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(Flexible cognitive optical networks)

A cognitive approach to 4
generation Optical Networks
Er.Robin chadha Er.Sansar chand Er.Sunilkuar Er. !atinderpal Singh
ECE deptt ECE deptt ECE deptt. ECE deptt.
C" institute C" institute C" institute C" institute
!alandhar# $un%ab#india !alandhar# $un%ab#india !alandhar# $un%ab#india !alandhar# $un%ab#india
Chadha&robin'( suisansar' sunil&rattu'( %hsingh))'
Abstract* "o +ul+ill the ever,swelling tra++ic deand# Flexible
Optical networking is the inspiration +or the current expansion
o+ -nternet as it arks better use o+ optical network resources.
Recent advanceent in this +ield enables +ar better .ualit( o+
service and experience +or the end users# epowered through
the uch higher capacities supported than the earlier
technolog(. /owever# not all tra++ic deands necessitate such
high bit rates and operators are seeking +or networks that are
not wasting resources but are cost,e++ective and there+ore
versatile this is achieved b( eplo(ing +lexiblilit( in the
optical networks. -n this paper# we discuss +lexible and
cognitive optical networks +ro the perspective o+ +uture
standardi0ation and bene+its o+ eplo(ing cognitive
technolog( in the +uture optical networks.
Index terms* Optical Networks, Optical Transport, Cognitive
Networks, Flexible Optical Networks.
-. -N"RO12C"-ON
3s with the progression in technolog( # we are rapidl(
approaching the ph(sical capacit( liit o+ conventional
optical +iber. So to accoodate the ever,increasing tra++ic is essential to ake better use o+ optical network
resources. One proising wa( to achieve this is to
introduce elasticit( and adaptation into the optical doain
through ore +lexible spectru allocation# where the
re.uired iniu spectral resources are allocated
adaptivel( based on tra++ic deand and network conditions.
3dditionall(# recon+igurable O314s (RO314s) and
Optical Cross,Connects (O5Cs) were ipleented to
achieve a higher degree o+ +lexibilit( and to enable
networks to adapt reotel( and on,deand to the possible
tra++ic changes# thus reducing the associated operational
costs. 4oreover# the introduction o+ high data,rate
transission technolog( ais to provide large trunks so as
to accoodate the bandwidth,intensive new ultiedia
applications. Nevertheless# not all tra++ic deands re.uire
such high bit rates and operators are seeking +or networks
that are not wasting resources but are cost,e++ective and
there+ore versatile. Operators provide connections with
capacit( that +ul+ils the highest (worst case) deand (over,
provisioning)# while these connections reain underutilised
+or ost o+ the tie. For this purpose# the recent advances
in coherent technolog(# so+tware,de+ined optics and
ulticarrier transission techni.ues# such as Orthogonal
Fre.uenc( 1ivision 4ultiplexing (OF14) 6)7,687 and
N(.uist 914 (N,914) 6:7# have introduced the
possibilit( to achieve a signi+icantl( high spectru,
e++icienc( providing a +ractional bandwidth +eature. -n +act#
thanks to these technologies it is possible to d(naicall(
tune the re.uired bit,rate and the optical reachabilit( b(
appropriatel( choosing the allocation o+ the spectru and
the odulation +orat. "hese new technologies will enable
a new network architecture where an( two nodes can be
connected with the aount o+ bandwidth re.uired# either
providing a sub,wavelength service or super,channel
connectivit( 6;7,6<7. -n this context# to serve a given tra++ic
deand# the network anager has to select the route# the
channel# the bit,rate and the odulation +orat 6<7. /ence#
traditional Routing and 9avelength 3ssignent (R93)
algoriths are no longer applicable and it is trans+ored to
a Routing# 4odulation =evel and Spectru 3llocation
(R4=S3) proble where ever( connection re.uest is
assigned a spectru +raction.
Figure )>, (a) conventional optical network (b) elastic and
adaptive optical network
3 proising solution to tackle these challenges coes +ro
exploiting cognition 6?7. "he use o+ cognitive techni.ues in
optical networks brings about an extended level o+
@intelligenceA to the optical la(er b( +acilitating the
adaptive tuning o+ various ph(sical la(er characteristics
(odulation +orat# +orward error correction# wavelength
capacit(# etc) and network la(er paraeters (bandwidth#
nuber o+ siultaneous lightpaths# BoS# etc) depending on
application or service re.uireents.
8 Cognitive Optical Networking
3 cognitive network is de+ined as @a network with a process
that can perceive current network conditions# and then plan#
decide# and act on those conditions. "he network can learn
+ro these adaptations and use the to ake +uture decisions
6?7. "here+ore# a cognitive network should provide better end,
to,end per+orance than a non,cognitive network. -n +act#
cognition has alread( been tested and proven to be an
excellent solution +or wireless networks 6C7.
