit k tip, trong khi s dch pha
2700 ch bit 1 l bit k tip. Nh vy mch gii iu ch ch cn xc nh ln
ca s dch pha thay v phi xc nh gi tr tuyt i ca tng pha. mch iu
ch ch khi no thay i trng thi ca d liu mi i pha ca sng mang
V mt ton hc ta c th xc nh bng thng ca PSK. y chng ta trnh
by tn hiu s nh phn di dng lng cc v mc m ca tn hiu s l kt qu
i pha 1800 ca sng mang. Tn hiu d liu biu din di dng chui Fourier
nh sau:
S t 4 / cos0t 1/ 3cos30t 1/ 5cos50t ...

(1.12)

T suy ra:
S PSK 4 / cosct.cos0t 1/ 3cosct.cos30t ...

18

(1.13)

Sng mang

Hnh1.10. iu ch pha tn hiu nh phn 1011001


Nng lng
tn hiu

thnh phn tn s c bn = tc bit


Hnh 1.11. Bng thng tn hiu PSK
Yu cu v rng bng i vi ASK v PSK l ging nhau th hin r trong
hm mt ph cng sut:
sin 2 T f f 0

PPSK A2 / 4 .

2T f f 0

19

sin 2 T f f 0
2
2T f f 0

(1.14)

Ph ca PSK khng cha cc hm Delta Dirac hay xung tn s mang, v do


l dng iu ch nn sng mang.

1.3.4. QAM-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


Mt tn hiu iu ch bin vung gc (QAM) s dng hai sng mang vung
gc l cos2 f ct v sin 2 f c t , mi mt trong chng c iu ch bi mt chui c
lp cc bit thng tin. Cc dng sng tn hiu c truyn i c dng:
S m t Amc g t cos 2 f ct Ams g t sin 2 f ct

m 1, 2, ..., M (1.15)

Trong Amc v Ams l tp cc mc bin nhn c bng cch nh x cc


chui k bit thnh cc bin tn hiu, g t l xung xc nh c tnh ph ca tn
hiu truyn.
Tng qut hn, QAM c th c xem nh mt dng hn hp ca iu ch
bin s v iu ch pha s.
Vi 8-PSK d liu c chia thnh cc gi gm 3 bit (Tribit), Mt bit biu din
cho bin sng mang, hai bt cn li biu din pha. Do tn hiu iu ch s
mang 4 gi tr pha khc nhau v 2 gi tr bin , to nn 8 trng thi khc nhau.
Ph ca M-PSK v M-QAM u ng nht nh nhau, nhng cc h thng PSK
yu cu mt cng sut ln hn pht i cng mt lng thng tin c xc sut li
cho trc.

1.4TIU CHUN LA CHN PHNG THC IU CH


1.4.1.Hiu qu cng sut
T l li bit, hay xc sut li bit ca mt trnh t iu ch l t l nghch vi
Eb / N 0 , t l nng lng bit trn mt ph nhiu. Chng hn, Pb ca ASK trong

knh AWGN c cho bi:

Pb Q

2 Eb

N0

(1.16)

Trong Eb l nng lng bit trung bnh, cn N 0 l mt ph nhiu (PSD)


v Q(r) l tch phn Gauss, i khi c bit ti l hm Q. Hm c nh ngha
nh sau:

20

Q ( x)
x

1 u2
e du
2

(1.17)

Hm l hm gim n iu ca x. Do hiu qu cng sut ca mt trnh t


iu ch c nh ngha mt cch thng thn nh t l Eb / N 0 cn thit vi mt xc
5
sut li bit no ( Pb ) trn mt knh AWGN. Pb 10 thng c s dng nh t

l li bit tham chiu.

1.4.2.Hiu sut rng bng


rng knh v cng sut pht l 2 ti nguyn c bn ca truyn thng. S
dng hiu sut cc ti nguyn ny l l do ca cc nghin cu s tit kim ph.
Trong cc i hiu sut rng ph nh ngha l t s tc d liu v rng
knh(n v l bit/giy/Hz). i tng th 2 l t c tit kim bng vi mt
cng sut tb tn hiu ti thiu hay l t s tn hiu /n. Vi tc d liu

rng bng knh l B.


Hiu sut s dng bng l:
=

b/s/Hz

V d, mt ph cng sut mt di ca mt tn hiu ASK c iu ch bi


mt chui bit ngu nhin c lp c xc sut ngang nhau c cho nh sau:
A2T
A2
2
s( f )
sin c [T ( f f c )]
( f fc )
4
4

(1.18)

V c cho trong hnh 1.12, trong T l di bit, A l bin sng mang,


v f c l tn s sng mang. T hnh ta c th thy rng ph tn hiu tri t ti
. Vy truyn i mt cch hon ho tn hiu, th cn mt bng thng h thng
khng xc nh, bin thin da trn mt tiu chun khc. Chng hn, trong hnh
1.12, hu ht nng lng tn hiu tp trung trong di gia hai im 0, vy yu
cumt bng thng 0-0 c v nh y .

21

Hnh 1.12: Mt ph cng sut ca ASK


C 3 cch tnh hiu qu ph trong cc ti liu nh lit k sau y:
Hiu qu ph Nyquist-gi thit h thng s dng b lc Nyquist (p ng
xung ch nht l tng) ti bng gc, c bng thng yu cu ti thiu cho truyn
pht nhiu ISI t do ca cc tn hiu s, th bng thng ti bng gc l 0.5Rs , Rs l
tc k hiu, v bng thng ti tn s sng mang l W Rs . Do Rs Rb / log 2 M ,
Rb =tc bit, vi iu ch M-ary (ND: M y l s im c th thy khi xem

biu chm im), hiu qu ph l


Rb / W log 2 M

(1.19)

Hiu qu ph null-null-vi cc trnh t iu ch c cc im 0 ph mt


cng sut nh ca ASK trong hnh 1.12, nh ngha bng thng nh rng ca
bp sng chnh l cch thch hp nh ngha bng thng.
Hiu qu ph phn trm-nu ph ca mt tn hiu iu ch khng c cc
im khng, nh iu ch pha lin tc ni chung (CPM), bng thng null-null
khng tn ti. Trong trng hp ny, bng thng phn trm c th c s dng.
Thng thng 99% c s dng, cho d mt s s phn trm khc (nh 90%,
95%) cng c dng.

1.4.3. phc tp h thng


phc tp ca h thng ni ti tng s dy dn trong n v kh k thut
ca h thng. Lin h vi phc tp ca h thng l gi thnh sn xut, d nhin l
22

mi bn khon chnh trong vic la chn mt k thut iu ch. Thng thng, b


gii iu ch phc tp hn b iu ch. B gii iu ch thch ng th phc tp hn
nhiu so vi b gii iu ch khng thch ng do s khi phc sng mang c yu
cu trong n. Vi mt s phng php gii iu ch, cc thut ton phc tp nh
Viterbi cn s dng. Tt c l nn tng cho so snh phc tp hn.

23

CHNG II :I SU PHN TCH IU CH S S DNG


PSK
2.1 IU CH PHA NH PHN - BPSK
h thng BPSK tng quan , cc tn hiu 0 v 1 c tn hiu iu ch l S 1(t)
v S2(t). Nu sng mang iu ha c bin Ac do nng lng ca mt bit l Eb=
Ac2Tb theo phng php iu ch BPSK 2 tn hiu lch pha nhau 180 nn ta c th
biu din :
Si (t)=

2E b
Cos 2(t)+
fct
Tb

(2.1)

Vi (t) = (i-1)
0 t Tb
i = 1,2,3.
Hay :
S1 (t)=

2E b
Cos 2 f c t +c ,
Tb

0 t Tb

2E b
Cos 2 f ct + c ,
Tb

0 t Tb

(2.2)
S2 (t)=-

(2.3)
T cc phng tnh (2.2) v (2.3) trn ta thy rng ch c mt hm c s l :
1 (t )

2
Cos 2 f ct +c ,
Tb

0 t Tb

Khi ta biu din S1(t) v S2(t) theo 1 (t) nh sau:


S1 (t)= E b 1 ,

0 t Tb

S2 (t)=- E b 1 ,

0 t Tb

24

(2.4)

Hnh 2.1. Khng gian tn hiu BPSK


Vy tn hiu iu ch BPSK c c trng bi khng gian tn hiu 1 chiu vi
2 im bn tin v ta c tnh :
Tb

S11 S1 (t )1 (t )d (t ) Eb

(2.5)

Tb

S 21 S 2 (t )1 (t )d (t ) Eb
0

quyt nh tn hiu vo thu c l 0 hay 1 ta chia khng gian tn hiu thnh


2 vng :
Vng Z1: cc im gn bn tin E b nht (ng vi 0 ).
Vng Z2: Cc im gn bn tin E b nht ( ng vi bit 1).
Quy tc quyt nh l d on tn hiu l S1 (t) hay 0 c pht nu tn hiu
thu ri vo vng Z1 v S2(t) hay 1 ri vo vng Z2 . Tuy nhin c th xy ra hai
quyt nh sai . tn hiu S2(t) c pht tuy nhin do tc dng ca nhiu tn hiu thu
li ri vo vng Z1 v ngc li.

