Anjan Bose
College of Engineering and Architecture, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

The Importance of the Electric System
In the list of the greatest engineering achievement of the 20th century, the National Academy of Engineering ranked electrification at the very top. The availability of electricity for industrial, commercial, and domestic uses has affected human society more profoundly than any other technology in the history of mankind. From the modest start in 1882 of Edison's Pearl Street electric generating station in New York City that could provide electric lights in a few buildings in lower Manhattan, to the highly interconnected power grids of today that span continents to bring reliable and affordable electric power to most of human habitation, the development of the technology of electric power systems is a remarkable story of not only engineering innovation but also of business practices, governmental regulations, and societal changes. This section covers, albeit briefly and in a sweeping overview, the electrical engineering aspects of the electric power system. The electric power system, often referred to as the electric power grid, is made up of electric generation, transmission, and distribution, all aspects of which are touched on in the following chapters. The generation of electricity requires the conversion of fossil (e.g., coal, oil, and gas), nuclear (e.g., fission), or renewable fuels (e.g., hydro, solar, wind, and

fusion) into electricity, and the considerable engineering needed on mechanical, chemical, and nuclear aspects is an explanation that is outside the scope of this textbook. Similarly, the various use of electricity to produce light, heat, and mechanical work is also not covered here. The electrical portion of the power system, however, is covered in some detail. Chapters 1 and 2 cover the general principles of three-phase alternating current systems and the various electrical components that make up the electric power system. Of these components, electric machines are covered in the next two chapters, with Chapter 3 covering power transformers and Chapter 4 covering rotating machines that generate electricity (generators) or use electricity to do mechanical work (motors). Chapters 5 and 6 cover high-voltage transmission and lower voltage distribution, respectively. The rest of the section is then devoted to system aspects, with Chapter 7 covering the analytical tools needed to study and design the power system and Chapter 8 explaining operation and control. Techniques and equipment to protect the power system against short circuits are covered in Chapter 9. The concluding Chapter 10 briefly covers power quality issues that have become more important today as electricity is used for more precise applications like the production of integrated circuit chips.

Three-Phase Alternating Current Systems
Anjan Bose
College of Engineering and Architecture, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 1.2 Two-Wire and Three-Wire Systems: Current ............................................. 1.3 Voltages ............................................................................................. 1.3.1 IndustryBusinessStructure

709 709 710

1.1 Introduction
Although the first electric power system, Edison's Pearl Street system, was based on direct current (dc), the advantages of alternating current (ac) systems were obvious by the turn of the 20th century. The voltage drop in an electrical circuit limited the distance from the source of electricity to where it was consumed. The Westinghouse transformer made it possible to boost and lower voltage levels in ac systems, making it possible early on to bring electricity into Buffalo, NY, and Portland, OR, from generators at waterfalls many miles away. Further, the Tesla induction motor replaced all steam-driven manufacturing machinery because it was more clean and flexible, thus ensuring the usage of ac as the preferred technology. Despite this, some pockets of dc power systems survived until after World War II. The choice of a three-phase transmission and distribution system over a single-phase system also came very early because of the increased efficiency of transmitting power. Although the use of electricity at the consuming end is in one phase low voltage (except for very large industrial use), transmission and distribution are always done in a three-phase system. To understand the efficiency of transmitting power, consider the discussion following section.

P = VI cos qb.


In a three-wire, three-phase system, let the rms voltage between each wire and the ground (the ground is often a grounded wire, making it a four-wire system) be V', the current in each wire be I, and the phase angle between the two be dO. Because there are three phases, the total power transmitted is as follows:
P = 3V~Icos&.


However, V' in equation 1.2 is the voltage of each wire to ground, whereas V in equation 1.1 is the voltage between the two wires. In the three-phase system, the voltage in each wire is 120 ° out of phase with each other. Thus, the voltage Vbetween any two wires of the three-phase system is v ~ V ~. Hence, V' = V / v#5, and:
P = x / 3 V I cos qb.


1.2 Two-Wire and Three-Wire Systems: Current
For a two-wire, single-phase system, let the root-mean-square (rms) voltage between the wires be V, the rms current be I, and the phase angle between the voltage and current be ~b. The power transmitted over this line is then given by:
Copyright © 2005 by Academic Press. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

A three-wire, three-phase system can then transmit 73% more power than a two-wire, single-phase system by just the addition of one wire. A three-phase system also has some major advantages in the generation and use of electricity by rotating machines as will be explained later. The three-phase ac systems have been adopted worldwide. The frequency of the ac and the voltage levels chosen around the world vary. The frequency of 60 Hz was adopted in North America (and a few other places), and 50 Hz is used in all other parts of the world. Because the frequency must be the same to interconnect power systems, only these two frequencies have become standards (exceptions to this are a few isolated systems like those used in rail transportation). 709