"here are three ain ingredients in such a network>
D 4onitoring eleents# which provide the network with the
perception o+ the current conditions# and thus enable an aware
DSo+tware adaptable eleents# which provide the network with
the capacit( to odi+( its current con+iguration# thus enabling
an adaptive network.
D Cognitive processes# which learn or ake use o+ past histor(#
so that even when +acing two e.uivalent scenarios# the
network (or the entit( containing those cognitive processes)
a( act in a di++erent wa( i+ its previous histor( is di++erent.
"his third eleent is the ain +eature that enables a cognitive
Cognitive networks are thus closel( related to autonoic
networks6E7. 3n autonoic network relies on sel+,
con+iguration# sel+,healing# sel+,optii0ation#and sel+,
protection +unctionalities# so that it a( ake decisions
without anual intervention# i.e.# without having to consult
with a huan adinistrator 6F7. -n this wa(# anautonoic
network is not onl( aware and adaptive# but alsoautoatic.
"here+ore# a cognitive network can be consideredas a variant
o+ an autonoic network 6E7# but itephasi0es the sel+,
optii0ation +unctionalit( as well as the use o+ learning
echaniss# in contrast with other t(pes o+ autonoic
networks# which generall( rel( on polic(,based ethods
rather than on learning techni.ues to support the adaptations.
Figure 8>, Cognitive loop structure
In the area of optical communications, cognitive techniques
are exploited in the framework of CHRON [10] project so to
enable intelligence in the optical layer. In particular,
CHRON should be able to provide effective decisions, by
relying on cognition, on:
how to route new tra++ic deands# either through existing
optical connections (light paths)# through new light paths
or b( triggering a recon+iguration process o+ the virtual
topolog( (i.e.# b( rearranging existing connections)G
how to assign resources, not only wavelengths or
spectrum, but also the most appropriate
transmission/switching technique, modulation format, bit-
rate, etc.;
how to ensure energy-efficient operation;
According to the definition of cognitive networks given above,
those decisions must be made by taking into account current
status and knowledge acquired through previous experience.
Thus, the core element of the CHRON architecture is the
cognitive decision system. Such a system is complemented with a
network monitoring system, which provides traffic status and
optical quality of transmission measurements, and with a set of
control and management mechanisms to implement the decisions
that are made by the cognitive decision system and to disseminate
the monitored information. The interaction of those building
elements is detailed in Fig. 3.
Since the cognitive decision system must deal with very
diverse tasks, it is composed by five different modules, all of
them exploiting cognition. Thus, it includes a RWA/RMLSA
module to process optical connection (lightpath) requests; a
QoT estimator module to predict the QoT of the optical
connections before being established (and thus helping the
RWA/RMLSA module to ensure that quality requirements are
met); a virtual topology design module, which determines the
optimal set of lightpaths that should be established on the
network to deal with a given traffic demand, and a traffic
grooming module, which is in charge of routing traffic
through the lightpaths composing the virtual topology. Last
but not least, a network planner and decision maker module
coordinates and triggers the operation of the other modules
and handles the communications with other network elements.
Figure :>, 4ain eleents o+ the C/RON approach
In the framework of this architecture, the advantages of cognition
have already been demonstrated in a number of scenarios, such as
on quickly and effectively assessing whether an optical
connection (i.e., a lightpath) satisfies QoT requirements [11], or
on determining which set of connections should be established on
an optical network (i.e., the so-called virtual topology) in order to
support the traffic load while satisfying QoT requirements and
minimizing energy consumption and congestion [12].
In the former scenario, the utilization of Case-Based
Reasoning techniques to exploit knowledge acquired through
previous experiences leads to obtaining not only a high
percentage of successful classification of lightpaths into high
or low QoT categories (Fig. 4(a)), but also to a great reduction
in the computing time (around three orders of magnitude)
when compared to a previous tool for QoT assessment which
does not employ cognition [11].
In the latter scenario, the inclusion of cognition in a multi-
objective algorithm to determine the optimal set of virtual
topologies with different trade-offs in terms of throughput and
energy consumption brings great advantages. Since a multi
objective algorithm provides a set of solutions (i.e., virtual
topologies) in a single execution, we have joined the solutions
provided by two versions of the same algorithm: one without
cognition and the other with cognition. Then, the best set of
solutions has been selected, which is called the common
Pareto Optimal Set (POS). Fig. 4(b) shows that at the
beginning (when there is no previous history that the cognitive
method can exploit), both methods contribute approximately
with the same number of solutions. However, once cognition
really enters into play, i.e., when enough past history is used,
most of the solutions contained in the common POS (i.e., the
best solutions) are obtained by the cognitive method [12].