25

T/h vo

n cc /
Lng cc
T/h BPSK
Sng mang

T/h BPSK

T/h ra
So snh

Sng mang

Hnh 2.2. S khi my pht v my thu BPSK


tnh ton xc sut gy ra li nu im 1 , gi tr quan st nu pht im 1 l :
Tb

y1 y (t )1 (t )d (t )

(2.6)

Vi y(t) l tn hiu thu c . Ta c th rt ra hm phn b xc sut khi k hiu


1 hay tn hiu S2(t) c pht :
fY 1 ( y1 |1)

1
1
exp[ (y1 Eb ) 2 ]
N
N0

(2.7)

Xc sut li m khi pht tn hiu 1 m my thu quyt nh l 0 bng :

1
1
Pe (0 |1) f y1 ( y1 |1) dy1
exp[ (y1 + Eb ) 2 ]dy1

N
N0 0
0

(2.8)
T ta tnh c :
E
2 Eb
1
Pe (0 |1) erfc( b )=Q(
)
2
N0
N0

(2.9)
Do tnh i xng nn Pe (0 |1) Pe (1| 0) do xc sut li trung bnh i vi iu
ch BPSK l :

26

Pe (0 |1) Q(

2 Eb
)
N0

(2.10)

2.2. IU CH PHA VI SAI (DPSK)


iu ch pha vi sai thuc loi iu ch khng ng b ( tc l khng cn xc
nh pha ca song mang n ) l s dng m vi phn da trn tnh cht l hiu pha
ca 2 k hiu lin tip khng ph thuc vo pha sng ti (K hiu trc c pha ti
l bao nhiu th k hiu ngay sau cng c pha ti nh vy hay ni cch khc l
pha sng ti coi l thay i chm trong khong thi gian bit) K thut ny gm 2
thao tc: m vi phn dy li vo ri thc hin PSK. gi 0 cng thm pha 180
vo dng sng, gi 1 ta gi dng sng khng i (nh vy cn bit pha ca bt
trc ). B thu c nh c th o sai pha gia 2 k hiu lin tip.
Mch
logic

Tn hiu
vo

iu ch
BPSK

cos
Tr

Mc 1
Nu y>0

Tr

t/h
thu

B dao
ng

Tr

Quyt
nh li
ra
Mc 0
Nu y<0

Hnh 2.3. S khi cho my pht v my thu DPSK


iu ch DPSK l dng iu ch m phng php gii iu ch khng cn phi
l dng kt hp vi mc ch l gim phc tp ca my thu. My thu khng kt
hp r hn v d ch to hn do c s dng rng ri trong cc h thng thng
27

tin v tuyn . Trong h thng DPSK , chui nh phn u vo


c to ra t chui nh phn u vo
Mc ch l k hiu
l 1, v

ha visai

bng cch cng tn hiu

khng i so vi k hiu trc nu k hiu u vo

s i nu l 0 .

To tn hiu DPSK: Trc ht to dy m vi phn dk


- Nu

l 1 ,

- Nu

=0 ,

gi li ging nh bit trc


s thay i so vi
d k =d k-1b k +d k-1 b k

Bng m ha nh sau:
10010011
bk

01101100

d k-1

11011011

d k-1

00100100

d k-1b k 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
d k-1 b k

00100100

Dy m vi phn d k 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
Pha c pht

0000000

Trong s khi ca my pht DPSK c phn t tr vi thi gian l Tb v


mch logic to ra chui m ha visai t tn hiu nh phn u vo . Tn hiu u
ra c a vo b iu ch BPSK thu c tn hiu DPSK . my thu , chui
tn hiu gc c khi phc t tn hiu DPSK bi cc mch b sung.

2.3. IU CH PHA CU PHNG - QPSK


2.3.1 M t v iu ch QPSK

28

iu ch QPSK c th hiu l iu ch PSK vi M=4. Do vy ta c th vit


cng thc cho sng mang c iu ch 4-PSK nh sau:

2E
Cos 2 f c ( t ) ;
0t T
T

Si (t)

t 0;t T

(2.11)
Trong :
i =1,2,3,4 tng ng vi pht i cc tn hiu 2 bt : 00,10,11v 01
E l nng lng pht i trn mt k hiu
T=2Tb l thi gian ca mt k hiu

fc

l tn s sng mang

l gc pha c iu ch
l gc pha ban u
Mi gi tr ca pha tng ng vi hai bit duy nht ca tn hiu c gi l
cp bit , chng hn ta c th lp cc gi tri pha biu din tp cc cp bit c m
ha Gray nh sau : 10,00,01 v 11. Gc pha ban u

l mt hng s nhn gi tr

bt k trong khong 0 n 2 , v gc pha ny khng nh hng n qu trnh pn


tch nn ta s xho n bng khng.
S dng bin i lng gic ta c th vit li phng trnh trn li dng
tng ng nh sau :

Si (t)

2E

2E


Cos (2 i 1) Cos 2 f c t
Sin
Sin 2 f ct ;
(2 i 1)

T
4
T
0t T

4
0

t 0;t T

(2.12)
29

Trong : i=1,2,3,4
Da trn cng thc trn ta c th a ra cc nhn xt sau:
Ch c hm c s trc giao chun
tng ng ca cc

trong biu thc Si (t) . Dng

c nh ngha nh sau :

1 (t )

1
Sin(2 f c )
T

0 t Tb

1 (t )

1
Cos(2 f c )
T

0 t Tb

(2.13)

Tn ti bn im bn tin vi cc vect tng ng c xc nh nh sau:

Si

ESin[(2 i 1) ]
4

ECos[(2 i 1) ]
4

i=1,2,3,4

(2.14)

Cc phn t ca cc vect tn hiu : Si1 v Si 2 c cc gi tr c tng kt


bng sau. Hai ct u ca bng cho ta cc cp bit v pha tng ng ca tn hiu

QPSK , trong bit 0 tng ng vi mc in p

in p

30

, cn bit 1 tng ng vi

Cp bit vo

Pha ca tn
hiu QPSK
(radian)

Ta d ca cc im bn tin

Bng 2.1. Bng cc vect khng gian tn hiu QPSK


T kho st trn ta thy mt tn hiu QPSK c c trng bi mt khng
gian 2 chiu ( N=2 ) v bn im bn tin ( M=4 ) nh hnh v :

Hnh 2.3. Khng gian tn hiu iu ch QPSK


V d : Chui tn hiu u vo 11000001 c cho nh hnh di . chui
ny li c chia thnh hai chui bao gm cc bit l v cc bt chn . Hai chui ny
c biu th cc dng trn cng . Cc dng sng th hin cc thnh phn ng
pha v lch pha vung gc QPSK cng c cho hnh di . C th nhn xt
ring hai dng sng ny nh cc tn hiu 2-PSK.
31

Hnh 2.4. Qu trnh hnh thnh sng QPSK


hiu c nguyn tc quyt nh khi tch sng chui s liu pht , ta phn
chia khng gian tn hiu thnh 4 phn nh sau :
Tp hp ca cc im gn nht im bn tin lin quan n vecto tn
hiu S1
Tp hp ca cc im gn nht im bn tin lin quan n vecto tin
hiu S2
Tp hp ca cc im gn nht im bn tin lin quan n vecto tn
hiu S3
Tp hp ca cc im gn nht im bn tin lin quan n vecto tn
hiu S4
thc hin vic phn chia ni trn ta k hai ng vung gc chia u mn
hnh vung ni cc im bn tin sau nh du cc vng tng ng . Ta c
vng quyt nh l cc gc phn t c nh trng vi gc ta . Cc vng ny
c nh du l Z1,Z2,Z3 v Z4.
Ta c th biu din tn hiu thu c nh sau :
y (t ) Si (t ) X(t)

(2.15)