Anjan Bose

1.3 Voltages
Voltages, unlike current, can vary a lot, and transformers can always be used to match voltages. Moreover, several levels of voltages are used in one geographic area from the 110- or 220-V single phase inside a residence to maybe a 765-KV three phase for transmission, with five or six intermediate levels in between. In general, generators will produce electricity at low voltages, up to about 20 KV for large generators, but this voltage will be boosted immediately outside the generating stations to high transmission level voltages by transformers. The advantages of transmitting power at higher voltages are very easy to see from equation 1.3. The same power transmitted at a higher voltage requires less current. Less current implies that the voltage drop IR and the power losses I2R are both lower. Less current also means that the wire size needed will be smaller, which is a savings not just in the wire but in the whole transmission structure. The siting of generators at hydro dams and mine mouths required the transmission of power over long distances to population centers, and the economies of scale encouraged larger power plants. The concentration of generation in a limited number of locations required that alternate transmission paths be available between the generator locations and the consumption areas. Thus, transmission developed as a meshed network of lines so that the loss of a line did not disrupt the flow of power to consumers. The main difference between transmission and distribution used to be that transmission lines transferred larger amounts of power at higher voltages over longer distances, while distribution lines transferred smaller amounts of power at lower voltages locally. However, distribution lines are radial, and the major distinction between transmission lines and distribution lines today is that the transmission system is a meshed network, while the distribution system is radial. In terms of voltages, all lines over 100 KV are always meshed and part of the transmission system, and all voltages below 30 KV are always radial and are classified as distribution. The in-between voltage levels (e.g., 69 KV or 34.5 KV) are sometimes radial in sparsely populated rural areas while meshed in densely populated downtown urban areas; when they are in a mesh network, the term subtransmission is sometimes used for these voltage levels.

FIGURE 1.1 The Old VerticallyIntegrated Power Industry Structure interconnected to the transmission of the neighboring corporations, thus creating the large electric power grid enabling the exchange of power between corporations. In some countries during the last couple of decades, to encourage more entrepreneurial building of generation plants, governments started to allow independent power producers (IPPs) to build generating plants that could be connected to the grid. Rules were set up to require the monopoly power companies to buy this generation from the IPPs at certain rates. These IPPs are shown in separate boxes in Figure 1.1. In most countries, there is a move to "deregulate" the power industry by introducing competition in a region. The main restructuring has been the separation and privatization of the generation into separate companies that compete with each other to sell electricity to the distribution companies or directly to the customers. This breaking up of the vertically integrated corporation is shown by the many boxes in Figure 1.2. The transmission system, being the main pathway for the generation

1.3.1 Industry Business Structure
The business structure for this industry for decades has been either a state-owned monopoly, a model used in most countries, or a state-regulated monopoly; the latter is a model used in the United States. Thus, the generation, transmission, and distribution in one contiguous geographic region would be owned by one corporation as a vertically integrated monopoly. Such a configuration is shown in Figure 1.1 with the generators (circles), transmission, and distribution shown in one corporate box. The transmission system of one corporation is often

FIGURE 1.2 The New Deregulated Power Industry Structure


Three-Phase Alternating Current Systems

711 The breakup of the old vertically integrated monopolies has resulted in more corporate entities that are involved. In addition, new companies providing new services, like brokering power sales, have also entered the picture. Active markets in wholesale power are operating. The technical operation of the power grid, however, has not changed much. The interconnected transmission network is still the same. Some of these interconnected transmission networks are very large, spanning vast geographical areas. The North American power grid is shown in Figure 1.3 and divided up into reliability regions that plan and operate the regional portion of the grid in a coordinated fashion. The Western region (WSCC) and Texas (ERCOT) are only connected to the rest of the grid with dc ties instead of ac. The Eastern Interconnection is synchronously connected through the ac transmission and is the largest synchronously connected power grid in the world with 687 GW of installed generation and 128,000 miles of transmission. The West European Power Grid is shown in Figure 1.4. The separate regions are again connected with dc ties. The largest synchronously operating grid is that of continental Europe recently enlarged by the interconnecting of some of the Eastern European countries that disconnected from the old Soviet grid to interconnect with the West. The installed generation capacity is 512 GW with 125,000 miles of transmission.

to reach the customers, remains under strict regulation with the main rule being the nondiscriminatory availability of electricity to all sellers and buyers of electric power. In most cases, the distribution companies are also regulated to ensure that the retail customer is not affected by big swings in electricity prices.

FIGURE 1.3 The Reliability Regions of the North American Power Grid

FIGURE 1.4 The West European Power Grid

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