Figure ;>, (a) success+ul classi+ication o+ light paths into
highHlow categories (b) percentage o+ solutions with and
without cognition
:. 3dvantages o+ cognition based Flexible Networks
Cognition is a useful tool capable of optimizing the design
and control of an optical network. A cognitive network allows
the introduction of a flexible transport to support the Future
Internet, by pushing down to the optical layer some of the
intelligence typically performed in the IP layer.
:.) Spectru 3llocation 3dvantages
"his stud( includes +ixed 914 S=R networks that deliver
either ;I JbHs# )II JbHs or ;II JbHs per channel and 4=R
6):7 networks with data rates o+ )I JbHs# ;I JbHs# )II JbHs
and ;II JbHs. Regarding the +lex,grid solutions# two ulti,
carrier solutions have been consideredG one re+ers to the
techni.ue reported in 6)7 (denoted as E,OF14) while the
other re+ers to the techni.ue in 687 (denoted as O,OF14).
Koth ulti,carrier solutions can adapt the transitted bit,rate
+ro )IJbHs,;IIJbHs b( odulating subcarriers with the
necessar( odulation level.
Fig. <:- Spectru utili0ation +or all solutions and di++erent
tra++ic loads
"o calculate the bandwidth utili0ed b( the various solutions
the 1eutsche "eleko core network (); nodes# 8:
bidirectional links) and the realistic tra++ic atrix o+ the 1"
network +or 8I)I scaled up to )) ties to obtain tra++ic
ranging +ro :.? "bHs up to :F.? "bHs has been utili0ed. 2nder
the given assuptions# the +lexible ulti,carrier solutions
o++er the ost e++icient spectru allocation as expected +ro
the optii0ed packing o+ the connections in the +re.uenc(
doain (Fig. <).
:.8 Energ( E++icienc( 3dvantages
-n addition to the capital cost o+ the +uture core network#
power consuption is another paraeter that becoes
relevant in network planning# ainl( due to the operational
econoic iplications but also the growing ecological
awareness# considering the pace at which tra++ic is increasing
annuall(. Following the resource allocation o+ all solutions#
the energ( e++icienc( is estiated considering the power
consuption needs o+ the associated networking eleents.
/ence# the considered solutions were copared with respect
to the power consuption o+ the associated network eleents#
i.e.# transponders# optical cross,connects (O5Cs) and optical
line apli+iers.
Figure ? >,Energ( E++icienc( under di++erent tra++ic loads
"he estiated energ( e++icienc( (in JbHsH9) +or the various
tra++ic loads is illustrated in Fig. ?. ;IIJ S=R appears to be
the least e++icient +or tra++ic load up to < although it tends to
iprove +or higher loads. "he other S=R solutions achieve
better e++icienc( that decreases +or high loads %usti+ied b( the
great nuber o+ transponders as depicted in Fig. ?. On the
other hand# the granularit( o+ )IJH;IJH)IIJH;IIJ in 4=R
and o+ the low,rate subcarriers in O,OF14 appears to be
su++icient +or the entire range o+ tra++ic loads optii0ing the
nuber and t(pe o+ transponders and leading to low power
consuption. 2nder the given power consuption
assuptions# E,OF14 deonstrates lower energ( e++icienc(
+or load up to <. 4oving up in tra++ic load# the transponders
assued run at higher bit rates leading to superior energ(
On the whole# in ters o+ the overall network energ(
e++icienc(# +lex,grid solutions achieve low energ( per bit as
the( use %ust the aount o+ network resources needed +or
given input tra++ic.
;. S2443RL
9e have provided an overview o+ cognitive optical networks.
K( eans o+ network onitors# the network becoes aware
o+ current conditions and thus can adapt itsel+ in order to
optii0e network per+orance with the help o+ so+tware,
adaptable eleents. /owever# these networks also rel( on
cognitive processes# which ake it possible to learn +ro the
past and thus get an advantage +ro knowledge ac.uired
through experience +or +urther iproveents. "here are an(
di++erent alternatives +or the ipleentation o+ cognition# and
we have brie+l( described a nuber o+ architectures# ainl(
+ocusing on the C/RON approach. 9e have also anal(0ed
their enabling techni.ues in ters o+ onitoring eleents#
so+tware adaptable eleents# and control and anageent
plane solutions# taking into account the current trend toward
the use o+ ore +lexible and heterogeneous optical
technologies. Finall(# we have shown how cognition can help
in diverse optical networking tasks# such as assessing the Bo"
o+ optical connections# designing optii0ed virtual topologies
in recon+igurable environents# or helping identi+( the
incoing signal +orat at a receiver# thus +acilitating the
autonoous odi+ication o+ the odulation +orat.
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