Trong :

32

i = 1,2,3,4
X(t) l hm mu ca qu trnh ngu nhin Gauss c gi tr trung bnh 0 v mt
ph cng sut

N0
2

Vecto quan trc y ca my thu QPSK nht qun c hai thnh phn y1 v y2
c xc nh nh sau :
T

y1 y (t )1 (t )

(2.16)

E Sin[(2i 1) ] X1
4
T

y2 y (t ) 2 (t ) dt

(2.17)

ECos[(2i 1) ] X 2
4

Trong :
i = 1,2,3,4
Vy y1 v y2 l cc gi tr ly mu ca cc bin ngu nhin Gauss c lp c
gi tr trung bnh bng
sai bng

sin [(2i-1) ] v

cos [(2i-1) ] tng ng v c phng

N0
2

By gi quy tc quyt nh chung ch n gin l on Si (t) c pht nu im


tn hiu thu lin quan n vecto y quan trc ri ng vo vng Zi . s xy ra mt
quyt nh sai khi chng hn tn hiu S1 (t) c pht nhng tp m X(t) ln n
mc m im tn hiu ri ra ngoi vng Z1 .
Nh tnh i xng ca cc vng quyt nh , xc sut din gii im ca tn
hiu thu ng khng ph thuc vo tn hiu u no c pht . Gi s ta bit rng
tn hiu thu ng khng ph thuc vo tn hiu pht . Gi s ta bit rng tn hiu
S1 (t) c pht . My thu s a ra quyt nh ng nu im thu c trnh by bi

33

vecto quan trc y nm trong vng Z1 ca biu khng gian tn hiu . Vy i vi


mt quyt nh ng khi tn hiu S1 (t) c pht , cc thnh phn ca vecto quan
trc y : y1 v y2 phi cng dng :

Hnh 2.5. Vng quyt nh ng v vng quyt nh sai


iu ny c ngha rng xc sut ca mt quyt nh ng bng xc sut c iu
kin ca s kt hp y1 > 0 v y2 > 0 , khi S1 (t) c pht . Ngoi ra c hai y1 v y2

u l cc bin ngu nhin c gi tr trung bnh bng

v phng sai bng

nn

ta c th vit nh sau :

1
exp[N 0

Pc =
0

(y1 -

E 2
)
2 ]dy

N0

1.

1
exp[N 0

(y 2 -

E 2
)
2 ]dy

N0

(2.18)

Trong tch phn th nht v phi l xc sut c iu kin ca s kin y1 0


v tch phn th hai l xc sut c iu kin ca y2 > 0 . khi S1 (t) c pht . t :

Z=

y1 -

E
2

(2.19)

N0

Khi thay cc bin y1 v y2 bng Z ta c th vit li :

34

1
Pc =

2
exp(-z
)dz

E
2N0

(2.20)
T nh ngha ca hm b li ta c :

1
Pc =

2
exp(z
)
dz

E
2 N0

1
1- erfc
2

2 N 0

(2.21)
Vy ta c :

Pc

1
1- erfc
2

2 N 0

(2.22)

1- erfc

2
E
1
erfc
2 N 0
4

2N
0

Vy xc sut trung bnh i vi li k hiu cho trng hp QPSK kt hp c


xc nh nh sau :
Pe =1-Pc

(2.23)

2
E
1
erfc
2 N 0
4

erfc

2N
0

E
1 ta c th b qua thnh phn th 2 hai v phi ca biu
2 N 0

vng

thc trn . Vy ta c cng thc tnh xc sut trung bnh ca li k hiu i vi


QPSK kt hp :

2 N 0

Pe erfc

=2Q

(2.24)

2N 0

35

h thng QPSK ta thy rng c hai bit trn mt k hiu . iu ny c ngha


l nng lng c pht i trn mt k hiu gp hai ln nng lng trn mt bit ,
ngha l :

E=2E b
Eb

Vy c th biu din xc sut trung bnh ca li k hiu theo t s N :


0

Pe erfc

E
2Q

2N 0

2N
0

(2.25)

2.3.2 Ph v bng thng ca tn hiu QPSK


Hnh 2.6.
Mt xc
sut ca tn
hiu QPSK
Mt

ph
cng
sut ca tn
hiu QPSK
c th c
tm theo cch
ging
nh
i vi tn
hiu BPSK
vi chu k 1
ca bit Tb thay bng chu k mt tn hiu Ts . Mt ph cng sut ca tn hiu
QPSK c tnh theo cng thc :
s
E Sin(f-f c )Ts Sin(f+f c )T
PQPSK = s
+

2(f-f
)T c s

)T c s (f+f

Sin(f-f )T
c
s
=E b

(f-f c )Ts

(2.26)

s
Sin(f+f c )T
+

(f+f c )T s

36

Bng thng ca tn hiu QPSK BW=

Rb
gim
2

so vi bng thng ca tn hiu

BPSK .

2.3.3 iu ch v gii iu ch QPSK


By gi ta i xt qu trnh iu ch v gii iu ch QPSK . Hnh 2.7(a) l s
khi ca b iu ch QPSK :
Knh I
LPF
D liu nh
phn
Ni tip /
song song

T/h
QPSK

Osc.

90

LPF

Knh Q

(a) B iu ch QPSK
LPF
T/h
QPSK

Q/
ngng

+)
Song song /
ni tip

BPSK

-)
LPF

Q/
ngng

(b) B gii iu ch QPSK


Hnh 2.7. S khi my pht (a)v thu (b) QPSK.
D liu u vo c chia lm hai lung c lp : mt lung cha cc bit
chn (tn hiu I ) , mt lung cha cc bit l (tn hiu Q). B chuyn i mc

37

chuyn i cc k hiu 0 v 1 thnh lng cc tng ng vi +

v -

. Ta thy

rng mi khong thi gian , hai lung tn hiu ny c nhn vi tn hiu song
mang trc giao 1(t) v 2(t) . Kt qu nhn c cp sng mang 2-PSK . Sau 2
sng ny c cng vi nhau to tn hiu QPSK . Do tnh trc giao ca 2 sng
mang nn c th tch 2 lung tn hiu ny c . Lu rng rng T ca tn hiu
QPSK gp 2 ln rng ca dng tn hiu .

2.4. IU CH OQPSK ( offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying )


Trong thc t ngi ta thng dng cch iu ch da trn nguyn tc ca
QPSK nhng to s lch pha ca hai tn hiu trn hai knh I v Q bng cch cho
mt tn hiu tr mt bit ( Tb ) so vi tn hiu kia, gi l iu ch OQPSK. Vic lm
ny khin cho s chuyn trng thi ca tn hiu knh ny (th d knh I) lun lun
xy ra ngay im gia ca tn hiu ca knh kia (knh Q), nh vy trong mt cp
bit IQ bt k ch c s thay i ca mt bit duy nht v iu ny a n kt qu l
cc tn hiu ng ra tng hp ch lch pha 0 hoc 90 ch khng phi 180 nh
QPSK. Vy im thun li ca OQPSK l gii hn c s lch pha ca tn hiu ra
v trnh c cc xung t bin khi phc hi tn hiu nh phn.
Chuyn mc

T/h
nh phn

T/h OQPSK

Phn lung
Chuyn mc
)

Hnh 2.8. S khi ca b iu ch OQPSK


c th so snh cc tn hiu cc ng ra tng hp, ta xt chui tn hiu vo
nh (H 2.9) v chui tn hiu ca 2 knh I v Q trong hai trng hp QPSK (H
2.9b) v OQPSK (H 2.9c)

38

V tn hiu tng hp ng ra tng ng

Hnh 2.9
- Nu 2 bit trn 2 knh I v Q khc nhau hon ton th cc tn hiu tng t
tng ng khc nhau 180o
- Nu 2 bit trn 2 knh I v Q ch khc nhau mt bit th cc tn hiu tng t
tng ng khc nhau +90o hoc -90o.

39

im bt li ca phng php OQPSK l s thay i pha ca tn hiu ra xy ra


trong tng khong thi gian T do vn tc iu ch v bng thng ti thiu ca
knh truyn tng gp i so vi phng php QPSK .
Xc sut li ca phng php OQPSK cng c tnh nh phng php QPSK
, l :

Pe erfc

E b
=2Q

N 0

E b

N
0

(2.27)

Hnh 2.10. Mt ph cng sut ca tn hiu OQPSK


Trn hnh biu din mt cng sut ca tn hiu OQPSK cng vi cc tn hiu
BPSK , QPSK , OQPSK. Chng oc biu din trn min tn s vi tc truyn
d liu l : Rb

1
. Ta thy, ng bao chnh ca ph tn hiu OQPSK v QPSK hp
T

hn ph tn hiu BPSK v MSK.


Bng thng cho OQPSK nh hn cho BPSK. kt qu tnh ton c th cho ta s
liu tng i nh sau :
B99/ o 1.2 Rb

B99/ o 10 Rb

(MSK)

(QPSK v OQPSK)

B99/ o 20 Rb

(BPSK)

40

2.5. IU CH BIN VUNG GC - QAM


2.5.1. M t v QAM vung
Mt tn hiu iu ch bin vung gc QAM s dng hai sng mang vung
gc l cos2 f ct v sin 2 f ct mi chng c iu ch bi mt chui c lp cc bit
thng tin. Dng sng truyn i c dng :
um (t ) Amc gT (t )cos2 f ct Ams gT (t ) sin 2 f ct ; m = 1, 2, 3,,M

(2.28)

Trong Amc v Ams l cc tp cc mc bin nhn c bng cch nh


x cc chui k bit thnh cc bin tn hiu. Nh hnh 2.11.b m t biu sao tn
hiu 16 QAM m n nhn c bng cch iu ch bin tng sng mang bng
4 PAM, tc l mi mc tn hiu i din cho 4 bit thng tin. im mnh ca lc
ny l trnh li do cc trng thi qu gn nhau. Do vi lc ny 8 pha
c dng nhng cc mc bin lin quan n hai pha k nhau l khc nhau, iu
ny to cho hot ng ti my thu t c nguy c dn n li nhng li c phn d
tha y bi v khng phi tt c 4 mc bin u c dng cho mi pha.
Trong qu trnh iu ch trc khi thc hin iu ch dng bit c cho qua mch
xo trn , ti y mch s i dng bit thnh th t gi mt cch ngu nhin nhm
lm gim xc sut li cc bit lin tip.

(a)

(b)
Hnh 2.11. Cc biu sao tn hiu
a) Hnh vung , b) Hnh trn
41

QAM cn c coi l dng hn hp ca iu ch bin s v iu ch pha s.


Cc dng sng ca tn hiu QAM c th biu din c theo :
um (t ) Am gT (t )cos(2 f ct n ) ;

(2.29)

m = 1, 2,..,M1 v n = 1, 2,..,M2 vi M1 = 2k ; M2 = 2k
1

Th phng php iu ch bin v pha kt hp dn n vic truyn dn ng


thi k1 + k2 = log2M1M2 bit nh phn xy ra vi mt tc symbol l R b/(k1 + k2).
Hnh 2.12 minh ha s khi ca b iu ch QAM.

D
liu
nh
phn

B lc
pht
Bin i ni
tip-song
song

B iu
ch cn
bng

cos2 fct

B dao
ng

Tn hiu
QAM c
pht i

Quay pha
900

sin2 f ct
B lc
pht

B iu
ch cn
bng
Hnh 2.12. S khi b iu ch QAM

2.5.2. Gii iu ch v tch tn hiu QAM


Tn hiu c a n b gii iu ch c dng :
r (t ) Amc gT (t )cos(2 f ct ) Ams gT (t )sin(2 f ct ) n(t )

(2.30)

Trong n(t) l tp m v l lng dch pha c a vo trong qu trnh


truyn dn tn hiu qua knh truyn.
n(t ) nc (t )cos2 f ct ns (t ) sin 2 f ct

(2.31)

nc (t ) v ns (t ) l hai thnh phn vung gc ca tp m.

Tn hiu thu c c tnh tng quan vi cc hai hm trc giao c s


c dch pha

42

1 (t ) gT (t )cos(2 f ct )

(2.32)

2 (t ) gT (t ) sin (2 f ct )

Nh c minh ha trn hnh 2.13, cn cc li ra ca cc b tng quan c


ly mu ri a ti b tch tn hiu. Mch vng kha pha (PLL ) s c lng
lng dch pha sng mang ca tn hiu thu c v b lng dch pha ny bng
cch dch pha 1 (t ) v 2 (t ) . ng h trn hnh 2.16 c ng b vi tn hiu thu
c sao cho cc li ra ca b tng quan c ly mu ti cc thi im chnh
xc. Nh vy li ra ca hai b tng quan s l :
rc Amc nc cos ns sin

(2.33)

rs Ams nc sin ns cos


T

Vi

nc

1
nc (t )gT (t )dt
2 0

ns

1
ns (t )gT (t )dt
2 0

(2.34)

Cc thnh phn tp m l cc bin ngu nhin c k vng bng 0, khng tng


quan, vi phng sai N0/2. Nn c th d dng tch ra khi tn hiu, b tch tn hiu
ti u tnh cc metric khong cch :
2

D( r , sm ) r sm ; m = 1, 2, ..,M

Trong vector

r = ( rc , rs ) v sm ( Es Amc ,

43

(2.35)
Es Ams )

(.)dt

1 (t )
Tn
hiu
thu
c

Ly mu

ng h

PLL
Quay
pha

gT (t )

2 (t )

(.)dt

Tnh
metric
khong
cch
D()

Quyt
nh
li ra

Ly mu

Hnh 2.13. Gii iu ch v tch tn hiu QAM

2.5.3. Xc sut li tn hiu QAM


Cc tn hiu trn cc thnh phn trc giao v pha c phn cch vi nhau nh
vic tch tn hiu kt hp, xc sut li i vi QAM c xc nh t xc sut li
i vi PAM, nh vy xc sut i vi h thng QAM M mc l :

Pc 1 P M

vi P M l xc sut li ca mt PAM

(2.36)

M mc vi mt na cng sut trung bnh

trn mi mt tn hiu vung gc ca h thng QAM tng ng. Bng cch bin
i thch hp xc sut li i vi PAM M mc ta nhn c :

P M 2 1
Q
M

Trong

3Eav

( M 1) N 0

(2.37)

Eav
l SNR trung bnh trn symbol. Do xc sut li ca mt
N0

symbol i vi QAM M mc l :

PM 1 1 P M

(2.38)

Kt qu ny chnh xc vi M = 2k khi k chn. Khi k l th s khng c mt h


thng PAM

M mc tng ng. Nu chng ta p dng b tch tn hiu ti u

44

a ra cc quyt nh ca n da trn cc metric khong cch ti u c cho bi


(2.35) th xc sut li symbol c chn trn theo

PM 1 1 2Q

3Eav

( M 1) N 0

i vi bt k k 1 no ,trong

4Q

3kEavb

( M 1) N 0

(2.39)

Eavb
l SNR trung bnh trn mt bit
N0

CHNG III : M PHNG MT S LOI IU CH


KHA DCH PHA (PSK) BNG MATLAB
3.1. GII THIU CHUNG V MATLAB
3.1.1 Gii thiu
MATLAB l mt ngn ng c tnh thc thi cao cho cc tnh ton k thut. N
t hp s tnh ton, s trnh thy, v lp trnh trong mt mi trng d s dng, ni
m nhng vn v nhng gii php c din t dng chui k hiu ton hc.
in hnh s dng gm c:
- Ton hc v thao tc in ton.
-

Khai trin thut ton.

M hnh, m phng v mu th.

Php phn tch d liu, kho st chi tit v hnh dung.

ha khoa hc v k thut.

Pht trin ng dng, k c xy dng h giao tip ha.

MATLAB l mt h thng tc ng ln nhau m cc phn t d liu c bn l


mt mng cc phn t m khng cn quy nh chiu ca mng. N cho php ta gii
quyt nhiu vn tnh ton k thut, c bit l vi nhng s trnh by v ma trn

45

v vector, trong mt iu kin no cn phi vit chng trnh bng mt ngn ng


khng tng tc vi i lng v hng nh C hoc Fortran.
Tn MATLAB c ngha l nhng th nghim v ma trn (Matrix Laboratory).
Trc tin, MATLAB c vit d dng truy xut ma trn v phn mm c
pht trin bi hai d n LINPACK v EISPACK, m cng trnh by trnh pht
trin ca khoa hc k thut mt giai on c th trong phn mm cho vic tnh
ton trn ma trn.
MATLAB c pht trin qua nhiu giai on vi ngun ti liu c cung
cp t nhiu tc gi. Trong mi trng i hc, n l cng c c tnh hng dn
chun cho vic gii thiu v nhng hng tin b trong ton hc, k thut v khoa
hc.

46

MATLAB m t nhng nt c bit ca nhng cch gii quyt cho nhng ng


dng xc nh c gi l Toolboxes. Rt quan trng cho hu ht nhng ngi s
dng MATLAB, Toolboxes cho php ta hc v p dng nhng cng ngh chuyn
dng. Toolboxes l tp hp ton b nhng hm ca MATLAB (M-files) m mi
trng ca MATLAB c m rng gii quyt nhng vn c bit. Nhng
lnh vc m Toolboxes c gi tr l x l tn hiu, cc h thng iu khin, mng tp
trung, logic m, m phng v nhiu lnh vc khc na.

3.1.2.H thng Matlab


H thng MATLAB gm c 5 thnh phn chnh:
a.Ngn ng MATLAB:
y l mt ngn ng lm vic trn mng hoc ma trn bc cao vi cc lnh iu
khin, cc hm, cc cu trc d liu, xut nhp v c im ca lp trnh
hng i tng. N cho php c lp trnh nh nhanh chng to ra
chng trnh v khc phc c nhanh cc sai st trong chng trnh v
lp trnh ln to ra nhng chng trnh ng dng phc tp.
b.Mi trng lm vic ca MATLAB
y l tp hp nhng cng c v phng tin m ta lm vic vi MATLAB nh
l ngi s dng hoc lp trnh vin. N bao gm nhng phng tin cho
vic qun l cc bin trong vng lm vic v vic xut hoc nhp d liu.
N cng bao gm nhng cng c pht trin, qun l, g ri v to Mfiles trong nhng ng dng ca MATLAB.
c.Knh iu khin ha.
l h thng ha ca MATLAB. N bao gm nhng lnh cp cao cho d
liu hai chiu v ba chiu, x l nh ng v cc biu din ha. N
cng bao gm nhng lnh cp thp m cho php ta ty chn s xut hin
ca ha ging nh l vic xy dng mt giao din s dng ha
hon ho trong nhng ng dng MATLAB ca mnh.
d.Th vin hm ton hc ca MATLAB

47

l s thu thp ca cc thut ton tnh ton trn my tnh t cc hm s cp


nh hm sum, sine, cosine v cc s phc, v nhng hm phc tp hn
nh ma trn nghch o, ma trn gi tr ring, cc hm Bessel v cc php
bin i Fourier, Laplace
e.Giao din lp trnh ng dng ca MATLAB.
l mt th vin, m cho php ta vit chng trnh bng ngn ng lp trnh C
hoc Fortran m c nh hng ti MATLAB. N bao gm nhng phng
tin gi nhng tp tin thi hnh chng trnh t MATLAB (lin kt
ng), gi MATLAB nh l mt phng tin tnh ton v c v vit
cc MAT-files.

3.1.3.Gii thiu v ToolBoxes


Toolboxes l s tp hp chuyn dng ca M-files (chng trnh ngn ng
MATLAB) c lp nn cho s gii quyt hng lot vn ring bit.
Toolboxes l s tp hp ca nhiu hm hu ch. N trnh by kt qu ca s n
lc ca cc nh nghin cu hng u th gii trong cc lnh vc nh iu
khin, kim sot, x l tn hiu, pht hin h thng, v nhiu lnh vc
khc.

3.1.4.Simulink
Simulink, mt chng trnh hng dn cho MATLAB, l mt h thng cc
tng tc cho vic m phng cc h thng ng phi tuyn. N l mt
chng trnh iu khin chut ha m cho php ta m hnh ha mt h
thng bng cch v mt s khi trn mn hnh v thao tc trn n. N
c th lm vic vi h thng tuyn tnh, h thng phi tuyn, h thng lin
tc, h thng ri rc, h thng a bin v h thng a tc .
Blocksets c a vo Simulink m cc khi c cung cp t cc th vin
ca n cho nhng ng dng chuyn dng nh: cc h thng thng tin, h
thng x l tn hiu v h thng ngun.
Real-time Workshop l mt chng trnh m cho php ta to m C t nhng s
khi v chng trnh ny c th chy trong h thng real-time.

3.2.M PHNG IU CH BPSK.


48

3.2.1. S khi ca my pht v my thu BPSK


Trong iu ch BPSK d liu vo trc tip l 0 hay 1 c chuyn ti pha ca 0
v

, tng ng . Do dng sng hin th nh sau :

S(t)=Acos(2f c t+.d k )

(3.1)

Trong d k l chui d liu u vo.


A

Khi d
liu

B to
Xung lc
lc

BPF

D/A

(a)

t/h
BPSK

Acos

B lc
bng
t/h
BPSK

Acos

BPF

B to
Xung lc

B to
Xung b

Mch
quyt
nh

BER

(b)
A

Hnh 3.1 : (a) s my pht BPSK


(b) s my thu BPSK
Qu trnh hnh thnh tn hiu BPSK , trc ht d liu c a vo b lc to
dng xung . Sau , cc dng xung c chuyn i thnh tn hiu tng t thng
qua b bin i D/A t y tn hiu c ghp vi sng mang cao tn tn hiu thu
c qua b lc thng di BPF to thnh tn hiu BPSK.
Ti my thu, tn hiu BPSK thu c i qua b lc thng di (BPF) y cc
loi sng tp nhiu b loi b. Sau tn hiu c nhn c chuyn i thnh tn
hiu gc bng cch m rng tn hiu nhn c bi tn s sng mang

) . Tip

theo tn hiu nhn c c ly mu thng qua b bin i A/D . D liu ly mu


c lc loi b cc hin tng sng nhiu mt khung hnh mch lc. Cui
cng mt im ng b c chn t tn hiu ly mu c lc . Nu mc tn

49

hiu ln hn 0 ti im ny, chng ta c th t tn hiu s nhn c l 1, cn


ngc li d liu nhn c tr thnh tn hiu s 0.

3.2.1. BER ca iu ch BPSK c tnh theo l thuyt.


D liu vo d(t) c cho bi :
d(t)

d . g (t ) (t - kT )

k -

(3.1)

d .g

k -

(t-kTb )

(3.2)
Trong : d k (d k :k=1,2,3,...),g T (t) ,v Tb l d liu truyn ly mu ,hnh dng
xung truyn dn d liu ly mu v khong thi gian bit tng ng. Cc hm i
nghch ca Tb l t l bit, v (t ) l mt hm delta : (3.3)
1.........; t 0
0.........; t 0

(t )

(3.3)
Khi

l mt xung ch nht :

Tb
Tb
1;- 2 t 2
g T (t)=
0;t<- Tb ;t> Tb

2
2

(3.4)

Trong trng hp cc mi quan h c hin th trong hnh 3.2. Trong trng


hp ny d k : k 1, 2...6 = 1, 0,1,1, 0, 0 v chuyn i 0 sang 1.

50

Hnh 3.1.Mi quan h gia g r (t) , (t) v d(t)


Hnh 3.2 minh ha mt v d

v gi tr truyn dn Fourier ca n,

Nh trong hnh 3.2, bao gm tt c cc thng tin trong khong


dng xung trong min thi gian phi mt mt hm s sinc(=

.
, hnh

). iu ny khc

vi hnh dng th hin trong hnh 3.1. Trong trng hp ny, tn hiu tp nhiu xut
hin trong biu .
t>

Tb
2

(3.5)

V th chng ta cn mt b lc vi mt hnh dng ti u y , c th gim


s lng cc tn hiu tp nhiu trong khong thi gian hay xy ra.
B lc c s dng rng ri lm gim s lng cc tn hiu tp nhiu l b
lc Nyquist. Cc ng c trng tn s ca b lc Nyquist c cho bi cng thc
:

51

(3.6)
y

l im roll-off, vi bt c knh no.


Dng xung

Dng xung
1
Bin

Bin

0
0
-1/2

1/2

Thi gian

Tn s
Hnh 3.2. Minh ha gi tr truyn Fourier ca g r (t)
Hnh minh ha 3.3

p ng xung ca n tng trong khong min tn s

cng nh h s roll-off khi

tng ln. Ngc lai,bin tn hiu tp nhiu gim

trong khong thi gian. V vy, chng ta c th tm thy mt gi tr tha ng cho


h s roll-off.

52

(a)

(b)
Hnh 3.3. Cu hnh trn b lc Nyquist. (a) p ng xung G N (f)
(b) p ng xung G N (t)
Mt trong nhng tnh nng ca b lc Nyquist l chng lun t c gi tr 0
ti n

nm trong min thi gian. V vy, chng ta t ti im ng b n

, mt

trong nhng im khc khng bao gi giao thoa vi cc im khc ti thi im


ny. Tham kho cng thc trn bn v mt phng php phn b ti u ti a
ha cc im ng b ha trong mi trng AWGN. H thy rng s truyn dn v
thu nhn vi mt b lc c phn phi bng nhau ca G N (f) , c th l,cc
G T (f)= G N (f) v , y G T (f) v G R (f) l cc ng c trng tn s ca b

truyn dn v thu nhn ca cc b lc.

53

(3.7)
Nh mt b lc i khi c gi l b lc Nyquist , v xung c trng ca n
v c xc nh l :
G T ) t =g r t

1
t

1-

1
1
1
1 4/Tb
sin 2 1- +
cos 2 1+
2
Tb
4t
4t

Tb
1-

Tb
T

(3.8)
S dng (3.2) v (3.4) , chng ta c th nh dang c BPSK khi truyn dn
d liu. Cc tn hiu nh dng c iu ch bng cch m rng tn hiu tn s
sng mang v sau c phn tn vo khng gian. Cc tn hiu truyn dn c
xc nh bng bi :
S t =d(t)cos2f c t

(3.9)
Cc tn hiu truyn dn b hiu x do nhiu ng fading v AWGN, v tn hiu
thu c ging nh tn hiu nhn:

r t = h(T , t ) s (t T ) n(t )
0

(3.10)
Trong h(

) l b p ng xung ca knh pht ti thi im t v n(t) l tn

hiu nhiu u thu.


Trong pha my thu , cc tn hiu thu c l cc tn hiu u tin c t lc
bi mt BPF, m c gi nh l c mt di truyn qua b qua cc tn hiu
bin dng. Cc tn hiu lc s c m rng vi mt sng mang c tn s ging
nh cc b truyn dn. Tuy nhin , giai on u tin ca ngun tn hiu sng mang

54

l s khc nhau gia my pht v my thu . Do , cc ngun tn hiu sng mang


lc nhn c gn l cos(2

) m

l gi tr giai on u ca gi tri

sng mang. Cc tn hiu thu nhn cho bi :


r2 (t)=r(t).cos(2fc t+1 (t))

(3.11)
Trng hp r(t) c cho bi cng thc (3.10). n gin ha, chng ta gi
s khng c b lc, do :
cos f
sin f

r(t)=R(t)

-sin f d(t)cos2f c (t)

cos f
0

+n(t)

(3.12)
= R(t)d(t)cos (t)+n(t)
(t)
cos2f t+n
f
c
2

Trong R(t) v

l nhng hm thi gian thay i theo bin v pha

tng ng, theo knh radio. n(t) l hm thu nhiu, n c cho bi n(t)= R(t).
trong
dng xung quanh

l nhng thnh phn bin

v cc thnh phn tn s nhiu, tng ng.


cos f

sin f

-sin f

cos f

Ngoi ra, l mt ma trn xoay vi pha ca

. S dng (3.11), chng ta c

th m rng (3.10). Khi chng ta s dng LPF cho gi tr m rng, cc tn hiu tn


s cao hn c loi b, do :
r3 (t)=

1
R(t)d(t) cosf (t)+n1 (t) cos1 (t)
2

(3.13)
Sau ,

c lc bng s to xung, b lc c s gc Nyquist lc gim ISI.


r4 (t ) r3 (t ) g R (t )

(3.14)

55

R (t ) cos f (t ).cos1 (t ). d k gT (t ) g R (t ) (t kTb )


2
k

1
+ n1 (t) cos f (t) g R (t)
2

1
R (t ) f (t ). d k gT (t ) g R (t ) (t kTb ) n3 (t )
2
k

Tip theo, cc tn hiu c lc l vt nhp t l ly mu ca

( n l s

nguyn) bng cch s dng mt b chuyn i A/D. Tn hiu mu l :


T
r4 k . b k 0,1, 2,...
m

Khi t = u.

( u l mt s nguyn), chng ta c th c c gi tr ti a ca

xung c trng ca b lc Nyquist. Tuy nhin, chng ta phi xem xt cc phng


php ng b ha. Trong phn ny, chng ta gi nh rng chng ta bit im ng
b. Sau chng ta ly mu
T
r4 u. b
m

Vi mi

hoc n ly mu t im ng b . Cui cng, chng ta c c d

liu ly mu

=(syncpoint + n. ) , l = 0,1,2,. Sau chng ta c th quyt

nh nhng d liu nhn c l 1 hay 0 bng cch s dng cc phng trnh gii
hn iu kin :

Bng cch so snh

chng ta c th tnh BER theo l thuyt , ph

thuc vo s lng my thu tp nhiu.


E
1
BER BPSK-AWGN erfc( b )
2
No

56

BER BPSK-FADING

1
1

2
1
1

Eb / N 0

Eb / N 0 l t s nng lng cho mi bit (

) v mt cng tp nhiu

Hnh 3.4. minh ha cc mi quan h theo l thuyt ca iu ch BPSK theo mi


trng AWGN v Rayleigh Fading.
0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

AWGN

0.05
Fading
0

10

15

Hnh 3.4. c tnh BER theo l thuyt ca iu ch BPSK theo mi trng AWGN
v Rayleigh Fading.

3.2.2. M phng c tnh BER bng Matlab.


Trc ht chng ta cn xem n m hnh c s dng tnh ton c tnh
BER ca h thng truyn dn BPSK hnh 3.5.

57

C cu b

BER

Mch
quyt
nh
B b pha
4

Xung nh
hnh b
lc my
thu

Mch
xon

H s
lc

attn

B thay i
gi tr trung
bnh ngun
nhiu gauss
Mch quyt
nh mc nhiu

Mch m hnh knh v tuyn


spow

Phc tp

B tch mc
nng lng

Xung nh
hnh b
lc my
pht

Mch
xon

H s
lc
2

B i
tn

Ngun
sinh d
liu
Hnh 3.5. M hnh ca h thng truyn dn BPSK c s dng tnh ton c
tnh BER

58

Chng trnh m phng s thc hin m phng hiu sut truyn ti ca BPSK
trong hai mi trng AWGN v Rayleigh Fading.
V chng trnh cc bc nh nhau nn y ta ch xt vi mi trng AWGN
(nhiu cng).
Phn chun b : ta thit lp cc gi tr ca cc bin thng c s dng trong
chng trnh.
Sr = 256000.0;

% Tc symbol

ml = 1;

% S mc iu ch

br = sr.*ml;

% Tc truyn d liu

nd = 10;

% S k hiu m phng cho mi vng lp

ebn0 = 100;

% E b /N 0

IPOINT = 8;

% Trong 8 mu chng ta s chn mt mu

Thi gian ti thiu bng thi gian gim nhp v c tnh l :

Sau khi thit lp cc bin chng ta phi thit lp h s lc ca b lc Nyquist .


H s lc c tnh bng hm m chng ta thit lp thm c tn hrollfcoef.m .
chng ta c th to ra b lc pht v thu bng cch thay i tham s cui l 1 (b
lc pht) hoc 0 (b lc thu). C th l :
to ra h s pht ca b lc
alfs = 0.5;
irfn = 21;

% ch s roll-off
% s lng nt lc

[xh] = hrollcoef (irfn,IPOINT,sr,alfs,1);


to ra h s thu ca b lc
alfs = 0.5;
irfn = 21;

% ch s roll-off
% s lng nt lc

[xh] = hrollcoef (irfn,IPOINT,sr,alfs,0);


Thng tin v cc b lc c lu tr trong bin xh v xh2.
Tip theo ta xc nh cc bin chung n tt c cc chng trnh

59

nloop = 100;

% S lng cc vng m phng

noe = 0;

% S lng d liu li

nod = 0;

% S lng d liu pht

Sau khi thit lp c cc bin, chng ta thc hin m phng :


Trc tin, chng ta to ra d liu ngu nhin vo (0 hoc 1), trong vector 1by-nd*m1 c gi l data1. N c thc hin bng cch g lnh :
data = rand(1,nd*ml)>0.5;
Sau , chng ta chuyn i cc k hiu ca d liu s 0 v 1 thnh d liu s
-1 v 1. Vic chuyn i d liu c lu trong bin data1 :
data1 = 2.*data-1
Cc d liu truyn i c th hin trong hnh 3.6(a).
S dng data1 , chng ta thc hin cc chui xung trnh t :
d (t )

d (t kT )

vi n v thi gian ti thiu l

. Cc hm tr nhp

c s dng to ra chui xung trnh t nh sau :


data2 = oversamp(data1,nd,IPOINT);
th sng ca data2 c hin th trong hnh 3.6(b).
to ra cc xung lc , chng ta thc hin bng cch s dng h s lc xon
xh. D liu lc c cho bi :
data3 = conv(data2,xh);
dng sng ca data3 c th hin trong hnh 3.6.(c)
Khi tn hiu truyn dn qua knh v tuyn cc tn hiu nhn c u tin b
nhiu bi AWGN . Nu chng ta s dng hm ny trong chng trnh m phng th
khng cn nhp d liu qch. M thay bng chng ta la chn bin attn.
Chng ta mun xc nh mi quan h gia E b /N 0 v BER. iu c ngha l
chng ta thay i attn trong khi vn gi nguyn h s E b /N 0 Cc bin attn c
tnh nh sau:
Trc tin, nng lng tnh theo bit

v cng tp nhiu c nh ngha :

60

Eb =

spow
(W.T/bit)
sr

N0 =

npow
sr

(3.15)

(W/hz)

(3.16)

Trong : spow, npow, br v sr tng ng l nhng k hiu cng tn hiu,


cng nhiu, t l bit, v chnh xc.
Kt hp (3.15) v (3.16), chng ta c :
Eb / N 0

spow sr
.
br npow

(3.17)

Chuyn v chng ta nhn c :


npow

spow
sr
.
br Eb / N 0

(3.18)

T Eb / N 0 trong gi thit , (3.18) chng ta c th vit thnh :


npow=

spow
.
br

sr
10

Eb / N 0
10

Ngha l chng ta c th tnh ton npow da theo data, data2, v data3 c


th hin trong in p, do , cc tn hiu nhiu phi c th hin bng in p .
Nhiu Gauss l phn phi trung bnh bng nhau trong knh ng pha v pha
vung gc, do :
attn

1
npow
2

(3.20)

Trong chng trnh sau, chng ta biu th nhng mi quan h ny nh sau :


spow =sum(data3.*data3)/nd ;
attn = 0.5*spow*sr/br*10.^(-ebn0/10) ;
attn = sqrt(attn) ;
S dng attn, chng ta gn cc d liu truyn vi AWGN :
inoise = randn(1,lengh(data3)).*annt ;
data4 = data3 + inoise ;

61

Ti ni randn(a,b) l mt chc nng gn sn m pht sinh nhiu Gaussian vi a


l gi tr trung bnh v b l phng sai. Cc tn hiu nhn c, data4, c lc vi
mt b lc gc Nyquist, vi h s xh2, c t ti phn trn ca m phng.
data5 = conv(data4,xh2) ;
s dng chc nng conv.m, chng ta phi khi phc thi gian tr cho php
chp, m c length(xh). Thi gian tr ca conv.m l (irfn*IPOINT)/2. T chng
ta s dng hai chc nng conv.m, thi gian ly mu l irfn IPOINT . V th nn
chng ta ly mu data5 t im mu irfn*IPOINT+1. Chng ta xc nh im khi
u l : samp = irfn*IPOINT+1 data5 l tn hiu vt nhp v c biu din trong
hnh 3.6(d). phc hi d liu c truyn chng ta phi chn cc im ti u t
cc tn hiu vt nhp. Nh trong hnh 3.6(d), chng ta c th ly c mt gi tr 1
hoc -1 bng vic ly mu ti data5 mi IPOINT(=8) mu t im bt u. Cc gi
tr c ly mu lu trong bin data6 v qua y c th thy tn hiu a c phc
hi. Pha ca tn hiu khi phc c th hin trong hnh 3.6(e).
data6 = data5(sampl:8:8*nd+sampl-1) ;
Nu tn hiu nhn c b lm nhiu bi AWGN, cc gi tr ca data6 khng
phi l 1 hay 0, v chng ta cn phi quyt nh n c gi tr 0 hoc 1 . Chng ta s
dng n th hin c tnh ca hm sau y :
demodata = data6 > 0 ;
Nu cc phn t ln hn 0 th d liu c coi l 1 cn ngc li l 0.
Tip theo chng ta kho st s lng li. Trong m phng ny, cc d liu
truyn ti v nhn c l data6.
noe2 = sum(abs(data1-demodata)) ;
nod2 = length(data1) ;
noe = noe + noe2 ;
nod = nod + nod2 ;
Cui cng BER c cho bi :
ber = noe/nod ;
Kt qu m phng BER ca BPSK cho bi matlab l :
3 18

1000 1.800000e-002

62

Trong :
S 3 u tin l E b /N 0 , s th hai 18 l s li d liu, 1000 l s d liu truyn
(100 vng lp * mi vng c 10 k hiu), v s th t 1.800000e-002 l t l li bit
BER.

Hnh 3.6. M phng dng sng BPSK tc thi

63

3.3. M PHNG IU CH QPSK


3.3.1. S khi my thu v my pht QPSK
Mch
nh hnh
b lc

Ich

D liu
ngun

D/A
Cos2

Mch
nh x

B dch
pha
sin2

Mch
nh hnh
b lc

Qch

BPF

D/A

(a)
Mch
nh hnh
b lc

A/D
Cos2
BPF

B b
xung

B dch
pha

Mch
quyt nh

Mch
nh x

sin2
Mch
nh hnh
b lc

A/D

B b
xung

Mch
quyt nh

(b)
Hnh 3.8. S my pht v my thu QPSK
Nh vy mt tn hiu QPSK c to bi hai tn hiu BPSK . phn bit c
hai tn hiu ngi ta s dng hai sng mang trc giao nhau. Mt tn hiu cho bi
hm cos 2 f ct v tn hiu cn li cho bi sin 2 f ct . Hai tn hiu sng mang ny
vn trc giao nhau trong mt chu k.
Tc

cos 2 f t sin 2 f t 0
c

64

y Tc l chu k sng mang. Vi fc

1
Tc

Tn hiu QPSK cho bi :


s (t )

1
1
d I (t ) cos(2 f ct )
d Q (t )sin(2 f ct )
2
2

Mt knh trong cos 2 f ct c s dng nh mt tn hiu sng mang thng


c gi l knh ng pha, hoc Ich, v mt knh trong sin 2 f ct c s dng
nh mt sng mang thng c gi l mt knh pha vung gc hay Qch. V vy,

d I (t) v d Q (t) l cc d liu tng ng trong Ich v Qch.


b iu ch QPSK d liu vo u tin c chuyn thnh d liu song song
vi hai knh Ich v Qch. D liu c biu din l d I (t) v d Q (t) . Sau , d liu
Ich c cho qua mch nh hnh b lc y cc xung hnh b c lc. cc xung
tn hiu c chuyn i thnh tn hiu tng t qua b bin i D/A sau cng c
nhn vi tn hiu sng mang sin 2 f ct . Tn hiu Ich v Qch c trn vi nhau to
thnh tn hiu QPSK v c pht vo trong khng gian.
Ti my thu, tn hiu nhn c i qua mt b lc thng di (BPF) c tc dng
loi b tp nhiu. sau tn hiu c chuyn i thnh tn hiu gc qua cch m
rng n vi tn s sng mang . y vi Ich v Qch chng ta dng

cos(2 f ct 1 (t )) , sin(2 f ct 1 (t )) , y 1 (t) l pha ca song nhiu ngun, s


khc bit tn s my pht v my thu.Sau , c hai knh Ich v Qch, tn hiu
c chuyn xung l tn hiu c ly mu c chuyn i bng b A/D sau
cc d liu mu c lc vi mch nh hnh b lc loi tr ISI. Cui cng cc
d liu c ng b v thu cc d liu s ban u.

3.3.2. BER ca iu ch QPSK theo l thuyt


y chng ta cng ch a ra cng thc tnh gi tr BER l thuyt trong hai
mi trng AWNG v Rayleigh Fading c cho bi :
1
BER QPSK-AWGN = erfc
2

E b /N 0

65

1
1

BER QPSK-FADING = 1

2
1
1

Eb / N 0

3.3.3. M phng QPSK bng Matlab


M hnh chng ta s dng m phng hiu sut BER ca QPSK c hin th
trong hnh 3.7.
Trong m hnh trn lp c mch nh x ngc chng ta s dng hm
mch nh x n gin hnh 3.8.
D liu knh I
dI(t)

dk(t)
D liu vo

D liu knh Q
dQ(t)
D liu vo

dk(t)

t
0T 1T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 7T 8T

Ich(t)

D liu knh I

t
0T

2T

Qch(t)

4T

6T

8T

D liu knh Q

t
0T

2T

4T

66

6T

8T

Hnh 3.8. Hm mch nh x QPSK


Trong iu ch cu phng (QPSK), m phng hai dng tn hiu lu ng
Ich(knh chn), Qch (knh l). u tin ta cng thit lp cc bin thng c s
dng trong chng trnh l :
Sr = 256000.0;

% Tc symbol

ml = 2;

% S mc iu ch

nd = 1000;

% S k hiu m phng cho mi vng lp

ebn0 = 3;

IPOINT = 8;

% Trong 8 mu chng ta s chn mt mu

H s lc Nyquist, cc bin chung cho tt c chng trnh c xc nh ging


nh phn BPSK.
By gi chng ta tin hnh chy m phng thu c BER. Trc tin chng
ta to ra d liu ngu nhin (0 hay 1) trong mt 1-by-nd*ml vector gi l data1.
data1 = rand(1,nd*ml)>0.5;

% hm ngu nhin

Vic truyn d liu (data1) c hin th trong hnh 3.9 (a).


Tip theo. Vector data1 c a vo mch nh x (b bin i ni tip - song
song), ni m cc d liu c chuyn thnh d liu song song ca 2 knh Ich v
Qch. Sau s dng compoversamp.m , d liu trong c hai knh tng nhp v
c a vo b truyn ng xung to ra dng xung cn thit.
Chng trnh m phng nh sau :
[ich,qch] = qpskmod(data1,1,nd,ml);
[ich1,qch1] = compoversamp(ich,qch,length(ich),IPOINT);
[ich2,qch2] = compconv(ich1,qch1,xh);
Trong phng php ny compoversamp.m l mt phn m rng ca
oversamp.m. V comconv.m tr thnh phn m rng ca conv.m. Cc dng sng tc
thi ich1 v qch1 c th hin trong hnh 3.9(b) v 3.9(c).
Cc tn hiu c lc truyn ra ngoi khng gian truyn qua knh v tuyn v
c nhn ti u thu.

67

Ti u thu tn hiu u tin b gy nhiu bi AWGN Chng ta mun xc nh


mi quan h gia E b /N 0 v BER. iu c ngha l chng ta phi thay i attn
trong khi vn gi nguyn hng s E b /N 0 . Cc bin attn bin c tnh bng cch s
dng cc phng php tng t nh i vi BPSK.
S dng attn v comb.m chng ta lm nhiu cc d liu truyn vi AWGN.
[ich3,qch3] = comb(ich2,qch2,attn) ;
Sau , cc d liu nhn ich3 v qch3 c lc vi b lc gc Nyquist, trong
d liu nhn c tng quan vi h s xh2 :
[ich4,qch4] = compconv(ich3,qch3,xh2) ;
Cc dng sng ca ich4 v qch4 c hin th trong hnh 3.9(d) v 3.9(e). pha
ca tn hiu c th hin trong hnh 3.9(f). Do chng ta s dng conv.m nn chng
ta phi phc hi thi gian tr do nhn chp. Trong mt thi gian, conv.m gy ra mt
s chm tr na chiu di ca vi lc. Trong trng hp ny, chiu di ca vi l
(irfn*IPOINT)/2 . Bi v chng ta s dng b lc gc Nyquist, conv.m c s
dng hai ln. Thi gian tr ny l do mu irfn*IPOINT, v chng ta c th xc nh
im ly mu (syncpoint).
Syncpoint = irfn*IPOINT+1 ;
Tip theo, ich4 v qch4 c ly mu li vi t l IPOINT v chuyn i sang
ich5 v qch5 .
Ich5 = ich4(syncpoint:IPOINT:length(ich4)) ;
Qch5 = qch4(syncpoint:IPOINT:length(qch4)) ;
y tn hiu c ly mu ln na v c a vo hm gii iu ch .
[demodata] = qpskdemod(ich5,qch5,1,nd,ml) ;
Trong m phng, ny cc d liu truyn ti v d liu nhn c l data7.
noe2 = sum(abs(data1-demodata)) ;
nod2 = length(data1) ;
noe = noe + noe2 ;
nod = nod + nod2 ;
Cui cng, BER c cho bi :

68

ber = noe/nod ;
Kt qu m phng bng matlab :
3 53
S 3 u tin l

2000 2.650000e-002

, s th hai 53 l s li d liu, 2000 l s d liu truyn

(100 vng lp * mi vng c 10 k hiu), v s th t 2.650000e-002 l t l li bit


BER.

69

BER

Mch nh
x ngc
B b
pha

B b
pha
5

Xung nh
hnh b
lc my
thu

Mch
xon

H s
lc

Mch
xon

Xung nh
hnh b
lc my
thu
Mch quyt
nh mc
nhiu

H s
lc

Mch quyt
nh mc
nhiu

Mch quyt nh
mc nhiu
Phc tp

Mch m hnh knh v tuyn


Phc tp

B d
cng sut

Xung nh
hnh b
lc my
pht

Mch
xon

Mch
xon

H s
lc

H s
lc

B i
tn

B i
tn

Mch nh
x

3
1

Xung nh
hnh b
lc my
pht

Ngun
sinh d
liu

Hnh 3.7.M hnh kiu iu ch cu phng c s dng tnh BER

70

Hnh 3.9. M phng dng sng QPSK tc thi

71

3.4. NHN XT, NH GI KT QU M PHNG


Sau y, l bng tng hp kt qu ca chng trnh m phng t cc loi iu
ch pha nh : BPSK,QPSK,OQPSK,MSK,16-QAM
/

S li d liu

D liu truyn

BER

BPSK

18

1000

1.800000e-002

QPSK

53

2000

2.650000e-002

OQPSK

44

2000

2.200000e-002

MSK

185

1000

1.850000e-001

16-QAM

116

4000

2.900000e-002

Nh vy , vi phng php iu ch BPSK tuy cho s li v BER nh


nhng khng p ng iu kin v bng thng (d liu truyn 1000: nh). V vy
ngi ta a ra 2 loi iu ch tng t nh BPSK l QPSK v OQPSK nhm
tng s lng dch chuyn pha ng thi s dng c hiu sut rng bng thng.
Tuy vy, vi cc phng php iu ch pha nng cao nh MSK, QAM t c
mc tng i v hiu sut s dng bng thng , c s dng cho cc h thng
bng hp c bit l trong thng tin di ng ngy nay.

72

KT LUN

Sau hn ba thng tm hiu v nghin cu v l thuyt v m phng cc qu


trnh iu ch pha sng mang c bit l hai loi iu ch BPSK , QPSK gip em
c cch nhn trc quan hn v cc dng sng tn hiu iu ch v cch thc iu ch
ring cho tng loi iu ch trn.
C th ni. iu ch PSK l phng php iu ch hiu qu nht truyn tn
hiu s. Phng php PSK l phng php iu ch trit sng mang do bng
thng ca tn hiu PSK nh hn bng thng ca tn hiu . Nhng pha my thu th
vic thc hin ng b cng tr ln kh khn hn so vi iu ch ASK v FSK.
Do gii hn v thi gian cng nh kin thc cn nhiu hn ch nn n ca
em mi ch dng mc nghin cu mt cch c bn, khi qut v h thng iu
ch PSK. V vy Em rt mong cc thy , c v cc bn sinh vin quan tm n
ti ng gp kin ti hon chnh hn.
Em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy, c trong b mn c bit l thy TS. L
QUC VNG tn tnh gip em hon thnh n ny.
Em xin xhn thnh cm n !
Hi phng, Ngy 22 thng 1 nm 2011

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K hiu vit tt :

ASK

: Amplitude Shift Keying

FSK

: Frequency Shift Keying

PSK

: Phase Shift Keying

AM

: Amplitude Modulation

FM

: Frequency Modulation

PM

: Phase Modulation

PCM

: Pulse code Modulation

BPSK

: Binary Phasing Shift Keying

QPSK

: Quadrature Phasing Shift Keying

OQPSK

: Offset Quadrature Phasing Shift Keying

MSK

: Minium Shift Keying

QAM

: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

BER

: Bit Error Rate

AWGN

: Additive White Gaussian Noise

BPF

: Band Pass Filter

LPF

: Low Pass Filter

A/D

: Analog/Digital

PSD

: Power Spectral Density

PLL

: Phase Locked Loop

: Mch vng kha pha

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